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Solutions

SECTION - A

School / Board Exam. Type Questions

Very Short Answer Type Question

1. If A = {1, 3, 5, 9} and B = {2, 11}, find A B.

Sol. Given that A = {1, 3, 5, 9} and B = {2, 11}

A B = {(1, 2), (1, 11), (3, 2), (3, 11), (5, 2), (5, 11), (9, 2), (9, 11)}

2. If A B = {(a, 1), (b, 3), (a, 3), (b, 1), (a, 2), (b, 2)}. Find A and B.

Sol. Given that

A B = {(a, 1), (b, 3), (a, 3), (b, 1), (a, 2), (b, 2)}

A = set of first elements = {a, b}

B = set of second elements = {1, 2, 3}

3. Let A and B be two sets such that A B consists of 6 elements. If three elements of A B are (1, 4), (2, 6),

(3, 6). Find A.

Sol. A = {1, 2, 3}

Sol. f ( x ) x 5

x5

Domain = [5, )

5. If the ordered pair (x 1, 5) = (3, y 2), find x and y.

Sol. Since the ordered pairs are equal, the corresponding elements are equal

Therefore, x 1 = 3 and 5 = y 2

x = 4 and y = 3

x = 4, y = 3

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28 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

g(x) = 5x + 6

(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x)

= 3x2 + 5x + 6

8. Find the value of [5.5], where [x] represents the greatest integer function of x.

Sol. [5.5] = 6

Short Answer type Question

Sol. P = {a, b, c}

P P = {(a, a), (a, b), (a, c), (b, a), (b, b), (b, c), (c, a), (c, b), (c, c)}

10. Let A = {2, 3} and B = {5, 6}. Write A B. How many subsets will A B have?

B = {5, 6}

A B = {(2, 5), (2, 6), (3, 5), (3, 6)}

Total number of subsets of A B = 24 = 16

A A = {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}

Hence all the relations on A are

{ }, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5),

(5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}{(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5),

(5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}

12. Let A = {1, 3, 6, 9}. Let R be the relation on A defined by R = {(x, y) : x A, y A and x divides y} Find R

in roster form.

Here, R = {(x, y) : x A, y A and x divides y}

In roster form, R = {(1, 1), (1, 3), (1, 6), (1, 9), (3, 3), (3, 6), (3, 9), (6,6), (9, 9)}

R = {(x, y) : x N, y N and x + y = 5}

R = {(1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 2), (4, 1)}

Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 29

14. Find the range of the relation R given by

R = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (4, 1), (4, 2)}

Range of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}

Range of R = {3, 6, 9}

16. If R is a relation from set A = {2, 4, 5} to set B = {1, 4, 6, 8} defined as R = {(x, y) : x A, y B and x

divides y}. Find the domain of R.

B = {1, 4, 6, 8}

In roster form, R = {(2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (4, 4), (4, 8)}

Domain of R = {2, 4}

0 x0

x x0

Domain = R

18. Given that A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {4, 6, 9}. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x, y): the difference

between x and y is even; x A, y B}. Write R in roster form.

Sol. Given that A = {1, 2, 3, 5}

B = {4, 6, 9}

and R = {(x, y): the difference between x and y is even; x A, y B}

In roster form, R = {(1, 9), (2, 4), (2, 6), (3, 9), (5, 9)}

19. Given that A = {5, 7, 9, 13} and B = {4, 6, 7, 9, 12}. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x, y): the

difference between x and y is odd; x A, y B}. Write R in roster form.

