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# Chapter 2

## Relations and Functions

Solutions

SECTION - A
School / Board Exam. Type Questions
Very Short Answer Type Question
1. If A = {1, 3, 5, 9} and B = {2, 11}, find A B.
Sol. Given that A = {1, 3, 5, 9} and B = {2, 11}
A B = {(1, 2), (1, 11), (3, 2), (3, 11), (5, 2), (5, 11), (9, 2), (9, 11)}
2. If A B = {(a, 1), (b, 3), (a, 3), (b, 1), (a, 2), (b, 2)}. Find A and B.
Sol. Given that
A B = {(a, 1), (b, 3), (a, 3), (b, 1), (a, 2), (b, 2)}
A = set of first elements = {a, b}
B = set of second elements = {1, 2, 3}
3. Let A and B be two sets such that A B consists of 6 elements. If three elements of A B are (1, 4), (2, 6),
(3, 6). Find A.
Sol. A = {1, 2, 3}

Sol. f ( x ) x 5

## For f(x) to be defined, x 5 0

x5
Domain = [5, )
5. If the ordered pair (x 1, 5) = (3, y 2), find x and y.
Sol. Since the ordered pairs are equal, the corresponding elements are equal
Therefore, x 1 = 3 and 5 = y 2
x = 4 and y = 3
x = 4, y = 3

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## Sol. Given that f(x) = 3x2

g(x) = 5x + 6
(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x)
= 3x2 + 5x + 6

## Sol. For signum function f(x), f(5) = 1

8. Find the value of [5.5], where [x] represents the greatest integer function of x.

Sol. [5.5] = 6
Short Answer type Question

## 9. If P = {a, b, c}, find P P.

Sol. P = {a, b, c}
P P = {(a, a), (a, b), (a, c), (b, a), (b, b), (b, c), (c, a), (c, b), (c, c)}

10. Let A = {2, 3} and B = {5, 6}. Write A B. How many subsets will A B have?

## Sol. Given that A = {2, 3}

B = {5, 6}
A B = {(2, 5), (2, 6), (3, 5), (3, 6)}
Total number of subsets of A B = 24 = 16

## Sol. Given that A = {5, 5}

A A = {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}
Hence all the relations on A are
{ }, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5),
(5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}{(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5),
(5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}, {(5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5), (5, 5)}

12. Let A = {1, 3, 6, 9}. Let R be the relation on A defined by R = {(x, y) : x A, y A and x divides y} Find R
in roster form.

## Sol. Given that A = {1, 3, 6, 9}

Here, R = {(x, y) : x A, y A and x divides y}
In roster form, R = {(1, 1), (1, 3), (1, 6), (1, 9), (3, 3), (3, 6), (3, 9), (6,6), (9, 9)}

## 13. Find the domain of the relation R given by

R = {(x, y) : x N, y N and x + y = 5}

## Sol. Here, R = {(x, y) : x N, y N and x + y = 5}

R = {(1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 2), (4, 1)}
Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}

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14. Find the range of the relation R given by

## Sol. Here, R = {(x, y) : x N, y N and x2 + y2 24}

R = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (4, 1), (4, 2)}

Range of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}

## R = {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 9)}

Range of R = {3, 6, 9}

16. If R is a relation from set A = {2, 4, 5} to set B = {1, 4, 6, 8} defined as R = {(x, y) : x A, y B and x
divides y}. Find the domain of R.

B = {1, 4, 6, 8}

## and R = {(x, y): x A, y B and x divides y}

In roster form, R = {(2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (4, 4), (4, 8)}

Domain of R = {2, 4}

## Sol. Given that f(x) = |x| = x x0

0 x0
x x0

Domain = R

18. Given that A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {4, 6, 9}. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x, y): the difference
between x and y is even; x A, y B}. Write R in roster form.
Sol. Given that A = {1, 2, 3, 5}
B = {4, 6, 9}
and R = {(x, y): the difference between x and y is even; x A, y B}
In roster form, R = {(1, 9), (2, 4), (2, 6), (3, 9), (5, 9)}

19. Given that A = {5, 7, 9, 13} and B = {4, 6, 7, 9, 12}. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x, y): the
difference between x and y is odd; x A, y B}. Write R in roster form.
Sol. Given that A = {5, 7, 9, 13}
B = {4, 6, 7, 9, 12}
and R = {(x, y): the difference between x and y is odd; x A, y B}
In roster form, R = {(5, 4), (5, 6), (5, 12), (7, 4), (7, 6), (7, 12), (9, 4), (9, 6), (9, 12), (13, 4), (13, 6), (13, 12)}

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## 20. Find the domain of f ( x ) 16 x 2 .

