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2, FEBRUARY 2010

A Wide-Input–Wide-Output (WIWO)
DC–DC Converter
Hao Cheng, Keyue Ma Smedley, Fellow, IEEE, and Alexander Abramovitz, Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents a new wide-input–wide-output quently, buck converter losses mount at low duty cycle, whereas
dc–dc converter, which is an integration of buck and boost convert- boost converter efficiency deteriorates when the duty cycle tends
ers via a tapped inductor. Coherent transition between step-down to unity. Accordingly, voltage conversion range of the buck con-
and step-up modes is achieved by a proper control scheme. This
paper presents theoretical concepts and experimental results. verter below 0.1–0.15 becomes impractical whereas that of the
boost converters’ is limited to below 8–10. Additional prob-
Index Terms—Boost, buck, coupled inductors, energy recovering lems associated with narrow duty cycle are caused by MOS-
snubber, wide step-down, wide step-up, wide-input–wide-output
(WIWO) dc–dc converter. FET drivers rise and fall times as well as pulsewidth-modulated
(PWM) controllers that have maximum pulsewidth limitations.
I. INTRODUCTION These problems become even more severe at higher voltages
HE BUCK, boost, buck–boost, and Cúk converters are the and higher frequencies.
T four basic dc–dc nonisolating converters that have found
wide applications in industry. The buck converter can step down
Introducing a transformer helps attaining large step-up or
step-down voltage conversion ratio. Transformers’ turn ratio
the dc voltage, whereas the boost converter is capable to per- should be chosen as to provide the desired voltage gain while
form a step-up function. In applications where both step-up keeping the duty cycle within a reasonable range for higher
and step-down conversion ratios are required, the buck–boost efficiency. The transformer, however, brings in a whole new
and Cúk converters can be used. Simplicity and robustness are set of problems associated with the magnetizing and leakage
among the advantages of the buck–boost converter. However, inductances, which cause voltage spikes and ringing, increased
the pulsating input and output currents cause high conduction core and cooper losses as well as increased volume and cost.
losses, and thus, impair the efficiency of buck–boost. Further- In a quest for converters with wide conversion range, quite a
more, the buck–boost converter uses the inductor to store the few authors proposed using converters with nonlinear charac-
energy from the input source, and then, release the stored energy teristics. Single-transistor converter topologies, with quadratic
to the output. For this reason, the magnetic components of buck– conversion ratios, were proposed in [1] and demonstrated
boost are subjected to a significant stress. These disadvantages large step-down conversion ratio. This method has successfully
limit the applications of the buck–boost converter mainly to low achieved wide conversion range in the step done direction. A
power level. The isolated version of buck–boost, referred to as different approach to obtain wide conversion range utilizing
the flyback converter, can achieve greater step-up or step-down coupled inductors was proposed in [2]. With only minor modi-
conversion ratio utilizing a transformer, possibly, with multiple fication of the tapped-inductor buck, [2] shows low component
outputs. As compared with the buck–boost converter, the Cúk count and solves the gate-drive problem by exchanging the po-
converter has higher efficiency and smaller ripples in input and sition of the second winding and the top switch. The problem
output currents. A significant improvement of the Cúk converter of a high turn-OFF voltage spike on the top switch was solved
performance can be achieved by applying the zero ripple con- by applying a lossless clamp circuit. Due to the coupled induc-
cept. The Cúk converter can be found in many high-performance tor action, the converter demonstrated high step-down dc–dc
power applications. conversion ratio, whereas the converter’s efficiency was im-
In theory buck and boost converters can generate almost any proved by the extended duty cycle. A tapped-inductor buck
voltage, in practice, the output voltage range is limited by com- with soft switching was introduced in [3]. Derivations of the
ponent stresses that increase at the extreme duty cycle. Conse- tapped-inductor buck were also suggested in [4] and [5]. An-
other modification of the tapped-buck converter was realized
in [6] for power factor correction (PFC) application. With the
Manuscript received November 7, 2008; revised January 20, 2009. Current
version published February 12, 2010. Recommended for publication by addition of a line-frequency-commutated switch and a diode,
Associate Editor J. Antenor. both flyback and buck characteristics were achieved and large
