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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr.

4/2011

CONSIDERAII PRIVIND ASISTENA CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE


JUDICIAR INTERNAIONAL N INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL
MATERIE PENAL ASSISTANCE IN CRIMINAL
MATTERSS

Drd. Silviu VCARU


eful Brigzii de Combatere a Criminalitii
Silviu VCARU, PhD
Organizate Craiova
The Head of the Brigade for Combating the
Organized Criminality, Craiova
Abstract: Judicial assistance in criminal
matters could be construed broadly and in a narrower
sense: broadly assistance includes extradition, and Abstract: Judicial assistance in criminal
judicial assistance in limited connection it refers to matterss could be construed broadly and in a
the transfer procedures, transfer of sentenced narrower sense: broad assistance includes
persons, and the recognition and decisions execution. extradition, and judicial assistance in limited
The judicial assistance in limited connection connection refers to transfer procedures, transfer of
(small or incidental legal assistance) it refers to sentenced persons, and recognition and execution of
support provided by a state judicial authorities, of decisions.
another state of carrying out investigations, Judicial assistance in limited connection
communication of summons or other proceedings, or (small or incidental legal assistance) refers to support
simply to provide information. provided by a state judicial authorities, of another
The juridical complexity of the judicial state of carrying out investigations, communication of
assistance is a consequence of the accumulation of summons or other proceedings, or simply to provide
international and national regulations, which must to information.
be applied at the same time: the requesting authorities The juridical complexity of the judicial
must determine what is the instrument applicable in assistance is a consequence of the accumulation of
each case, to determine whether there are more international and national regulations, which must be
favorable provisions, and in regard to multilateral applied at the same time: the requesting authorities
conventions to identify the parties, as well statements must determine what is the instrument applicable in
or communications concerning possible ways, of every case, determine whether there are more
transmission and supported languages. favourable provisions, and in regard to multilateral
Cuvinte cheie: asisten judiciar conventions identify the parties, as well statements or
internaional n materie penal, Interpol, Europol. communications concerning possible ways, of
transmission and supported languages.
Key words: international judicial assistance
in criminal matterss, Interpol, Europol.
1. Consideraii generale
n condiiile n care criminalitatea
internaional a cptat, odat cu deschiderea 1. General considerations
frontierelor, o amploare din ce n ce mai Since international criminality has
mare, cooperarea i implicit asistena achieved, at the same time with the opening
judiciar internaional n materie penal, of the frontiers, a bigger and bigger
constituie mijloace eficiente de a rspunde importance, the cooperation and implicitly
acestui fenomen ngrijortor. the international judicial assistance in
Romnia a fost i continu s fie, att criminal matterss constitute efficient means
n planul preocuprilor de ordin legislativ, of responding to this concerning
ct i n cel al preocuprilor de ordin phenomenon.
doctrinar, n avangarda luptei mpotriva Romania has been, both regarding the
criminalitii internaionale, n ceea ce legislative and the doctrinaire concerns, in

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privete realizarea unui cadru juridic adecvat the van of the fight against international
i punerea n aplicare a prevederilor legale cu criminality, regarding the accomplishment of
privire la cooperarea i asistena judiciar an adequate juridical framework and the
internaional n materie penal. [1, p. 11] application of the legal stipulations referring
Asistena judiciar n materie penal to the cooperation and the international
poate fi neleas n sens larg, dar i ntr-un judicial assistance in criminal matterss. [1, p.
sens mai restrns: asistena judiciar n sens 11]
larg include extrdarea, iar asistena judiciar Judicial assistance in criminal
n sens restrns se refer la: transferul matterss may be largely, but also restrainedly
procedurilor, transferul persoanelor understood: judicial assistance in a large
condamnate, precum i la recunoaterea i sense includes extradition, and judicial
executarea hotrrilor. assistance in a restrained sense refers to: the
Asistena judiciar, n sens restrns transfer of procedures, the transfer of
(asistena judiciar mic sau accesorie), se sentenced persons, and also the
refer la sprijinul furnizat de autoritile acknowledgement and the execution of
judiciare ale unui stat, celor ale unui alt stat decisions.
pentru realizarea anchetelor, comunicarea de Judicial assistance, in a restrained
citaii sau de alte acte de procedur, sau pur sense (the small or accessory judicial
i simplu, pentru furnizarea de informaii. assistance), refers to the support supplied by
Complexitatea juridic a asistenei the judicial authorities of a state, the ones of
judiciare este o consecin a acumulrii de another state for accomplishing the
reglementri internaionale i naionale, care investigations, the communication of
trebuie aplicate n acelai timp: autoritile subpoenas or of other procedure documents,
solicitante trebuie s stabileasc n fiecare or simply for the information supply.
situaie care este instrumentul aplicabil, s The juridical complexity of judicial
verifice dac exist prevederi mai favorabile assistance is a consequence of the
i, n ceea ce privete conveniile accumulation of international and national
multilaterale, s identifice prile, precum i regulations that should be applied at the
posibilele declaraii sau comunicri, cu same time: the demanding authorities should
privire la modalitile de transmitere i establish, in each case, which is the
limbile acceptate. applicable tool, they should check if there are
Romnia promoveaz n relaiile sale more favourable stipulations and, regarding
internaionale principiul cooperrii, care the multilateral conventions, they should
astfel a devenit parte integrant a politicii identify the parties, and also the possible
sale externe. declarations or communications, regarding
Statele nu-i realizeaz astfel opera the ways of transmission and the accepted
lor de justiie n mod ermetic, izolat unele de languages.
altele, ci se ajut acordndu-i reciproc Romania promotes, in its
asisten. [2, p.678] international relations, the cooperation
Dei iniial cooperarea internaional principle that has become thus an integrating
n materie penal avea un caracter exclusiv party of its external policy.
guvernamental, a cptat n zilele noastre noi The states do not accomplish thus
dimensiuni i valene. hermetically their justice work, in an isolated
Dac n trecut se folosea sintagma way one from another, but they help each
asisten juridic internaional pentru a other by granting mutual assistance. [2,
desemna diferite forme de ntrajutorare p.678]
interstatal n acest domeniu, astzi Even if initially the international
folosindu-se termenul de cooperare pentru cooperation in criminal matterss had an

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a evidenia o nou abordare: nu mai este exclusively governmental feature, nowadays


vorba doar de a acorda, pasiv, asisten unui it has got new sizes and valences.
alt stat n diverse proceduri judiciare, ci de a If, in the past, we used the terms of
colabora activ cu toate autoritile acelui stat. international juridical assistance for
[3, p.19] assigning different forms of interstate help in
Este ndeobte cunoscut c frontierele this field, nowadays we use cooperation
nu mai reprezint de mult un obstacol n for emphasizing a new approach: it is not
calea infractorilor. Din pcate, ele mai about passively granting assistance to
reprezint nc o barier n calea autoritilor another state in different judicial procedures
de aplicare a legii. Astfel, de exemplu, ca o anymore, but it is about actively
consecin a suveranitii statelor i a collaborating with all the authorities of that
principiului teritorialitii legii penale, o state. [3, p.19]
autoritate judiciar din Romnia nu poate It is known that the frontiers do not
confisca nemijlocit o sum de bani aflat represent an obstacle for the criminals
ntr-un cont bancar din strinatate. anymore. Unfortunately, they still represent a
Cum pn i ntre statele membre ale barrier for the authorities of applying the
Uniunii Europene suveranitatea statelor law. Thus, for example, as a consequence of
ramne una din limitele cooperrii mpotriva the state sovereignty and of the criminal law
criminalitii, singura soluie este asistena pe territoriality principle, a judicial authority in
care statele i-o acord reciproc n Romania cannot confiscate directly a sum of
combaterea infracionalitii. [3, p.76] money placed in a bank account abroad.
Extrdarea este una din formele As, even between the member states
cooperrii judiciare internaionale n materie of the European Union, the state sovereignty
penal ce poate fi definit ca fiind o remains one of the cooperation limits against
procedur juridic internaional prin criminality, the only solution is the
intermediul creia un stat suveran (statul assistance the states mutually grant in
solicitat) accept s predea unui alt stat combating the criminality. [3, p.76]
(statul solicitant) o persoan care se afl pe Extradition is one of the forms of
teritoriul su i care este urmrit penal sau international judicial cooperation in criminal
trimis n judecat pentru o infraciune ori matterss that may be defined as an
este cutat n vederea executrii unei international juridical procedure by means of
pedepse n statul solicitant. which a sovereign state (the demanded state)
Mandatul european de arestare accepts to render to another state (the
reprezint o adevrat revoluie n ceea ce demanding state) a person placed on its
privete procedura de extrdare i predare a territory and who is criminally investigated
tuturor persoanelor care se sustrag de la or sent to the court for an offence or who is
urmrirea penal, judecat sau de la wanted in order to execute a punishment in
executarea pedepselor. the demanding state.
Mandatul european de arestare este The European arrest warrant
prima msur concret n domeniul dreptului represents a real revolution regarding the
penal care implementeaz principiul extradition procedure and the one of
recunoaterii reciproce, pe care Consiliul rendering all the persons skipping the
European o aprecia ca fiind piatra criminal investigation, the judgement or the
unghiular a cooperrii judiciare n materie punishment execution.
penal. The European arrest warrant is the
Totodat, mandatul european de first actual measure in the field of the
arestare se emite numai atunci cnd un criminal law implementing the mutual
mandat de arestare preventiv sau de acknowledgement principle that the

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executare a pedepsei nchisorii nu poate fi European Council appreciated as being the


adus la ndeplinire n ar, ntruct persoana angular stone of the judicial cooperation in
n cauz se sustrage pe teritoriul unui alt stat criminal matters.
membru al Uniunii Europene. At the same time, the European arrest
Unul dintre obiectivele declarate ale warrant is emitted only when the preventive
U.E. este aa cum se statueaz la art. 29 arrest warrant or the one of executing the
paragraful 1 din Tratatul Uniunii Europene: prison punishment cannot be accomplished
s asigure cetenilor si un nivel ridicat de in the country whereas the respective person
protecie ntr-un spaiu de libertate, securitate backs out on the territory of another member
i justiie, elabornd o aciune n comun n state of the European Union.
domeniul cooperrii poliieneti i judiciare One of the EU declared objectives, is,
n materie penal, prevenind rasismul i as it is stated at art. 29 paragraph 1 of the
xenofobia i luptnd cu aceste fenomene. European Union Treaty: providing to its
n conformitate cu prevederile celui citizens a high level of protection in a space
de-al doilea paragraf al art. 29, acest obiectiv of freedom, security and justice, by
este atins prin prevenirea criminalitii elaborating a common action in the field of
organizate, dar nu numai, i lupta mpotriva police and judicial cooperation in criminal
acestui fenomen, n principal a terorismului, matterss, preventing racism and xenophobia
traficului de fiine umane i a infraciunilor and fighting against this phenomena.
mpotriva copiilor, traficului de droguri, According to the stipulations of the
traficului de arme, corupiei i fraudei, prin second paragraph of art. 29, this objective is
urmtoarele mijloace: reached by preventing organized criminality,
cooperarea mai strns ntre forele but also by fighting against this
de poliie, autoritile vamale i celelalte phenomenon, mainly against terrorism,
autoriti competente din statele membre, traffic of human beings and offences against
deopotriv direct i prin intermediul children, drug trade, weapons traffic,
Oficiului European de Poliie (Europol); corruption and fraud, by the following
cooperarea mai strns ntre means:
autoritile judiciare i celelalte autoriti The tighter cooperation between
competente din statele membre, inclusiv police forces, custom authorities and other
Unitatea european de cooperare judiciar relevant authorities of the member states,
(Eurojust); both directly and by means of the European
apropierea, att ct este nevoie, a Police Office (Europol);
normelor de drept penal ale statelor membre. The tighter cooperation between
Aadar, primele dou mijloace avute the judicial authorities and the other
n vedere de articolul 29 din Tratatul Uniunii competent authorities of the member states,
Europene sunt intensificarea cooperrii including the European Unit of Judicial
poliieneti, vamale i judiciare n materie Cooperation (Eurojust);
penal. The closeness, as much as
Este indiscutabil c fr o cooperare necessary, of the criminal law norms of the
strns n aceste domenii, este de neconceput member states.
ndeplinirea obiectivului stabilit prin art. 2 Therefore, the first two means
din Tratatul de la Amsterdam, de a construi, considered by article 29 of the Union
menine i dezvolta un spaiu de libertate, European Treaty are the intensification of
securitate i justiie. police, custom and judicial cooperation in
De asemenea, se subliniaz c o criminal matterss.
component esenial a Pilonului III al Far and away, with no tight
Uniunii este cooperarea judiciar n materie cooperation in these fields, we cannot think

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penal, al crei temei juridic se gsete n about accomplishing the objective


articolul 31 din Tratatul Uniunii Europene. established by art. 2 of the Amsterdam
Potrivit acestui articol, aciunea n comun n Treaty, of building, keeping and developing
domeniul cooperrii judiciare n materie a space of freedom, security and justice.
penal vizeaz, ntre altele, s: Also, it is emphasized that an
a) faciliteze i accelereze cooperarea essential component of Pillar III of the Union
ntre ministerele i autoritile judiciare sau is the judicial cooperation in criminal
echivalente competente ale statelor membre, matterss, whose juridical basis is found in
inclusiv, atunci cnd este cazul, prin article 31 of the European Union Treaty.
intermediul Eurojust, n ceea ce privete According to this article, the common
procesul penal i executarea hotrrilor; action in the judicial cooperation field in
b) faciliteze extrdarea ntre statele criminal matterss refers, among others, to:
membre; d) Easing and accelerating the
c) asigure, n msura necesar cooperation between ministries and the
mbuntirii acestei cooperri, judicial or equivalent competent authorities
compatibilitatea regulilor aplicabile n statele of member states, including, where
membre; appropriate, by means of Eurojust, regarding
d) previn conflictele de competen the criminal process and the execution of
ntre statele membre; decisions;
e) adopte progresiv msuri e) Easing extradition between
instaurnd reguli minime privind elementele member states;
constitutive ale infraciunilor penale i f) Providing, as much as necessary
sanciunilor aplicabile n domeniul for the improvement of this cooperation, the
criminalitii organizate, terorismului i compatibility of rules applicable in the
traficului de droguri. member states;
Paragraful 2 al art. 31 din Tratatul d) preventing the jurisdiction
Uniunii Europene solicit Consiliului conflicts between member state;
Europei s ncurajeze cooperarea prin f) Progressively adopting measures
intermediul Eurojust, permindu-i acestuia by installing minimum rules regarding the
s contribuie la o bun coordonare ntre constitutive elements of the criminal
autoritile naionale ale statelor membre offences and of the sanctions applicable in
nsrcinate cu urmrirea penal, s i dea the field of organized criminality, terrorism
concursul la anchetele referitoare la and drug trade.
infraciuni de criminalitate transfrontalier Paragraph 2 of art. 31 of the
grav, n particular n cazurile de European Union Treaty requires to the
criminalitate organizat. De asemenea, se European Council to encourage the
ncurajeaz o cooperare strns ntre cooperation by means of Eurojust, by
Eurojust i Reeaua Judiciar European, allowing it to contribute to a good
pentru executarea comisiilor rogatorii i coordination between the national authorities
soluionarea cererilor de extrdare. of the member states charged with the
Competena teritorial este, alturi de criminal investigation, to participate to the
competena material i de competena investigations referring to the offences of
funcional, una din formele fundamentale de serious transfrontier criminality, especially in
competen, fr de care nu se poate stabili the cases of organized criminality. Also, a
competena precis a unui organ judiciar n tight cooperation between Eurojust and the
rezolvarea unei cauze penale. [4, p.59] European Judicial Network is encouraged for
Dintre formele fundamentale de executing the delegated commissions and
competen, competena teritorial se impune settling extraditions demands.