Sol. f ( x ) 16 x 2

16 x2

x2 16
p [4, +4]

= x ,
2
x 0

0, x 0
x 2 , x 0

Domain = R

## Sol. R = {(x + 1, x + 5): x {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}}

In roster form, R = {(1, 5), (2, 6), (3, 7), (4, 8), (5, 9), (6, 10)}
Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

1
23. If A = {3, 1, 1, 3} and f x, : x A . Determine whether f is a function or not.
x

Sol. A = {3, 1, 1, 3}

1
and f x, : x A
x

1 1
3, ,(1, 1)(1, 1), 3,
3 3
Here f is a function because each element of A has a distinct image and no two different ordered pairs in f
have same first element.

24. If A B = {(a1, 1), (a1, 2), (a1, 3), (b1, 1), (b1, 2), (b1, 3)}. Find B A.

Sol. Here, A B = {(a1, 1), (a1, 2), (a1, 3), (b1, 1), (b1, 2), (b1, 3)}
A = Set of first element = {a1, b1}

## B = Set of second elements = {1, 2, 3}

B A = {(1, a1), (1, b1), (2, a1), (2, b1), (3, a1), (3, b1)}

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## Sol. Let f(x) = |x 15|

graph of y = |x 15|
y

15
x x
O 15

y
from graph, range of f(x) = |x 15| is [0, ).

## Sol. Given that

f(x) = 3x2 + 6x + 5
g(x) = 3x 6
Now, (2f + g)(x) = 2f(x) + g(x)
= 2(3x2 + 6x + 5) + (3x 6)
= 6x2 + 12x + 10 + 3x 6
= 6x2 + 15x + 4
Putting x = 1, we get
6x2 + 15x + 4 = 6(1)2 + 15(1) + 4
= 6 + 15 + 4
= 25

## Sol. Given that

f(x) = x2 3x + 1
Now, f(2x) = (2x)2 3(2x) + 1
= 4x2 6x + 1
Since f(x) = f(2x)
x2 3x + 1 = 4x2 6x + 1
3x2 3x = 0
3x(x 1) = 0
x = 0, 1
x = 0, 1
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## Long Answer Type Questions

28. Let R be a relation on the set of natural numbers N such that R = {(x, y) : x + 2y = 41; x, y N}. Find the
domain and range of R.
Sol. x can be only be those natural numbers for which y N

41 x
y N
2
41 x is even
x is odd
x = 1, 3, 5, 7,.......37, 39
clearly, y = 1, 2,...........20
Domain of R = {1, 3, 5, 7,.......37, 39}
Range of R = {1, 2,........20}
29. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {x, y, z}. Let R be a relation from A to B defined by R = {(1, x), (1, z), (3, x),
(4, y)}
Draw arrow diagram of relation R.
Sol. Given R = {(1, x), (1, z), (3, x), (4, y)}

1 x
2
y
3
4 z

30. If A and B are two non-empty sets having n elements in common then prove that A B and B A have n2
elements in common.
Sol. Let C = A B
then C C = (A B) (A B)
= (A B) (B A)
= (A B) (B A) [ (A C) (B D) = (A B) (C D)]
Since A B has n elements, so C has n elements
Hence C C has n2 elements
(A B) (B A) has n2 elements
Hence A B and B A has n2 elements in common
31. For any three sets A, B, C, prove that
(i) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
(ii) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
Sol. (i) Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A (B C). then,
(a, b) A (B C) a A and b B C
a A and (b B or b C)
(a A and b B) or (a A and b C)
(a, b) A B or (a, b) A C
(a, b) (A B) (A C)
A (B C) (A B) (A C) ...(i)

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Again let (x, y) be an arbitrary element of (A B) (A C)
then (x, y) (A B) (A C)
(x, y) (A B) or (x, y) A C
(x A and y B) or (x A and y C)
x A and (y B or y C)
x A and y (B C)
(x, y) A (B C)
(A B) (A C) A (B C) ...(ii)
Hence from (i) and (ii),
A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
(ii) Let (a, b) be an arbitiary element of A (B C)
then (a, b) A (B C)
a A and b (B C)
a A and (b B and b C)
(a A and b B) and (a A and b C)
(a, b) A B and (a, b) A C
(a, b) (A B) (A C)
A (B C) (A B) (A C) ...(i)
Again, let (x, y) be an arbitrary element of (A B) (A C)
Then (x, y) (A B) (A C)
(x, y) (A B) and (x, y) (A C)
(x A and y B) and (x A and y C)
x A and (y B and y C)
x A and y (B C)
(x, y) A (B C)
(A B) (A C) A (B C) ...(ii)
from (i) and (ii),
A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