Sol. Given that A = {5, 7, 9, 13}

B = {4, 6, 7, 9, 12}

and R = {(x, y): the difference between x and y is odd; x A, y B}

In roster form, R = {(5, 4), (5, 6), (5, 12), (7, 4), (7, 6), (7, 12), (9, 4), (9, 6), (9, 12), (13, 4), (13, 6), (13, 12)}

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30 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

Sol. f ( x ) 16 x 2

16 x2

x2 16

p [4, +4]

= x ,

2

x 0

0, x 0

x 2 , x 0

Domain = R

In roster form, R = {(1, 5), (2, 6), (3, 7), (4, 8), (5, 9), (6, 10)}

Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

1

23. If A = {3, 1, 1, 3} and f x, : x A . Determine whether f is a function or not.

x

Sol. A = {3, 1, 1, 3}

1

and f x, : x A

x

1 1

3, ,(1, 1)(1, 1), 3,

3 3

Here f is a function because each element of A has a distinct image and no two different ordered pairs in f

have same first element.

24. If A B = {(a1, 1), (a1, 2), (a1, 3), (b1, 1), (b1, 2), (b1, 3)}. Find B A.

Sol. Here, A B = {(a1, 1), (a1, 2), (a1, 3), (b1, 1), (b1, 2), (b1, 3)}

A = Set of first element = {a1, b1}

B A = {(1, a1), (1, b1), (2, a1), (2, b1), (3, a1), (3, b1)}

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 31

graph of y = |x 15|

y

15

x x

O 15

y

from graph, range of f(x) = |x 15| is [0, ).

f(x) = 3x2 + 6x + 5

g(x) = 3x 6

Now, (2f + g)(x) = 2f(x) + g(x)

= 2(3x2 + 6x + 5) + (3x 6)

= 6x2 + 12x + 10 + 3x 6

= 6x2 + 15x + 4

Putting x = 1, we get

6x2 + 15x + 4 = 6(1)2 + 15(1) + 4

= 6 + 15 + 4

= 25

f(x) = x2 3x + 1

Now, f(2x) = (2x)2 3(2x) + 1

= 4x2 6x + 1

Since f(x) = f(2x)

x2 3x + 1 = 4x2 6x + 1

3x2 3x = 0

3x(x 1) = 0

x = 0, 1

x = 0, 1

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32 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

28. Let R be a relation on the set of natural numbers N such that R = {(x, y) : x + 2y = 41; x, y N}. Find the

domain and range of R.

Sol. x can be only be those natural numbers for which y N

41 x

y N

2

41 x is even

x is odd

x = 1, 3, 5, 7,.......37, 39

clearly, y = 1, 2,...........20

Domain of R = {1, 3, 5, 7,.......37, 39}

Range of R = {1, 2,........20}

29. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {x, y, z}. Let R be a relation from A to B defined by R = {(1, x), (1, z), (3, x),

(4, y)}

Draw arrow diagram of relation R.

Sol. Given R = {(1, x), (1, z), (3, x), (4, y)}

1 x

2

y

3

4 z

30. If A and B are two non-empty sets having n elements in common then prove that A B and B A have n2

elements in common.

Sol. Let C = A B

then C C = (A B) (A B)

= (A B) (B A)

= (A B) (B A) [ (A C) (B D) = (A B) (C D)]

Since A B has n elements, so C has n elements

Hence C C has n2 elements

(A B) (B A) has n2 elements

Hence A B and B A has n2 elements in common

31. For any three sets A, B, C, prove that

(i) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

(ii) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

Sol. (i) Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A (B C). then,

(a, b) A (B C) a A and b B C

a A and (b B or b C)

(a A and b B) or (a A and b C)

(a, b) A B or (a, b) A C

(a, b) (A B) (A C)

A (B C) (A B) (A C) ...(i)

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 33

Again let (x, y) be an arbitrary element of (A B) (A C)

then (x, y) (A B) (A C)

(x, y) (A B) or (x, y) A C

(x A and y B) or (x A and y C)

x A and (y B or y C)

x A and y (B C)

(x, y) A (B C)

(A B) (A C) A (B C) ...(ii)

Hence from (i) and (ii),

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

(ii) Let (a, b) be an arbitiary element of A (B C)

then (a, b) A (B C)

a A and b (B C)

a A and (b B and b C)

(a A and b B) and (a A and b C)

(a, b) A B and (a, b) A C

(a, b) (A B) (A C)

