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# Chapter 1

## Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Solutions

SECTION - A
School/Board Exam. Type Questions
1. What is the SI unit of volume? What is the other common unit which is not a SI unit of volume?
Sol. The SI unit of volume is m3 whereas litre (L) is the common unit which is not an SI unit.
2. What are the reference points in thermometer with celsius scale?
Sol. The thermometers with celsius scale are callibrated from 0 to 100 where there two temperatures are the
freezing and boiling of water.
3. What is the SI unit of density?
Sol. The SI unit of density is kgm3 or kg/m3.
4. What information we get from a balanced chemical equation?
Sol. A chemical equation in which the number of atoms of each element is equal on the reactant side and the
product side is called a balanced equation.
5. Define molarity of a solution. Give its SI units.
Sol. Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute per litre of the solution. Its SI unit is mol L1.
6. What is the effect of temperature on followings?
(a) Molarity
(b) Mole fraction
Sol. (a) Molarity decreases with increase in temperature
(b) Mole fraction : It remains unchanged with change in temperature.
7. Why is the law of Gay-Lussac not obeyed if any reactant or product is not a gas?
Sol. If any reactant or product is a liquid, the volume occupied by a liquid is extremely small and hence, the law
is not obeyed.
8. Calculate the mass of 3 g molecules of HNO3?
Sol. 1 g molecule of HNO3 = 1 + 14 + (3 16) = 63 g
3 g molecule of HNO3 = 189 g
9. How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
(a) 15 (b) 1.053 (c) 0.0050
Sol. (a) Two (b) Four (c) Two
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2 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

10. Perform the following calculations to the proper number of significant digits
(a) (2.00 102 km) + (4.2 102 km)
(b) (1.5 101 cm) (8.0 102 cm) (0.0100 m)
Sol. (a) 6.2 102 km
(b) (1.5 101 cm) (8.0 102 cm) (1 cm) = 12 103 cm3
1.2 104 cm3

11. What does the following prefixes stand for?
(a) pico (b) nano
(c) centi (d) deci
Sol. (a) pico = 1012 (b) nano = 109
(c) centi = 102 (d) deci = 101
12. Convert 35C to F and K.
9
Sol. F (C) 32
5
9
(35) 32 = 63 + 32 = 95F
5
K = C + 273.15 = 35 + 273.15 = 308.15 K
13. (i) Calculate the percentage composition of the named element in the following compounds
(a) Al in KAl(SO4)2 12H2O
(b) Na in Na2SO4 10H2O
(ii) How many moles are present in following?
(a) 24.5 g H2SO4
(b) 4.00 g O2
Sol. (i) (a) Molar mass of KAl(SO4)2 12H2O
= 39 + 27 + (2 96) + (12 18)
= 474 g mol1
Percent by mass of Al in KAl(SO4)2 12H2O
27
100 5.69%
474
(b) Molar mass of Na2SO4 10H2O
= 2 23 + 96 + 10 18
= 322 g mol1

23
Percent by mass of Na 100 7.14%
322
(ii) (a) 98 g H2SO4 = 1 mol
24.5
24.5 g H2SO4 0.25 mol
98
(b) 32 g of O2 = 1 mol

1
4.00 g of O2 0.125 mol
8
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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 3
14. State the rules to follow in rounding off a number.
Sol. (i) If the digit dropped is greater than 5, add 1 to the last remaining digit.
e.g., 62.138 will become 62.14
(ii) If the digit dropped is less than 5, the last remaining digit is not changed.
e.g., 28.133 will become 28.13
(iii) If the digit dropped is 5, the last remaining digit is left unchanged if it is even; 1 is added if it is odd.
e.g., 1.8245 will become 1.824
1.8235 will become 1.824
15. If the speed of Shatabdi express is 150 miles per hour, then express its speed in SI unit.
(1 mile = 1.6 km)
Sol. The SI unit for speed are ms1
As given, 1 mile = 1.6 km = 1.60 103 m