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prin deosebita sa importan, ea fiind Territorial jurisdiction is, beside the


imuabil, n sensul c organele judiciare nu material jurisdiction and the functional
pot instrumenta sau judeca o cauz penal jurisdiction, one of the basic forms of
dect dac sunt competente din punct de jurisdiction without which we cannot
vedere teritorial. establish the exact jurisdiction of a judicial
Plecnd de la aceast calificare apare organ in settling a criminal cause. [4, p.59]
ca deosebit de important cunoaterea Among the basic forms of
criteriilor n funcie de care se stabilete jurisdiction, the territorial jurisdiction is
competena teritorial i modul n care imposed by its special importance, as it is
acestea sunt aplicate. immutable, meaning that the judicial organs
n lumina reglementrilor procesual cannot conclude or judge a criminal cause
penale romne, determinarea competenei unless they are territorially competent.
teritoriale a organelor judiciare se realizeaz Starting from this qualification, it
dup dou coordonate principale art.30 seems to be especially important to know the
C.p.pen. (competena pentru infraciunile criteria depending on which territorial
svrite n ar) i art. 31 C.p.pen. jurisdiction is established and the way they
(competena pentru infraciunile svrite n are applied.
strintate). In the light of the Romanian criminal
Stabilirea competenei teritoriale, ca procedural regulations, the determination of
i criteriu de determinare a competenei the territorial jurisdiction of the judicial
teritoriale n materie penal, presupune organs is accomplished according to two
antamarea att a unor aspecte de drept penal, main coordinates art.30 of the Criminal
ct i a unor aspecte de drept procesual Procedure Code (the jurisdiction for the
penal. offences accomplished inside the country)
Astfel, din punct de vedere al and art. 31 of the Criminal Procedure Code
dreptului substanial, aprecierea locului unde (the jurisdiction for the offences
a fost svrit o infraciune se face prin accomplished abroad).
aplicarea principiului teritorialitii. The establishment of territorial
Aplicarea nsi a principiului teritorialitii jurisdiction in criminal matters, as a
n determinarea locului svririi infraciunii determining criterion of territorial
a fost caracterizat prin abordri diferite ce jurisdiction in criminal matters, supposes the
au mbrcat n doctrina dreptului penal mai opening of both certain criminal law aspects
multe forme n jurul crora s-au construit and criminal procedural law ones.
mai multe teorii teoria aciunii, a Therefore, from the substantial law
rezultatului, a ilegalitii, a preponderenei a viewpoint, the appreciation of the place
ubicuitii. where an offence has been accomplished is
n final, din punct de vedere al made by applying the territoriality principle.
dreptului procesual, analiza i definirea The application itself of the territoriality
locului svririi infraciunii se face n principle in determining the place of
conformitate cu teoria ubicuitii sau a accomplishing the offence was featured by
echivalenei, teorie dominant n prezent n different approaches having, in the criminal
doctrina penal. law doctrine, several forms based on which
Asistena judiciar cu caracter there were several theories the action
procesual se concretizeaz n efectuarea unor theory, the result one, the illegitimacy one,
acte procedurale penale internaionale the ubiquity preponderance one.
necesare soluionrii anumitor cauze penale: Finally, from the procedural law
extrdarea, predarea n baza unui mandat viewpoint, the analysis and the definition of
european de arestare, transferul de proceduri the place where the offence has been

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n materie penal, transferul persoanelor accomplished are made according to the


condamnate, comisiile rogatorii, notificarea ubiquity or equivalence theory, a theory that
actelor de procedur care se ntocmesc i se currently dominates the criminal doctrine.
depun ntr-un dosar penal etc. The procedural judicial assistance is
Prin prisma noiunii de asisten concretised in accomplishing certain
judiciar n materie penal, se constat c ea international criminal procedural documents
conine att forme de cooperare cu caracter necessary for settling certain criminal causes:
personal, ct i cu caracter informativ. extradition, rendering based on an European
Extrdarea sau executarea hotrrilor arrest warrant, transfer of procedures in
penale pronunate n strintate sunt dou criminal matters, transfer of sentenced
dintre instituiile reglementate de Legea nr. persons, delegated commissions, notifying
302/2004 privind cooperarea judiciar the procedural documents accomplished and
internaional n materie penal, aflate n laid down in a criminal file etc.
corelaie direct cu problema competenei n By means of the judicial assistance
cazul infraciunilor svrite n strintate. notion in criminal matters, it is found that it
Comisia rogatorie internaional n contains both personal and informative
materie penal este acea form de asisten cooperation forms.
judiciar internaional care const n The extradition or the execution of
mputernicirea pe care o autoritate judiciar judicial decisions pronounced abroad are two
dintr-un stat o acord unei autoriti de of the institutions regulated by Law no.
acelai fel din alt stat, mandatat s 302/2004 regarding international judicial
ndeplineasc, n locul i n numele su unele cooperation in criminal matters, placed in
activiti judiciare privitoare la un anumit direct correlation to the jurisdiction problem
proces penal. in case of the offences accomplished abroad.
Informaiile primite de la autoritile The international delegated
competente ale statelor strine n cadrul Commission in criminal matters is that form
schimbului de informaii se primesc de ctre of international judicial assistance consisting
Ministerul Justiiei, care le trimite of the delegacy a judicial authority of a state
Parchetului de pe lng nalta Curte de grants to an authority of the same kind of
Casaie i Justiie i Ministerului another state, mandated to accomplish, in its
Administraiei i Internelor, pentru a se place and name, certain judicial activities
proceda n raport cu atribuiile regarding a certain criminal process.
corespunztoare organelor judiciare romne. The information received from the
Art. 6 CEDO precizeaz c orice competent authorities of the foreign states in
persoan are dreptul la judecarea n mod frame of the information exchange is
echitabil, n mod public i ntr-un termen received by the Ministry of Justice that sends
rezonabil de ctre o instan imparial i it to the Prosecutors Office near the High
independent, instituit de lege, care va Court of Cassation and Justice and to the
hotr asupra temeiniciei oricrei acuzaii. Ministry of Administration and Intern
Respectarea dezideratelor enunate s- Affairs, in order to proceed in report to the
a transpus n plan legislativ prin introducerea attributions corresponding to the Romanian
art. 4081 C.p.pen, care prevede c hotrrile judicial organs.
pronunate n cauzele n care Curtea Art. 6 ECHU specifies that any
Europeana a Drepturilor Omului a constatat person has the right to be judged equitably,
o nclcare a unui drept prevzut de publically and in a reasonable term by an
Convenia pentru aprarea drepturilor omului impartial and independent court instituted by
i a libertilor fundamentale pot fi supuse the law, that will decide on the solidity of
revizuirii dac exist consecine grave ale any accusation.

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acestei nclcri care continu s se produc Respecting the listed desiderata was
i care nu pot fi remediate dect prin legislatively transposed by introducing art.
revizuirea hotrrii pronunate. Competena 4081 of the Criminal Procedure Code
de soluionare a cererii de revizuire revine stipulating that the decisions pronounced in
naltei Curi de Casaie i Justiie n complet the causes when the European Court of
de 9 judectori. Human Rights has found a deviation from a
Elementul principal care a stat la right stipulated by the Convention for
baza apariiei i dezvoltrii ulterioare a Protecting the Human Basic Rights and the
cooperrii internaionale i fr de care Liberties, we may submit to the review, if
aceasta nu se putea concepe, l-a constituit there are serious consequences of this
ncrederea reciproc ntr-un cadru deviation that continues to be produced and
instituional bine reglementat. that can be remediated only by reviewing the
Cooperarea judiciar internaional n pronounced decision. The jurisdiction of
materie penal reprezint doar un domeniu n settling the reviewing demand belongs to the
cadrul activitilor specifice de cooperare High Court of Cassation and Justice in all 9
ntre statele lumii, domeniu extrem de judges.
important care s-a impus cu necesitate nc The main element that was basis of
de la nceputul secolului trecut. the subsequent appearance and development
Cooperarea judiciar internaional n of international cooperation and without
materie penal nu este o noiune inventat n which it could not have been conceived,
secolul trecut,fiind cunoscut din cele mai consisted of the mutual trust in a well
vechi timpuri. Firete c la nceput regulated institutional frame.
cooperarea judiciar se rezuma la rezolvarea International judicial cooperation in
intereselor, de multe ori personale ale criminal matters represents only a field in
monarhilor n lupta acestora cu opozanii lor frame of the specific activities of cooperation
politici. [5, p.16] between the world states, an extremely
Dezvoltarea fr precedent a relaiilor important field that has been necessarily
internaionale n societatea contemporan a imposed since the beginning of the past
fost nsoit de o cretere, de asemenea fr century.
precedent, a criminalitii internaionale, prin The international judicial cooperation
proliferarea unor forme ale criminalitii in criminal matters is not a notion invented
organizate pe teritoriul mai multor state. in the past century, as it has been known
La momentul actual cooperarea since the oldest times. Naturally, at the
judiciar internaional n materie penal beginning the judicial cooperation was
reprezint o necesitate stringent asumat de resumed at settling the interests, often the
majoritatea statelor, care poate conduce la personal ones of the monarchs in their fight
obinerea unor succese importante n lupta against their political opposition. [5, p.16]
mpotriva criminalitii transfrontaliere. The development with no precedent
La nivelul Uniunii Europene s-au of the international relations in the
creat structuri specializate, att pentru contemporary society was accompanied by
prevenirea i combaterea criminalitii an increase, also with no precedent, of the
transfrontaliere, ct i pentru identificarea, international criminality, by proliferating
prinderea i tragerea la rspundere penal a certain forms of the organized criminality on
autorilor unor infraciuni care se sustrgeau the territory of several states.
cercetrilor. At present, the international judicial
Simplificarea procedurilor de cooperation in criminal matters represents a
extrdare prin introducerea mandatului necessity stringently assumed by most of the
european de arestare reprezint, un exemplu states, that may lead to the obtaining of some

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elocvent din acest punct de vedere. important successes in the fight against the
Crearea unui spaiu de libertate, cross-border criminality.
securitate i justiie, deziderat declarat i At the European Union level, they
asumat de Uniunea European, nu se poate created specialized structures both for
realiza dect n contextul perfecionrii preventing and combating the cross-border
cooperrii judiciare n materie penal ntre criminality and for identifying, catching and
statele membre. using the criminal responsibility of the
n ultimii ani, cooperarea judiciar authors of certain offences that skipped the
internaional a cunoscut noi i diversificate researches.
forme, unele legiferate prin norme juridice The simplification of extradition
interne altele prevazute n diferite tratate i procedures by introducing the European
convenii internaionale. arrest warrant represents an eloquent
Lupta contra fenomenului example from this viewpoint.
infracional necesit combaterea lui nu The creation of a space of freedom,
numai n limitele hotarelor unor ri, ci security and justice, a desideratum declared
impune msuri de colaborare i pe plan and assumed by the European Union can
internaional. Printre aceste msuri, trebuie only be accomplished in the context of
amintite n primul rnd conveniile de improving the judicial cooperation in
asisten judiciar ce se ncheie ntre criminal matters between the member states.
diversele state. De pild, ara noastr are During the recent years, the
ncheiate convenii de asisten judiciar cu international judicial cooperation has known
toate statele vecine i cu o seam de alte ri. new and diversified forms, some of them
n materia asistenei judiciare n lipsa being enacted by domestic juridical norms,
unor convenii internaionale pot cpta others being stipulated in different
eficien regulile generale ale reciprocitii, international treaties and conventions.
foarte frecvent ntlnit n domeniul relaiilor The fight against the criminal
internaionale. phenomenon needs to combat it not only in
Potrivit prevederilor Legii 302/2004, the limits of the frontiers of a country, but it
asistena judiciar internaional n materie also imposes collaboration measures at
penal cuprinde ndeosebi urmtoarele international level. Among these measures,
forme de cooperare: we should mention in the first place the
comisiile rogatorii internaionale; judicial assistance conventions that are
audierile prin videoconferine; contracted between different states. For
transmiterea spontan de example, our country has contracted judicial
informaii; assistance conventions with all the neighbour
livrrile supravegheate; states and with a lot of other countries.
anchetele sub acoperire; In the matter of judicial assistance, in
supravegerea transfrontalier; the absence of certain international
conventions, the general rules of mutuality
interceptarea i nregistrarea
may become efficient, as mutuality is very
convorbirilor i comunicrilor etc. [5, p.416]
frequently met in the international relations
Apariia cadrului legal ce
field.
reglementeaz activitatea investigatorilor sub
According to the stipulations of Law
acoperire a fost determinat de necesitile
302/2004, the international judicial
luptei mpotriva unor forme de criminalitate
assistance in criminal matters contains
atipice, ce se desfoar ntr-un mod
especially the following cooperation forms:
organizat i ermetic, astfel ncat activitatea
de probare a actelor infracionale prin international delegated
commissions;

