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Chapter 4

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Solutions

SECTION - A
Objective Type Questions (One option is correct)
1. Which of the following has maximum ionic character?
(1) LiCl (2) NaCl (3) KCl (4) CsCl
Sol. Answer (4)
Cl is common hence larger the cation more will be the ionic character (Fajans rule). Hence, CsCl will have
highest ionic character.

2. Which of the following compounds has a central atom assuming sp3 hybridisation?
(1) SO3 (2) PCl5 (3) NH3 (4) CO32
Sol. Answer (3)
NH3

1
VSEP = (V + M C + A)
2

1
= (5 + 3 0 + 0) = 4 sp3
2

3. Which is the correct arrangement of molecules regarding dipole moment?


(1) BF3 = NH3 = NF3 (2) BF3 > NH3 > NF3 (3) BF3 < NH3 < NF3 (4) BF3 < NF3 < NH3
Sol. Answer (4)
BF3 , = 0
NH3 has greater dipole moment than NF3 hence order is
BF3 < NF3 < NH3

4. Paramagnetism is not shown by


(1) O2 (2) O2 (3) H2+ (4) O22
Sol. Answer (4)

O 22 has zero unpaired electrons.

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94 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

5. The hybridisation of S in SO42 is same as


(1) I in ICl4 (2) S in SO3 (3) P in PO43 (4) N in NO3
Sol. Answer (3)

Both S and P are sp3 hybridized in SO 24 and PO 34 respectively.

6. Which of the following pairs have same hybridisation?


(1) CH3 and CH3+ (2) NH3 and SO2 (3) SO42 and BF4 (4) BF3 and NF3
Sol. Answer (3)

Both SO 24 and BF4 have sp3 hybridization.


7. The maximum number of H-bonds a water molecule can form are
(1) 2 (2) 4 (3) 5 (4) 6
Sol. Answer (2)
Number of Hydrogen-bonds formed by water molecule = 4.
8. Strongest Hydrogen bonding is present in
(1) HF (2) NH3 (3) C2H5OH (4) H2O
Sol. Answer (1)
Difference of electronegativity is maximum between H and F in H.
It will form strongest H-Bond.
9. Which of the following has zero dipole moment?
(1) CO2 (2) NH3 (3) NF3 (4) H2O
Sol. Answer (1)

O C O
Linear molecule with two equal and opposite dipoles.
10. The molecule that contains both ionic and covalent bonds are
(1) KCN (2) KCl (3) K2 S (4) H2O2
Sol. Answer (1)

K C N
KCN has ionic and covalent bonds.
11. Which of the following species will have intramolecular hydrogen bonding ?

H OH

C C
(1) O (2) O
H
O
o-Hydroxybenzaldehyde O H
m-Hydroxybenzoic acid
O H
Cl
(3) (4)
H
C
N O
O O o-Chlorobenzaldehyde
p-Nitrophenol
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 95
Sol. Answer (1)

C
O Intramolecular
H Hydrogen bonding
O

12. Which of the following pairs are iso-structural?


(1) CH3 and CH3 (2) NH4+ and BH4 (3) SO42 and BF3 (4) NH2 and BeF2
Sol. Answer (2)

NH +4 = 7 + 4 1 = 10e

BH 4 = 5 + 4 + 1= 10e

Both have same number of electrons and same total number of atoms, hence, isostructural.

13. O2 and N2 are respectively


(1) Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic (2) Paramagnetic, Diamagnetic
(3) Both the paramagnetic (4) Both are diamagnetic
Sol. Answer (2)
O2 is paramagnetic because it contains unpaired electrons. N2 does not have unpaired electrons hence it is
diamagnetic.

14. Molecular shapes of ClF3, I3 and XeO3 respectively are


(1) T-shape, Linear, Pyramidal (2) Planar, Linear, Tetrahedral
(3) T-shape, Planar, Pyramidal (4) Trigonal bipyramidal, Linear, Tetrahedral
Sol. Answer (1)
F I

Cl F I Xe
O O
F I O
3 3 3
spd spd sp
T-Shaped Linear Pyramidal

15. Hydrogen bond


(1) Have energy of the order of 100 kJ/mol
(2) Have a powerful effect on the structures and properties of many compounds
(3) Is the interaction between lone pair of electrons with all atoms
(4) In HCl is maximum
Sol. Answer (2)
Due to H-bonding, boiling point and solubility in water increases.

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96 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

16. In case of XeO2F2 and XeF6, Xe is with


(1) Same hybridization but with different geometry (2) Different hybridization with same geometry
(3) Different hybridization and different geometry (4) Same geometry and same hybridization
Sol. Answer (3)
F
O F F
Xe F Xe F
F O F F3
3 2 3
sp d sp d
Square planar Distorted octahedral

17. In which of the following reactions hybridisation of underlined species is not changing?

(1) NH3 H NH4 (2) B F3 F B F4

(3) C2H2 H2 C2H6 (4) All of these

Sol. Answer (1)


NH 3 +H NH 4
sp 3 sp 3

18. The ion which is isoelectronic with CO is


(1) CN (2) O2+ (3) O2 (4) N2+
Sol. Answer (1)
CN = 6 + 7 + 1 = 14
CO = 6 + 8 = 14
Both have same number of electrons and same number of atoms.

19. CO2 is isostructural with


(1) NO2+ (2) SnCl2 (3) C2H4 (4) NO2
Sol. Answer (1)
CO2 = 6 + 2 8 = 22

NO 2 = 7 + 8 2 1= 22

Both have same number of atoms and electrons, hence, isostructural.