1.60 103 m
Conversion factor
1 mile
1 hour = 60 60 s = 3.6 103 s

3.6 103 s
Conversion factor
1 hour

150 miles
Now speed
hour

## 150 miles 1.60 103 m 1 hr

hour 1 mile 3.6 103 s

= 66.66 ms1
16. What is the law of constant proportions? Write with an example.
Sol. Law of constant proportions was proposed by Joseph Proust. This law states that a chemical compound always
contains same elements combined together in same proportion by mass.
For example, pure water obtained from different sources such as, river, well, spring, sea, etc., always contains
hydrogen and oxygen combined together in the ratio 1 : 8 by mass.
17. Copper and oxygen combine to form two oxides, the red cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and the black cupric oxide
(CuO). Show that these compounds follow the law of multiple proportions.
Sol. In red oxide (Cu2O) : 16 parts by mass of oxygen combine with 63.5 2 parts by mass of copper.
In black oxide (CuO) : 16 parts by mass of oxygen combine with 63.5 parts by mass of copper.
Ratio of masses of copper that combine with fixed mass of oxygen (16 parts). In these oxides is 63.5 2 : 63.5
or 2 : 1, which is a simple whole number ratio.
18. Calculate the mole fraction of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and water in a solution in which 46 g of ethyl alcohol
and 90 g of water have been mixed.

Sol. w C2H5OH 46 g

Meth = 46 g mol1
46
nC2H5OH 1 mol
46
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4 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

w H2O 90
nH2O 5 mol
MH2O 18

ntotal = 6 mol

neth 1
xC2H5OH 0.167
neth nH2O 6

5
and xH O 0.833
2
6
19. A battery acid contains 24.5% by mass of H2SO4. What is the molality of the solution?
Sol. 24.5% by mass H2SO4 means 100 g solution contain 24.5 g H2SO4
wH2SO4 24.5 g

24.5
nH2SO4 0.25 mol
98
wH2O 75.5 g

nB 0.25
Molality (m) 1000 1000
wA 75.5

m = 3.31 m kg1
20. A sample of sodium hydroxide weighing 0.48 g is dissolved in water and the solution is made to
50.0 cm3 in a volumetric flask. What is the molarity of the resulting solution?
(molar mass of NaOH = 40)
Sol. Mass in g of NaOH = 0.48 g
0.48
Number of moles of NaOH 1.2 10 2 mol
40
Volume of solution = 50 cm3 = 0.05 L

1.2 10 2 mol
Molarity 0.24 M = 0.24 mol L1
5.0 10 2 L
21. What is the molality of a 1 L solution of H2SO4 which is 46% wt/vol?
(Density of solution = 1.40 g/cm3)
Sol. 46 wt/volume solution means 100 mL solution contains 46 g H2SO4. So 1 L (1000 mL) solution contains 460 g
H2SO4.

460
Therefore, number of moles of H2SO4 4.69
98
and mass of solution = vol. density = 1400 g
Then, mass of the solvent = mass of solution mass of solute
= 1400 460 = 940 g
We know that
nsolute 4.69
Molality (m) 1000 1000
w solvent 940
= 4.98 mol kg1
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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 5
22. An aqueous sugar syrup of mass 224.2 g contains 34.2 g of sugar (C12H22O11). Calculate
(i) the molality of the solution.
(ii) the mole fraction of sugar solution.
Sol. Molar mass of sugar = 342 g/mol

34.2
Moles of sugar 0.1
342
Mass of water = mass of solution mass of sugar
= 224.2 34.2 = 190 g

moles of solute
(i) Molality 1000
mass of solvent (in grams)
0.1
1000 0.52 mol kg1
190

## nsugar 0.1 0.1

(ii) Mole fraction of sugar 9.38 103
nsugar nH2O 190 10.65
0.1
18

23. Calculate the molarity of pure water if its density at room temperature is 1.0 g/cm3.
Sol. Let the volume of water be 1 L = 1000 cm3
Mass of water = volume density
= 1000 1 = 1000 g
1000
Moles of water 55.55
18
55.55
and molarity of water 55.55 mol/L
1
24. The following reaction,
2Br(aq) + Cl2(aq) 2Cl(aq) + Br2(aq)
is used for the commercial preparation of bromine from its salts. Suppose we have 50.0 mL of a 0.080 M
solution of NaBr. What volume of a 0.050 M solution of Cl2 is needed to react completely with Br?
Sol. The reaction given is
2Br(aq) + Cl2(aq) 2Cl(aq) + Br2(aq)
Number of moles of Br = Number of moles of NaBr
50.0
0.080 mol L1 L
1000
= 4.0 103
Number of moles of Cl2 required
1
= No. of moles of Br = 2 103 mol
2
The volume of aqueous Cl2 needed
Number of moles of Cl2

Molarity

2 10 3 mol
0.04 L = 40 mL
0.050 mol L1
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6 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