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metodele normale devine deosebit de dificil, hearings by videoconferences;


dar nu imposibil. spontaneous transmission of
Examinnd instituia extrdrii, information;
apariia i evoluia n timp a acesteia de la supervised deliveries;
legislaiile interne i conveniile bilaterale investigations under cover;
ncheiate la sfritul secolului al XIX-lea, cross-border supervision;
continund cu Convenia european privind interception and registration of
extrdarea din 13 decembrie 1957 i cele calls and of communications etc. [5, p.416]
dou Protocoale Adiionale ale acesteia, pn The appearance of the legal frame
la formele moderne adoptate n legislaia regulating the activity of undercover
Uniunii Europene, respectiv Decizia-cadru investigators was determined by the
privind mandatul european de arestare i necessities of the fight against some atypical
procedurile de predare ntre statele membre, criminality forms that are developed in an
a demonstrat importana acesteia, rolul organized and hermetic way, so that the
determinant pe care l-a jucat n ntreaga proving activity of the criminal acts by
arhitectur a prevenirii i combaterii normal methods become extremely difficult,
criminalitii. [5, p.299] but not impossible.
Mandatul european de arestare nu By examining the extradition
trebuie confundat cu mandatul de arestare institution, its appearance and evolution in
preventiv din dreptul intern, ntruct time since the intern legislations and the
mandatul european de arestare este o decizie bilateral conventions contracted at the end of
judiciar care are ntotdeauna la baz un the 19th century, and by going on with the
mandat de arestare preventiv sau de European Convention regarding the
executare a pedepsei emis n condiiile legii th
extradition on December 13 , 1957 and its
pe plan intern. two Additional Protocols, to the modern
Cooperarea judiciar n materie forms adopted in the European Union
penal are drept scop stabilirea unui spaiu legislation, respectively the Frame-Decision
european comun de libertate, de securitate i regarding the European arrest warrant and
de justiie ce rspunde ncrederii mutuale the rendering procedures between the
ntre sistemele justiiei penale din statele member states, it has proved its importance,
membre, care se sprijin pe principiile the determinant role it has played in the
libertii i democraiei statului de drept i entire architecture of preventing and
respect drepturile fundamentale garantate de combating criminality. [5, p.299]
Convenia european pentru protecia The European arrest warrant should
drepturilor omului i libertilor not be mistaken by the preventive arrest
fundamentale. warrant in the intern law whereas the
Specialitii n domeniu consider c European arrest warrant is a judicial decision
noiunea de asisten judiciar internaional that is always based on a preventive arrest
n materie penal are n literatura juridic, warrant or a mandate of executing the
dou accepiuni: punishment, emitted in the law conditions at
n sens larg, prin asisten judiciar domestic level.
internaional se ntelege asistena oferit n The purpose of judicial cooperation
general, n cadrul luptei mpotriva in criminal matters is to establish a common
infracionalitii; n aceast accepiune sunt European space of freedom, security and
incluse: cooperarea organelor de poliie justice responding to the mutual trust
judiciar, comisiile rogatorii internaionale n between the systems of criminal justice in
materie penal, recunoterea hotrrilor the member states, being supported by the
judectoreti, extrdarea etc.

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n sens restrns, asistena judiciar principles of freedom and of democracy of


internaional se refer la asistena juridic the legal state and respecting the basic rights
cu caracter judiciar prin care se ntelege guaranteed by the European Convention for
asistena pe care organele judiciare dintr-un Protecting the Basic Human Rights and
stat o acord n cursul procesului penal Freedoms.
organelor judiciare din statul n care are loc The specialists in the field consider
activitatea judiciar i care const n that the international judicial assistance
efectuarea, predarea sau comunicarea unor notion in criminal matters has, in the
acte procedurale necesare soluionrii acelei juridical literature, two meanings:
cauze. [6, p.10] In a large sense, by international
judicial assistance, we mean the assistance
2. Colaborarea n domeniul generally offered in frame of the fight
asistenei judiciare against criminality; in this meaning, we
internaionale n materie penal include: the cooperation of the judicial police
Particularitile asistenei juridice bodies, the international delegated
internaionale n materie penal, parte commissions in criminal matters, the
integrant a asistenei internaionale n acknowledgement of judicial decisions,
domeniul juridic, decurg din nsui specificul extradition etc.
dreptului penal i al raporturilor juridice pe In a restrained sense, the international
care le disciplineaz. judicial assistance refers to the juridical
Conceput ca o totalitate a normelor ce assistance having a judicial feature by means
reglementez relaiile sociale de lupt of which we mean the assistance the judicial
mpotriva nclcrilor ce aduc atingere celor organs of a state grant during the criminal
mai importante valori sociale, dreptul penal process to the judicial organs of the state
este legat indisolubil de ordinea juridic where there is the judicial activity and
intern a fiecrui stat. consisting of accomplishing, rendering or
Raportat la aceast inciden communicating some procedural documents
teritorial, ideea de asisten i cooperare necessary for settling that cause. [6, p.10]
internaional n domeniul dreptului penal
este indiscutabil legat de interesele interne 2.Collaboration in the field of
ale fiecrui stat. the international judicial assistance in
n dreptul penal modern nu mai criminal matters
guverneaz exclusiv principiul teritorialitii
sub raportul aplicrii sale n spaiu, ci i alte The particularities of international
principii de natur s asigure activitii juridical assistance in criminal matters, an
respective o inciden i cu privire la situaii integrant part of the international assistance
extrateritoriale, ceea ce conduce n mod in the juridical field, come from the
necesar la ideea de asisten internaional. specificity of the criminal law and of the
n majoritatea cazurilor, aplicarea juridical reports it comprises.
legii penale a unui stat n vederea tragerii la Conceived as a group of the
rspundere penal a infractorilor necesit regulating the social relations of fighting
ndeplinirea pe teritoriul altui stat a unor acte against the deviations reaching the most
i msuri necesare pentru realizarea important social values, criminal law is
represiunii, ncepnd de la descoperirea indissolubly connected to the domestic
infraciunilor, identificarea i arestarea juridical order of every state.
infractorilor, percheziii, audieri de martori i Reported to this territorial incidence,
expertize, i terminnd cu solicitarea i the idea of international assistance and
acordarea extrdrii, ori cu recunoaterea cooperation in the criminal law field is

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hotrrilor penale strine. indisputably connected to the intern interests


Prin finalitatea sa, activitatea de of every state.
prevenire i combatere a fenomenului In the modern criminal law, the
infracional dobndete pe lng aspectul territoriality principle under the report of its
intern i un aspect extern; aa fiind, application in space does not govern
principiul ubicuitii represiunii capt exclusively anymore, but other principles
caracterul unui imperativ a crui eficien able to provide to the respective activity an
implic o temeinic organizare a asistenei i incidence regarding the extraterritorial
o colaborare internaional ntre state n situations, a fact necessarily leading to the
materie penal. [1, p. 14] international assistance idea.
Temeiul incriminrilor n legislaia In most of the cases, the application
fiecrui stat, scopul pentru care acestea of the criminal law of a state in order to use
intervin, relaiile pe care le ocrotesc i the criminal responsibility of the criminals
valorile sociale pe care le apr, in de needs the accomplishment, on the territory of
caracterul ornduirii fiecrui stat i dau another state, of certain documents and
expresie intereselor de clas respective. measures necessary for accomplishing the
Fiecare stat care nu ngduie altui stat repression, starting from the discovery of the
s efectueze pe teritoriul su acte privind offences, the identification and the
represiunea, dar convine ca organele sale s arrestment of the criminals, inquisitions,
ndeplineasc astfel de acte solicitate de alt witness hearings and expertises, and by
stat, i afirm astfel suveranitatea sa i i ending with the requirement and the granting
manifest n acelai timp solidaritatea cu of extradition, or by acknowledging the
celelalte state n lupta contra criminalitii. foreign criminal decisions.
[7, p. 134] By its finality, the activity of
Cel mai adesea, noiunea de asisten preventing and combating the criminal
penal internaional mbrac dou phenomenon proves, beside the internal
accepiuni: o accepiune mai restrns, aa- aspect, an external one, as well; thus, the
numita asisten juridic cu caracter judiciar repression ubiquity principle gets the feature
(in foro), prin care se nelege asistena pe of an imperative whose efficiency involves a
care organele judiciare din diferite state i-o serious organization of the assistance and an
acord n cursul procesului penal i care se international collaboration between the states
manifest n mod obinuit n efectuarea sau in criminal matters. [1, p. 14]
n trimiterea actelor procedurale devenite The basis of incriminations in the
necesare, i o accepiune mai larg, prin care legislation of every state, the purpose for
se nelege asistena oferit n general n which these interfere, the relations they
cadrul luptei mpotriva infracionalitii (in protect and the social values they defend are
et extra foro). related to the organization feature of every
Un pas foarte mare s-a fcut n state and express the respective class
combaterea fenomenului infracional pe plan interests.
internaional prin recunoaterea i Every state that does not allow
consacrarea n codurile penale ale diferitelor another state to accomplish, on its territory,
state a principiului universalitii. acts regarding the repression, but that agrees
n acelai timp, ns, pe planul for its organs to accomplish such acts
colaborrii statelor n direcia prevenirii i required by another state, affirms thus its
combaterii fenomenului infracional, s-a sovereignty and at the same time it manifests
manifestat i se manifest tot mai mult its solidarity to the other states in the fight
tendina unor nelegeri internaionale mai against criminality. [7, p. 134]
largi n acest domeniu, care s faciliteze Most often, the international criminal

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descoperirea i arestarea infractorilor, s fac assistance notion has two meanings: a more
posibil judecarea acestora de instana cea restrained meaning, the so-called juridical
mai ndreptit a o face i n cele mai bune assistance having a judicial feature (in
condiii. foro), by means of which we mean the
Prin asistena penal internaional se assistance the judicial organs of different
urmrete prevenirea fenomenului states grant to each other during the criminal
infracional sub ambele sale aspecte: att ca process and that is usually manifested by
prevenie special, ct i ca prevenie accomplishing or sending the procedural acts
general. Pentru realizarea acestui obiectiv become necessary and a larger meaning, by
complex este necesar extinderea colaborrii means of which we mean the assistance
statelor n direcia cunoaterii att a generally offered in frame of the fight
fenomenului infracional n profunzimea sa, against criminality (in et extra foro).
ct i a antecedentelor penale ale diferiilor A very big step was made in
infractori. combating the criminal phenomenon at the
Pe de alt parte, pentru desfurarea international level, by acknowledging and
n bune condiii a proceselor penale este consecrating the universality principle in the
indispensabil cunoaterea exact a faptelor, criminal codes of different states.
i deci examinarea tuturor probelor necesare. But at the same time, at the level of
nc nainte de aderare, Romnia a the state collaboration for preventing and
desemnat puncte de contact pentru Eurojust combating the criminal phenomenon, it has
(din 2002), iar n baza Acordului privind been manifested more and more the tendency
cooperarea ntre Romnia i Eurojust, semnat of certain larger international agreements in
la Bruxelles la 2 decembrie 2005, ratificat this field that should ease the discovery and
prin Legea nr. 58/2006, ncepnd cu 18 the arrestment of the criminals, that should
septembrie 2006 un procuror romn a fost make possible their judgement by the court
detaat la Haga, ca magistrat de legtur la that has the right to do it and in the best
Eurojust. conditions.
De la data aderrii, Acordul de By means of international criminal
cooperare i-a ncetat efectele, iar Romnia, assistance, we want to prevent the criminal
ca stat membru UE, i-a desemnat membrul phenomenon under both of its aspects: both
naional n Eurojust. as a special prevention and as a general one.
Eurojust nu trebuie confundat cu For accomplishing this complex objective, it
Reeaua Judiciar European (RJE / EJN), is necessary to extend the state collaboration
dei are o relaie strns cu aceasta. RJE a in the direction of knowing both the criminal
fost nfiinat printr-o Aciune Comun din phenomenon in its depth and the criminal
29 iunie 1998, tot pentru facilitarea records of different criminals.
cooperrii judiciare, ndeosebi mpotriva On the other hand, for the
formelor grave ale criminalitii, ns spre development in good conditions of the
deosebire de Eurojust aceasta este o structur criminal process, it is indispensable to know
flexibil, format din puncte de contact exactly the facts and to examine all the
desemnate de fiecare stat membru, care se necessary evidence.
ntlnesc de trei ori pe an (cte o reuniune If, before accession, Romania
organizat de preediniile semestriale ale assigned contact points for Eurojust (since
Consiliului, n ara care deine preedinia, i 2002), and based on the Agreement
o reuniune la Bruxelles, n luna februarie), regarding the cooperation between Romania
pentru a schimba opinii privind evoluiile n and Eurojust, signed in Brussels on
domeniu, iar n restul timpului, fiecare n ara December 2nd, 2005, ratified by Law no.
de origine, intermediaz contactul ntre 58/2006, starting with September 18th, 2006

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autoritile judiciare din statele membre. a Romanian prosecutor was detached at


