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Expt No 9

Date :

AIR PERMEABILITY

AIM:

To determine the specific surface area of a given sub sieve size particle sample.

APPARATUS:

Air Permeability set up, sample material, balance with weights, measuring jar, beaker

and stopwatch.

THEORY:

Specific surface area is defined as the surface area per unit mass of the sample. This is a

characteristic of the size of the material. Surface area can be obtained from the resistance

offered to the flow of fluid through a bed of the given sample. The modified form of

Kozeny - Karman equation for finding the specific surface area is as a given b

0.5

3p

SW = -------------------------

5 (1-) 2 2 u L

s o

Where,

Sw = specific surface area, m2/kg

= porosity of bed

= (Volume of voids/volume of bed)

= (1/b 1/s) / (1/b)

b = Density of bed = Mass of the sample / Volume of the bed

= Viscosity of fluid ( air), N s/m2

s = Density of sample, kg/m3

uo = Superficial velocity of fluid ( air ) flowing, m/s

L = Height of bed, m

p = Pressure drop for the flow of fluid, N/m2

CHE1022: Mechanical Operation Lab

= Rm g

Rm = Difference in manometer reading, m

g = Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2

m = Density of manometer fluid, kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

Weight 10 g of sample (calcium carbonate powder) and place in the sample holder of the

air permeability apparatus. Note the height of the bed with the help of the plunger

provided. Remove the plunger and give the manometer connections. Fill with water in

the drum below the sample holder and conduct experiments by collecting water at the

bottom of the drum for different flow rates of water (5 flow rates). Record the

corresponding manometer readings, volume of water collected, and time taken for

collection every time. Tabulate the readings. Replace the collected water before next

time to maintain the water level in the drum constant. Repeat the above procedure to

carry out the experiment with 15g sample.

OBSERVATIONS:

Sample material =

Diameter of bed, d = m

Density of sample solid, s = kg/m3

Density of manometric fluid, m = kg/m3

Viscosity of flowing fluid, air = N.s/m3

Density of flowing fluid = kg/m3

For 10g:

For 15g:

CHE1022: Mechanical Operation Lab

CALCULATIONS:

b. Volume of bed, V = AxL m3

c. Density of bed, b = m/v = m/(AxL) kg/m3

d. Porosity of bed = (1/b 1/s) / 1b =

e. Rm = h2 - h1 = m

f. P = Rm g m = N/m2

g. uo = V / (At) = m/s

Where,

uo =Superficial velocity m/s

V =Volume of water collected m3

t = time of collection s

OBSERVATION TABLE

For 10 g sample

Rm uo

Sl.no Reading water collection

m m/s

h1 cm h2 cm collected m3 Sec N/m2 m2/kg

CHE1022: Mechanical Operation Lab

For 15 g sample

Reading Rm uo

Sl.no water collection

m m/s

h1 cm h2 cm collected m3 Sec N/m2 m2/kg

RESULT:

The average specific surface area of the sample 10g and 15g is found to

be m2/kg and m2/ kg respectively

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