H. Cheng is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer step-down was demonstrated.
Science (EECS), University of California, Irvine (UCI), Irvine, CA 92617 USA
(e-mail: Some applications, especially battery-operated equipment,
K. M. Smedley is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engi- require high voltage boosting. To attain very large voltage step-
neering (ECE), University of California, Irvine (UCI), Irvine, CA 92697 USA up, cascaded boost converters that implement the output volt-
A. Abramovitz is with the Department of Electrical Engineering (EE), Sami age increasing in geometric progression were introduced in [7].
Shamoon College of Engineering (SCE), Beer-Sheva 84100, Israel (e-mail: These converters effectively enhance the voltage transfer ra- tio; however, their circuits are quite complex. In comparison,
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at tapped-inductor boost converters proposed in [8] and [9] at-
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2009.2025375 tain a comparable voltage step-up preserving relative circuit
0885-8993/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE

Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. Downlade on May 13,20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. Restricon aply.

the boost converter output terminal and fly. Control Scheme tor. D is the duty ratio of window comparator is employed to derive the required switch- switch S. whereas principle is described in detail providing the steady-state (dc) S2 is switched complementarily to S1. tapped inductors L1 and L2 with turns ratio n = n2 : n1 . the upper comparator generates the it becomes evident that the suggested boost-derived converter required duty cycle for the S2 switch. The diode D is kept ON and dynamic (ac) models as well. 5.: WIDE-INPUT–WIDE-OUTPUT (WIWO) DC–DC CONVERTER 281 The converter topologies shown in Figs. Buck-derived converters with tapped inductors. as the turn ratio n goes to VC′ is derived by the PWM circuitry. Here. proposed buck-derived converter achieves wider voltage step. which allows recharging the bootstrap This paper proposes a new wide-input–wide-output (WIWO) power supply and reliable operation of the flying driver of the dc–dc converter. The midpoint is periodically cycle the snubber energy. 1(a). a ratios are given in Figs. by examining Fig. Thus. a standard half-bridge driver chip and boost converters via a tapped inductor. WIWO can operate either in the step-down or the buck mode tion and guidelines to the synthesis of the new switching con. Restricon aply. The practical point of view. 1(c) and 3(c). and offers motiva. To operate WIWO in the boost mode. 2. the switch S1 is assigned a high-frequency dc–dc converter and the required control scheme. a common junction or midpoint. Downlade on May 13. 3 and 4. III. downshifting the control zero. The proposed tapped-inductor boost. 1(a) and 3(a) are strikingly similar. 5. The proposed tapped-inductor buck-derived converters are shown in Fig. equivalent electrically. MOTIVATION IN THE SEARCH FOR NEW SWITCHING on and off complementarily to S1. S1 and S2 are connected to boost converter also functions as an active clamp circuit to re. reconfigured into a pair of coupled inductors in Fig. down than a basic buck converter. circuitry is required. Same conclusion can be reached comparing the converters given in Figs. The theoretical derivations by the inductor L2 current. which is defined as n = n2 : n1 . as given in Fig. The basic buck and boost converters can be transformed into a number of new topologies by bringing in the tapped induc- B. One derived topologies and their corresponding voltage conversion possible realization of the modulator is shown in Fig. 1. voltage VC by Vm : VC′ = VC − Vm . The relationship between proach the characteristic of a basic boost topology. whereas the lower com- attains a wider voltage step-up than a basic boost converter. 