RJE a creat ns excelente Hague, as a connection magistrate to
instrumente informatice menite a facilita Eurojust.
cooperarea judiciar ntre statele membre, Since the accession, the Cooperation
ntre care ATLAS-ul judiciar, Fiches belges, Agreement has stopped its effects and
SOLON, Compendium. Pe site-ul Reelei, Romania, as an EU member state, has
pot fi gsite astfel toate informaiile necesare assigned its national member in Eurojust.
pentru asigurarea contactului direct ntre Eurojust should not be mistaken for
autoritile judiciare din statele membre, att the European Judicial Network (EJN), even
n cazul mandatului european de arestare, ct if it is tightly connected to it. EJN was
i n cazul asistenei judiciare n materie settled by a Common Action on June 29th,
penal. 1998, also for easing judicial cooperation,
n cadrul asistenei i cooperrii especially against the serious types of
internaionale trebuie, aadar, organizate criminality, but unlike Eurojust, this is a
identificarea i arestarea infractorilor care s- flexible structure formed of contact points
au refugiat pe teritoriul altui stat i strngerea assigned by every member state, that are met
probelor care vor fi puse la dispoziia three times a year (a reunion organized by
organelor judiciare crora le revine the half-yearly presidencies of the Council,
competena de a realiza represiunea. Aceste in the country that owns the presidency, and
operaii se amplific atunci cnd mijloacele a Reunion in Brussels, in February) for
de prob pentru unele fapte se gsesc exchanging opinions regarding the evolution
dispersate pe teritoriile mai multor state. in the field, and in the rest of the time, each
Organizarea unei colaborri of them in the original country intermediates
internaionale ntre organele judiciare din the contact between the judicial authorities in
diferite state n vederea asigurrii unei bune the member states.
administrri a justiiei formeaz, obiectul But EJN has created excellent
asistenei juridice internaionale n materie computerized tools meant to ease the judicial
penal. cooperation between the member states,
including the judicial ATLAS, Fiches belges,
3. Forme de asisten juridic SOLON, Compendium. On the Network Site
internaional n materie penal we may find all the information necessary
3.1. Forme de asisten cu for providing the direct contact between the
caracter informativ judicial authorities in the member states,
Prin asisten juridic penal, n sens both in case of the European arrest warrant,
restrns, se nelege asistena pe care and in case of the judicial assistance in
organele judiciare dintr-un stat, o acord n criminal matters.
cursul procesului penal organelor judiciare In frame of international assistance
din statul n care are loc activitatea judiciar and cooperation, we should organize thus the
i care const n efectuarea, predarea sau identification and the arrest of criminals who
comunicarea de acte procedurale, necesare took refuge on the territory of another state
soluionrii acelei cauze. and the collection of the evidence that will be
Potrivit dispoziiilor art.158 din made available to the judicial organs being
Legea nr.302/2004, modificat i completat able to accomplish repression. These
prin punctul 100 din Legea 224/2006, operations are emphasized when the
asistena judiciar cuprinde: comisiile evidence means for certain acts are dispersed
rogatorii internaionale, audierile prin on the territories of several states.
videoconferin, nfiarea n statul The organization of an international
solicitant a martorilor, experilor i a collaboration between the judicial organs in

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persoanelor urmrite, notificarea actelor de different states in order to provide a good


procedur care se ntocmesc ori se depun administration of the justice forms the object
ntr-un proces penal, cazierul judiciar. of the international juridical assistance in
Asistena judiciar cuprinde, ns, i alte criminal matters.
forme de asisten, cum ar fi transmiterea
spontant de informaii. 3. Forms of international juridical
n cadrul formelor de asisten assistance in criminal matters
juridic penal consacrate, un prim grup al 3.1. Forms of informative
acestora l constituie formele care servesc la assistance
realizarea luptei mpotriva fenomenului By criminal juridical assistance, in a
infracional n general, facilitnd prin restrained sense, we mean the assistance the
transmiterea de informaii combaterea judicial organs of a state grant, during the
criminalitii, mai ales sub aspectul criminal process, to the judicial organs of the
preveniei generale. state where the judicial activity has place and
Informaiile procurate prin consisting of accomplishing, rendering or
intermediul acestor forme pot, ns, servi communicating procedural documents
deseori i la descoperirea, urmrirea i necessary for settling that cause.
soluionarea unui caz concret, la cunoaterea According to the stipulations of
antecedentelor unor infractori, identificarea art.158 of Law no. 302/2004, amended and
autorilor unor infraciuni dup: urmele completed by point 100 of Law 224/2006,
papilare, testele ADN, etc., facilitnd astfel the judicial assistance comprises:
identificarea acestora i individualizarea international delegated commissions,
pedepselor ce li se aplic. hearings by videoconference, appearance of
Se poate concluziona c aceste forme witnesses, of experts and of wanted persons
de asisten prin informare, aduc n principal in the demanding state, the notification of
un aport direct n sfera preveniei generale i procedure documents that are accomplished
un aport indirect n sfera activitii de or laid down in a criminal process, the
represiune. judicial record. But the judicial assistance
Remiterea de copii sau extrase de pe also contains other forms of assistance, such
hotrrile penale, transmiterea antecedentelor as the spontaneous transmission of
penale i schimbul de informaii n general, information.
au loc ntotdeauna n executarea unei In frame of the consecrated forms of
nelegeri anterioare (convenia bilateral, de criminal juridical assistance, their first group
exemplu). is constituted by the forms serving to the
a) n raport cu funciunea lor accomplishment of the fight against the
direct, adic nlesnirea contra fenomenului criminal phenomenon in general, by easing
infracional, procurarea de informaii the combating of criminality by transmitting
servete la inerea n eviden a persoanelor information, especially under the aspect of
socialmente periculoase, refugiate pe general prevention.
teritoriul unui stat. Un stat este interesat, s The information achieved by means
cunoasc infraciunile pe care cetenii si le- of these forms may often serve for
au svrit pe teritoriul altor state i discovering, investigating and settling a
condamnrile pronunate fa de acetia. concrete case, for knowing the records of
b) n raport cu funciunea lor certain criminals, for identifying the authors
indirect, procurarea de informaii este util of certain offences by using: the papillary
realizrii n bune condiii a justiiei penale. tracks, the DNA tests, etc., by easing thus
Toate legislaiile penale sunt de acord their identification and the individualization
cu faptul c pentru aplicarea unei pedepse of punishments that are applied to them.

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juste, trebuie s se in seama de We may conclude that these forms of


personalitatea infractorului, personalitate assistance by informing mainly bring a direct
care din punct de vedere penal poate fi contribution in the sphere of the general
cunoscut i prin antecedentele sale penale, prevention and an indirect contribution in the
prin condamnrile sale anterioare. sphere of the repression activity.
The copy remission or the ones
3.2. Forme de asisten cu extracted from the judicial decisions, the
caracter procesual transmission of the criminal records and the
Tratatul de la Amsterdam stipuleaz information exchange always occur in
c Uniunea European trebuie s menin i general in the execution of a previous
s dezvolte un spaiu de libertate, securitate agreement (for example, the bilateral
i justiie. convention).
Libertatea presupune existena unui c) In relation to their direct function,
spaiu judiciar comun, n care cetenii namely the ease against the criminal
europeni s poat s se adreseze justiiei n phenomenon, the information achievement
unul din statele membre ca i n propria ar. serves for keeping the evidence of the
n acelai timp, trebuie eliminat socially dangerous persons who took refuge
posibilitatea ca infractorii s exploateze on the territory of another state. A state is
diferenele dintre sistemele juridice ale interested in knowing the offences its
statelor, de aceea se impune ca hotrrile citizens have accomplished on the territory
judectoreti, s fie recunoscute i executate of other states and the sentences pronounced
n strintate fr formalitile prevzute, de for them.
conveniile clasice privind asistena judiciar d) In report to their indirect
internaional. function, the information achievement is
Formele de asisten cu caracter useful for accomplishing the criminal justice
procesual se caracterizeaz prin aceea c ele in good condition.
se desfoar n sfera activitii de represiune All the criminal legislations agree on
n mod concret, fiecare din aceste forme the fact that, for the application of a just
reprezentnd un mijloc de colaborare ntre punishment, we should consider the
state, n realizarea represiunii mpotriva unor criminals personality that can be criminally
infraciuni determinate. known by his criminal records, by his
Desfurarea n bune condiii a previous sentences.
procesului penal, temeinica soluionare a
cauzelor, reclam cu necesitate, n fiecare 3.2. Forms of procedural
caz, cunoaterea complet a faptelor aa cum assistance
s-au petrecut ele n realitate. The Amsterdam Treaty stipulates that
Legea nr.302/2004 privind the European Union should keep and
cooperarea judiciar internaional n materie develop a space of freedom, security and
penal, modificat i completat prin Legea justice.
nr.224/2006 i ulterior prin Legea nr. Freedom supposes the existence of a
222/2008, a precizat n mod clar formele de common judicial space where the European
cooperare ca fiind: citizens can address to justice in one of the
extrdarea; member states like in their own country.
predarea n baza unui mandat At the same time, we should remove
european de arestare; the possibility for criminals to exploit the
transferul de proceduri n materie differences between the juridical systems of
penal; the states, this is why it is imposed for
recunoaterea i executarea judicial decisions to be acknowledged and

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hotrrilor n materie penal; executed abroad without the formalities


transferarea persoanelor stipulated by the classic conventions
condamnate; regarding the international judicial
asistena judiciar n materie assistance.
penal; The forms of procedural assistance
alte forme de cooperare judiciar are featured by the fact that they are
internaional n materie penal, concretely developed in the sphere of
respectiv: repression activity, as each of these forms
i. comisiile rogatorii; represents a collaboration means between the
ii. notificarea actelor de states, in the accomplishment of the
procedur; repression against certain determined
iii. cazierul judiciar. offences.
The development in good conditions
3.3. Cooperarea organelor de of the criminal process, the serious settling
poliie judiciar of the causes necessarily claims, in each
n epoca modern, organele de poliie case, the complete knowledge of the facts as
naionale ntmpin, serioase greuti la they really happened.
declanarea proceselor penale, fiindc Law no. 302/2004 regarding the
facilitatea cu care se trec frontierele face, nu international judicial cooperation in criminal
numai ca prinderea i arestarea unor matters, amended and completed by Law no.
infractori s nu poat fi efectuat, dar i ca 224/2006 and subsequently by Law no
unele mijloace de prob s fie insuficiente. 222/2008, has clearly specified the
Lipsa unei cooperri ntre state n cooperation forms as being:
identificarea, arestarea i remiterea The extradition;
infractorilor constituie, o serioas piedic n The rendering based on a
realizarea activitii de tragere la rspundere European arrest warrant;
penal, n statul unde au fost svrite The transfer of procedures in
infraciunile. criminal matters;
Activitatea de urmrire penal, orict The acknowledgement and the
de perfecionat ar fi, dac se desfoar execution of the decisions in criminal
exclusiv pe teritoriul unui stat, lipsit fiind de matters;
participarea activ a organelor de poliie din The transfer of sentenced
diferite state, poate rmne adesea persons;
infructuoas. The judicial assistance in criminal
Ideea de cooperare a statelor n matters;
domeniul activitii de poliie judiciar, a Other forms of international
format la nceput obiectul unor preocupri judicial cooperation in criminal matters,
sporadice i izolate, concretizate n unele namely:
nelegeri cu caracter bilateral. Ulterior, delegated commissions;
interesul pentru aceast idee a cptat o notification of procedure
amploare deosebit, formnd obiectul unor acts;
studii i cercetri tot mai largi pe plan judicial records.
internaional.
n ajunul primului rzboi mondial a 3.3. Cooperation of judicial police
avut loc, n aprilie 1914, la Moscova, un organs
prim congres internaional al poliiei In the modern age, the national police
judiciare, avnd ca obiect, printre altele, organs meet serious difficulties when
problema centralizrii documentelor relative unleashing the criminal processes because

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la identificarea infractorilor, facilitile ce the facility of passing the frontiers makes the
trebuie asigurate cercetrilor internaionale i catching and the arresting of certain
procedura de extrdare. criminals not only be accomplished, but it
n 1923, la Congresul internaional de also makes certain evidence means be
poliie de la Viena, s-a constituit o comisie insufficient.
internaional de poliie criminal, ale crei The absence of cooperation between
lucrri s-au desfurat de atunci anual, pn the states in identifying, arresting and
la al II-lea rzboi mondial. remitting the criminals constitutes a serious
n activitatea acestei comisii obstacle in accomplishing the activity of
internaionale gsim originea actualei using the criminal responsibility in the state
Organizaii internaionale a poliiei where offences have been accomplished.
criminale, Interpol, care a luat fiin n 1956, The criminal pursuit activity, as
sediul su iniial fiind la Paris. improved as it is, if it is developed
Dintre principalele instituii exclusively on the territory of a state, being
implicate n cooperarea judiciar lacked by the active participation of the
internaional n materie penal, putem police organs of different states, may often
meniona: Interpolul, Europolul, Punctul remain fruitless.
Naional Focal. The idea of state cooperation in the
Interpolul field of the judicial police activity, formed, at
Organizaia Internaional de Poliie the beginning, the subject of certain sporadic
Criminal (O.I.P.C.) - INTERPOL este o and isolated concerns concretized in some
instituie interguvernamental ce asigur bilateral agreements. Subsequently, the
asistena reciproc ntre poliiile rilor interest for this idea has got a special
membre, pentru prevenirea i reprimarea importance, by being the subject of some
criminalitii de drept comun; nu intervine n larger and larger studies and researches, at
probleme cu caracter politic, militar, religios the international level.
sau rasial; respect suveranitatea i The eve of the First World War was
independena fiecrei ri; asigur schimbul in April 1914, in Moscow, a first
de informaii cu caracter poliienesc la nivel international congress of the judicial police,
internaional; identific infractorii having the subject, among others, the
internaionali mpotriva crora s-au emis problem of centralizing the documents
mandate de arestare; coordoneaz activitatea referring to the identification of the
de supraveghere i prindere a infractorilor criminals, the facilities that should be
internaionali; la cerere, solicit informaii provided to the international researches and
necesare soluionrii unor cauze penale. the extradition procedure.
Interpolul are n fiecare stat membru In 1923, at the International Police
O.I.P.C. cte un Birou Central Naional, Congress in Vienne, they formed an
format din funcionari naionali care international commission of criminal police,
acioneaz ntotdeauna n cadrul juridic oferit whose works developed yearly since, until
de legislaia rii lor. the 2nd world war.
Rolul acestor Birouri Centrale este de In the activity of this international
a surmonta obstacolele pe care le ntmpin commission, we find the origins of the
cooperarea internaional datorit diferenei current International Organization of the
de structuri ntre poliiile naionale, Criminal Police, Interpol, that was settled in
barierelor lingvistice i diferenelor de 1956, and its initial headquarters was in
sisteme juridice ale rilor membre. Paris.
n general, rolul unui Birou Central Among the main institutions
Naional const n [8, p.39]: involved in the international judicial