## 25. Write four points of Daltons atomic theory.

Sol. In 1808, Dalton published A new system of chemical philosophy in which he proposed the following :
1. Matter consists of indivisible atoms
2. All the atoms of a given element have identical properties including identical mass. Atoms of different
elements differ in mass.
3. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in a fixed ratio.
4. Chemical reactions involve reorganisation of atoms. These are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical
reaction.
26. Calculate the number of atoms in each of the following
(i) 4 mole atoms of nitrogen.
(ii) 0.4 mole molecules of nitrogen.
Sol. (i) 1 mole of atom of nitrogen = 6.022 1023 atoms
4 mole atoms of nitrogen = 4 6.022 1023 = 24.08 1023 atoms
(ii) 1 mole molecule of nitrogen = 6.022 1023 molecules
0.4 mole molecules of nitrogen
= 0.4 6.022 1023
= 2.408 1023 molecules
= 2 2.408 1023 atoms
= 4.816 1023 atoms
27. Express the following in the scientific notation
(i) 1,66,000
(ii) 1660
(iii) 0.0016
(iv) 166.0
Sol. (i) 1.66 105
(ii) 1.660 103
(iii) 1.6 103
(iv) 1.6 102
28. Express the following SI base units using power of 10 notations
(i) 2.35 millimoles
(ii) 2 day
(iii) 8.45 mL
(iv) 68 g
(v) 0.0826 inch
Sol. (i) 1 mol = 103 millimole
2.35 millimole = 2.35 103 mole
(ii) 1 day has 24 hr i.e., 24 60 min i.e.,
24 60 60 s
Therefore, 2 day = 2 86400 s = 172800 = 1.72 105 s

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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 7
(iii) 1 m3 = 103 L, therefore 1 mL = 106 m3
Hence, 8.45 mL = 8.45 106 m3
(iv) 1 = 106 g
68 g = 68 106 g = 6.8 105 g
(v) 1 inch = 2.54 102 m
0.0826 inches = 0.0826 2.54 102 m
= 2.09 103 m
29. Zinc and hydrochloric acid react according to the reaction
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
If 0.40 mol Zn are added to hydrochloric acid containing 0.62 mol HCl, how many moles of H2 are produced?

## Sol. Zn(s) 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2 (aq) H2 (g)

0.40 mol 0.62 mol

0.40 mol Zn requires 2 0.40 = 0.80 mol HCl but only 0.62 mol of HCl are given.
Therefore, HCl is a limiting reactant.

1
Number of mole of H2 produced nHCl
2
1
0.62 0.31 mol
2
30. Calculate the molarity of solution obtained by dissolving 0.100 g of Na2CO3 in 250 cm3 of solution.
Sol. Molar mass of Na2CO3 = 106 g mol1

0.100 g
Number of moles of Na2CO3 9.4 10 4 mol
106
1
Volume of solution = 250 cm3 L
4
n 9.4 104
M 0.00376 M
v 1
L
4
31. Express each of the following in SI units
(i) 83 million mile
(ii) 7 feet 2 inch
(iii) 0.64
(iv) 250 miles per hour
(v) 24 pounds per square inch
(vi) 26C
(vii) 250 pounds
Sol. (i) 1 mile = 1.6 103 m, 1 million = 106
83 million miles = 83 106 1.60 103 m
= 132.8 109 = 1.32 1011 m

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8 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

## (ii) 1 feet = 12 inch

7 12 + 2 = 86 inch
and 1 metre = 39.37 inch

86
86 inch = 2.18 m
39.37
(iii) 1 = 1010 m
0.64 = 0.64 1010 m
or 6.4 1011 m
(iv) 1 mile = 1.6 103 m and 1 hour = 60 60 sec

## 250 1.6 103 400 103

250 miles/hr 111.11 ms 1
60 60 3.6 10 3

## (v) 14.7 lb/m2 = 1 atm = 1.013 105 pascals

24 pounds per square inch
= 24 6894.76 Nm2
= 165474.24 Nm2
= 1.65 105 pascals
(vi) 26C = 26 + 273 = 299 K
(vii) 1 lb = 0.45359 kg
250 pound = 250 0.45359 = 113.39 kg
32. 6.055 102 kg of washing soda (Na2CO3 10H2O) is dissolved in water to obtain 1 L of a solution of density
1077.2 kg/m3. Calculate the molarity, molality and mole fraction of Na2CO3 in the solution.
Sol. Molar mass of washing soda is
(2 23) + 12 + (3 16) + 18 10 = 286 g mol1
or 286 103 kg mol1

