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PSYCHOMETRIC

THEORIES

By-Yashpal Singh
By-Yash
MBA 3rd Sem.

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Personality
Theories
Psychodynamic Theories
Ø Sigmund Freud’s Theory
Ø Alfred Adler’s Theory
Ø Erik Erikson Theory
Ø Carl Jung Theory
Ø Transactional Analysis

Psychometric Theories
Ø Charles Spearman Theory
Ø Thurstone Theory
Ø Joy P. Guilford Theory
Ø Eysenck’s Gigantic Three Theory
Ø R.B. Cattell Theory
Ø Big Five Theory

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PSYCHOMETRIC THEORIES-

These theories are based on the measurement of


psychological properties. These theories view
intelligence as a map of the mind. The idea of
understanding intelligence as a map of mind dates back
to at least the 1800s, when Phrenology was in fashion.

Such theories are tested by the measurement of


individual differences in people’s psychological
functioning.

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Types of Psychometric Theories-

Charles Spearman Theory-


This theory was proposed by a British psychologist,
Charles Spearman.

According to the theory-


Intelligence could be understood in terms of two kinds
of underlying mental dimensions or factors.

1. G Factor:-The first kind of factor is a single general


factor, which he labeled G. G is a hypothetical construct
thought to influence performance on all mental tests.

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2. S Factor:- The second kind is specific factors, each of
which he labeled an S. These S factors are thought to
be involved in performance on only a single type of
mental-ability test.
Thurstone Theory-
Louis Thurstone, an American, disagreed with
Spearman. Thurstone suggested that the core of
intelligence resides not in one factor, but rather in seven
primary mental abilities. These are verbal
comprehension, verbal fluency, inductive reasoning,
spatial visualization, memory and perceptual speed.

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oy P. Guilford Theory-
oy P. Guilford proposed as many as 150 factors,
In the SOI (structure-of-intellect) model, intelligence is
understood in terms of a cube that represents the
intersection of three distinct dimensions:
Operations, contents and Products.

Eysenck’s Gigantic Three Theory-


This theory posits that there are three major
dimensions according to which every individual can be
classified as:
Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism.

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R.B. Cattell Theory-
Raymond B. Cattell developed his 16PF in the 1940s.
These 16PF are major dimensions of personality.
Cattell’s personality model derived from an exhaustive
and systematic analysis of the English language and
was based on the assumption that every aspect of an
individual’s personality can be described by existing
words. This assumption is known as the lexical
hypothesis.

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N Factor
o.
1. Factor A Warmth
(Reserved versus
Warm)
2. Factor B Reasoning
(Concrete versus
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Big Five Model-
This model has been provided by psychologist and
psychometrics expert Paul Sinclair.
The Big Five “super traits” have been researched and
validated by many different psychologists and are at the
core of many other personality questionnaires.

According to the Five Factor taxonomy, there are five


major personality traits-
Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience,
Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.

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1.Neuroticism- It is described as the tendency to
experience negative emotions, anxiety, depression and
anger.
2.Extraversion- It refers to high activity, the experience
of positive emotions, impulsiveness, assertiveness and a
tendency towards social behavior.
3.Openness to Experience- It represents the tendency
to engage in intellectual activities and experience new
sensations and ideas. This factor is also referred to as
Creativity, Intellect and Culture.
People high on Openness to Experience tend to be
dreamy, imaginative, inventive and non-conservative in
their thoughts and opinions. e.g. Poets & Artists.

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4.Agreeableness- It refers to friendly, considerate and
modest behavior. Thus it is associated with a tendency
towards friendliness and nurturance and comprises the
primary facets of trust, straightforwardness, compliance
and tender-mindedness.
5.Conscientiousness- It is associated with pro-activity,
responsibility and self-discipline. This factor includes the
primary facets of competence, order, dutifulness,
achievement-striving and deliberation.

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Criticism of Five Factor Model-
This model has been criticized for its lack of
theoretical explanations for the development and nature
of the processes underlying some of its personality
factors, in particular Openness, agreeableness and
Conscientiousness.

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