6. The operating switching signal with a predetermined duty cycle D. To operate the WIWO verter. parator is in “1” state and commands the NAND gate to provide Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. which is assumed to be continuous.. CONVERTER TOPOLOGY In both modes. when 0 ≤ m < 1. Here. 3(a). Consequently. this reconfiguration is beneficial from a crease the output voltage gain with the coupled inductor. The implementation is not unique. with their corresponding voltage conversion For the proper operation of WIWO. the conversion ratio of the control voltage VC for the upper comparator is delivered by buck-derived converters approach the characteristic of a basic an external source. or in the step-up or the boost mode. By applying proper can be used with the low-side driver operating the bottom switch control to the two active switches. were verified experimentally and reported in Section IV. and capacitive output filter C. signal for the S1 switch. the diode D is forced to switch II. Modi. Inspection the control voltage VC and the sawtooth ramp amplitude Vm of the conversion ratio plots. In Fig. amplitude of Vm to the two control voltages VC and VC′ . Proposed WIWO DC–DC Converter Topology The proposed WIWO dc–dc converter is illustrated in Fig. The idea proposed here is that these two topologies may be combined to form a new two-switch topol- ogy. The new converter is an integration of buck top switch S2. switching converters with tapped inductors. Also. 5. the converter exhibits both S1 and the bootstrap high-side driver activating the top switch buck and boost features [11]. switched by S1 to ground. the capacitor C filters the pulsating current and provides a smoothed output voltage for the load R. WIWO DC–DC CONVERTER A. Specifically.e. Being back converter output terminal are connected in series to in. whereas the lower comparator input signal buck topology. note that the tapped inductor in Figs. The converter is comprised of two active switches S1 and S2. 1 and 3 is simplicity. D. On the other hand. the controller keeps fications and additional applications are discussed in Section V. with an extended conversion range. [12]. S2 switch continuously ON and issues the required duty cycle Conclusions are given in Section VI. Section II discusses the basic S2. 1. i. In [10]. Section III presents the topology of the proposed WIWO in the buck mode.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. a modified PWM control ratios plotted in Fig. diode Fig. reveals that the can be expressed by means of a variable m as VC = mVm . . Here. WIWO operates in the buck mode when 0 < VC < Vm . The proposed WIWO range converter topology is described in the next section.CHENG et al. the conversion ratio of the boost-derived converters ap. and n is the turn ing signals for S1 and S2 by comparing the sawtooth ramp with ratio of the tapped inductors. The As the turn ratio n tends to infinity. M is the voltage conversion ratio.

(a) 0 < n < ∞. Voltage conversion ratio of buck-derived converters with tapped inductors.282 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 7. C. VOL. The waveforms and timing of WIWO for both buck and boost modes are illustrated in Fig. The energy is also per comparator is in “1” state and keeps S2 continuously ON. The diode D conducts and the the other hand. 2. for Vm < VC < 2Vm . Here. 8. Restricon aply. the steady-state operation of the proposed WIWO converter is described. 7(a) and 8(a)]. the switch S2 WIWO operates similarly to a synchronous buck converter. (d) n > 1. Therefore. the proposed WIWO converter exhibits four topological states. FEBRUARY 2010 Fig. 3. coupled inductors L1 and L2 are charged. Boost-derived converters with tapped inductors. (c) n > 1. Downlade on May 13. the converter enters the boost mode. the up. 1) Buck Mode: State 1 (t0 ≤ t < t1 ) is the buck-mode the complimentary duty cycle for the S1 switch. as shown in Fig. the large output filter capacitor is re- Fig.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. On is turned on and S1 is turned off. 2. transferred from dc source to load. . The coupling coefficient of the tapped inductor is assumed to be unity. placed by an ideal voltage source. Here. NO. or 1 ≤ m < 2. (b) 0 < n < ∞. 25. Operating Principle of the WIWO Converter In the following. Thus. Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. Under continuous inductor current (CCM) condition. charging state [see Figs. whereas the lower comparator and the NAND gate provide the required duty cycle for the S1 switch. The analysis is performed as- suming that the circuit is comprised of ideal components.