6.055 103 kg
nsolute 0.211 mol
286 103 kg mol1
nsolute 0.211
(i) Molarity 0.211 M
v 1
Mass of 1 L solution (103 m3) = density volume
= 1077.2 kg m3 103 m3
= 1.0772 kg
Mass of solvent = (1.0772 0.06055) kg = 1.01665 kg

## moles of solute 0.211

(ii) Molality 0.207 mol kg1
mass of solvent in kg 1.01665

nsolute 0.211
(iii) x solute
nsolute nsolvent 1016.65
0.211
18
0.211
0.00372
0.211 56.48

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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 9
33. Calculate the molality of solution of C2H5OH in water in which the mole fraction of C2H5OH is 0.050.

nC2H5OH
Sol. x C2H5OH 0.050
nC2H5OH nH2O

18
nC2H5OH
0.050
nC2H5OH 55.55

## nC2H5OH 0.050 nC2H5OH 2.77

2.77 0.95 nC2H5OH

2.77
nC2H5OH 2.91 mol
0.95
Now, 1 L H2O = 1 kg H2O (At 4C)

nC2H5OH 2.91
Molality 2.91 mol kg1
w H2O (in kg) 1
34. A sample of phosphorus has 0.5 moles of P4 molecules
(i) How many P4 molecules are there?
(ii) How many P atoms are there?
(iii) How many moles of P atoms are there in the sample?
(iv) What is the mass of the sample?
Sol. (i) 1 mole of P4 contains 6.022 1023 P4 molecules
Number of P4 molecules in 0.5 mol

## 6.022 1023 molecules

0.5 mol
1 mol
= 3.011 1023 P4 molecules
(ii) Since, 1 P4 molecule contains 4 P atoms
Number of P atoms = 4 3.011 1023 = 12.044 1023 P atoms
(iii) Moles of P atoms = 0.5 4 = 2 mole
(iv) Molecular mass of P4 = 4 31 = 124 u
1 mole of P4 molecule weighs 124 grams

124 g
mass of 0.5 mol P4 molecules 0.5 mol = 62.0 g
1 mol
35. Calculate the percentage composition of zinc, phosphorus and oxygen in zinc phosphate, Zn3(PO4)2.
(Zn = 65.5, P = 31 and O = 16 u)
Sol. 1 mole of Zn3(PO4)2 contains 3 mol of zinc
2 mol of phosphorus and 8 mol of oxygen
Mass of 3 mol of Zn = 3 65.5 = 196.5 g
Mass of 2 mol of P = 2 31 = 62 g
Mass of 8 mol of O = 8 16 = 128 g
Mass of 1 mol of Zn3(PO4)2 = 196.5 + 62 + 128 = 386.5 g
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10 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

Mass of Zn
100
Mass of sample

196.5 g
100 50.84% Zn
386.5 g

## (b) Percentage composition of P

Mass of P
100
Mass of sample

62 g
100 16.04% P
386.5 g
(c) Percentage composition of O

Mass of O
100
Mass of sample

128 g
100 33.12% O
386.5 g
36. 0.90 g of an organic compound containing only carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen on combustion gave 1.1 g CO2
and 0.3 g water. What is %C, %H and %N in the organic compound?
Sol. Mass of organic compound, w = 0.90 g
Mass of CO2, w1 = 1.1 g
Mass of water, H2O, w2 = 0.3 g
1 mol C 1 mol CO2
12 g of C = 44 g CO2

12 g Mass of CO2
(a) Percentage of carbon 100
44 g Mass of sample

12 1.1 g 1320
100 33.33% C
44 0.90 g 39.6
(b) 2 mol H = 1 mol H2O
2 g H = 18 H2O

2g Mass of H2O
Percentage of hydrogen 100
18 g Mass of sample

2 0.3 g 60
100 3.70% H
18 0.90 g 16.2

## (c) Percentage of nitrogen = 100 (%C + %H)

= 100 (33.33 + 3.70)
= 100 37.03 = 62.97% N
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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 11
37. Calculate the number of atoms of oxygen present in 132 g CO2. What would be the weight CO having the
same number of oxygen atom?
Sol. Molecular mass of CO2 = 44 g/mol
1 molecule of CO2 has 2 oxygen atoms
44 g of CO2 = 2 6.022 1023 oxygen atom

23 132 g
132 g of CO2 = 2 6.022 10
44 mol
= 36.132 1023 atoms of oxygen
Molecular mass of CO = 28 g/mol. It has 16 g O and one atom of O in one molecule of CO.
In carbon monoxide, mole of CO = mole of C atom
= mole of O atom
6.022 1023 O atoms = 1 CO = 28 g

