LIBER RESH vel HELIOS SUB FIGURA CC 0. These are the adorations to be performed by aspirants to the A∴A∴ 1.

Let him greet the Sun at dawn, facing East, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night! 2. Also at Noon, let him greet the Sun, facing South, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy triumphing, even unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy beauty, who travellest over the heavens in thy bark at the Mid-course of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Morning! 3. Also, at Sunset, let him greet the Sun, facing West, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Tum in Thy setting, even unto Thee who art Tum in Thy joy, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Down-going of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Day! 4. Lastly, at Midnight, let him greet the Sun, facing North, giving the sign of his grade, and let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto thee who art Khephra in Thy hiding, even unto Thee who art Khephra in Thy silence, who travellest over the heavens in Thy bark at the Midnight Hour of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Evening. 5. And after each of these invocations thou shalt give the sign of silence, and afterward thou shalt perform the adoration that is taught thee by thy Superior. And then do thou compose Thyself to holy meditation. 6. Also it is better if in these adorations thou assume the God-form of Whom thou adorest, as if thou didst unite with Him in the adoration of That which is beyond Him. 7. Thus shalt thou ever be mindful of the Great Work which thou hast undertaken to perform, and thus shalt thou be strengthened to pursue it unto the attainment of the Stone of the Wise, the Summum Bonum, True Wisdom and Perfect Happiness.

From RRDC 0. These are the adorations to be performed by aspirants to the A∴A∴ 1. Let him greet the Sun at dawn, facing East, giving the sign of his grade. LVX signs at dawn

And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night! 2. Also at Noon, let him greet the Sun, facing South, giving the sign of his grade. 4=7 at noon Fire: the Goddess Thoum-aesh-neith

And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy triumphing, even unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy beauty, who travellest over the heavens in thy bark at the Mid-course of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Morning!

3. Also, at Sunset, let him greet the Sun, facing West, giving the sign of his grade. 2=9 at sunset Air: the God Shu supporting the sky

And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Tum in Thy setting, even unto Thee who art Tum in Thy joy, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Down-going of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Day! 4. Lastly, at Midnight, let him greet the Sun, facing North, giving the sign of his grade, 3=8 at midnight Water: the Goddess Auramoth

and let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto thee who art Khephra in Thy hiding, even unto Thee who art Khephra in Thy silence, who travellest over the heavens in Thy bark at the Midnight Hour of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Evening.

5. And after each of these invocations thou shalt give the sign of silence, 0=0 Sign of Harpocrates (Silence)

and afterward thou shalt perform the adoration that is taught thee by thy Superior. Unity uttermost showed! I adore the might of Thy breath, Supreme and terrible God, Who makest the gods and death To tremble before Thee :-I, I adore thee! Appear on the throne of Ra! Open the ways of the Khu! Lighten the ways of the Ka! The ways of the Khabs run through To stir me or still me! Aum ! let it fill me! The light is mine; its rays consume Me: I have made a secret door Into the House of Ra and Tum, Of Khephra and of Ahathoor, I am thy Theban, O Mentu, The prophet Ankh-af-na-khonsu! By Bes-na-Maut my breast I beat; By wise Ta-Nech I weave my spell. Show thy star-splendor, O Nuit! Bid me within that House to dwell, O winged snake of light, Hadit! Abide with me, Ra-Hoor-Khuit! And then do thou compose Thyself to holy meditation.

6. Also it is better if in these adorations thou assume the God-form of Whom thou adorest, as if thou didst unite with Him in the adoration of That which is beyond Him. 7. Thus shalt thou ever be mindful of the Great Work which thou hast undertaken to perform, and thus shalt thou be strengthened to pursue it unto the attainment of the Stone of the Wise, the Summum Bonum, True Wisdom and Perfect Happiness. THE FIVE ADORATIONS DOST ACHIHA KHAN I PRAISE Thee, God, whose rays upstart beneath the Bright and Morning Star: Nowit asali fardh salat assobhi allahu akbar. I praise Thee, God, the fierce and swart; at noon Thou ridest forth to war! Nowit asali fardh salat assohri allahu akabr. I praise Thee, God, whose arrows dart their royal radiance o'er the scar: Nowit asali fardh salat asasri allahu akabr. I praise Thee, God, whose fires depart, who drivest down the sky thy car: Nowit asali fardh salat al maghrab allahu akabr. I praise Thee, God, whose purple heart is hidden in the abyss afar: Nowit asali fardh salat al asha allahu akabr. My 93 Sense This beautiful A∴A∴ ritual pretty much explains itself once all the pieces are put together. Resh will grow on you after repetition, and the insights gained from your habitual holy meditations will be well rewarded. For more correspondences on the god forms see The Great Invocation, Ritual b2, and the Invokation of Horus. The final piece is included due to its beauty, relevance, and Lucifer reference. So, is that all there is to Resh? In a letter from AC666 to HA777 3.30.44 is written, “Use at start signs of grades, M° - III∴ O.T.O., and Sign of Enterer, followed by Sign of Silence, at the ‘Hail’ – Damn it, you saw me do it!” Before reading this (see the blue brick Editor’s Notes page 786) I worked on how this could be accomplished during the last section from the Stele also, but is not a ma’atter that can be discussed in an open forum.