## 32. If A B, show that A A (A B) (B A)

Sol. Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A A
Now, (a, b) A A a A and b A
(a A, b A) and (a A and b A)
(a A, b B) and (a B, b A)
(a, b) (A B) and (a, b) (B A)
(a, b) (A B) (B A)
(A A) (A B) (B A)
Hence A B A A (A B) (B A)

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## 33. If A B, prove that A C B C for any set C.

Sol. Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A C
then (a, b) A C a A and b C
a B and b C
(a, b) B C
ACBC

## Sol. Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A C. Then

(a, b) (A C) a A and b C
a B and b D
(a, b) B D
ACBD

## 35. For any sets A, B, C, D, prove that

(A B) (C D) = (A C) (B D)

## Sol. Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of (A B) (C D)

then (a, b) (A B) (C D)
(a, b) (A B) and (a, b) (C D)
(a A and b B) and (a C and b D)
(a A and a C) and (b B and b D)
a (A C) and b (B D)
(a, b) (A C) (B D)
Similarly, (A C) (B D) (A B) (C D)
Hence (A B) (C D) = (A C) (B D)

## Sol. Let R = {(x, y) : y = |x 1|, x z and |x| 3}

= {(x, y) : y = |x 1|, x z and 3 x 3} [ |x| 3 3 x 3]
= {(x, y) : y = |x 1|, x = 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}
Since y = |x 1|
y = 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2
Hence R = {(3, 4), (2, 3), (1, 2), (0, 1), (1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 2)}
Domain of R = set of first elements of all ordered pairs belonging to R
= {3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}
Range of R = set of second elements of all ordered pairs belonging to R
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

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SECTION - B
Model Test Paper
Very Short Answer Type Questions :

## 1. If A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4, 5}. Find B A.

Sol. B A = {(3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2), (5, 1), (5, 2)}

## 2. Find a and b, if (2a, a + b) = (6, 2).

Sol. a = 3, b = 1

3. If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {7, 9, 11}, then find the number of elements in A B.

Sol. n(A B) = 9

4. Given that R = {(1, x), (1, 3), (3, x), (4, y)}. Find the domain of R.

## Sol. Domain of R = {1, 3, 4}

5. Let A = {p, q, r} and B = {s, t}. Find the number of relations from A to B.

Sol. n(A B) = 6

## 6. If f(x + 1) = x2 + 1, then find the value of f(x).

Sol. f(x) = x2 2x + 2

1
7. Find the domain of function f ( x ) .
1 x 2
Sol. 1 x2 > 0

x2 < 1

1 < x < 1

## 8. If A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {1, 2} and C = {3, 5, 7}, then find

(i) A (B C).

(ii) (A B) (A C).

## Sol. (i) B C = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7}

A (B C) = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 7), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 5), (2, 7), (3, 1), (3, 2),
(3, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7)}

(ii) A B = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 1), (3, 2)}

A C = {(1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 7), (2, 3), (2, 5), (2, 7), (3, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7)}

(A B) (A C) =

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## (ii) If A = {1, 2}, B = {1, 3}, Find (A B) (B A).

Sol. (i) A B = {(4, 6), (4, 7), (5, 6), (5, 7)}

## B C = {(6, 7), (6, 8), (7, 7), (7, 8)}

(A B) (B C) = {(4, 6), (4, 7), (5, 6), (5, 7), (6, 7), (6, 8), (7, 7), (7, 8)}

## B A = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (3, 1), (3, 2)}

(A B) (B A) = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2)}

## Sol. (i) x + 2 = 5 and 4 = 2x + y

x = 3 and 4 = 2(3) + y

y = 2

x = 3, y = 2

(ii) x 2 = y 1

xy=1 ...(i)

and 2y + 1 = x + 2

x 2y = 1 ...(ii)

## from (i) and (ii),

x 2y = 1
xy =1
+
y = 2

y=2

and x = 1 + 2 = 3

x = 3 and y = 2

11. The Cartesian product has 9 elements among which are found (1, 0) and (0, 1). Find the set A and the remaining
elements of A A.