20. When NH3 is treated with HCl, HNH bond angle


(1) Increases (2) Decreases
(3) Remains same (4) Depends upon temperature
Sol. Answer (1)

NH3 HCl NH4 Cl

When NH3 converts into NH4 number of lone pair decreases, hence, bond angle increases.

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 97
21. Among KO2, AlO2+, BaO2 and NO2+ unpaired electron is present in
(1) NO2+ and BaO2 (2) KO2 and AlO2+ (3) KO2 only (4) BaO2 only
Sol. Answer (3)

KO 2 K O 2

AlO 2 Al 3 O 22

BaO 2 Ba 2 O 22


NO 2 ONO
Species Bond order No. of unpaired electron

3
O 2 1
2

O 22 1 0

Only KO2 has unpaired electrons.

22. Which of the compounds do not have zero dipole moment?

Cl Cl

(1) (2) (3) PCl5 (4) ICl2

Cl Cl

Sol. Answer (1)

Cl Cl

Compound is not planar while is planar.

Cl Cl

23. Which of the following is non-linear?


(1) I3 (2) XeF2 (3) SO2 (4) CH C C CH
Sol. Answer (3)

I3 , BP = 2 , LP = 3 Total no. of hybridized orbital = 5

(5, 2, 3) linear
XeF2, BP = 2, LP = 3 Total no. of hybridized orbital = 5
(5, 2, 3) linear

SO2 , O S O , BP = 2 , LP = 1 Total no. of hybridized orbital = 3

(3, 2, 1) sp2 bent or V shaped or angular


CHCCCH linear
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98 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

24. Which of the following is electron deficient (Lewis acid)?


(1) CaCl2 (2) BF3 (3) Al2Cl6 (4) CCl4
Sol. Answer (2)
Except BF3, all molecules have complete octet hence only BF3 can act as Lewis acid.
25. In which of the following set of compounds, bond angle remains constant for all members ?
(1) NH3, PH3, AsH3 (2) PF3, PCl3, PBr3 (3) OH2, OF2, OCl2 (4) BF3, BCl3, BBr3
Sol. Answer (4)
All are sp2 hybridized with 120 bond angle.
26. Which of the following compounds have zero dipole moment?
(1) BF3 (2) SnCl2 (3) H2O (4) NH3
Sol. Answer (1)
BF3 has sp2 hybridization hence 3 dipole moment vectors of equal magnitude are at 120 from each other.
Hence = 0
P

120 120
120
P P
=0
27. Pick out the isoelectronic structures from the following.
(i) CH3+ (ii) H3O+
(iii) NH3 (iv) CH3
(1) (i) and (ii) (2) (iii) and (iv) (3) (i) and (iii) (4) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
Sol. Answer (4)

O N C
and are Isoelectronic
H H H H H H H H H
28. The type of hybrid orbitals used by chlorine atom in ClO2 is
(1) sp3 (2) sp2 (3) sp (4) sp3d
Sol. Answer (1)

ClO 2

1
VSEP = (V + M C + A)
2
1
= (7 + 0 0 + 1)
2
8
= 4 sp3
2
29. Which of the following molecule is of T-shape?
(1) I3 (2) ClF3 (3) SF4 (4) XeF4
Sol. Answer (2)
CIF3 is T-shaped.

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 99
30. The molecule which has pyramidal shape is
(1) SO3 (2) NO3 (3) CO32 (4) PF3
Sol. Answer (4)

P
is pyramidal with one lone and three bond pairs.
F F F

31. Which of the following compounds is non-polar?


(1) CCl4 (2) CH2Cl2 (3) CHCl3 (4) CH3Cl
Sol. Answer (1)

Cl
|
C
CCl4 ;
Cl | Cl
Cl

All atoms in surrounding are same and no lone pairs present on central atom.
Hence = 0

32. Polarization is the distortion of shape of an anion by the cation. Which statement is correct?
(1) Maximum polarization is done by cation of high charge
(2) A large cation is likely to bring larger degree of polarization
(3) A smaller anion is likely to undergo a higher degree of polarization
(4) Minimum polarization is done by cation of small size
Sol. Answer (1)
Smaller the cation and larger the anion, higher is polarization.
33. Arrange the given species in increasing order of OO bond length

H2 O 2 , KO 2 , Na 2O 2 , O2
I II III IV
(1) I < III < IV < II (2) II < I < IV < III (3) IV < I < III < II (4) IV < II < I < III

Sol. Answer (4)

O KO H O Na O

2 2 2 2 2 2

Increasing OO bond length

34. In which of the following, central atom does not have one lone pair of electron?
(1) PCl5 (2) NH3 (3) PCl3 (4) XeF6

Sol. Answer (1)

Cl Cl
ClPCl
|
Cl

Since P-has 5e in its outermost shell and is forming 5 bonds hence all the 5e are consumed and no lone
pair will remain.
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100 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

35. In which conversion, bond length decreases?

(1) N2 N2 (2) N2 N2 (3) CO CO+ (4) O 2 O 2


Sol. Answer (3)

CO CO
Bond length
1.128 1.115

36. Which of the following combination of orbitals will form a nonbonding molecular orbital ?

+ + +
(1) + (2) + +
+ +

+ +
(3) + + + (4) +
+ +

Sol. Answer (2)

+
+ Non-bonding overlap

37. Correct order for N O bond length in the given species is

NO NO NO 2 NO 3
I II III IV

(1) I < II < III < IV (2) II < I < III < IV (3) II < III < IV < I (4) I < III < IV < II
Sol. Answer (2)
Compound Bond order
NO 2.5

NO 3
3
NO2
2
4
NO3
3

1
Bond length
Bond order

38. Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing dipole moment m-dichlorobenzene (I), o-dichlorobenzene
(II), p-dichlorobenzene (III)
(1) I < II < III (2) II < III < I (3) I < III < II (4) III < I < II

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 101
Sol. Answer (4)

Cl
Cl Cl
Cl

Cl
Cl
I II
III

II < I < III (increasing order of Bond angle)

III < I < II ( Increasing order of dipole moment ).