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centralizarea informaiilor cooperation in criminal matters, we mention:


criminale i a documentaiei, n raport direct Interpol, Europol, the Focal National Point.
cu cooperarea poliieneasc internaional, Interpol
obinute din ar i transmiterea lor celorlalte The International Organization of
B.C.N.-uri i Secretariatului General; Criminal Police (I.O.C.P.) - INTERPOL is
declanarea, pe teritoriul naional, an intergovernmental institution providing
a operaiunilor i actelor de poliie solicitate mutual assistance between the polices of the
de celelalte state membre prin intermediul member states, for preventing and repressing
Birourilor Centrale Naionale; the common law criminality; it does not
primirea cererilor de informaii, interfere in political, military, religious or
de verificri, etc., transmise de la alte racial matters; it respects the sovereignty and
B.C.N.-uri i transmiterea rspunsurilor ctre the independence of every country; it
B.C.N.-urile interesate. identifies the international criminals against
Pentru atingerea scopurilor prevzute whom they have emitted arrest warrants; it
n statut, Interpolul are la dispoziie coordinates the activity of supervising and
urmtoarele instrumente de cooperare: catching some international criminals; at the
1) Reeaua de comunicaii I-24/7, demand, it requires information necessary for
care asigur schimbul de settling some criminal causes.
mesaje poliieneti, ntre Interpol has, in every I.O.C.P, a
Birourile Centrale Naionale National Central Office, formed of national
i ntre acestea i Secretariatul workers who always act in the juridical
General Interpol. Este o reea framework offered by the legislation of their
care are ca suport fizic country.
Internetul i din aceast The role of these Central Offices is to
cauz, folosete cele mai noi surmount the obstacles met by the
tehnologii de securitate, international cooperation due to the structure
majoritatea B.C.N.-urilor difference between the national polices, the
dispunnd de servere de e- linguistic frontiers and the juridical systems
mail care se conecteaz la structures of the member states.
serverul central situat la In general, the role of a National
Secretariatul General Interpol; Central Office consists of [8, p.39]:
2) Sistemele informatice, referitoare Centralizing the criminal
la: bazele de date EASF, information and documentation, in a direct
referitoare la persoanele report to the international police cooperation,
urmrite, vehiculele urmrite, obtained in the country and their
numele i alias-urile transmission to the other N.C.O. and to the
indivizilor implicai n General Secretariat;
infraciuni n context Unleashing, on the national
internaional, infraciuni territory, the operations and the police acts
clasate dup: gen, loc de required by the other member states by
comitere i mod de operare, means of the National Central Offices;
confiscrile de droguri, Receiving information demands,
confiscrile de moned fals, checking information, etc., transmitted from
amprentele digitale ale other N.C.O. and transmitting the answers to
infractorilor internaionali, the interested N.C.O..
fotografiile infractorilor cu For reaching the purposes stipulated
moduri de operare deosebite, in the status, Interpol has the following
recidivitilor i ale cooperation tools:

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persoanelor disprute, Communication network I-24/7, providing


statistici criminale; the exchange of police messages, between
3) Notiele internaionale, grupate la the National Central Offices and between
rndul lor n 6 categorii: them and Interpol General Secretariat. It is a
prin care se solicit network that has Internet as a physical
arestarea unei persoane n vederea support and this is why it uses the newest
extrdrii; security technologies, as most of the N.C.O.
pentru obinerea de have e-mail servers that connect to the
informaii asupra unei persoane; central server placed at Interpol General
preventive; Secretariat;
privind persoanele Computerized systems, referring
disprute; to: the databases EASF, referring to the
privind cadavrele wanted persons, the wanted vehicles, the
neidentificate; name and the aliases of the individuals
prin care se semnaleaz involved in international offences, offences
descoperirile de arme sau classified according to: the type, the
dispozitivele explozive accomplishing place and the operating way,
disimulate. the drug confiscations, the fake coin
n Romnia, Biroul Naional Interpol confiscations, the digital prints of
a fost creat n anul 1973, iar n prezent se international criminals, the photos of the
asigur schimbul de date i informaii cu individuals having special operating ways,
peste 180 de state membre ale O.I.P.C. the photos of the recidivists and of the
n prezent, B.N. Interpol Romnia a disappeared persons, the criminal statistics;
identificat 5 arii cheie, pentru asigurarea unui International Notes, grouped in 6
cadru de lucru necesar i exercitarea categories:
controlului asupra activitilor criminale By means of which we
internaionale: require the arrestment of a person in order to
sigurana public i terorismul; extradite him;
traficul de carne vie i pedofilia; For obtaining information
about a person;
drogurile i crima organizat;
Preventive ones;
criminalitatea financiar i
informatic; Regarding the disappeared
persons;
urmriii internaionali.
Regarding the unidentified
Europolul dead bodies;
Ideea unui Oficiu European de Poliie By means of which we
a fost lansat pentru prima oar cu ocazia signal the arm discoveries or the
Consiliului European de la Luxemburg, din dissimulated explosive devices.
29 iunie 1991. Planul de atunci avea n In Romania, Interpol National Office
vedere, nfiinarea unui nou organism care s was created in 1973, and at present it is
ofere cadrul necesar pentru dezvoltarea provided the data and information exchange
colaborrii organelor de poliie din statele with more than 180 member states of
membre ale Uniunii Europene, pentru I.O.C.P.
prevenirea i combaterea pe plan At present, Interpol N.B. of Romania
internaional a crimei organizate, inclusiv a has identified 5 key areas for providing a
terorismului i a traficului de droguri. [9, necessary work frame and for exerting the
p.12] control on the international criminal

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Convenia prin care s-au pus bazele activities:


Europolului a fost semnat n iulie 1995 i a Public security and terrorism;
intrat n vigoare, la 01 octombrie 1998. Human being traffic and
Romnia a devenit membru Europol paedophilia;
n urma acordului semnat cu Oficiul Drugs and organized crime;
European de Poliie la 25 noiembrie 2003. Financial and computerized
Acest acord a fost ratificat prin Legea criminality;
nr.197/2004, n prezent Romnia avnd drept international wanted people.
de decizie n cadrul Europol. Europol
Domeniile de criminalitate incluse n The idea of a European Police Office
mandatul Europol (Anexa 1 din Legea was launched for the first time with the
nr.197/2004) sunt: occasion of the Luxemburg European
traficul ilegal de droguri; Council, on June 29th, 1991. The plan
infraciunile legate de substane considered then the settlement of a new
radioactive i nucleare; organism that should offer the frame
contrabanda cu imigrani; necessary for the development of the
traficul cu fiine umane; collaboration of the police organs in the
infracionalitatea cu vehicule cu member states of the European Union for
motor; internationally preventing and combating the
falsificarea de bani i mijloace de organized crime, inclusively the terrorism
plat; and the drug trade. [9, p.12]
activiti ilegale de splare a The Convention that was at the basis
banilor. of Europol was signed in July 1995 and it
Atribuiile Europol includ n was enforced on October 1st, 1998.
principal: Romania became an Europol member
strngerea, stocarea, prelucrarea after the agreement signed with the European
i analizarea informaiilor, precum i Police Office on November 25th, 2003. This
schimbul de informaii transmise n special agreement was ratified by Law no. 197/2004,
de autoritile statelor membre, sau de ri ori and at present Romania has the right to
autoriti tere; decide in frame of Europol.
coordonarea, organizarea i The criminality fields included in the
realizarea de aciuni cu caracter de Europol mandate (Annex 1 of Law no.
investigaie i operaional, derulate mpreun 197/2004) are:
cu autoritile competente, ale statelor illegal drug trade;
membre. offences related to radioactive
Pentru a se realiza o colaborare ct and nuclear substances;
mai fructuoas, Romnia i Europol au contraband with immigrants;
convenit a-i delega reciproc ofieri de human beings traffic;
legtur (art.14 i art.15 din Legea Criminality with engine vehicles;
nr.197/2004). Faking money and paying means;
Totodat, art.16 din Legea Illegal activities of money
nr.197/2004 menioneaz c Romnia, va fi washing.
rspunztoare, potrivit legislaiei sale The Europol attributions mainly
naionale, de orice prejudiciu cauzat unei include:
persoane fizice, rezultat n urma unor erori Collecting, stocking, processing
de drept sau de fapt, n informaiile and analyzing information, and also the
schimbate cu Europol. exchange of information transmitted mainly

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De asemenea, dac erorile de drept by the authorities of the member states, or by


sau de fapt s-au produs ca rezultat al unor the countries or the third authorities;
date comunicate eronat ori al nendeplinirii Coordinating, organizing and
obligaiilor asumate de ctre Europol, sau accomplishing actions having an
unul dintre statele membre ale Uniunii investigational and operational feature,
Europene ori alt parte ter, Europol va fi developed together with the competent
obligat s ramburseze, la cerere, sumele authorities of the member states.
pltite drept compensaie, numai dac In order to accomplish collaboration
informaiile au fost folosite la nclcarea as productive as possible, Romania and
acordului. Europol agreed to mutually delegate
Pentru ntrirea luptei mpotriva connection officers (art.14 and art.15 of Law
crimei organizate, Consiliul European de la no. 197/2004).
Tampere, n octombrie 1999, a decis crearea At the same time, art.16 of Law no.
unei divizii Eurojust compus din: procurori 197/2004 mentions that Romania will be
naionali, magistrai, ofieri de poliie, responsible, according to its national
detaai din fiecare stat membru. legislation, for any prejudice caused to a
Eurojust are ca sarcin facilitarea physical person, resulted after certain legal
coordonrii autoritilor judiciare naionale i or actual errors, in the information
sprijinirea investigaiilor n cazurile de crim exchanged with Europol.
organizat. [10, p.23] Also, if the legal or actual errors
La 22.06.2005, a avut loc conferina produced as a result of some data wrongly
de nchidere a Conveniei de twinning communicated or of non-accomplishing the
privind nfiinarea Europol, care a devenit obligations assumed by Europol, or if one of
operaional la 01.07.2005. the member state of the European Union or
Punctul Naional Focal another third part, Europol will be forced to
n conformitate cu prevederile reimburse, at the demand, the amounts paid
O.U.G. nr. 201/2000 privind crearea cadrului as a compensation, only if the information
instituional necesar n vederea funcionrii was used for disrespecting the agreement.
Centrului Regional al Iniiativei de For reinforcing the fight against
Cooperare n Sud-Estul Europei (S.E.C.I.) organized crime, the Tampere European
pentru combaterea infracionalitii Council, in October 1999, decided to create a
transfrontaliere, la data de 01.12.2000 s-a Eurojust division consisting of: national
nfiinat Punctul Naional Focal (P.N.F.). prosecutors, magistrates, police offices,
Obiectul de activitate al acestei detached from every member state.
structuri l reprezint asigurarea cooperrii The task of Eurojust is to ease the
operative ntre structurile abilitate cu atribuii coordination of the national judicial
pe aceast linie cu ageniile corespondente authorities and to support the investigations
din statele participante la S.E.C.I., pentru in the cases of organized crime. [10, p.23]
combaterea infracionalitii transfrontaliere, On 22.06.2005, there was the closing
respectiv: Albania, Bosnia i Heregovina, conference of the Twinning Convention
Bulgaria, Croaia, Grecia, Macedonia, regarding the Europol settlement that has
Moldova, Romnia, Turcia i Ungaria i become operational on 01.07.2005.
statele care au statutul de observatori: The Focal National Point
Austria, Belgia, Frana, Germania, Italia, According to the stipulation of
Marea Britanie, Spania i Ucraina. G.E.D. no. 201/2000 regarding the creation
n baza prevederilor acordului de of the institutional framework necessary for
cooperare dintre Romnia i Europol, la data the operating of the Regional Centre of
de 15 februarie 2004, Punctul Naional Focal Cooperation Initiative in South-Eastern

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a fost desemnat ca: unitate specializat din Europe (S.E.C.I.) for combating the
cadrul Ministerului Adminiatraiei i transfrontier criminality, on 01.12.2000 they
Internelor din Romnia, care s acioneze ca settled the Focal National Point (F.N.P).
punct naional de contact pentru Europol, The activity subject of this structure
conform standardelor Uniunii Europene, care is represented by providing the operative
va avea la baz cooperarea inter-agenii la cooperation between the structures skilled
nivelul naional i internaional. with attributions on this line with the
Principalele aciuni n cadrul correspondent agencies in the states
Punctului Naional Focal vizeaz combaterea participating to S.E.C.I., for combating the
infraciunilor legate de: traficul de carne vie, transfrontier criminality, respectively:
cele de natur financiar i cibernetic, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
traficul de droguri, terorismul, etc. Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Moldavia,
Punctul Naional Focal Romania, Turkey and Hungary and the states
primete/transmite cereri de asisten, care having the observer status: Austria, Belgium,
privesc: France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, Spain
informaii de interes operativ and Ukraine.
pentru combaterea infracionalitii; Based on the stipulations of the
completarea probatoriului n cooperation agreement between Romania
cazul infraciunilor cu caracter and, on February 15th, 2004, the Focal
transfrontalier; National Point was assigned as: a
solicitri de sprijin, n declanarea specialized in frame of the Ministry of
unor aciuni comune sau colaborri pentru Administration and Intern Affairs of
schimbul de date i informaii n cazuri cu Romania, that should act as a national
implicaii, sau care necesit efectuarea de contact point for Europol, according to the
acte procedurale pe teritoriul mai multor European Union standards that will be based
state. on the inter-agencies cooperation at the
Solicitrile de date i informaii national and international level.
adresate Punctului Naional Focal se The main actions in frame of the
realizeaz prin intermediul cererilor de Focal National Point refer to combating the
asisten, care trebuie s conin, n mod offences related to: human beings traffic, the
obligatoriu, anumite meniuni. financial and cybernetic ones, drug trade,
Cererile de asisten trebuie terrorism etc.
formulate n scris. Exist i excepii: spre The Focal National Point
exemplu, potrivit art.4 din Tratatul ntre receives/transmits assistance demands,
Romnia i Statele Unite ale Americii cu regarding:
privire la asistena judiciar n materie Operative interest information for
penal, Washington, 26 mai 1999, cererea de combating criminality;
asisten judiciar se va face n scris, n afar The completion of the evidence in
de cazul n care autoritatea central a statului case of the transfrontier offences;
solicitat accept o cerere, ntr-o alt form n The supporting requirements, in
situaii urgente. the unleashing of certain common actions or
Dac cererea nu este fcut n scris, collaborations for the data and information
ea va fi confirmat n scris n termen de 10 exchange in cases with implications or in
zile, n afar de cazul n care autoritatea cases needing the accomplishment of
central a statului solicitat convine altfel. procedural documents on the territory of
Potrivit dispoziiilor art.16 din Legea several states.
nr.302/2004 privind cooperarea judiciar The demands of data and information
internaional n materie penal, competena addressed to the Focal National Point are