## 28 g/mol 36.132 1023 atom

36.132 1023 atoms of O 168 g CO
6.022 1023 atom/mol
38. What is the molecular formula of a compound that contains 47.4% S and 52.6% Cl? The molecular mass of
the compound as determined experimentally is 135 g mol1.
Sol.
Atomic Relative no. Divided by Simple
Element Percentage
mass of atoms lowest number ratio

## S 47.4 32 47.4 1.48 1

= 1.48 =1
32 1.48
Cl 52.6 35.5 52.6 = 1.48 1.48 = 1 1
35.5 1.48
The empirical formula of the compound is SCl
Calculation of molecular formula
Empirical formula mass = 1 32 + 1 35.5 = 67.35 amu
Molecular mass 135
n 2
Empirical formula mass 67.5
Molecular formula = n empirical formula
2 SCl = S2Cl2
39. A 0.2076 g sample of an oxide of cobalt on analysis was found to contain 0.1476 g cobalt. Calculate the
empirical formula of the oxide. [Co = 59 amu]
Sol. (a) Mass of Co + mass of O = mass of cobalt oxide
Mass of O = mass of cobalt oxide mass of Co
= 0.2076 g 0.1476 g = 0.06 g

## (b) Moles of Co in the oxide Mass of CO

Atomic mass of cobalt
0.1476 g
0.002501 mol
59 g/mol

Mass of O
Moles of O in the oxide
Atomic mass of oxygen
0.06 g
0.00375 mol
16 g/mol

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12 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

Co 0.002501 2
(c) Mole ratio 0.67
O 0.00375 3
(d) Since, the mole ratio of atoms in a sample of a compound is equal to the ratio of atoms in its formula,
the empirical formula of the oxide of cobalt is Co2O3.
40. The mass percent composition of a substance is 24.7% Ca, 1.24% H, 14.8% C and 59.3% O. Calculate the
molecular formula of the substance if its molecular mass is 162 u.
Sol.
Atomic Relative no. Divided by Simple
Element Percentage
mass of atoms lowest number ratio

## Ca 24.7 40 24.7 0.62 1

= 0.62 =1
40 0.62
H 1.24 1 1.24 = 1.24 1.24 = 2 2
1 0.62
C 14.8 12 14.8 1.23 2
= 1.23 =2
12 0.62
59.3 3.71
O 59.3 16 = 3.71 = 5.98 6
16 0.62
The empirical formula of the compound is CaH2C2O6
Calculation of molecular formula
Empirical formula mass = 40 + 2 1 + 2 12 + 6 16 = 162

## Molecular mass 162

n 1
Empirical formula mass 162

## Molecular formula = n empirical formula

= 1 CaH2C2O6
= CaH2C2O6 or Ca(HCO3)2
41. The oxides of lead were separately reduced to metallic lead by heating in a current of hydrogen and the following
data were obtained
(i) Mass of yellow oxide = 3.45 g
Loss of mass during reduction = 0.24 g
(ii) Mass of brown oxide = 1.195 g
Loss of mass during reduction = 0.156 g
Show that the above data illustrate the law of multiple proportions.
Sol. Hydrogen combines with oxygen of the oxide to give metal. Therefore, loss in mass during reduction of the
oxide is equal to the mass of oxygen.
(i) Let the fix the mass of oxygen with which metal combines = 1 g
Mass of oxide = 3.45 g
Mass of oxygen = 0.24 g
Mass of lead = 3.45 g 0.24 g = 3.21 g
0.24 g oxygen combines with 3.21 g lead

3.21
1 g oxygen combines with = 13.4 g lead
0.24
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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 13
(ii) Mass of oxide = 1.195 g
Mass of oxygen = 0.156 g
Mass of lead = 1.195 g 0.156 g = 1.039 g
0.156 g oxygen combines with 1.039 g lead
1.039
1 g oxygen combines with = 6.7 g lead
0.156
The ratio of the masses of lead that combines with a fixed mass of oxygen (1 g) is 6.7 : 13.4 or 1 : 2.
This ratio is simple and therefore illustrates the law of multiple proportions.
42. What will be the concentration of a solution which is made by mixing 25 mL of 0.2 M H2SO4, 35 mL of 0.25
M H2SO4 and 45 mL of 0.35 M H2SO4?
Sol. Moles of H2SO4 in 25 mL of 0.2 M H2SO4
= M V in litres
25
0.2 M litres = 0.005 mol
1000
Moles of H2SO4 in 35 mL of 0.25 M H2SO4
35
0.25 M litres = 0.00875 mol
1000
Moles of H2SO4 in 45 mL of 0.35 M H2SO4
45
0.35 M litres = 0.01575 mol
1000
Total moles of H2SO4 = 0.005 + 0.00875 + 0.01575 = 0.0295 mol
Total volume = 25 mL + 35 mL + 45 mL = 105 mL = 0.105 litre