39. In P4O10 number of oxygen atoms attached to each phosphorus are


(1) 2 (2) 3 (3) 2.5 (4) 4
Sol. Answer (4)
O

P
O O
O
O P P O
O
O O
P

O
Each P is attached to 4 oxygen atoms.

O
40. Correct order of bond angle for OPX ( P angle) in the given molecules is
X

POF3 POCl 3 POBr3 POI 3


I II III IV
are
(1) I > II > III > IV (2) IV > III > II > I (3) II > III > I > IV (4) III > II > IV > I

Sol. Answer (1)

O
P greatest

F FF
More electronegative substituent

41. The species having bond order different from that in CO is [IIT-JEE 2007]
(1) NO (2) NO+ (3) CN (4) N2

Sol. Answer (1)

Bond order of CO = 3 & NO = 2.5

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102 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

42. Among the following, the paramagnetic compound is [IIT-JEE 2007]


(1) Na2O2 (2) O3 (3) N2O (4) KO2
Sol. Answer (4)

43. The species having pyramidal shape is [IIT-JEE 2010]

(1) SO3 (2) BrF3 (3) SiO32 (4) OSF2


Sol. Answer (4)

Pyramidal
S
O F
F

44. The shape of XeO2F2 molecule is [IIT-JEE 2012]


(1) Trigonal bipyramidal (2) Square planar (3) Tetrahedral (4) See-saw
Sol. Answer (4)

F O

Xe
See saw.

F O

45. Assuming that Hunds rule is violated, the bond order and magnetic nature of the diatomic molecule B2
is [IIT-JEE 2010]
(1) 1 and diamagnetic (2) 0 and diamagnetic
(3) 1 and paramagnetic (4) 0 and paramagnetic

Sol. Answer (1)

Molecular orbital diagram for B2 where Hunds rule is violated.

2p2X
1s 2 * 1s 2 2s 2 * 2s 2
2p0Y

Bond order = 1
and diamagnetic.

46. Assuming 2s-2p mixing is NOT operative, the paramagnetic species among the following is
[JEE(Advanced)2014]
(1) Be2 (2) B2 (3) C2 (4) N2

Sol. Answer (3)

Be2 = 1s2*1s22s2*2s2

B2 = 1s2*1s22s2*2s22pz2

C2 = 1s2*1s22s2*2s22pz22px12py1
N2 = 1s2*1s22s2*2s22pz22px22py2

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 103

SECTION - B
Objective Type Questions (More than one options are correct)

1. CO2 has same geometry as

(1) Hg2Cl2 (2) NO2 (3) C2H2 (4) C3H6

Sol. Answer (1, 3)

CO2, Hg2Cl2 and C2H2 all have linear geometry.

2. Molecules with see-saw shape are

(1) SF4 (2) XeOF4 (3) XeO2F2 (4) HgCl2

Sol. Answer (1, 3)

SF4 BP = 4, LP = 1 VSEP = 5 , (5, 4, 1) seesaw

O
||
FXeF BP = 4, LP = 1 VSEP = 5 , (5, 4, 1) seesaw
||
O

3. Which of the following can show variable valency?

(1) F (2) Cl (3) Br (4) I

Sol. Answer (2, 3, 4)

F do not have d orbital hence it is always monovalent but Cl, Br, I have d orbital hence can show variable
valency.

4. Molecular axis is Z axis, then which of the following combination of orbitals will result in formation of s molecular
orbitals?

(1) px px (2) ss (3) pz pz (4) py py

Sol. Answer (2, 3)

If z is intermolecular axis then px px and py py will overlap sidewise.

5. Isostructural group of molecules are

(1) NH3, NF3, BF3 (2) NO3, NO2, SF4 (3) XeO4, NH4+, CH4 (4) CH3, NH3, NF3

Sol. Answer (3, 4)

( XeO 4 , NH4 , CH4 ) and (CH3 , NH3 , NF3 ) are isostructural.

6. In solid PCl5 exist as [PCl4]+[PCl6]. The hybridisation of P is/are

(1) sp3 (2) sp3d (3) sp3d 2 (4) sp3d 3

Sol. Answer (1, 3)

Hybridization of P in PCl4 is sp3 while in PCl6 is sp3d2.

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104 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

7. Which of the following is a correct statement?


(1) All molecules with polar bonds have dipole moment
(2) SnCl2 is non-linear molecule
(3) Dipole moment of CH3Cl is greater than CH3F
(4) I3 has linear shape

Sol. Answer (2, 3, 4)

SnCl2 has lone pair on central atom hence it is not linear.

Dipole moment of CH3Cl is more than CH3F because bond length of CF is less (charge in both is same).

=qd

I3 has a linear shape.