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autoritilor romne pentru a formula o accomplished by means of the assistance


cerere n domeniul cooperrii judiciare, sau demands that should compulsorily contain
de a executa o asemenea cerere este stabilit certain mentions.
de dispoziiile titlurilor legii speciale (Legea The assistance demands should be
nr.222/2008), precum i de alte acte formulated in writing. There are also
normative pertinente. exceptions: for example, according to art.4 of
Potrivit art.3 din Tratatul ntre the Treaty between Romania and the United
Romnia i Statele Unite ale Americii cu States of America regarding the judicial
privire la asistena judiciar n materie assistance in criminal matters, Washington,
penal, Washington, 26 mai 1999, cererile se May 26th, 1999, the judicial assistance
formuleaz de ctre procurorul general sau demand will be made in written, except for
de ctre persoana desemnat de ctre acesta. the case when the central authority of the
Potrivit art.1 i art.2 din Legea demanded state accepts a requirement in a
nr.302/2004 privind cooperarea judiciar different form in emergent situations.
internaional n materie penal, nu se aplic If the demand is not made in writing,
modalitilor specifice de cooperare it will be confirmed in writing in 10 days,
poliieneasc internaional dac, potrivit except for the case when the central authority
legii, acestea nu se afl sub control judiciar. of the demanded state decides differently.
Per a contrario, Legea nr.302/2004 se According to the stipulations of
aplic i cooperrii poliieneti dac aceasta art.16 of Law no. 302/2004 regarding the
se desfoar sub control judiciar (n sensul international judicial cooperation in criminal
Codului de procedur penal, dup nceperea matters, the jurisdiction of the Romanian
urmririi penale). authorities of formulating a demand in the
Diferena dintre cooperarea judicial cooperation field or of executing
poliieneasc i cea judiciar rezid n such a demand is established by the
absena unei proceduri legale de remediere stipulations of the special law titles (Law no.
pentru persoana n cauz. n unele cazuri, 222/2008), and also other pertinent
ambele forme de cooperare pot fi folosite normative documents.
alternativ, n scopul obinerii unui anume According to art.3 of the Treaty
rezultat. between Romania and the United States of
Cooperarea prin autoritile America regarding the judicial assistance in
poliieneti sau judiciare nu nseamn criminal matters, Washington, May 26th,
neaprat c un anume caz este fie de 1999, the demands are formulated by the
asisten judiciar, fie de cooperare general prosecutor or by the person assigned
poliieneasc. by him.
n ceea ce privete cooperarea According to art.1 and art.2 of Law
poliienesc n cadrul Uniunii Europene, no. 302/2004 regarding the international
Acordul Schengen din 14 iunie 1985 i judicial cooperation in criminal matters, it is
Convenia de aplicare a Acordului Schengen not applied to the specific ways of
din 19 iunie 1990 reglementeaz cooperarea international police cooperation if, according
poliieneasc. to the law, they are not under judicial
Romnia a ratificat Convenia control.
European privind asistena judiciar n Per a contrario, Law no. 302/2004
materie penal prin Legea nr.236/1998, also applies to the police cooperation if it is
precum i prin primul su Protocol Adiional. developed under judicial control (in the sense
De asemenea, la data de 08 noiembrie of the Criminal Procedure Code, after the
2001, Romnia a semnat cel de-al doilea start of the criminal investigation).
Protocol Adiional al Conveniei Europene The difference between the police

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privind asistena judiciar n materie penal, cooperation and the judicial ones consists of
ratificndu-l n anul 2004, modificndu-i n the absence of a legal procedure of
acest sens i prevederile Codului de remediation for the respective person. In
Procedur Penal, prin Legea nr.281/2003. certain cases, both of the cooperation forms
Acquis-ul relevant: may be alternatively used, in order to obtain
Acquis-ul relevant n domeniul a certain result.
cooperrii judiciare n materie penal l The cooperation between police or
reprezint urmtoarele documente: [11, p.55] judicial authorities does not necessarily mean
Art. 48-53, 54-58, 67-69 ale that a certain case is either related to the
Conveniei pentru judicial assistance or to the police
implementarea Acordului cooperation.
Schengen; Regarding the police cooperation in
Convenia european privind frame of the European Union, the Schengen
asistena judiciar n materie Agreement on June 14th, 1985 and the
penal; Convention of applying the Schengen
Primul Protocol Adiional al Agreement on June 19th 1990 regulate the
Conveniei Europene privind police cooperation.
asistena judiciar penal; Romania ratified the European
Cel de-al doilea Protocol Adiional Convention regarding the judicial assistance
al Conveniei Europene privind in criminal matters by Law no. 236/1998,
asistena judiciar penal; and also by its first Additional Protocol.
Decizia Cadru nr.584/2002, Also, on November 8th, 2001,
privind Mandatul European de Romania signed the second Additional
Arestare i procedura de predare Protocol of the European Convention
ntre Statele Membre; regarding the judicial assistance in criminal
Convenia European privind matters, by ratifying it in 2004, by changing
extrdarea, Paris, 13 decembrie in this sense the stipulations of the Criminal
1957 i cele dou Protocoale Procedure Code, by Law no. 281/2003.
Adiionale, semnate la The relevant acquis:
Strasbourg, la 15 octombrie The acquis relevant in the field of the
1975, respectiv 17 martie 1978; judicial cooperation in criminal matters is
Convenia privind procedurile represented by the following documents: [11,
simplificate de extrdare ntre p.55]
statele membre U.E., din 10 Art. 48-53, 54-58, 67-69 of the
martie 1995; Convention for implementing the Schengen
Convenia de Extrdare ntre Agreement;
statele membre, din 27 The European Convention
septembrie 1996; regarding the judicial assistance in criminal
Convenia European privind matters;
transferul persoanelor The First Additional Protocol of
condamnate; the European Convention regarding the
Protocolul Adiional al Conveniei criminal judicial assistance;
Europene privind transferul The Second Additional Protocol of
persoanelor condamnate. the European Convention regarding the
Asistena judiciar poate fi solicitat criminal judicial assistance;
n baza: The Frame Decision no. 584/2002,
I. tratatelor bilaterale, n msura n regarding the European Arrest warrant and
care acestea nu au fost abrogate the rendering procedure between the

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prin tratatele multilaterale la Member States;


care Romnia i statul solicitant The European Convention
sunt parte; regarding the extradition, Paris, December
II. conveniilor multilaterale 13th, 1957 and the two Additional Protocols
adoptate la nivelul Consiliului signed in Strasbourg, on October 15th, 1975,
Europei i al Organizaiei respectively March 17th, 1978;
Naiunilor Unite, la care att The Convention regarding the
Romnia ct i statul simplified procedures of extradition between
solicitant/solicitat sunt parte, the E.U. member states, on March 10th, 1995;
care reglementeaz asistena The Extradition Convention
judiciar n materie penal sau between the member states, on September
care conin prevederi n acest 27th 1996;
sens, adoptate pentru anumite The European Convention
categorii de infraciuni: regarding the transfer of the sentenced
a) Convenia european de persons;
asisten judiciar n materie The Additional Protocol of the
penal, adoptat la Strasbourg European Convention regarding the transfer
la 20 aprilie 1959, ratificat de of the sentenced persons.
Romnia prin Legea The judicial assistance may be
nr.236/1998; required based on:
b) Protocolul adiional la Bilateral treaties, as long as they
Convenia european de have not been annulled by the multilateral
asisten judiciar n materie treaties Romania and the demanding state
penal, adoptat la Strasbourg participate to;
la 17 martie 1978, ratificat Multilateral conventions adopted
prin Legea nr.236/1998; at the level of the European Council and of
c) Al doilea Protocol la the United Nations Organization where both
Convenia european de Romania and the demanding/demanded state
asisten judiciar n materie are a party that regulates the judicial
penal, adoptat la Strasbourg, assistance in criminal matters or containing
ratificat prin Legea stipulations in this sense, adopted for certain
nr.368/2004. categories of offences:
Consiliul Europei: The European Convention of judicial
a) art.8 din Convenia european assistance in criminal matters, adopted in
pentru reprimarea terorismului, adoptat la Strasbourg on April 20th, 1959, ratified by
Strasbourg la 27 ianuarie 1977, ratificat de Romania by Law no. 236/1998;
Romnia prin Legea nr.19/1997; Protocolul The Additional Protocol of
de amendare a Conveniei europene pentru the European Convention of judicial
reprimarea terorismului, Strasbourg, assistance in criminal matters, adopted in
15.05.2003, ratificat prin Legea nr.366/2004; Strasbourg on March 17th, 1978, ratified by
b) art.8 - art.31din Convenia Law no. 236/1998;
european privind splarea, descoperirea, The Second Protocol of the
sechestrarea i confiscarea produselor European Convention of judicial assistance
infraciunii, ncheiat la Strasbourg la 8 in criminal matters, adopted in Strasbourg,
noiembrie 1990, ratificat prin Legea ratified by Law no. 368/2004.
nr.263/2002; The European Council:
c) art.26 - art.31 din Convenia d) art.8 of the European Convention
penal privind corupia, adoptat la for repressing terrorism, adopted in

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Strasbourg la 27 ianuarie 1999, ratificat prin Strasbourg on January 27th, 1977, ratified by
Legea nr.27/2002; Protocolul din 15 mai Romania by Law no. 19/1997; the Protocol
2003 la Convenia penal privind corupia a of amending the European Convention for
fost ratificat de Romnia prin Legea repressing terrorism, Strasbourg, 15.05.2003,
nr.260/2004; ratified by Law no. 366/2004;
Organizaia Naiunilor Unite: e) art.8 - art.31 of the European
a) Convenia Naiunilor Unite Convention regarding the washing, the
mpotriva criminalitii transnaionale discovery, the impounding and the
organizate, Protocolul privind prevenirea, confiscation of the offence products,
reprimarea i pedepsirea traficului de contracted in Strasbourg on November 8th,
persoane, n special al femeilor i copiilor, 1990, ratified by Law no.263/2002;
adiional la Convenia Naiunilor Unite f) art.26 - art.31 of the Criminal
mpotriva criminalitii transnaionale Convention regarding corruption, adopted in
organizate, i Protocolul mpotriva traficului Strasbourg on January 27th, 1999, ratified by
ilegal de migrani pe calea terestr, a aerului Law no. 27/2002; the Protocol on May 15th,
i pe mare, New York, 15 noiembrie 2000, 2003 of the Criminal Convention regarding
ratificate de Romnia prin Legea corruption was ratified by Romania by
nr.565/2002; means of Law no. 260/2004;
b) Convenia Naiunilor Unite The United Nations Organization:
mpotriva corupiei, New York, 31 octombrie d) The United Nations Convention
2003, ratificat prin Legea nr.365/2004; against organized transnational criminality,
c) Conveniile Naiunilor Unite n the Protocol regarding the prevention, the
domeniul terorismului. repression and the sanctioning of the persons
III. reciprocitii. traffic, especially the one of the women and
n relaia cu Statele Membre ale children, additional to the United Nations
Uniunii Europene se vor aplica Conveniile Convention against the organized
adoptate la nivelul Consiliului Europei care transnational criminality, and the Protocol
reglementeaz asistena juridic n materie against the illegal traffic of migrants on the
penal i cele adoptate n cadrul Uniunii terrestrial way, in the air and on the sea, New
Europene, precum i Deciziile Cadru, York, November 15th, 2000, ratified by
adoptate pentru anumite domenii: Romania by Law no..565/2002;
a) Convenia de asisten reciproc e) The United Nations Convention
n materie penal ntre Statele against corruption, New York, October 31st,
Membre ale Uniunii Europene, 2003, ratified by Law no. 365/2004;
adoptat la Bruxelles, la 29 mai f) The United Nations Conventions
2000 (OJ L197 din 12 iulie in the terrorism field.
2000); Mutuality relations.
b) Protocolul la Convenia de In relation with the Member States of
asisten reciproc n materie the European Union, we will apply the
penal ntre Statele Membre ale Conventions adopted at the level of the
Uniunii Europene, din 16 European Council regulating the juridical
octombrie 2001 (OJ C326 din assistance in criminal matters and the ones
21 noiembrie 2001); adopted in frame of the European Union, and
c) Convenia de aplicare a Acordului also the Frame Decisions adopted for certain
Schengen, ncheiat la 14 iunie fields:
1985, privind eliminarea The Mutual Assistance
treptat a controalelor la Convention in criminal matters between the
frontierele comune, semnat la Member States of the European Union,