Downlade on May 13. . Fig. (d) 0 < n < 1. The charging state [see Figs. 7(b) and 8(a)]. Restricon aply. WIWO dc–dc converter topology. Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore.: WIDE-INPUT–WIDE-OUTPUT (WIWO) DC–DC CONVERTER 283 Fig.CHENG et al. the switches S1 output voltage is supported by the capacitor C. Here. (a) 0 < n < ∞. 6. 4. (c) 0 < n < 1. The diode D 2) Boost Mode: State 3 (t′0 ≤ t < t′1 ) is the boost-mode is cut off by the negative voltage induced in L2 winding. whereas S1 is turned on and the diode D conducts L2 current to the load. and S2 are turned on charging the L1 inductor.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. State 2 (t1 ≤ t ≤ t2 ) is the buck-mode discharging state [see Figs. 5. Here. the switch S2 is turned off also cutting Fig. 7(c) and 8(b)]. off the current in the L1 winding. (b) 0 < n < ∞. Proposed WIWO dc–dc converter and PWM control circuitry. Voltage conversion ratio of boost-derived converters with tapped inductors.

(c) Boost-mode charging state. IV. Here. 10. 8. 7. the result is ((n + 1)/n) for the buck mode and (n + 1) for the boost mode. 2. the slope of WIWO dc–dc characteristic becomes continuous for n = 1. NO. 7(d) and 8(b)]. Here. 7. FEBRUARY 2010 Fig. [14]. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS State 4 (t′1 ≤ t ≤ t′2 ) is the boost-mode discharging state [see Figs. WIWO voltage transfer characteristics M (n. Both windings L1 and L2 conduct through the diode voltage range of 12–48 Vdc and a constant output voltage of D and discharge the stored energy to the output. More suitable for analysis purposes. The turn ratio of the tapped inductor was set to n = 1 with a total inductance of 400 µH. The characteristics of WIWO are summarized in Table I for a general case of n and separately for the special case of n = 1. (b) Buck-mode discharging state. Four topological states of the WIWO converter. Steady-State Analysis C058548A2 toroidal powder core. The line-to-output and control-to-output transfer functions reveal strong depen- dence on the operating point and a right-half-plane (RHP) zero. Restricon aply. the curves exhibit a slope change. VOL. chosen for its low leakage. were obtained. however. Waveforms of the WIWO dc–dc converter.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. (a) Buck mode. whereas for other values of n. Clearly. (a) Buck-mode charging state. The steady-state models of the proposed WIWO converter with 50 turns of AWG20 wire for both windings. Schottky diode Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. . (d) Boost-mode discharging state.. Table I also presents the line-to-output and control-to-output transfer functions. mode. The small-signal transfer functions of the WIWO converter were derived by linearizing the state-space equations around the operating point [11]. voltage stresses. The design are shown in Fig. m) are plotted in Fig. Downlade on May 13. These models preserve the tapped-inductor yielded 400 µH inductance with only 560 nH leakage induc- symbol. Obviously. 9. the role of the magnetizing inductance the top switch and two IRFR3518 were used for the low switch Lm is clearly shown.284 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 25. The tapped inductors were wound on D. Two FDD2572 MOSFETs were paralleled to comprise models of Fig. WIWO voltage conversion ratio. in [11] using state-space averaging technique. etc. Using the expressions for voltage conversion ratio given in Table I. the voltage transfer ratio is smooth at the vicinity of the buck to boost switchover point m = 1. The detailed analysis was carried out providing low Rds−O N and low gate capacitance. (b) Boost pensation network design somewhat difficult. The switching frequency of 200 kHz was chosen. 28 Vdc . are the tance. for n = 1. These characteristics make the WIWO com- Fig. This is also the case in other tapped-inductor topolo- gies [13]. the switch S2 is still ON whereas S1 is A 100-W prototype WIWO converter was designed for input turned off. This statement can be verified analytically by calculating the derivatives of M (m) at m = 1. output voltage ripple.