8. Which of the following is a correct statement?


(1) CO2 is a monomer while SiO2 is a three dimensional giant molecule
(2) Graphite is a nonconductor of electricity
(3) In (CH3)3N, CNC bond angle is approximately 107 whereas in (SiH3)3N, SiNSi bond angle is
approximately 120

(4) In CO32 ion all CO bonds are equal, while in H2CO3 all CO bonds are not equal

Sol. Answer (1, 3, 4)

In (SiH3)3N lone pair is delocalized hence lone pair-bond pair repulsion decreases, hence, bond angle
increases.
9. In which of the following pairs first partner is more soluble in water than second partner ?
O O
(1) H and H (2) NaCl and AgCl
O O
N N

O O
o-Nitrophenol p-Nitrophenol
O
H
OH O
C
(3) Be(OH)2 and Ba(OH)2 (4) and
HOOC OH
p-Hydroxybenzoic o-Hydroxybenzoic
acid acid
Sol. Answer (2, 4)

NaCl is more soluble and p-hydroxy benzoic acid is more soluble.


10. In which of the following case/s central atom is using same hybridised orbital to make bond with surrounding
atom?
(1) SF4 (2) XeO2F2 (3) XeO3 (4) CO32

Sol. Answer (1, 2)

SF4 and XeO2F2 both have 5 VSEP, 4 bond pair and 1 lone pair.

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 105
11. Bond order increases in which of the given transitions?

(1) CO CO+ (2) N2 N2+ (3) O2 O2+ (4) O2 O22

Sol. Answer (1, 3)

When CO CO+, bond order increases from 3 to 3.5 and when O2 O 2 bond order increases from
2 to 2.5 because in both case electron is removed from antibonding molecular orbital.

12. Which of the following is correct order as per the property mentioned with it?

(1) 2pz < *2p z = 2p y < *2p y (Energy order for O2 molecule)

(2) NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 (Bond angle)

CH3 CH3 CH3


CN
(3) < < (Dipole moment)
CN
CN

}CH3

(4) < CH2 = CH CH3 < CH3 CH2 CH = CH2 (CC Bond length)

Sol. Answer (2, 4)

2pz ( 2px 2py ) ( * 2px * 2py ) * 2pz

N P As
H | H H | H H | H
H H H

Size N < P < As

EN N > P > As

Bond angle increases with increasing electronegativity.

CH3 is electron donating and CN is electron attracting, hence, order of dipole moment will be o < m < p

CH3

, CH3 is donor hence bond length decreases.

CH2=CHCH3, Here CH3 can show hyper conjugation hence bond length will be between single and double
bond.

CH3CH2CH=CH2.

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106 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

13. Which of the following are correctly matched with name of bond present between them?
Joining Entities Bond
(1) 2 ice cubes pressed together Hydrogen bonding
(2) Hydrated sodium ions with hydrated chloride ion Dipole-dipole interaction
(3) H2 gas molecules Hydrogen bonding
(4) HCl gas molecules London's dispersive force
Sol. Answer (1, 2)
H2 gas molecule can not form H-bonding.
HCl gas molecules have dipole interaction.
14. Amongst the given structures, which are permissible resonance forms?
.. .. .. + .. +
(1) CH2 N O
.. ] (2) CH2 = N = O (3) CH2 = N O
.. (4) CH2 N = O
..

..
..

CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3


Sol. Answer (1, 3, 4)
In option 2, N-atom has 5 bonds.
15. Given below is a triangle illustrating the transition between ionic, metallic and covalent bonding
Metallic
Li
C

F2 CsF
Covalent Ionic
A

Where A , B and C respectively are compounds which have more ionic, covalent and metallic character
respectively. Which combination go well for A , B and C ?
(1) MgF2, I2, Na3Bi (2) IF7, ClF, Na3N (3) BeF2, S8, Na3Sb (4) OF2, ClF, NF3
Sol. Answer (1, 3)

MgF2 I2 Na3Bi

Ionic Covalent Metallic

BeF2 S8 Na3Sb

Ionic Covalent Metallic


16. Hydrogen bonding plays a central role in the following phenomena [JEE(Advanced)-2014]
(1) Ice floats in water
(2) Higher Lewis basicity of primary amines than tertiary amines in aqueous solutions
(3) Formic acid is more acidic than acetic acid
(4) Dimerisation of acetic acid in benzene
Sol. Answer (1, 2, 4)

In ice water molecules are excessively H-bonded giving a cage-like structure which is lighter than water.
Primary amines are more basic than tertiary amines in aqueous solution mainly due to H-bonding with water
molecules. Dimerisation of acetic acid in benzene is due to intermolecular H-bonding.
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 107

SECTION - C
Linked Comprehension Type Questions
Comprehension-I
In molecular orbital theory (MOT), the atoms in a molecule are supposed to loose their individual control over the
electrons. The nuclei of the bonded atoms are considered to be present at equilibrium in inter-nuclear positions.
The orbitals where the probability of finding electrons is maximum are multicentred orbitals called molecular orbitals
extending over 2 or more nuclei when a pair of atomic orbitals combine and give rise to a pair of molecular orbitals
bonding and antibonding molecular orbital. Electron density is increased for bonding MO's in internuclear region
but decreased for antibonding MO's. Shielding of the nuclei by increased electron density in bonding MO's reduces
inter nuclear repulsion & thus stabilizes the molecule whereas lower electron density in antibonding MO's increases
the repulsion and destabilises the system.