## Sol. Let n(A) = p

Given n(A A) = 9

n(A)n(A) = 9

p2 = 9

p=3

n(A) = 3

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now, (1, 0) A A 1 A and 0 A
again, (0, 1) A A 0 A and 1 A
thus {1, 0, 1} A
but A has exactly three elements
A = {1, 0, 1}
Remaining elements of A A are
(1, 1), (1, 1), (0, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)

## Sol. Given that A B = A C

A and B are non-empty sets
to prove B = C
Let b be an arbitrary element of B
since A is non-empty there exists a A
Now, a A and b B (a, b) A B
(a, b) A B [ A B = A C]
bC
Thus b B b C B C ...(i)
Again let c be an arbitrary element of C
Since A is non-empty there exists a A
Now, a A and c C (a, c) A C
(a, c) A B
cB
Thus c C c B
CB ...(ii)
from (i) and (ii), B = C

13. Find the linear relation between the elements of the ordered pairs of the relation R, where R = {(2, 1), (4, 7),
(1, 2)....}.

## Sol. Given R = {(2, 1), (4, 7), (1, 2),...........}

Let y = ax + b be the linear relation between the components of R
Since (2, 1) R y = ax + b 1 = 2a + b ...(i)
Also (4, 7) R y = ax + b 7 = 4a + b ...(ii)
Subtracting (i) from (ii), we get 2a = 6 a = 3
substituting a = 3 in (i), we get 1 = 6 + b b = 5
putting a = 3 and b = 5 in y = ax + b, we have
y = 3x 5, which is the required relation

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## 14. Given f(x + 1) = 3x + 5, find f(x).

Sol. f(x + 1) = 3x + 5
Putting x 1 in place of x we get,
f(x 1 + 1) = 3(x 1) + 5
f(x) = 3x 3 + 5
f(x) = 3x + 2
f(x) = 3x + 2
15. Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. If it is a function, determine its domain and range.
(i) f = {(1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5), (4, 6), (5, 7)}.
(ii) g = {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (6, 0), (7, 2)}.
Sol. (i) Given that f = {(1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5), (4, 6), (5, 7)}
Here every first element has one and only one image, therefore f is a function.
Domain of f = set of first elements of all ordered pairs in f
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Range of f = set of second elements of all ordered pairs in f
= {3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
(ii) Given that g = {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (6, 0), (7, 2)}
Here, every first element has one and only one image, therefore g is a function
Domain of g = set of first elements of all ordered pairs in g
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7}
Range of g = set of second elements of all ordered pairs in g
= {0, 2, 4, 6, 8}
16. Draw the graph of the function
1, x0

f ( x ) 0, x 0
1, x 0

Sol. Let y = f(x), then
for x > 0, y = 1, which is a straight line parallel to x-axis at a distance of 1 unit from x-axis towards positive
direction of y-axis.
for x = 0, y = 0, which is origin
For x < 0, y = 1, which is a straight line parallel to x-axis at a distance of 1 unit from x-axis towards negative
direction of x-axis
Y

y=1

X X
0

y = 1

Y
This function is also
called the signum function

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x2
17. Let f x, 2

: x R be a function from R to R. Determine the range of f.
2 x

x2
Sol. f x, : x R
2
2 x

x2
y
2 x2

2y + yx2 = x2
x2(y 1) = 2y

2y 2y
x2 , x
y 1 y 1

2y +ve ve +ve
0
y 1 0 1

Range of f is ( , 0] (1, )

18. Let A = {1, 2, 3, ....., 20}. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x, y) : 3x y = 1}. Also write down its domain, co-
domain and range.

## Sol. Let A = {1, 2, 3, ....., 20}

R = {(x, y) : 3x y = 1}

## Also write down its domain, co-domain and range

A B
y = 3x 1 1 2
2 5
Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} 3 8
4 11
Range = {2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20} 5 14
6 17
Co-domain = {1, 2, ....., 20} 7 20
19. Let g = {(2, 4), (1, 5), (2, a), (a, b)} describe by g(x) = px + q where p, q R, find a, b.