: WIDE-INPUT–WIDE-OUTPUT (WIWO) DC–DC CONVERTER 285 TABLE I CHARACTERISTICS OF WIWO DC–DC CONVERTER AND CHARACTERISTICS FOR n = 1 Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. Restricon aply. Downlade on May 13. .CHENG et al.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore.

Fig. second top trace: drain voltage V 2 acteristics. whereas the output current is cut off. 9(a) and (b). charging. 10. The ramp portion of the current ON. 2 µs/division). and therefore. Switched circuit models. the S1 switch is the leading switch that At the S2 is turned off. and therefore. FEBRUARY 2010 Fig. NO. turn-OFF voltage spike on S1 is observed. 11. the S2 switch conducts. As the S1 switch Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. 2. 12. The winding currents were measured by a sufficiently large inductance value.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. Since in the buck mode the S2 switch is constantly models in Fig. . VOL. To supply the power requirements of the winding currents. 6 for designation of variables). bottom trace: S2 switch gating voltage (20 V/ divi- to 28 V output (buck mode) are shown in Fig. consistent with WIWO in Fig. 11. (d) State 4. As S1 switch by the snubber circuitry.286 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. so only load at lower input voltage range. 2 µs/division). WIWO calls for greater input the ripple components could be observed. The middle traces show the are shown in Fig. (c) State 3. both windings carry the same current. shown as the bottom trace output current is doubled in amplitude. Top trace: drain voltage V 1 of S1 20CTQ150 was selected due to superior reverse recovery char. whereas the bottom switch S1 is switched complementarily. The leakage inductance of high-frequency ac probe. similarly to a synchronous The experimental waveforms of WIWO in the boost mode converter. 9. of S2 switch (50 V/division. 12. as described later. 2 µs/division). m) of the WIWO dc–dc converter.2 Experimental waveforms of WIWO converting 48 V input A/division. gated by the duty cycle command shown as the bottom trace in Fig. 25. S2 is the leading switch. Fig. These were measured by ac probe. second bottom trace: output current Io (0. the drain voltage of S2 and the drain voltage of S1 are is hardly noticeable due to the relatively high frequency and almost identical. switch (50 V/division. 11. as current. only ac current compo- L1 developed a turn-OFF voltage spike across S1 that is smoothed nents are shown as two middle traces in Fig. 12. the input winding carries the input current and is spike. Switch voltages (see Fig. In the boost mode. Experimental waveforms of the WIWO converter in the buck mode (see Fig. mode. Voltage transfer characteristics M (n. 11. Restricon aply. 2 µs/division). 2 µs/division). Downlade on May 13. The snubber is used to clamp the voltage conducts. As could be seen. (a) State 1. (b) State 2. under full-load condition. the input current ceases whereas the is issued the duty cycle command. middle trace: input current Ii (0. 6 for definition) are shown with 12 V input and 28 V output.2 A/division. In the buck sion. as top two waveforms in Fig.