Antibonding MO
Energy

O
Bonding MO

Distance between 2 atoms


1. Which of the following is the correct order of bond strength of given species?
(1) N2 > N2+ > N2 (2) N2 > N2 > N2+ (3) N2+ > N2 > N2 (4) N2 > N2 > N2+
Sol. Answer (1)

N2 2.5

N2 2.5
N2 3.0

N 2 & N 2 both have same bond order but N2 has higher number of antibonding electron. Hence correct order
is N 2 N 2 N 2 .
2. Which of the following hetero-diatomic molecular ion is paramagnetic?
(1) NO+ (2) CO (3) CN (4) NO
Sol. Answer (4)
NO is paramagnetic.
3. Which of the following species have identical value of bond order?
(1) F2 and Ne2 (2) C2 and N2 (3) N2+ and O+2 (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (3)
F2 1
Ne2 0
C2 2
N2 3

N2 2.5

O 2 2.5

Both N2 & O 2 have bond order 2.5

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108 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Comprehension-II
Properties of most ionic solids deviate from ideal ionic character because lattice may undergo some distortion.
Cations are usually smaller than anions and have higher effective nuclear charge than the latter. The outer electron
cloud in a cation is more firmly held than in an anion. Loose electron cloud of anion when attracted by electron
cloud of cation gets distorted. This phenomenon is known as polarisation. Due to this polarisation, electron cloud
of anion shifts towards cation which decreases magnitude of '+ve' charge on cation & 've' charge on anion. In other
words, covalent character develops in ionic bond.
1. Which of the following is an ionic compound?
(1) AlF3 (2) AlCl3 (3) AlBr3 (4) AlI3
Sol. Answer (1)
Cations are same, hence, smaller the size of anion, lesser is polarization and greater will be ionic character.
2. Which of the following alkali metal carbonate decompose on heating?
(1) Li2CO3 (2) Na2CO3 (3) K2CO3 (4) Rb2CO3
Sol. Answer (1)
Li2CO3 has smaller cation hence more covalent character hence decompose on heating.
3. Amongst LiCl, RbCl, BeCl2 and MgCl2 the compounds with greatest and least ionic character respectively are
(1) LiCl & RbCl (2) RbCl & MgCl2 (3) RbCl & BeCl2 (4) MgCl2 & BeCl2
Sol. Answer (3)
LiCl BeCl2
RbCl MgCl2
Anions are same hence greatest ionic character is possessed by species having largest cation and least ionic
character will be possessed by species containing smallest cation.
Comprehension-III
Electric Dipole moment is a vector quantity. If a compound contain more than one polar bond then, the net electric
dipole moment is equal to vector sum of individual dipole moment.
e.g., In H2O O
H H
= 1.84D 104.5
1. Which of the following compounds have zero dipole moment?
(1) SF4 (2) ICl4 (3) H2S (4) SnCl2
Sol. Answer (2)

ICl4 is square planar molecule having zero dipole moment.

2. Out of following which has the highest dipole moment?


CH3 CN CN CN
CN
(1) (2) (3) (4)
CH3
CH3 CN
Sol. Answer (2)
CH3 is e donor and CN is e acceptor groups.

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 109
3. Which of the following compounds have zero dipole moment?

OH CH3 Cl

(1) (2) (3) (4) All of these

OH CH3 Cl

Sol. Answer (2)

OH

In , H atoms are not in same plane. In p-xylene both moments are cancelled.

OH

4. A compound has molecular formula XeOn where n is number of oxygen atoms, dipole moment of the compound
is minimum when n is

(1) 4 (2) 1 (3) 3 (4) 2

Sol. Answer (1)

XeO4 has no lone pair and its dipole moment is zero.

Comprehension-IV

Lattice energy : Lattice energy is the amount of energy released when one mole of ionic compound is formed from
its gaseous ions"

Na Cl NaCl (s) x kJ
(g) (g)

Lattice energy also depend on the 3-D arrangement of ion.

1. Which of the following has the highest Lattice energy?

(1) MgO (2) NaCl (3) CaO (4) KCl

Sol. Answer (1)

q1 q2
Lattice energy
r2

2. In the given compounds least Lattice energy is present in

(1) AgF (2) AgBr (3) AgCl (4) NaCl

Sol. Answer (2)

3. LiF is insoluble in water due to

(1) Low hydration energy (2) High hydration energy

(3) Low Lattice energy (4) High Lattice energy

Sol. Answer (4)

LiF have very high lattice energy.

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110 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Comprehension-V

Shape of the compound depend on type and number of electron pair around central atom. These electron pair
repel each other and stay as far as possible. The repulsion sequence is as

L.P. L.P. > B.P. L.P. > B.P. B.P.

1. Choose the incorrect match

Compound Structure

(1) SnCl2 Linear

(2) CO2 Linear

(3) I3 Linear

(4) N3 Linear

Sol. Answer (1)

SnCl2 is bent shape molecule.

2. Which of the given compound is planar?

(1) XeF5 (2) XeF4 (3) ICl4 (4) All of these

Sol. Answer (4)

3. d z2 orbital take part in hybridisation

(1) dsp3 (2) sp3d2 (3) d2sp3 (4) All of these

Sol. Answer (4)

d have largest lobes and can easily takes part in all three hybridization.
z2

SECTION - D
Assertion-Reason Type Questions
1. STATEMENT-1 : Polarisation is the distortion of the shape of an anion by an adjacently placed cation.
and
STATEMENT-2 : Maximum polarisation is brought about by a cation of high charge.
Sol. Answer (2)
Factual.
2. STATEMENT-1 : PH3 and PF3 are pyramidal in shape with one lone pair on P but PF3 has greater bond angle than
PH3.
and
STATEMENT-2 : Back bonding is present in PF3 but absent in PH3.
Sol. Answer (1)
More EN atom shall repel each other strongly, increasing the bond angle. But back-bonding is possible in
PF3 due to vacand d-orbitals in P and availability of lp on F.
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 111

3. STATEMENT-1 : AlF3 is a high melting point solid whereas SiF4 is a gas.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Both AlF3 and SiF4 are covalent molecules.