Liber Resh From Thelemapedia Part of the Magick in Practice series. Liber Resh vel Helios, Crowley, comprises adorations to the Sun, Theory & by Aleister four daily to be performed at

dawn, noon, sunset, and midnight. The general object is to focus the conscious mind on the center of our solar system. Table of contents 1 Quotes 2 "Resh" 3 Performance 3.1 The text 4 The Egyptian Godforms in Liber Resh Quotes "The object of this practice is firstly to remind the aspirant at regular intervals of the Great Work; secondly, to bring him into conscious personal relation with the centre of our system; and thirdly, for advanced students, to make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the sun and thus to draw actual force from him." (Confessions, p. 673) "Particularly useful against the fear of death is the punctual and vigorous performance of Liber Resh. Meditate on the sun in each station: his continuous and even way: the endless circle." (Magick Without Tears, Chapter LXIII) "The first essential is the dedication of all that one is and all that one has to the Great Work, without reservation of any sort. This must be kept constantly in mind; the way to do this is to practice Liber Resh vel Helios...The important thing is not to forget." (Magick Without Tears, Introduction) "Resh" Resh is a Hebrew letter. It equates to the English "R" and translates as "head." Within the Qabalah, Resh is on the 30th Path between Hod and Yesod. This Path is symbolized by the Sun and the various sun gods, such as Ra, Helios, and Apollo. Performance Liber Resh was written for members of Crowley's order, the A.'.A.'.. There are ten grades in this order, and each is assigned a sign, or bodily posture, generally used for meditation or ritual purpose. If a member of A.'.A.'. is performing Resh, he or she is to stand in the sign representing their current grade in all four stations. If the adorant is not in A.'.A.'., Crowley gives four signs to be used for each station: Dawn: all four L.V.X. Signs (Osiris Slain, Isis Mourning, Typhon, and Osiris Risen) Noon: Sign of Fire, Thoum-aesh-neith (4°=7#) Sunset: Sign of Air, the God Shu supporting the sky (2°=9#) Midnight: Sign of Water, the Goddess Auramoth (3°=8#) The text 0. These are the adorations to be performed by aspirants to the A.'. A.'. 1. Let him greet the Sun at dawn, facing East, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His

splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night! 2. Also at Noon, let him greet the Sun, facing South, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy triumphing, even unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy beauty, who travellest over the heavens in thy bark at the Mid-course of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Morning! 3. Also, at Sunset, let him greet the Sun, facing West, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Tum in Thy setting, even unto Thee who art Tum in Thy joy, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Down-going of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Day! 4. Lastly, at Midnight, let him greet the Sun, facing North, giving the sign of his grade, and let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto thee who art Khephra in Thy hiding, even unto Thee who art Khephra in Thy silence, who travellest over the heavens in Thy bark at the Midnight Hour of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Evening. 5. And after each of these invocations thou shalt give the sign of silence, and afterward thou shalt perform the adoration that is taught thee by thy Superior. And then do thou compose Thyself to holy meditation. 6. Also it is better if in these adorations thou assume the God-form of Whom thou adorest, as if thou didst unite with Him in the adoration of That which is beyond Him. 7. Thus shalt thou ever be mindful of the Great Work which thou hast undertaken to perform, and thus shalt thou be strengthened to pursue it unto the attainment of the Stone of the Wise, the Summum Bonum, True Wisdom and Perfect Happiness. The Egyptian Godforms in Liber Resh Ra—The sun god. Tahuti—The god of knowledge, wisdom, and writing. Ra-Hoor—The hawk-headed patron god of the Pharaohs. Ahathoor—The cow-headed goddess of love, music and dance. Tum—The first formed of the nine primary Egyptian gods. Khephra—Form of Ra as a scarab, or dung beetle.