## Sol. g = {(2, 4), (1, 5), (2, a), (a, b)}

g(x) = p(x) + q

4 = p(2) + q
A B
a=4 x g(x)
5 = p + q 2 4
1 5
+9 = 3p 2 a
a b
9
p =3
3

p=3

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4 = 2p + q
q = 4 6 = 2
g(x) = 3x 2
g(2) = 3 2 2 = 4 a = 4 and b = 10
g(4) = 12 2 = 10
Long Answer Type Questions :
20. Define the function f : R R by y = f(x) = x2, x R. Complete the table given below by using this definition. What
is the domain and range of the function. Draw the graph of f

x 5 4 2 0 1 3 5 7 10
2
y = f(x) = x

## Sol. The completed table is given below

x 5 4 2 0 1 3 5 7 10

y = f(x) = x2 25 16 4 0 1 9 25 49 100

## Here f(x) is defined for all real x

Domin = R
Here, f(x) takes only non-negative values
Range = [0, )
Y
15

10
y = x2
5

X X
-4-3-2-1 0 1 2 3 4

Y 2
Graph of y = x
21. Find the domain and range:

x2 1
(i) f (x) , x 1.
x 1

1
(ii) f ( x ) , x 1.
1 x 2

x2 1
Sol. (i) f (x) , x 1
x 1
Here f(x) is defined for all real x 1
Domain = R {1}

x2 1
Let y f ( x )
x 1
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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 41
or y = x + 1, x 1
y2
Hence range of f = R {2}

1
(ii) Given f ( x ) , x 1
1 x 2
1
Let y f ( x )
1 x 2
for y to be real, 1 x2 0 x2 1
x 1
Hence domain of f(x) = R{1, 1}

1
Also, 1 x 2
y

1 y 1
x 2 1
y y

y 1
x
y

y 1
for x to be real, 0 < y < 0 or 1 y <
y
y 1
sign scheme for
y

+ve 0 ve 1 +ve

## 22. Find the domain and range of the function

f (x) x 2 3x 2 .

Sol. f ( x ) x 2 3x 2

## for f(x) to be defined

x2 3x + 2 0

(x 1)(x 2) 0

2
sign scheme for x 3x + 2
< x 1 or 2 x <
+ve 1 ve 2 +ve

Domain = ], 1] [2, [

To find range :

Let y x 2 3x 2 0

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42 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

y2 = x2 3x + 2

x2 3x + (2 y2) = 0 ...(i)

## i.e., (3)2 4(2 y2) 0

9 8 + 4y2 0

4y2 1

1
y2 which is always true
4

but also y 0

Range = [0, )

f (x) x 2

and g ( x ) x2 1

## Determine the following functions:

(i) f + g

(ii) fg

f
(iii)
g

Sol. Given f ( x ) x 2

domain of f = [2, ) = Df

and g(x) = x2 1

domain of g = (, 1] [1, ) = Dg

Let D = Df Dg = [2, )

## (i) (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x)

= x 2 x 2 1 , domain = [2, )

## = x 2 x 2 1 ( x 2)( x 2 1) domain = [2, )

f f (x) x2 x2
(iii) ( x ) domain = [2, )
g g( x ) 2
x 1 x2 1

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(School/Board Exams.) Solutions Relations and Functions 43
24. Let R be a relation defined by

## (iii) (a, b) R and (b, c) R implies (a, c) R

Sol. Let R be a relation defined by
R = {(a, b) : ab + 2 > 0}
(i) (a, a) R for all a A
a2 + 2 > 0 it is true
(ii) (a, b) R implies (b, a) R
ab + 2 > 0 ba + 2 > also true
it is also true.
(iii) (a, b) R and (b, c) R implies (a, c) R
ab + 2 > 0, bc + 2 > 0 then ac + 2 > 0

1 a 2
e.g., 2 20
2 1
b
2
1 c5
520
2

## 2 5 + 2 < 0 not ture

it is not true.

2 3x 2
25. Find the domain and range of f x, 2
: x R
3 2x

2 3x2
Sol. The domain and range of f = x, : x R
3 2x 2
2 3x 2
y domain R
3 2x 2
3y + 2yx2 = 2 + 3x2
(2y 3)x2 = 2 3y

2 3y 2 3y
x2 0
2y 3 2y 3

2 3y 3y 2
x 0
2y 3 2y 3
+ve ve +ve
2 3
Range , 2 3 2 3
3 2 y
3 2 3 2

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44 Relations and Functions (School/Board Exams.) Solutions

## 26. Find the domain and range of

(i) f (x) x2 3

(ii) f ( x ) 16 x 2

(iii) f ( x ) x2 9

## (i) f (x) x2 3 Domain R

x2 3 0

Range = [ 3, )

(ii) f ( x ) 16 x 2 16 x 2 0

x 2 16 0

( x 4)( x 4) 0

[4, 4]
Domain = [ 4, 4]
Range = [0, 4]

(iii) f ( x ) x2 9

Domain x 2 9 0

( x 3)( x 3) 0

( , 3] [3, )

Range = [0, )

  

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