Sol. Answer (3)

AlF3 is ionic, hence, a solid. SiF4 is covalent, hence, a gas.

4. STATEMENT-1 : CS2 behave as a non-polar solvent.

and

STATEMENT-2 : The shape of CS2 is linear.

Sol. Answer (2)

S=C=S

C, S have almost same electronegativity, hence, CS2 is non polar.

CS2 is linear (BP = 2, LP = 0 , VSEP = 2)

5. STATEMENT-1 : PCl5 has trigonal bipyramidal shape.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Length of all PCl bonds in PCl5 is equal.

Sol. Answer (3)

In PCl5 all bond angles and bond lengths are not equal.

6. STATEMENT-1 : The compounds which have polar bonds have non-zero dipole moment.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Dipole moment is a vector quantity.

Sol. Answer (4)

O=C=O

CO2 has two polar bonds although it is non polar.

7. STATEMENT-1 : H2O is liquid whereas H2S is gas.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Oxygen is more electronegative than sulphur.

Sol. Answer (2)

H2O is liquid due to Hydrogen-bonding; O is more electronegative than S but for Hydrogen-bonding one atom
should be highly electronegative while S is not highly electronegative.

8. STATEMENT-1 : Boiling point of H2O is more than HF.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Intermolecular hydrogen bonding in HF is stronger than H2O.

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112 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Sol. Answer (2)

Boiling point of H2O is higher because it forms four hydrogen bonds per molecule.

9. STATEMENT-1 : In LiCl, more covalent character is present than in LiF.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Polarizability of Cl is more than F.

Sol. Answer (1)

Larger will be anoin more will be polarisability.

10. STATEMENT-1 : O2 and O2+ are paramagnetic.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Bond order of O2+ and O2 is same.

Sol. Answer (3)

Bond order of O2 and O2 are 2.5 and 1.5 respectively.

11. STATEMENT-1: p-Hydroxybenzoic acid has a lower boiling point than o-hydroxybenzoic acid

and

STATEMENT-2: o-Hydroxybenzoic acid has intramolecular hydrogen bonding. [IIT-JEE 2007]

Sol. Answer (4)

o-hydroxybenzoic acid has lower boiling point as it has intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

SECTION - E
Matrix-Match Type Questions

1. Match the following :

Column-I Column-II

(Order) (Property)

(A) (SiH3)3N < (CH3)3N (p) Volatility

OH OH
NO2
(B) > (q) Thermal stability

NO2

(C) Na2CO3 > CaCO3 (r) Density

(D) Ice < water (s) Basicity


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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 113
Sol. Answer A(s), B(p), C(q), D(r)

xx Si(CH3)
|
N N
CH3 | CH3
CH3 (CH3)Si Si(CH3)

In NSi(CH3)3 , Si uses its vacant d-orbital for back bonding with lone pair electrons of central N atom, hence,
has less tendency to release its electrons, hence, less basic.
Ortho nitro phenol shows intramolecular hydrogen bonding while para nitro phenol shows intermolecular
hydrogen bonding hence ortho isomer is more volatile.
Na+ is smaller than Ca+2, hence, Na2CO3 has more lattice energy than CaCO3. Hence, Na2CO3 is more
thermally stable.
Water has high density than ice because ice forms cage like structure and large vacancies are created in
ice.
2. Match the following :
Column-I Column-II
(Molecule) (Number of lone pair + bond pair
respectively at central atom)
(A) ClF3 (p) 2+2
(B) XeF4 (q) 2+3
(C) I3 (r) 2+4
(D) H2S (s) 3+2
Sol. Answer A(q), B(r), C(s), D(p)

F
ClF3 : |
FClF

BP 3
23
LP 2

XeF4 : I

xx
F
|
FXeF I
xx xx
|
F
I
BP 4
2 4
LP 2

I3

LP = 3, BP = 2 3 + 2
H2S : HSH
LP = 2, BP = 2 2 + 2

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114 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

3. Match the following :

Column-I Column-II
(Molecule) (Hybridisation of central atom)

(A) H2Te (p) sp3d

(B) XeF4 (q) sp2

(C) IClF2 (r) sp3

(D) HCOOH (s) sp3d 2

Sol. Answer A(r), B(s), C(p), D(q)

H2Te

1
VSEP = (V + M C + A)
2

1
= (6 + 2 0 + 0)
2

8
= = 4 sp3
2

XeF4

1
VSEP = (8 + 4 0 + 0)
2

12
= = 6 sp3d2
2

IClF2

Cl is centre atom.

1
VSEP = (7 + 3 0 + 0)
2

10
= = 5 sp3d
2

O
||
HCOH

Central atom is C.

If C attached with one double bond then sp2.