A (B C) (A B) (A C) ...(i)

Again, let (x, y) be an arbitrary element of (A B) (A C)

Then (x, y) (A B) (A C)

(x, y) (A B) and (x, y) (A C)

(x A and y B) and (x A and y C)

x A and (y B and y C)

x A and y (B C)

(x, y) A (B C)

(A B) (A C) A (B C) ...(ii)

from (i) and (ii),

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

Sol. Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A A

Now, (a, b) A A a A and b A

(a A, b A) and (a A and b A)

(a A, b B) and (a B, b A)

(a, b) (A B) and (a, b) (B A)

(a, b) (A B) (B A)

(A A) (A B) (B A)

Hence A B A A (A B) (B A)

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34 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

Sol. Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A C

then (a, b) A C a A and b C

a B and b C

(a, b) B C

ACBC

(a, b) (A C) a A and b C

a B and b D

(a, b) B D

ACBD

(A B) (C D) = (A C) (B D)

then (a, b) (A B) (C D)

(a, b) (A B) and (a, b) (C D)

(a A and b B) and (a C and b D)

(a A and a C) and (b B and b D)

a (A C) and b (B D)

(a, b) (A C) (B D)

Similarly, (A C) (B D) (A B) (C D)

Hence (A B) (C D) = (A C) (B D)

= {(x, y) : y = |x 1|, x z and 3 x 3} [ |x| 3 3 x 3]

= {(x, y) : y = |x 1|, x = 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}

Since y = |x 1|

y = 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2

Hence R = {(3, 4), (2, 3), (1, 2), (0, 1), (1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 2)}

Domain of R = set of first elements of all ordered pairs belonging to R

= {3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}

Range of R = set of second elements of all ordered pairs belonging to R

= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 35

SECTION - B

Model Test Paper

Very Short Answer Type Questions :

Sol. B A = {(3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2), (5, 1), (5, 2)}

Sol. a = 3, b = 1

3. If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {7, 9, 11}, then find the number of elements in A B.

Sol. n(A B) = 9

4. Given that R = {(1, x), (1, 3), (3, x), (4, y)}. Find the domain of R.

5. Let A = {p, q, r} and B = {s, t}. Find the number of relations from A to B.

Sol. n(A B) = 6

Sol. f(x) = x2 2x + 2

1

7. Find the domain of function f ( x ) .

1 x 2

Sol. 1 x2 > 0

x2 < 1

1 < x < 1

(i) A (B C).

(ii) (A B) (A C).

A (B C) = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 7), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 5), (2, 7), (3, 1), (3, 2),

(3, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7)}

(ii) A B = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 1), (3, 2)}

A C = {(1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 7), (2, 3), (2, 5), (2, 7), (3, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7)}

(A B) (A C) =

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36 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

Sol. (i) A B = {(4, 6), (4, 7), (5, 6), (5, 7)}

(A B) (B C) = {(4, 6), (4, 7), (5, 6), (5, 7), (6, 7), (6, 8), (7, 7), (7, 8)}

(A B) (B A) = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2)}

x = 3 and 4 = 2(3) + y

y = 2

x = 3, y = 2

(ii) x 2 = y 1

xy=1 ...(i)

and 2y + 1 = x + 2

x 2y = 1 ...(ii)

x 2y = 1

xy =1

+

y = 2

y=2

and x = 1 + 2 = 3

x = 3 and y = 2

11. The Cartesian product has 9 elements among which are found (1, 0) and (0, 1). Find the set A and the remaining

elements of A A.