verter to operate in DCM. Fig. 0. For this reason. as predicted by WIWO models in Fig. the experimental voltage conversion ratio M is slightly lower than theoretical prediction. The output voltage was kept at the nominal value tal voltage conversion ratio M as function of m for different of 28 Vdc . both windings carry the same current and are dis- charging into the output capacitor and feeding the load. For very same reason. 15. 2 µs/division). Comparison of the experimental and theoretical voltage conversion ratio under different loading conditions.5 A/division. Downlade on May 13.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. middle trace: input current Ii (0. The conversion voltage applications. With decreased load. 14(a)–(c).5 A/division. 6 for designation of variables). 2 µs/division).: WIDE-INPUT–WIDE-OUTPUT (WIWO) DC–DC CONVERTER 287 Fig. The experimen. APPLICATIONS M cannot become infinite and drops as m approaches 2. Also could Fig. . To measure the tendency of the con. as shown in Fig. 2 µs/division). Restricon aply. the currents ripple components appear in antiphase. 12. (c) K = 0. 13. 14. This is not desirable for low-output- WIWO characteristic in the vicinity of m = 1. the parameter K = (2Lm /RTs ) is The efficiency of the experimental WIWO dc–dc converter defined as suggested in [15]. 14(b) conduction mode (DCM). Due to the parasitic resistances in the circuit. No attempt was made to optimize the preliminary values of K plotted on top of the theoretical curve is given in design. in Fig. the experimental V.02 in Fig.2. Top trace: drain voltage of S1 switch (20 V/division.CHENG et al. Fig. be seen is the snubber circuit resonant discharge as the snubber recycles the stored energy. second top trace: drain voltage of S2 switch (20 V/division. The voltage drop can be reduced using Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. 2 µs/division).2. Comparison of K with K c rit for n = 1. Experimental waveforms of WIWO in the boost mode (see Fig. is cut off. (a) K = 2. The critical value of K for n = 1 for different dc input voltages versus the load current is plotted is compared with K = 2. and (c). A A continuously conducting diode D has a considerable narrow buck. 2 µs/division). still the converter demonstrated high efficiency. 9(c) and (d).02. (b) K = 0. 13. the converter enters the discontinuous ratio in DCM is higher than that in boost-mode transition can be observed on the forward voltage drop. second bottom trace: output current Io (0. 0. bottom trace: S1 switch gating voltage (20 V/division.

port. If not snubbed. 17. Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. 16. This takes one- tion of the power flow can be controlled applying a single-pole half resonant cycle dictated by the leakage inductance and the double-throw switch. the energy stored in the leakage inductances becomes a problem to deal with. both in buck mode and in boost mode. Besides increased switching losses. 19. the snubber diode DS1 conducts L1 leakage current flying driver. as shown in Fig. WIWO enters the boost mode. 17. which may be controlled manually or au. Detailed description of the snubber operation is out of scope Interchanging the position of the inductor L2 and switch S3. FEBRUARY 2010 Fig. Fig. . CS will remain charged until the S2 switch tomatically. Energy recovering snubber for WIWO power stage. in brief. The direc. 18). Fig. discharge of the leak- age inductance energy causes oscillations and increased voltage spikes across the switches. Here. 15. as illustrated in Fig. NO. 17. With as shown in Fig.288 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. With the switch With S2 turned ON. Bidirectional WIWO dc–dc converter. The WIWO dc–dc converter can also be used for PFC appli- cation (see Fig. ENERGY RECOVERY SNUBBER Since the WIWO operates a coupled inductor. This also allows driving the top switch S3 with another turned off. whereas with the switch in position 2. Fig. the WIWO topology becomes symmet. VI. the operation is as follows. VOL. The snubber is fitted to WIWO. As the line drops below the output voltage. Fig. Downlade on May 13. the power flows in a reverse direction from the right port to the left port. a battery charging and discharging application. the energy stored in the snubber capacitor in position 1. the power flows from the left port to the right is discharged into L2 winding via DS2 and recycled. a sinusoidal line voltage is fed into the rectifier input. snubber capacitance. overvoltage breakdown of the MOSFET devices may occur. WIWO in the buck mode. This WIWO can be used in is turned ON again at the onset of the subsequent switching cycle. With the line voltage greater than the output. of this paper. the converter works in the buck mode. The snubber is effective a synchronous rectifier with low Rds -O N instead of the diode. 17 and allows the stored energy to be discharged into the snubber is the ability to sustain a bidirectional power flow. Experimental WIWO converter efficiency. 25. The resulting voltage stress becomes intolerable at higher voltages and higher power. capacitance CS and to the output of the circuit. 2. 19. at the instant when the S2 switch is rical. The WIWO dc–dc converter can accept the rectified voltage and directly produce the required low dc out- put. 16. An additional advantage of the circuit in Fig. as shown in Fig. 18. WIWO PFC ac–dc converter. however. Restricon aply. WIWO dc–dc converter with the synchronous rectifier. The proposed lossless snubber is comprised of a snubber capacitor CS and a pair of fast diodes DS1 and DS2 .