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 115
4. Match the following
Column I Column II
(A) NF3 (p) Lowest bond angle among column I
(B) NH3 (q) Lowest dipole moment among column II
(C) NO2 (r) Incomplete octet
(D) N2O (s) 103 < Bond angle < 10928'
Sol. Answer A(p), B(s), C(r), D(q)
5. Match the orbital overlap figures shown in Column-I with the description given in Column-II and select the correct
answer using the code given below the columns. [JEE(Advanced)-2014]
Column-I Column-II

(A) (p) p d antibonding

(B) (q) d d bonding

(C) (r) p d bonding

(D) (s) d d antibonding

Code :
A B C D
(1) q p r s
(2) s r p q
(3) q r p s
(4) s p r q

Sol. Answer (3)

A. d d ( bonding)

B. p d ( bonding)

C. p d ( antibonding)

D. d d ( antibonding)

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116 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

SECTION - F
Integer Answer Type Questions
1. How many no. of -bonds are present in H2SO4?

Sol. Answer (6)

Fact
2. How many POP bonds are present in P4O10 ?

Sol. Answer (6)

Fact
3. How many hybrid orbitals are used for bond formation in SF4?
Sol. Answer (4)
Hybridization is sp3d.
Five hybrid orbitals and one hybrid orbital is unused carrying lone pair.
4. How many right angle bonds are present in BrF5?
Sol. Answer (0)
Its shape is distorted square pyramidal.
5. What will be the bond order between OO in peroxide of sodium?
Sol. Answer (1)

Na2O2 contain O22 anion having bond order one.

6. Maximum valency that is possible for P with Cl is ______.


Sol. Answer (6)
PCl6 exist.
7. Number of right angle bonds in PCl5 is _____.
Sol. Answer (6)
Due to its trigonal bipyramidal shape.
8. Number of pp bond in given compound CN CH = CH CN is _____.
Sol. Answer (5)
4 between C & N and one between C C.
9. Based on VSEPR theory, the number of 90 degree F Br F angles in BrF5 is _____. [IIT-JEE 2010]
Sol. Answer (0)
Fa
Feq Feq
Feq Feq
Br

Presence of lone pair will distort all the bond angles and none of the bond angle is exactly equal to 90.
FaBrFeq = 84
FeqBrFeq = 89

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 117

10. A list of species having the formula XZ4 is given below.

XeF4, SF4, SiF4, BF4, BrF4, [Cu(NH3)4]2+, [FeCl4]2, [CoCl4]2 and [PtCl4]2.

Defining shape on the basis of the location of X and Z atoms, the total number of species having a square
planar shape is [JEE(Advanced)-2014]

Sol. Answer (4)


F F
F
F F F
Xe S Si B
F F F F F F F
F F
F
2
Cl
F F NH3 NH3
Br Cu Fe
F F NH3 NH3 Cl Cl
Cl
2
Cl 2
Cl Cl
Co Pt
Cl Cl Cl Cl
Cl

11. Among the triatomic molecules/ions, BeCl2 , N3 , N2O, NO2 , O3 , SCl2, ICl2 , I3 and XeF2, the total number of linear

molecule(s)/ion(s) where the hybridization of the central atom does not have contribution from the d-orbital(s) is
[Atomic number : S = 16, Cl = 17, I = 53 and Xe = 54] [JEE(Advanced)-2015]
Sol. Answer (4)
Cl Be Cl N3
Hybridization sp Hybridisation sp

Structure linear structure linear


..
+ O
O=N O ..
O O
..

..
..
..

Hybridisation sp Hybridisation sp2


Structure linear Structure Trigonal planar
..
S ..
..


[Cl ..I Cl]
..
Cl Cl 3 3
Hybridisation sp Hybridisation sp d
Structure Angular Structure linear
.. ..
[I ..I I]
.. F ..Xe F ..
3 3
Hybridisation sp d Hybridisation sp d
Structure linear Structure linear

NNO
Hybridisation sp
Structure linear

Only BeCl2, N3, N2O and NO2 are linear with sp-hybridisation.

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118 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

SECTION - G
Multiple True-False Type Questions

1. STATEMENT-1 : Strength of H-bonding depends upon temperature.

STATEMENT-2 : H-bonding has no effect on specific heat of a substance.

STATEMENT-3 : One hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative element can form only one H-bond.

(1) TTT (2) TFF (3) TFT (4) FFT

Sol. Answer (3)

Fact.

H OH
2. STATEMENT-1 : In the molecule C will form intramolecular H-bonding to a greater extent.
H F

STATEMENT-2 : Bond order greater than three is not possible.

STATEMENT-3 : Increase in percentage of 'P' orbital increases the directional nature of bond.

(1) T F F (2) FTT (3) FFT (4) TFT

Sol. Answer (4)

Bond order of CO+ is 3.5.

3. STATEMENT-1 : All hybrid orbitals of same composition have same shape and energy.

STATEMENT-2 : All hybrid orbitals on carbon in CH3Cl have same s character.

STATEMENT-3 : Hybridisation is a theoretical process

(1) T F T (2) TTT (3) FFT (4) TFF

Sol. Answer (3)

4. STATEMENT-1 : Intramolecular H-bonding have no effect on boiling point

STATEMENT-2 : Nature of hydrogen bonding is non-directional.

STATEMENT-3 : Covalent bond is directional

(1) T F T (2) T FF (3) FTT (4) TTF

Sol. Answer (1)

5. STATEMENT-1 : NH3 is pyramidal in shape.

STATEMENT-2 : SiCl4 and GaCl4 are isostructural.

STATEMENT-3 : sd3 hybridisation may be possible.