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19 iunie 1990; adopted in Brussels, on May 29th, 2000 (OJ


d) Decizia Cadru din 22 iulie 2003 L197 on July 12th, 2000);
privind executarea n cadrul The Protocol of the Mutual
Uniunii Europene a mandatelor Assistance Convention in criminal matters
de indisponibilizare a between the Member States of the European
mijloacelor de prob i a Union, on November 16th, 2001 (OJ C326 on
bunurilor (OJ L196 din 2 November 21st, 2001);
august 2003); The Convention of applying the
e) Decizia cadru din 13 iunie 2002 Schengen Agreement, contracted on June
privind echipele comune de 14th, 1985, regarding the gradual removal of
anchet (OJ L162 din 20 iunie the controls at the common frontiers, signed
2002). on June 19th 1990;
The Frame Decision on July 22nd,
4. Principiile asistenei juridice 2003 regarding the execution in frame of the
internaionale n materie penal European Union of the mandates of
Asistena judiciar poate fi solicitat unavailability of the evidence means and of
(acordat) n baza unui tratat, bi sau the goods (OJ L196 on August 2nd, 2003);
multilateral, aplicabil ntre Romnia i statul The Frame Decision on June 13th,
solicitat, ori n lipsa unui astfel de 2002 regarding the common teams of
instrument, pe baz de reciprocitate. investigation (OJ L162 on June 20th, 2002).
Potrivit art.6 din Legea nr.302/2004,
n cazul n care statul romn formuleaz o 4. The principles of international
cerere de asisten judiciar, n baza juridical assistance in criminal matters
curtoaziei internaionale, asigurarea The judicial assistance may be
reciprocitii va fi dat de ctre ministrul demanded (granted) based on a bi or
justiiei, pentru fiecare caz, ori de cte ori va multilateral treaty applicable between
fi necesar, la cererea motivat a autoritii Romania and the demanded state, or in the
judiciare romne competente. absence of such an instrument, based on
Asigurarea de reciprocitate se d, n mutuality.
principiu, numai dac statul solicitant solicit According to art.6 of Law no.
o astfel de garanie, n sensul c Romnia 302/2004, if the Romanian state formulates a
poate i i exprim disponibilitatea de a demand of judicial assistance, based on the
executa o cerere similar formulat, de ctre international politesse, the providing of
Statul solicitant. mutuality will be given by the ministry of
O astfel de asigurare se solicit i n justice, for every case, anytime it is
cazul n care Romnia este stat solicitant. necessary, at the motivated demand of the
Aceasta depinde, ns, n ambele cazuri, de competent Romanian judicial authority.
practica existent n relaia dintre Romnia i The mutuality assurance is mainly
statul solicitat/solicitant. Este posibil, ca given only if the demanding state requires
executarea unei cereri s se fac i n lipsa such a guarantee, meaning that Romania may
unei astfel de asigurri atunci cnd, potrivit express its availability of executing a similar
practicii i n virtutea relaiilor bilaterale demand formulated by the Demanding State.
dintre cele dou state, exist certitudinea c Such an assurance is also demanded
cererea va fi executat. when Romania is a demanding state. But this
Potrivit art.5 din Legea nr.302/2004, depends, in both of the cases, on the practice
lipsa reciprocitii nu mpiedic s se dea existent in the relations between Romania
curs unei cereri de asisten judiciar and the demanded/demanding state. It is
internaional n materie penal, dac possible for the execution of a demand to be

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aceasta: done in the absence of such an assurance


a) se dovedete necesar datorit when, according to the practice and under the
naturii faptei sau nevoii de a bilateral relations between the two states,
lupta mpotriva anumitor forme there is still the certitude according to which
grave ale criminalitii; the demand will be executed.
b) poate contribui la mbuntirea According to art.5 of Law no.
situaiei inculpatului sau 302/2004, the absence of mutuality does not
condamnatului sau la stop us from flowing a demand of
reintegrarea sa social; international judicial assistance in criminal
c) poate servi la clarificarea situaiei matters, if it:
judiciare a unui cetean romn. Proves to be necessary for the
nature due to the fact or to the need of
4.1. Principiul non bis in idem fighting against certain serious types of
Non bis in idem este un principiu criminalities;
fundamental, cunoscut n majoritatea May contribute to the
sistemelor de drept, potrivit cruia: o improvement of the situation of the accused
persoan nu poate fi cercetat penal dect o one or of the convict or of its social
singur dat, pentru aceleai fapte. integration;
Acest principiu se regsete n May serve for clarifying the
majoritatea instrumentelor internaionale, cu juridical situation of a Romanian citizen.
precdere n art.4 din cel de-al 7-lea Protocol
la Convenia pentru aprarea drepturilor 4.1. The principle of non bis in
omului i a libertilor fundamentale din 22 idem
noiembrie 1984 i n art.14, paragraful 7 din Non bis in idem is a basic
Convenia internaional cu privire la principle, known in most of the legal
drepturile civile i politice din 19 decembrie systems, according to which: a person can be
1966. criminally researched only one time for the
Conform acestor instrumente, same acts.
principiul este obligatoriu, doar pentru statul This principle is found in most of the
n care a fost pronunat o hotrre penal (la international instruments, especially in art.4
nivel naional), ceea ce nu mpiedic alte of the 7th Protocol of the Convention for
state s nceap sau s continue procedurile protecting the human basic rights and
penale pentru aceeai fapt. liberties on November 22nd, 1984 and in
Potivit art.4, paragraful 1 din art.14, paragraph 7 of the International
Protocolul 7 la Convenia pentru aprarea Convention regarding the civil and political
drepturilor omului i a libertilor rights on December 19th, 1966.
fundamentale din 22 noiembrie 1984: According to these instruments, the
Nimeni nu poate fi urmrit sau pedepsit principle is compulsory only for the state
penal de ctre jurisdiciile aceluiai stat where they pronounced a criminal decision
pentru svrirea infraciunilor pentru care a (at the national level) that does not stop other
fost deja condamnat printr-o hotrre states to start or to continue the criminal
definitiv conform legii i procedurii penale procedures for the same act.
ale aceluiai stat. According to art.4, paragraph 1 of the
th
Situaia este diferit n cazul art.53- 7 Protocol of the Convention for protecting
57 din Convenia european privind the human basic rights and liberties on
validitatea internaional a hotrrilor November 22th, 1984: Nobody could be
represive din 28 mai 1970, Haga i art.35- followed or criminally punished by the
art.37 din Convenia european privind jurisdictions of the same state for

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transferul procedurilor penale din 15 mai accomplishing the information for which it
1972, n sensul c ambele convenii, was already convicted by a final decision
recunosc efectele transnaionale ale according to the law and the criminal
principiului, instituind ns numeroase procedure of the same state.
excepii. The situation is different in case of
La nivelul Uniunii Europene, nici o art.53-57 of the European Convention
persoan nu poate fi urmrit sau pedepsit regarding the international validity of the
penal pentru o infraciune pentru care a fost repressive decisions on May 28th , 1970,
deja achitat sau condamnat n interiorul Hague and art.35-art.37 of the European
Uniunii, printr-o hotrre definitiv, conform Convention regarding the transfer of the
legii principiul este reglementat de art.50 din criminal procedures on May 15th, 1972,
Carta drepturilor fundamentale ale Uniunii meaning that both of the conventions
Europene, de art.54-art.58 din Convenia de acknowledge the trans-national effects of the
aplicare a Acordului Schengen din 19 iunie principle, but instituting other numerous
1990, art.4 din Convenia privind protecia exceptions.
intereselor financiare ale Comunitilor At the European Union Level, no
Europene din 26 iulie 1995, (Convenia este person can be criminally investigated or
ratificat de toate Statele Membre i este n wanted for an offence that has been already
vigoare ncepnd cu octombrie 2002) art.7 absolved or sentenced inside the Union, by a
din Convenia privind lupta mpotriva definitive decision, according to the law, the
faptelor de corupie svrite de oficialii principle is regulated by art.50 of the Charter
Comunitilor Europene, sau de oficialii of the Basic Rights of the European Union,
Statelor Membre ale Uniunii Europene, art.3 of art.54-art.58 of the Convention of
i 4 din Decizia Cadru privind mandatul applying the Schengen Agreement in June
european de arestare. 19th, 1990, art.4 of the Convention regarding
O contribuie deosebit sub acest the protection of the financial interests of the
aspect este atribuit, Conveniei de aplicare a European Communities on July 26th, 1995,
Acordului Schengen. Convenia oblig la (the Convention has been ratified by all the
aplicarea principiului ntre Statele Membre la Member States and it has been valid starting
un nivel transnaional. Convenia, introduce with October 2002) art.7 of the Convention
n ordinea juridic a Statelor Membre ale regarding the fight against the corruption acts
Uniunii Europene un non bis in idem care accomplished by the officials of the Member
rezult din hotrrile de condamnare sau de States of the European Union, , art.3 and 4 of
achitare, care au fost pronunate n alte State the Frame Decision regarding the European
Membre. arrest warrant.
Principiul se aplic i n relaia cu A special contribution under this
Norvegia i Islanda (n baza Acordului de aspect is attributed, the Convention of
asociere Schengen), precum i n relaia cu applying the Schengen Agreement. The
Marea Britanie i Irlanda, n baza Deciziilor Convention forces us to apply the principle
Consiliului din 29 mai 2000 i 28 februarie between the Member States at a transnational
2002 ale Consiliului (nici Marea Britanie i Level. The Convention introduces in the
nici Irlanda nu sunt parte la Convenie, ns juridical order of the Member States of the
au solicitat aplicarea art.54 - art.58 ale European Union a non bis in idem
Conveniei, cererile acestora fiind acceptate resulting from the sentencing or absettling
de Consiliu prin deciziile sus menionate). decisions that were pronounced in other
Principiul cunoate i n acest caz trei Member States.
excepii, potrivit crora, Statul Membru The principle also applies to the
interesat poate urmri penal o persoan chiar relation with Norway and Iceland (based on

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dac ea a fost condamnat definitiv ntr-un the Schengen Association Agreement), and
alt Stat Membru. also in the relation with Great Britain and
Art.55 permite Statelor Membre Ireland, based on the Council Decisions on
formularea, la data ratificrii, de declaraii May 29th, 2000 and February 28th, 2002 of
prin care acestea i rezerv dreptul de a nu the Council (neither Great Britain, nor
aplica principiul n urmtoarele situaii: Ireland are a part of the Convention, but they
a) faptele vizate de hotrrea strin have demanded the application of art.54 -
s-au svrit n tot sau n parte pe teritoriul art.58 of the Convention, as their demands
Statului Membru; n acest caz, excepia nu se are accepted by the Council by the decisions
aplic dac faptele s-au svrit n parte pe mentioned above). The principle knows in
teritoriul statului membru unde s-a pronunat this case three exceptions according to which
hotrrea; the interested Member State may criminally
b) faptele vizate de hotrrea strin pursuit a person even if he was permanently
constituie o infraciune contra siguranei sentenced in another Member State.
statului sau mpotriva altor interese eseniale Art.55 allows the Member States to
ale Statului Membru; formulate, at the ratification date,
c) faptele vizate de hotrrea strin declarations by means of which they reserve
au fost svrite de un funcionar al Statului the right not to apply the principle in the
Membru prin nclcarea obligaiilor sale de following situations:
serviciu; d) The facts mentioned by the
Dintre Statele Membre, au fcut foreign decision were totally or partially
declaraii pentru lit.a): Austria, Danemarca, accomplished on the territory of the Member
Finlanda, Suedia, Marea Britanie, iar pentru State; in this case, the exception does not
lit. b): Austria, Danemarca, Grecia, Finlanda. apply if the facts were partially accomplished
Nici un Stat Membru nu a fcut declaraie on the territory of the member state where
pentru lit. c). the decision was pronounced;
Sub aspectul asistenei judiciare, e) The facts mentioned by the
principiul non bis in idem ridic ntrebarea foreign decision constitute an offence against
dac, n cazul n care autoritilor romne sau the state security or against other essential
strine (n funcie de poziia pe care o au) li interests of the Member State;
se solicit asistena ntr-o cauz, n care f) The facts mentioned by the
acestea au pronunat deja o hotrre foreign decision were accomplished by a
definitiv sau efectueaz cercetri. worker of the Member State by disrespecting
Rspunsul este diferit n funcie de his job obligations;
situaiile care pot aprea: persoana a fost Among the Member States, the ones
achitat, dac a executat deja pedeapsa, dac who declared for letter a were a): Austria,
cercetarea penal este n curs, dac asistena Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Great Britain,
este solicitat pentru cercetarea and for letter b): Austria, Denmark, Greece,
participanilor la svrirea infraciunii, ori Finland. No Member State made declared
pentru revizuirea hotrrii definitive. La fel, anything for letter c).
n cazul infraciunilor de trafic de droguri, Under the aspect of judicial
sau a altor infraciuni care cunosc mai multe assistance, the principle of non bis in idem
modaliti normative, asistena judiciar raises the question if, in case the Romanian
poate fi sau nu acordat. or foreign authorities (depending on the
Bulgaria, spre exemplu, potrivit position they have) are demanded for
declaraiei sale, la art.2 din Convenia assistance in a cause, where they have
european de asisten judiciar n materie already pronounced a permanent decision or
penal i-a rezervat dreptul s refuze they have already accomplished researches.