electronic instrumentation.20 at 1:40 UTC from IE Xplore. D. S1 interrupts the current and is subject to the voltage spike K. ductor whose leakage causes oscillation and high voltage spike in 1982 and 1985.. Expo. “The tapped- inductor boost converter. can avoid operating at extreme duty cycle. As a result. it achieves wider step-up and wider step-down 1568. Among the disadvantages of WIWO is the coupled in. 1562– verters. applications. and therefore. 22.CHENG et al. 2007. Hadar. degrees in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology. indicate WIWO as a viable candidate for many industrial Dr. She is also the Director of the UCI Power Electronics Laboratory. 2003. Inst. Beer-Sheva Aug. [1] D. 6. and here. Another disadvantage of WIWOs is that small-signal transfer She was employed at the Superconducting Super functions include an RHP zero. pp. Erickson and D. pp. “Tapped-inductor buck converter for in the Negev. Papers. research interests include switch mode and resonant power conversion. 5. in 2004. Power Electron. Appl. Lee. demonstrated in practice the WIWO dc–dc conversion ratio. “A SPICE compatible feed loads with variable operating voltage such as dc motors. pp. [5] K. An additional disadvantage is that University of California at the Irvine (UCI). of California. output voltage on demand. electrical engineering from Ben-Gurion University [2] K. Hangzhou.-H. A modified PWM modulator scheme required to make 4–7. Irvine. Reg. Numerous advantages articles and holds ten US/international patens. active and passive soft much of a problem in systems with multiple stages. 538–543. single-phase and three-phase PFC rectifiers. high-fidelity class-D power amplifiers. Smedley. She has authored or coauthored more than 100 technical dc–dc converter for PFC are possible. Eng. Buso. Israel. 2007. Jun. This. IEEE APEC 1994. “Switching converter with wide dc conversion He received the B. Y. J. L.” Master’s The new converter topology has several advantages.” in Proc.. dc–dc conversion range. “Power factor preregulator based on modified VII. etc. California. I. 4. 2007. T. M. Tseng and T. Wei. 2001. 2004. Collide from 1990 to 1992. Power Appl. however.. The thesis. Jul. pp. Cheng. degrees all in range. M. Sato. This paper has presented a new WIWO dc–dc converter. and E. 8.. Clamp circuits are needed to clamp volt. and a postdoc from the University no. and F. neering from Zhejiang University. The advantageous buck feature allows turning off the [15] R. The transition between the operating modes is inher- ently smooth. converter.-H. Her research activities include high efficiency WIWO does not provide isolation. Jun. pp. alternatively. Pasadena. However. C..S. 1993. vol. Jan. solar and wind converter. in 1987 age spikes upon switches. vol. 2004. WIWO retains the features of both the buck and the boost con.” IEEE Trans. Conf. Sami Shamoon College of Engineering. 590–606. 1997. 2. and a Visiting Researcher in the Department of Elec- [4] K. 151. China. 1021–1027. C. 1809–1818. M.” in Proc. Cuk. vol. Cheng and K. Ind. 20. however. Luo and H. D. [8] Q. IEEE Appl. active power Modifications of the WIWO to synchronous WIWO dc–dc filters.D. Lee. pp. no. Nabeshima.” in Proc.S. IEEE PESC Conf. model of tapped-inductor PWM converters. Ben-Yaakov. no. His current converters with autotransformers. may not be dc-dc converters. fault current limiters for utility. 