Given n(A A) = 9

n(A)n(A) = 9

p2 = 9

p=3

n(A) = 3

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 37

now, (1, 0) A A 1 A and 0 A

again, (0, 1) A A 0 A and 1 A

thus {1, 0, 1} A

but A has exactly three elements

A = {1, 0, 1}

Remaining elements of A A are

(1, 1), (1, 1), (0, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)

A and B are non-empty sets

to prove B = C

Let b be an arbitrary element of B

since A is non-empty there exists a A

Now, a A and b B (a, b) A B

(a, b) A B [ A B = A C]

bC

Thus b B b C B C ...(i)

Again let c be an arbitrary element of C

Since A is non-empty there exists a A

Now, a A and c C (a, c) A C

(a, c) A B

cB

Thus c C c B

CB ...(ii)

from (i) and (ii), B = C

13. Find the linear relation between the elements of the ordered pairs of the relation R, where R = {(2, 1), (4, 7),

(1, 2)....}.

Let y = ax + b be the linear relation between the components of R

Since (2, 1) R y = ax + b 1 = 2a + b ...(i)

Also (4, 7) R y = ax + b 7 = 4a + b ...(ii)

Subtracting (i) from (ii), we get 2a = 6 a = 3

substituting a = 3 in (i), we get 1 = 6 + b b = 5

putting a = 3 and b = 5 in y = ax + b, we have

y = 3x 5, which is the required relation

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38 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

Sol. f(x + 1) = 3x + 5

Putting x 1 in place of x we get,

f(x 1 + 1) = 3(x 1) + 5

f(x) = 3x 3 + 5

f(x) = 3x + 2

f(x) = 3x + 2

15. Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. If it is a function, determine its domain and range.

(i) f = {(1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5), (4, 6), (5, 7)}.

(ii) g = {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (6, 0), (7, 2)}.

Sol. (i) Given that f = {(1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5), (4, 6), (5, 7)}

Here every first element has one and only one image, therefore f is a function.

Domain of f = set of first elements of all ordered pairs in f

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

Range of f = set of second elements of all ordered pairs in f

= {3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

(ii) Given that g = {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (6, 0), (7, 2)}

Here, every first element has one and only one image, therefore g is a function

Domain of g = set of first elements of all ordered pairs in g

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7}

Range of g = set of second elements of all ordered pairs in g

= {0, 2, 4, 6, 8}

16. Draw the graph of the function

1, x0

f ( x ) 0, x 0

1, x 0

Sol. Let y = f(x), then

for x > 0, y = 1, which is a straight line parallel to x-axis at a distance of 1 unit from x-axis towards positive

direction of y-axis.

for x = 0, y = 0, which is origin

For x < 0, y = 1, which is a straight line parallel to x-axis at a distance of 1 unit from x-axis towards negative

direction of x-axis

Y

y=1

X X

0

y = 1

Y

This function is also

called the signum function

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 39

x2

17. Let f x, 2

: x R be a function from R to R. Determine the range of f.

2 x

x2

Sol. f x, : x R

2

2 x

x2

y

2 x2

2y + yx2 = x2

x2(y 1) = 2y

2y 2y

x2 , x

y 1 y 1

2y +ve ve +ve

0

y 1 0 1

Range of f is ( , 0] (1, )

18. Let A = {1, 2, 3, ....., 20}. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x, y) : 3x y = 1}. Also write down its domain, co-

domain and range.

R = {(x, y) : 3x y = 1}

A B

y = 3x 1 1 2

2 5

Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} 3 8

4 11

Range = {2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20} 5 14

6 17

Co-domain = {1, 2, ....., 20} 7 20

19. Let g = {(2, 4), (1, 5), (2, a), (a, b)} describe by g(x) = px + q where p, q R, find a, b.

g(x) = p(x) + q

4 = p(2) + q

A B

a=4 x g(x)

5 = p + q 2 4

1 5

+9 = 3p 2 a

a b

9

p =3

3

p=3

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40 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

4 = 2p + q

q = 4 6 = 2

g(x) = 3x 2

g(2) = 3 2 2 = 4 a = 4 and b = 10

g(4) = 12 2 = 10

Long Answer Type Questions :

20. Define the function f : R R by y = f(x) = x2, x R. Complete the table given below by using this definition. What

is the domain and range of the function. Draw the graph of f

x 5 4 2 0 1 3 5 7 10

2

y = f(x) = x

x 5 4 2 0 1 3 5 7 10

y = f(x) = x2 25 16 4 0 1 9 25 49 100

Domin = R

Here, f(x) takes only non-negative values

Range = [0, )

Y

15

10

y = x2

5

X X

-4-3-2-1 0 1 2 3 4

Y 2

Graph of y = x

21. Find the domain and range:

x2 1

(i) f (x) , x 1.

x 1

1

(ii) f ( x ) , x 1.