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asistena dac, cu privire la aceeai persoan The response is different depending


i pentru aceleai fapte, exist o procedur on the situations that may appear: the person
penal n curs, sau s-a pronunat o hotrre was absolved, if he has already executed the
penal definitiv ori dac s-a dispus ncetarea sanction, if the criminal research is
urmririi penale sau achitarea persoanei n developing, if the assistance is demanded for
cauz. the investigation of the participants to the
La fel, Cipru i-a rezervat dreptul s offence accomplishment, or for the review of
refuze asistena dac persoana care este the permanent decision. Also, in case of the
subiectul cererii de asisten, a fost drug trade offences or of other offences that
condamnat de ctre autoritile cipriote do not know several normative ways, the
pentru o infraciune, care rezult dintr-o judicial assistance may or may not be
activitate infracional, aceeai cu cea care a granted.
condus la cercetarea persoanei n statul Bulgaria, for example, according to
soicitant. its declaration, at art.2 of the European
Conform art.10 din Legea Convention of judicial assistance in criminal
nr.302/2004, cooperarea judiciar matters reserved the right to refuse the
internaional nu este admisibil dac n assistance if, regarding the same person and
Romnia, sau n orice alt stat, s-a desfurat for the same facts, there was a developing
un proces penal pentru aceeai fapt i dac: criminal procedure or it was pronounced a
a) printr-o hotrre definitiv s-a permanent criminal decision or if they
dispus achitarea sau ncetarea procesului disposed the stopping of the criminal
penal; investigation or the absettling of the
b) pedeapsa aplicat n cauz, printr- respective person.
o hotrre definitiv de condamnare, a fost Also, Cyprus reserved the right to
executat sau a format obiectul unei graieri refuse the assistance if the person who is the
sau amnistii, n totalitatea ei ori asupra prii subject of the assistance demand was
neexecutate. sentenced by the Cypriot authorities for an
Potrivit art. 1141 din Legea offence resulting from a criminal activity, the
nr.302/2004, persoana n privina creia s-a same as the one the led to the investigation
pronunat o hotrre definitiv pe teritoriul of the person in the demanding state.
unui stat membru al spaiului Schengen nu According to art.10 of Law no.
poate fi urmrit sau judecat pentru aceleai 302/2004, the judicial cooperation is not
fapte dac, n caz de condamnare, hotrrea a admissible if in Romania, or in any other
fost executat, este n curs de executare sau state, there was a criminal process for the
nu mai poate fi executat potrivit legii same fact if:
statului care a pronunat condamnarea. c) A permanent decision disposed
Dispoziiile prevzute mai sus nu se the absettling or the stopping of the criminal
aplic dac: process;
a) faptele vizate de hotrrea strin d) The sanction applied in cause, by
s-au svrit n tot sau n parte pe teritoriul a permanent sentencing decision, was
Romniei. n acest caz, excepia nu se aplic executed or formed the object of a pardon or
dac faptele s-au svrit n parte pe of an amnesty, in its totality or on the non-
teritoriul statului membru unde s-a pronunat executed part.
hotrrea; According to art. 1141 of Law no.
b) faptele vizate de hotrrea strin 302/2004, the person for which it was
constituie o infraciune contra siguranei pronounced a permanent decision on the
statului sau mpotriva altor interese eseniale territory of a member state of the Schengen
ale Romniei; space cannot be wanted or judged for the

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c) faptele vizate de hotrrea strin same facts if, in case of sentencing, the
au fost svrite de un funcionar romn prin decision was executed, it is executing or it
nclcarea obligaiilor sale de serviciu. cannot be executed anymore according to the
Excepiile amintite nu se aplic law of the state that pronounced the
atunci cnd, pentru aceleai fapte, statul sentencing.
membru interesat a cerut preluarea urmririi The stipulations stipulated above are
penale sau a acordat extrdarea persoanei n not applied if:
cauz. a) The facts mentioned by the
foreign decision were totally or partially
4.2. Principiul dublei incriminri accomplished on Romanias territory. In this
n principiu, asistena juridic poate fi case, the exception only applied if the facts
acordat n cea mai larg manier posibil, were partially accomplished on the territory
chiar dac faptele descrise n cererea de of a member state where the decision was not
asisten nu sunt sancionate n Romnia. pronounced;
Totui, art.163 din Legea b) The fact mentioned by the foreign
nr.302/2004, completat i modificat prin decision constitutes an offence against the
Legea nr.222/2008, prevede ca n cazul state security or against other essential
cererilor avnd ca obiect percheziiile, interests of Romania;
ridicarea de obiecte i nscrisuri i sechestrul, c) The facts related to the foreign
acordarea asistenei s fie supus decision were accomplished by a Romanian
urmtoarelor condiii: worker by disrespecting his job obligations.
a) infraciunea care motiveaz The mentioned exceptions are not
comisia rogatorie trebuie s fie applied when, for the same facts, the
susceptibil de a da loc la interested member state asked for the taking
extrdare n Romnia, ca stat over of the criminal pursuit or it granted the
solicitat, prin urmare trebuie s extradition of the respective person.
existe dubla incriminare;
b) ndeplinirea comisiei rogatorii 4.2.The principle of double
trebuie s fie compatibil cu legea incrimination
statului romn. Mainly, the juridical assistance may
Dubla incriminare nu nseamn c be granted in the largest possible manner,
Romnia i statul solicitant, trebuie s aib even if the facts described in the assistance
prevederi penale identice sau ca obiectul demand are not sanctioned in Romania.
infraciunii s fie acelai (aceleai bunuri sau Still, art.163 of Law no. 302/2004,
valori), fiind suficient ca faptele descrise n completed and amended by Law no.
cererea de asisten s intre sub incidena (s 222/2008, stipulates that, as in case of the
corespund) uneia din prevederile legii demands, having as an object the
romne. Sub aspectul aplicrii legii penale n inquisitions, raising objects and registrations,
timp, are relevan data la care se dispune granting the assistance for being supposed in
una din msurile solicitate. the following conditions:
Dispoziiile art.163 nu se aplic n ) The offence motivating the
relaia cu statele parte la Convenia de delegated commission should be susceptible
aplicare a Acordului Schengen, din 19 iunie to make place for extradition is Romania, as
1990. n relaia cu aceste state, pentru a demanded state, the next one should be
executarea cererilor de comisii rogatorii about the double incrimination;
avnd ca obiect percheziii sau sechestre, pot ) The accomplishment of the
fi impuse, totui, urmtoarele condiii: delegated commission should be compatible
a) legislaia romn i cea a statului with the Romanian state law.

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solicitat/solicitant, s prevad pentru fapta The double incrimination does not


care a determinat cererea de comisie mean that Romania and the demanding state
rogatorie, o pedeaps privativ de libertate, should have identical criminal stipulations or
sau o msur de siguran cu caracter that the offence object should be the same
restrictiv de libertate, al crei maxim este de (the same goods or values), as it is enough
cel puin 6 luni, sau legislaia unuia dintre for the facts described in the assistance
state s prevad o sanciune echivalent, iar demand to enter the incidence (to
n legislaia celuilalt stat, fapta s fie correspond) of one of the stipulations of the
pedepsit ca fiind o nclcare a normelor Romanian law. Under the aspect of applying
juridice, constatat de autoritile the criminal law in time, it is relevant the
administrative a cror decizie poate fi atacat date when one of the required measures is
cu recurs, n faa unei instane competente, disposed.
inclusiv a unei instane penale; The stipulations of art.163 are not
b) efectuarea comisiei rogatorii s applied in the relation with the states
fie compatibil cu legea romn. participating to the Convention of applying
Pericolul tot mai accentuat determinat the Schengen Agreement, on June 19th, 1990.
de creterea criminalitii transfrontaliere, In relation with these states, for executing the
necesitatea prevenirii i combaterii cu mai delegated commissions demands, having as
mult eficien ntr-un cadru organizat la an object inquisitions or sequestrations, we
nivel mondial, a determinat adoptarea unor may although impose the following
instrumente internaionale, zonale, regionale conditions:
care s unifice eforturile statelor lumii. c) The Romanian legislation and the
Asistena judiciar poate fi solicitat one of the demanded/demanding state should
n urmtoarele cazuri: foresee for the fact that determined the
n vederea predrii autoritilor delegated commission demand, a sanction
competente dintr-un stat care le solicit a depriving from liberty whose maximum is at
obiectelor care au fost furate sau obinute least 6 months, or the legislation of one of
prin mijloace criminale i care au fost gsite the states should stipulate an equivalent
ntr-un alt stat membru; sanction, and in the legislation of the other
pentru transferarea temporar pe state the fact should be punished as a
teritoriul unui stat membru n care este disrespect of a juridical norms found by the
condus ancheta a unei persoane deinute pe administrative authorities whose decision
teritoriul unui alt stat membru; may be attacked with an appeal court;
pentru audierile prin d) The accomplishment of the
videoconferin; delegated commission should be compatible
pentru audierile prin of the Romanian law.
teleconferin; The bigger and bigger determined by
pentru a permite predri the transfrontier criminality increase, the
supravegheate pe teritoriul unui stat membru need to prevent and combat, more efficiently
n cadrul unor anchete penale cu privire la The judicial assistance may be
infraciuni susceptibile s genereze o required in the following cases:
extrdare. Aceste predri trebuie s fie In order to render to the
conduse i urmrite de autoritile competent authorities in a village that require
competente ale statului membru solicitat; the objectives that were stolen or obtained by
dou state membre sau mai multe criminal means and that were found in
ale Uniunii Europene pot forma o echip another member state;
comun de anchet cu un scop specific i For the temporary transfer on the
territory of a member state where it is led the

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pentru o perioad limitat de timp; investigation of a person arrested on another


anchete discrete pot, de member state;
asemenea, fi conduse de ageni ai unui stat For the hearings by
membru (sau de ageni naionali) care videoconference;
acioneaz n secret sau sub acoperire, cu For the hearings by
condiia ca legile i procedurile naionale din teleconference;
statele membre n care are loc ancheta s fie For allowing the supervised
respectate; rendering on a territory of a member state in
pentru a permite autoritilor frame of certain criminal investigations
competente ale unui stat membru s solicite regarding the offences susceptible to general
unui alt stat membru interceptarea an extradition. These renderings should be
telecomunicaiilor. Comunicaiile pot fi fie conducted and competent authorities of the
interceptate i transmise direct autoritilor demanded member state;
competente ale statului solicitant, fie Two or several member states of
nregistrate n vederea transmiterii lor the European Union may form a common
ulterioare. Aceste cereri trebuie s fie n investigation team with a specific purpose
conformitate cu legile i procedurile and for a limited lapse of time;
naionale ale statelor membre implicate. Discrete investigations may also
Asistena judiciar n materie penal be led by the agents of a member state (or by
este un principiu al cooperrii judiciare national agents) acting secretly or under
internaionale. Asistena judiciar se cover, if the national laws and procedures of
utilizeaz atunci cnd un stat este incapabil the member states where the investigation
s demareze o anchet sau o procedur has place deserve to have place;
singur i are nevoie de ajutorul unui alt stat For allowing the competent
n acest sens, de exemplu, pentru audierea authorities of a member state to require to
martorilor sau pentru supravegherea another member state the intercepting and
persoanelor aflate n deplasare n afara directly transmitted to another member state
teritoriului statului solicitant. the interception of the telecommunications.
The communications may be either
Bibliografie: intercepted and directly transmitted to the
[1] Stnoiu Rodica, Asistena competent authorities of the demanding
juridic internaional n materie penal, state, or registered one in order to
Editura Academiei, Bucureti, 1975; subsequently transmit them. These demands
[2] Ferenc Miklos, Cooperarea should be according to the national laws and
internaional penal, Editura Alma, Cluj- procedures of the involved member states.
Napoca, 1966; The judicial assistance in criminal
[3] Radu Florin Rzvan, matters is a principle of the international
Cooperarea judiciar internaional n cooperation principle. The judicial assistance
materie european i penal, Editura is used when a state in unable to start an
Wolters Kluwer, Bucureti, 2009; investigation or a procedure by itself and it
[4] Micu Bogdan, Competena needs the help of a certain state in this sense,
teritorial n materie penal, Editura for example, for hearing the witness or for
Wolters Kluwer, Bucureti, 2009; supervising the persons placed in
[5] Boroi Alexandru, Rusu Ion, displacement outside the territory of the
Cooperarea judiciar internaional n demanding state.
materie penal, Editura C.H.Beck,
Bucureti, 2008;
[6] Mrejeru Theodor, Mrejeru

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Bogdan, Cooperarea judiciar Bibliography:


internaional n materie penal. Asistena [1] Stnoiu Rodica, International
judiciar-Extrdarea. Doctrin i Juridical Assistance in Criminal matters,
jurispruden, Editura Universitar, Academy Press, Bucharest, 1975;
Bucureti, 2008; [2] Ferenc Miklos, Criminal
[7] Pop Teodor, Drept penal International Cooperation, Alma Press,
comparat. Partea general, Tipografia Cluj-Napoca, 1966;
Naional, Cluj, 1923; [3] Radu Florin Rzvan,
[8] Bresler Frederic, Interpolul, International Judicial Cooperation in
Editura Mandarin, Londra, 1993; European and Criminal matters, Wolters
[9] www.europol.eu.int; Kluwer Press, Bucharest, 2009;
[10] www.europeana.ro; [4] Micu Bogdan, Territorial
[11] Planul de Aciune Schengen, Jurisdiction in Criminal matters, Wolters
Editura Ministerului Administraiei i Kluwer Press, Bucharest, 2009;
Internelor, Bucureti, 2004.Ascultai [5] Boroi Alexandru, Rusu Ion,
Citii fonetic International Judicial Cooperation in
Criminal matters, C.H.Beck Press,
Dicionar - Afiai Bucharest, 2008;
[6] Mrejeru Theodor, Mrejeru
dicionarul detaliat Bogdan, International Judicial Cooperation
Traducei n peste 50 de in Criminal matters. Judicial Assistance
Extradition, Doctrine and Jurisprudence,
limbi
Universitar Press, Bucharest, 2008;
[7] Pop Teodor, Compared
! Criminal Law. General Part, National
rouge Typography, Cluj, 1923;
[8] Bresler Frederic, Interpol,
Es ist sehr Mandarin Press, London, 1993;
interessant! [9] www.europol.eu.int;
[10] www.europeana.ro;
s t [11] Schengen Action Plan, Ministry
hoje est ensolarado of Administration and Internal Affairs Press,
Bucharest, 2004.AscultaiCitii
fonetic

Hjelp! Dicionar - Afiai dicionarul


detaliat
Je ne sais pas !
Traducei n peste 50 de limbi
Wie bitte?
!

dti rouge
Es ist sehr
Wie heien Sie? interessant!
Buongiorno s t
Principessa!
hoje est ensolarado

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hello Hjelp!
miracoloso Je ne sais pas !
Wie bitte?

Vr s snill
dti

Wie heien Sie?
Buongiorno Principessa!


Langweilig hello
Wie gehts? miracoloso
mijn vriend
Wie spt ist es? Vr s snill

.
Pardon ??

Langweilig
Wie gehts?

mijn vriend
haydi gidelim
Wie spt ist es?
escargots
Je parle un petit .
peu franais. Pardon ??
La voiture

Utilizai Google Traducere
n mai multe feluri haydi gidelim
escargots
Je parle un petit peu
franais.
La voiture

Utilizai Google Traducere n


mai multe feluri

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