0.0295 mole H2 SO 4
Final concentration = 0.2809 M H2SO4
0.105 litre of solution
43. A compound of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contains these elements in the ratio 9 : 1 : 3.5. Calculate the
empirical formula, if its molecular mass is 108, what is the molecular formula?
Sol.
Element Atomic Relative no. Simplest
Element
ratio mass of atoms ratio

Carbon 9 12 9 0.75
= 0.75 =3
12 0.25
Hydrogen 1 1 1 1
=1 =4
1 0.25
Nitrogen 3.5 14 3.5 0.25
= 0.25 =1
14 0.25

## Empirical formula = C3H4N

Empirical formula mass = (3 12) + (4 1) + 14 = 54
Molecular mass 108
n 2
Empirical formula mass 54
Thus, molecular formula of the compound = 2 empirical formula
= 2 C3H4N
= C6H8N2

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14 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

44. A carbon compound containing only carbon and oxygen has an approximate molecular mass of 290. On analysis
it is found to contain 50% by mass of each element. What is the molecular formula of the compound?

## Relative no. Simplest Simplest whole

Element Percentage Atomic
Sol.
mass of atoms ratio number ratio

## Carbon 50.0 12 4.166 4.166 4

= 1.33
3.125
3.125 = 1
Oxygen 50.0 16 3.125 3
3.125

## The empirical formula C4O3

Empirical formula mass = (4 12) + (3 16) = 96
Molecular mass = 290

## Molecular mass 290

n 3 approximately
Empirical mass 96

## Molecular formula = n empirical formula

= 3 C4O3
= C12O9
45. A compound has following composition
(i) Sodium = 14.13%
(ii) Sulphur = 9.97%
(iii) Oxygen = 69.50%
(iv) Hydrogen = 6.22%.
Calculate the molecular formula of the compound assuming that whole hydrogen in the compound is present
as water of crystallisation. Molecular mass of the compound is 322.
Sol. Relative no. Simplest
Element Percentage Atomic
mass of atoms ratio
0.622
Sodium 14.31 23 0.622 =2
0.311
0.311 = 1
Sulphur 9.97 32 0.311 0.311
6.22
Hydrogen 6.22 1 6.22 = 20
0.311
4.34 = 14
Oxygen 69.50 16 4.34 0.311

## The empirical formula = Na2SH20O14

Empirical formula mass = (2 23) + 32 + (20 1) + (14 16) = 322
Molecular mass = 322
Molecular formula = Na2SH20O14
All of the hydrogen is present in the form of water.
Thus, 10 water molecules are present in the molecule.
So, molecular formula = Na2SO4 10H2O

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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 15

SECTION - B
Model Test Paper
Very Short Answer Type Questions :
1. What is the difference between precision and accuracy?
Sol. Precision means the closeness of various measurements for the same quantity. Accuracy is the agreement
of a particular value to the true value of the result.
2. What is formula mass?
Sol. When a substance does not contain discrete molecules of their constituent units and have a three dimensional
structure, formula mass is used to calculate molecular mass which is the sum of the atomic masses of all
atoms present in the formula.
3. How many molecules present in one mole of a substance?
Sol. 1 mol = 6.022 1023 molecules
4. What is one molal solution?
Sol. One molal solution is that solution which contain 1 mole solute in 1 kg of solvent.
5. Calculate the number of molecules present in 0.5 mole of CO2?
Sol. The number of molecules present in 0.5 moles of CO2 is 6.022 1023 0.5 = 3.011 1023.
6. Write an expression for molarity and molality of a solution.