775–780. To resolve verters for all accelerator rings. pp. Power Appl. degrees in electrical engi- current. Simulation and experimental results were also [9] N. so as to recycle the leakage energy. and 1991. grid-connected inverters for alternative energy sources. and causes no transient disturbance in the average Keyue Ma Smedley (S’87–M’90–SM’97–F’08) re- ceived the B.. Ph. 1998.” tion and offers a comprehensive summary of WIWO analytical IEEE Trans. L. 182–190. Edry. and WIWO power conversion. Power Electron. The paper described WIWO principles of opera. 2008. vol. and high-step-down dc–dc conversion. 10–19.: WIDE-INPUT–WIDE-OUTPUT (WIWO) DC–DC CONVERTER 289 In the boost mode. Due to the nonlinear characteristics. pp. and F. pled inductors. [6] G.” in Proc. 54. Cho. J.Sc. the snubber operation is similar. photograph and biography not available at the time of publication.” Proc. Park and B. Middleblook. bidirectional WIWO dc–dc converter. [12] H. “Wide input wide output (WIWO) dc–dc con- verter. 18– while S2 switch is constantly ON with zero voltage VD S 2 across. the converter work coherently was also suggested.D. Nakano. pp. WIWO is some. pp. REFERENCES Alexander Abramovitz (M’06) was born in Kishinev. pp. T. Eng.. A prototype [10] K. vol. which Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Ye. vol. current loop should be employed. and across the switches. Ren. The WIWO converter can operate with [13] R. [11] H. Electr. The converter Proc. Fundamentals of Power Electronics. M. Electr. Spiazzi and S.. and the M. Dec. 1. Ye. Zhao and F. CONCLUSION tapped-inductor buck converter. Maksimovic and S. high Expo. and analog circuits. count. Power Electron. WIWO Hao Cheng. quality rectification. and S. Jan. 18. [14] D. 151. switching techniques. Conf. O. Hernandez. Beer-Sheva. Electron.S. 873–879. 2005. Xu. Ishida. Electr.” in Proc. respectively. 1991. IEEE Int. Restricon aply. C. (APEC 2003). [7] F. “Nonisolation soft-switching buck converter He is currently an Assisting Professor in the De- with tapped-inductor for wide-input extreme step-down applications. in 1987. IEEE Trans.S. Irvine. 151–157. motor drive. Yao.” in Proc. which is an integration of buck and boost converters with cou. respectively. no. Univ. Liang.. (PESC 2006). Harada. WIWO efficiency remains high even throughout large input voltage swing. [3] J. reported. respectively. 1–6. high step-up dc–dc converters. Downlade on May 13. “Positive output cascade boost converters. Power Electron. IEEE PESC Conf. Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. Mor.. characteristics. Estrada. Nishijima. M. is a good practice in any case. . Norwell. T.” partment of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Sep.” in IEEE PESC 1976 Rec. K.. WIWO is also inherently capable of limiting the inrush current and can protect the output in the case of a short circuit..” WIWO dc–dc converter was built and tested. vol. MA: Kluwer. USSR. “A continuous model for the tapped-inductor boost an input source with broadly varying voltage or. Maksimovic. She is currently a the dynamic problem. Smedley is the recipient of UCI Innovation Award 2005.. Yao. Inst. 114–120. 2. VAR on demand for modern grid. Vazquez. Rodriguez. “A family of buck type dc–dc trical Engineering and Computer Science. The converter has a simple structure and moderate component pp. and M. and Ph. Electr. Symp. 65–73. Jun. and repatriated to Israel in 1973. Mar. Lee. no.. Xu. “A novel tapped-inductor buck converter for divided power distribution system.” IEEE Trans. Abe. “High efficiency. where she was respon- sible for the design and specification of ac-dc con- what difficult to stabilize using a single voltage loop. Power Electron. 1. “Wide input wide output (WIWO) dc–dc converter. Circuits Syst. no. C. “Novel high efficiency step-up converter. University of California. pp.