(1) T T F (2) TTT (3) FTT (4) TFT

Sol. Answer (2)

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 119

SECTION - H
Aakash Challengers Questions]
1. Shape of the compounds XeF3+ and XeF5+ are respectively
(1) T-shape, square pyramid (2) Sea-saw, square pyramidal
(3) Bent T-shaped, square pyramidal (4) T-shaped in both
Sol. Answer (3)

Hybridisation compound/ion shape


(i) sp3d XeF3+ T

(ii) sp3d2 XeF5+ Square pyramid


2. In which of the following compounds, back bonding is possible?
(1) PF3 (2) PH3 (3) NH3 (4) NF3
Sol. Answer (1)
In PF3 due to presence of vacant d orbital.
3. The hybridisation of P in solid PBr5 is/are
(1) sp3d (2) sp3 (3) sp3d2 (4) Both (2) & (3)
Sol. Answer (2)
PBr5 exist on PBr4+Br in solid.
4. The compound in which sp mixing is present
(1) N2 (2) O2 (3) C2H2 (4) Both (1) & (3)

Sol. Answer (4)

Fact

5. The correct sequence regarding bond angle


(1) NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 (2) NH3 = PH3 = AsH3 (3) AsH3 > PH3 > NH3 (4) PH3 > NH3 > AsH3
Sol. Answer (1)
In hydride down the group bond angle decreases.
6. Correct regarding hydrogen bond strength and boiling point respectively
(1) HF > H2O, H2O > HF (2) HF > H2O, HF > H2O
(3) H2O > HF, H2O > HF (4) HF > H2O, HF > H2O
Sol. Answer (1)
Due to network structure in water.
7. The correct order of pair regarding nodal surface
(1) 2s > *2s (2) 2s < *2pz (3) *2s > *2pz (4) *2pz < 2px

Sol. Answer (2)

Fact
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120 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

8. Which of the following representation represent * molecular orbital, (z is considered as internuclear axis)?

+ + +
(1) + (2) +

+ + +
px px py py

+
+
(3) (4)
+
+
+

2pz 2pz

Sol. Answer (2)

Opposite sign of wave function gives antibonding.

9. Choose the correct pair regarding dipole moment

(1) CH3Cl > CH3F (2) NH3 > NF3 (3) HF > HCl (4) All of these

Sol. Answer (4)

Due to formation of pseudo dipole.

10. During oxidation, in which of the following bond order increase?

(1) N2 (2) CO

(3) O2 (4) Both (2) & (3)

Sol. Answer (4)

Based on M.O. theory.

11. Choose the correct statement regarding PCl5

(1) All PCl bond lenghts are equal

(2) PClaxial bond lengths is more than PClequatorial

(3) PClequatorial bond lengths are more than PClaxial

(4) PClequatorial bond length may be equal or larger than PClaxial

Sol. Answer (2)

In PCl5, PClaxial bond length are large.

12. Which of the forces are considered as weakest?

(1) Ionic bond (2) Ion-dipole interaction

(3) Covalent bond (4) London forces

Sol. Answer (4)

Fact

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 121
13. How many orbitals on one phosphorus atom in P4, have 25% s character?

(1) 0 (2) 2

(3) 4 (4) 3

Sol. Answer (3)

Fact

14. The hybridisation of S in orthorombic sulphur is

(1) sp (2) sp3

(3) sp2 (4) Unhybridised

Sol. Answer (2)

Hybridization of S in orthorhombic S8.

15. Why H2 is more stable than H2+ while He2+ is more stable than He2?

Sol. Bond order of H2 = 1, H2+ = 0.5

He2+ = 0.5, He2 = 0

H2 is more stable than H2+ but He2+ is more stable than He2.

16. Explain the stability order of CO & SiO & give reason for same.

Sol. CO > SiO (stability order) because there is no tendency of p-p bonding in Si.

17. Why HSH bond angle in H2S is smaller than HOH bond angle in H2O?

O S
Sol. > (bond angle)
H H H H

O is more electronegative than S, so it has more tendency to attract bonded electron pairs.

18. Na2CO3 does not decompose on heating whereas CaCO3 decomposes, why?

Sol. More the carbonate ion is polarized by the cation more is the chance of formation of CO2 and therefore higher
is probability of decomposition.

19. Why AlCl3 is a covalent molecule but is ionized in water to give Al+3 and Cl ions?

Sol. AlCl3 (anhydrous) is covalent because of very high ionization energy required for formation of Al+3. But in
hydrated condition, this excessive energy is obtained by hydration energy of smaller Al+3 ion.

20. Explain, why white phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus.

Sol. White P has following tetrahedral structure where each phosphorus is attached to 3 other phosphorus atoms
by sigma bonds :

P
P P
P
In red phosphorus, molecule forms a chain structure (polymer like) where 2 inter molecular bonds are made
by each P4 unit.

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122 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

21. Why carbon exists as graphite but silicon does not exist in any such form?

Sol. Silicon has lower bond energy than carbon, so less tendency of catenation is present.

22. Iodine in IF7 is surrounded by 7 pairs of electrons yet it is stable.

Sol. IF7 has lower covalent character i.e., higher ionic character this strengthens the I F interaction, hence,
stabilizing the molecule.

23. Calculate the percentage of covalent character of HX having bond length = 1.62 and observed dipole moment =
0.39 D.

Sol. Calculated = 4.8 1010 esu 1.62 108 cm = 7.776 D

0.39
Percentage ionic character 100 = 5%
7.776

Percentage covalent character = 100 5 = 95%.

24. Why XeF5 is planar?

Sol. To avoid strong repulsion of lone pair and bond pair.

  

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