## Number of moles of solute

Sol. Molarity Volume of solution in litres

## Number of moles of solute

Molality
Mass of solvent in kg

## 7. Express 1947, 0.00019, 0.02601, 2600.00 in the scientific notation.

Sol. 1947 = 1.947 103
0.00019 = 1.9 104
0.02601 = 2.601 102
2600.00 = 2.60 103
8. Write two differences between pure substances and mixtures.
Sol. Pure substance have fixed composition and cannot be separated by simple physical methods whereas mixtures
do not have fixed composition or ratio and can be separated by physical methods.
9. Define Kelvin.
Sol. The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of
the triple point of water.
10. Calculate the number of moles in the following masses
(i) 9 g of Fe
(ii) 9 mg of Ca

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16 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

## Sol. (i) 7.85 g of Fe

56 g of Fe contains 6.022 1023 atoms = 1 mol
56 g of Fe = 1 mol

1
9 g of Fe 9 = 0.16 mol
56

9 10 3
(ii) Mole of Ca = 2.25 104
40

11. Write the empirical formula of the compound having molecular formulae
(i) C6H6 (ii) C6H12
(iii) H2O2 (iv) H2O
Sol. Empirical formula is a simplest whole number ratio of atoms in the molecule, therefore the empirical formula
of given compounds are
(i) CH (ii) CH2 (iii) HO (iv) H2O
12. A solution is prepared by adding 4 g of a substance A to 18 g of water. Calculate the mass percent of the
solute.
Mass of A
Sol. Mass percent of A 100
Mass of solution
4g
= 4 g of A + 18 g of water 100

4
100 18.18%
22
13. How many significant figures should be present in the answer of the following calculations?

3.24 0.08666
(i)
5.006

## (ii) 0.58 + 324.65

(iii) 1.78986 103
(iv) 943 0.00345 + 101
Sol. (i) The result of multiplication

3.24 0.08666
= 0.0560883
5.006

0.0561
As the least number of the significant figures is three, therefore the result is rounded off to 0.0561. The 0
is rounded off to 1 because the next digit is greater than 5.
(ii) 5 significant figures
(Answer should be given by least decimal place)
(iii) 6 significant figures
(iv) 3 significant figures

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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 17
14. Three litres of water are added to 2 L of 5 molar HCl solution. What is the molarity of resulting solution?
Sol. Initial volume, V1 = 2 L
Final volume, V2 = 3 L + 2 L = 5 L
Initial molarity, M1 = 5 M
Final molarity = M2
M1V1 = M2V2
5 M 2 L = M2 5 L
5M2L
M2 2M
5L
Thus, the resulting solution is 2 M HCl
15. State law of multiple proportions with an example.
Sol. If two elements can combine to form more than one compounds, the masses of one element that combine
with a fixed mass of the other element, are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
For example, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form two compounds, namely water and hydrogen peroxide.

2g 16 g 18 g

## Hydrogen Oxygen Hydrogen peroxide

2g 32 g 34 g

Here, the masses of oxygen (i.e., 16 g and 32 g) which combine with the fixed mass of hydrogen (2 g) bear
a simple ratio, i.e., 16 : 32 or 1 : 2.
16. A solution is prepared by adding 60 g CH3OH to 120 g of water. Calculate the mole fraction of CH3OH and
water.

Weight of CH3 OH 60
Sol. Number of moles of solute (CH3 OH) 1.875
(nA ) Molecular mass of CH3 OH 32
120
Number of moles of water 6.667
(nB ) 18
nA + nB = 1.875 + 6.667 = 8.542

1.875
B 0.220
8.542

A = 1 B = 0.780
17. Calculate the number of molecules of sulphur (S8) present in 32 g of solid sulphur.
Sol. Given, w = 32 gm
Atomic mass of S = 32
Molar mass of S8 = 32 8 = 256
No. of molecules N = no. of moles 6.022 1023

w 32
No. of moles 0.125
M 256

## So, number of molecules = 0.125 6.022 1023

= 7.52 1022 molecules

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18 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

## 18. Calculate the molar mass of C2H6, C12H22O11, H2SO4, H3PO4.

Sol. C2H6 = (2 12) + (6 1) = 30
C12H22O11 = (12 12) + (22 1) + (11 16) = 342
H2SO4 = (2 1) + 32 + (4 16) = 98
H3PO4 = (1 3) + 31 + (4 16) = 98
19. (i) Calculate the mass of 2.5 gram atom of calcium. (Atomic mass of calcium is 40.)
(ii) Calculate the mass of 1.5 gram molecule of water (H2O).
Sol. (i) 1 gram atom of calcium
= gram atomic mass of calcium = 40 g
2.5 gram atom of calcium
= 40 2.5 = 100 g
(ii) Molecular mass of water (H2O)
1 2 + 16 = 18 u
1 gram molecule of H2O
= gram molecular mass of H2O = 18 g
1.5 gram molecule of H2O = 1.8 1.5 = 27 g
20. Calculate number of atoms of each type in 6.84 g of sucrose (C12H22O11).
OR
An organic compound contains element C, H and oxygen. A 4.24 mg sample of compound is completely burnt
in oxygen. It gives 8.45 mg of carbon dioxide and 3.46 mg of water. What is the mass percentage of each
element? Determine the empirical and molecular formula of compound if molecular mass of compound is 88 u.
Sol. Molecular mass of sucrose = (12 12 + 1 22 + 16 11) = 342
342 g of sucrose contain = 6.022 1023 molecules