1 x 2

x2 1

Sol. (i) f (x) , x 1

x 1

Here f(x) is defined for all real x 1

Domain = R {1}

x2 1

Let y f ( x )

x 1

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 41

or y = x + 1, x 1

y2

Hence range of f = R {2}

1

(ii) Given f ( x ) , x 1

1 x 2

1

Let y f ( x )

1 x 2

for y to be real, 1 x2 0 x2 1

x 1

Hence domain of f(x) = R{1, 1}

1

Also, 1 x 2

y

1 y 1

x 2 1

y y

y 1

x

y

y 1

for x to be real, 0 < y < 0 or 1 y <

y

y 1

sign scheme for

y

+ve 0 ve 1 +ve

f (x) x 2 3x 2 .

Sol. f ( x ) x 2 3x 2

x2 3x + 2 0

(x 1)(x 2) 0

2

sign scheme for x 3x + 2

< x 1 or 2 x <

+ve 1 ve 2 +ve

Domain = ], 1] [2, [

To find range :

Let y x 2 3x 2 0

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42 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

y2 = x2 3x + 2

x2 3x + (2 y2) = 0 ...(i)

9 8 + 4y2 0

4y2 1

1

y2 which is always true

4

but also y 0

Range = [0, )

f (x) x 2

and g ( x ) x2 1

(i) f + g

(ii) fg

f

(iii)

g

Sol. Given f ( x ) x 2

domain of f = [2, ) = Df

and g(x) = x2 1

domain of g = (, 1] [1, ) = Dg

Let D = Df Dg = [2, )

= x 2 x 2 1 , domain = [2, )

f f (x) x2 x2

(iii) ( x ) domain = [2, )

g g( x ) 2

x 1 x2 1

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 43

24. Let R be a relation defined by

Sol. Let R be a relation defined by

R = {(a, b) : ab + 2 > 0}

(i) (a, a) R for all a A

a2 + 2 > 0 it is true

(ii) (a, b) R implies (b, a) R

ab + 2 > 0 ba + 2 > also true

it is also true.

(iii) (a, b) R and (b, c) R implies (a, c) R

ab + 2 > 0, bc + 2 > 0 then ac + 2 > 0

1 a 2

e.g., 2 20

2 1

b

2

1 c5

520

2

it is not true.

2 3x 2

25. Find the domain and range of f x, 2

: x R

3 2x

2 3x2

Sol. The domain and range of f = x, : x R

3 2x 2

2 3x 2

y domain R

3 2x 2

3y + 2yx2 = 2 + 3x2

(2y 3)x2 = 2 3y

2 3y 2 3y

x2 0

2y 3 2y 3

2 3y 3y 2

x 0

2y 3 2y 3

+ve ve +ve

2 3

Range , 2 3 2 3

3 2 y

3 2 3 2

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd.-Regd. Office: Aakash Tower, Plot No.-4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.011-47623456

44 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

(i) f (x) x2 3

(ii) f ( x ) 16 x 2

(iii) f ( x ) x2 9

x2 3 0

Range = [ 3, )

(ii) f ( x ) 16 x 2 16 x 2 0

x 2 16 0

( x 4)( x 4) 0

[4, 4]

Domain = [ 4, 4]

Range = [0, 4]

(iii) f ( x ) x2 9

Domain x 2 9 0

( x 3)( x 3) 0

( , 3] [3, )

Range = [0, )

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd.-Regd. Office: Aakash Tower, Plot No.-4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.011-47623456

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