6.022 1023
6.84
342
= 12.04 1021 molecules
Number of atoms of carbon in 6.84 g of sucrose
1 molecule of sucrose contains = 12 atoms of carbon
12.04 1021 molecules of sucrose contains
= 12 12.04 1021 atoms of carbon
= 144.48 1021 atoms of carbon
Number of atoms of hydrogen in 6.84 g of sucrose
1 molecule of sucrose contains = 22 atoms of hydrogen
12.04 1021 molecule of sucrose contain
= 22 12.04 1021 atoms of hydrogen
= 264.88 1021 atoms of hydrogen

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Solution of Assignment (Set-1) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 19
Number of atoms of oxygen in 6.84 g of sucrose
1 molecule of sucrose contains = 11 atoms of oxygen
12.04 1021 molecules of sucrose contain
= 11 12.04 1021 atoms of oxygen
= 132.44 1021 atoms of oxygen
OR
Mass of carbon present in 8.45 mg of CO2
8.45 12
mg = 2.30 mg
44
2.30 100
Percentage of carbon 54.24%
4.24
Mass of hydrogen in 3.46 mg of H2O
3.46 2
mg = 0.384 mg
18
0.384 100
Percentage of hydrogen 9.05%
4.24
Percentage of oxygen = 100 54.24 9.05 = 36.71%

## Atomic Relative no. Simple Simplest whole

Element Percentage
mass of moles Ratio number ratio

## C 54.24 12 54.24 4.52 2

= 4.52 = 1.97
12 2.29
H 9.05 1 9.05 9.05 4
= 9.05 = 3.95
1 2.29

## O 36.71 16 36.71 2.29 1

= 2.29 =1
16 2.29
Empirical formula = C2H4O
Calculation of molecular formula :
Molecular mass = 88 u
Molecular mass 88
n 2
Empirical formula mass 44
Molecular formula = empirical formula n
= C2H4O 2 = C4H8O2
21. 500 cm3 of 0.300 M NaCl solution is added to 100 cm3 of 0.500 M AgNO3 solution resulting in the formation
of white precipitate of insoluble AgCl. How many moles and how many grams of AgCl are formed? Which is
the limiting reagent?
OR
Calculate number of atoms in each of the following
(i) 0.6 mole atoms of nitrogen
(ii) 0.3 mole of nitrogen gas
(iii) 3.2 g of sulphur

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20 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solution of Assignment (Set-1)

## Sol. The balanced equation for the reaction is

AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3
Number of mol of NaCl in 500 cm3 (0.05 L) of 0.300 M NaCl solution
= 0.300 0.5 = 0.15 mol
Number of moles AgNO3 in 100 cm3 (0.1 L) of 0.500 M AgNO3 solution
= 0.500 0.1 = 0.05 mol
The reaction equation shows that 1 mol of AgNO3 reacts with 1 mol of NaCl to give 1 mol of AgCl
0.05 mol of AgNO3 will react with 0.05 mol of NaCl to give 0.05 mol of AgCl
NaCl is present in excess. AgNO3 is, therefore, the limiting reagent.
Molar mass of AgCl = 143.4 g
Mass of 0.05 mol of AgCl
= 0.05 143.4 g of AgCl
= 7.2 g of AgCl
OR
(i) 1 mole atoms of nitrogen = 6.022 1023 atoms
0.6 mole atoms of nitrogen
= 6.022 1023 0.6
= 3.6132 1023 atoms
(ii) 1 mole molecule of nitrogen = 6.022 1023 molecules
0.3 mole molecules of nitrogen
= 6.022 1023 0.3
= 1.8066 1023 molecules
1 molecule of nitrogen = 2 atoms
1.8066 1023 molecule of nitrogen
= 1.8066 1023 2 atoms
= 3.6132 1023 atoms
(iii) 32 g sulphur contain = 6.022 1023 atoms
3.2 g of sulphur contain

32

## = 6.022 1022 atoms

  

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