On Liber Resh by Bill Heidrick IXº

This document is an excerpt from the O.T.O. Newsletter vol. I, no. 2. and is published here with the permission of the author. -- Fr. HRN "Liber Resh vel Helios Sub Figura CC" The salutations to the four quarters of the Sun are an important part of Thelemic observance. Many pages could be written on the mystical significance and psychological effect of daily practice of Liber Resh, but this is a matter for the individual discovery of Thelemites. Here will be written only a few observations and a few hints. This is the ritual of the Sun. Hence it is called Helios (Sun) and referred to the Hebrew Letter "Resh". In Tarot, Resh matches the Sun Trump. Resh is the Sun in Astrology. The number assigned to this ritual is the Gematria value of "Resh". The name of the Great Solar Deity in Egypt is RA -- in Hebrew, this word begins with "Resh". Many of the titles of Crowley's works mystify. Let this be an example of the way to understand the keys to the rituals through the correspondences in "Liber 777." Adoration of the Sun is ancient. It is practiced in many cultures. Even the plants and animals heed the course of the Sun. Our bodies must obey the Sun on its journey, for they are made from the energy of its rays. Our minds rise from the Midnight Hour. Thoughts quicken at Dawn. Thinking grows heavy and Mid-day. Dusk produces lassitude and a taste for mystery. Perform the adorations at the appointed times and receive knowledge of doing at these points. There are great mysteries of Magick in this ritual. To obtain clues concerning them, study the ancient Hymn of pages 2 and 3 of this issue of the Newsletter. A close examination of "Liber AL" will shed light upon such as the "ape gods" and the deities of the present Aeon as the relate to "Liber Resh". It will be quickly seen that the salutations of "Liber Resh" are short in comparison to the ancient ones. Learn first the simple practice, then progress to the more complex with caution. Should another form of the Ritual tempt, test it. Remember always that the best rituals are those you make yourself. The most effective of these fly forth at the moment of impromptu performance. Add or alter in accord with your Will -- yet remember that familiarity with the work of others grants range and depth to understanding. Many have composed their own Adorations. Here's a fine example by Sharon Walker, an Associate Member from the American South West: Evening Adoration Hail to Thee Who art RA in thy setting Thy Splendid cloak is shadowed By ever changing hues Of slate and scarlet blended brown Soft and subtle is Thy Kiss To the Earth as She turns Her Face from Thee: Winsome Moon as She tosses your light Like laurels on a lake ... Beauty is thy name that All Men may speak Though Thee girt it with a serpent: Thy beauty surpasseth all for It passes from the eyes of men Thy strength is mightier for thy gentleness Thy wrath more fierce for thy mercy Each opposite thing reaches out

And grasps hands at infinity So with Absolute nothing and absolute Power So with Love and Will -- And lo, all is Truth And lo, the Truth is One. ------ by Sharon Walker Crowley's writings are often a bit difficult to understand. He was widely read and often liked to use the things he learned in his studies. Explanation was not always his strong suit. For those who are a bit puzzled by the god names in "Liber Resh", study of Eygptology is the best solution -- along with careful reading of "Liber AL" and "The Book of Thoth." Until then, one must make due with simplification of the attributes of the gods for the adorations. Here is a break-down: RA-HOOR RA This is a special form of the great God RA. Most of the names of the later Egyptian deities can be thought of as particular "titles" or manifestations of RA. Some of the older deities precede RA in the hierarchy. See "Liber AL." TAHUTI This deity is also called THOTH and is similar to Mercury and Hermes. Tahuti is the familiar god, the guide of souls and the god of writing and knowledge. The Tarot is his. AHATHOOR This is a variation on HATHOR. She is an aspect of ISIS as the Great Mother. In a very subtle manner for the mind but a very direct one for the body, she relates to NUIT. TUM = Tem TUM is the Great Father, a bit akin to Saturn but more gentle. There are a few parallels to Hadit. KEPHERA = Khepera This is the god of reincarnation and the god of the Sacred Scarab Beetle. In this is found the concealed half to many mysteries. See "Liber AL:" III, 74. The Boat of Egypt is the Chariot of Qabalah. Through union with the course of the Sun, great Magick can be worked. Neglect not the Moon and the other luminaries. Even the Great Dark discloses the way to the Work -- beware, for the power there is as a thing bounded and yet limitless. "There is an end of the word of the God enthroned in Ra's seat, lightening the girders of the soul." --Liber AL: III,61.

Crowley Classics http://www.billheidrick.com/tlc1993/tlc0793.htm#cc

Given the size of Crowley's Opus, it is often difficult for a student to pick and choose among the many rituals and methods. Crowley is helpful in a number of ways, but many of his suggestions are widely scattered. Liber Resh is one of the most important. Here is the ritual itself and some commentary by Crowley about it. A few more observations have been added by the Editor below. LIBER RESH vel HELIOS SUB FIGURA CC. 0. These are the adorations to be performed by all aspirants to the A A 1. Let him greet the Sun at dawn, facing East, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night! 2. Also at Noon, let him greet the Sun, facing South, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy triumphing, even unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy beauty, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Mid-course of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Morning! 3. Also, at Sunset, let him greet the Sun, facing West, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Tum in Thy setting, even unto Thee who art Tum in Thy joy, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Down-going of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Day! 4. Lastly, at Midnight, let him greet the Sun, facing North, giving the sign of his grade, and let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto thee who art Khephra in Thy hiding, even unto Thee who art Khephra in Thy silence, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Midnight Hour of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Evening. 5. And after each of these invocations thou shalt give the sign of silence, and afterward thou shalt perform the adoration that is taught thee by thy Superior. And then do thou compose Thyself to holy meditation. 6. Also it is better if in these adorations thou assume the God-form of Whom thou adorest, as if thou didst unite with Him in the adoration of That which is beyond Him. 7. Thus shalt thou ever be mindful of the Great Work which thou hast undertaken to perform, and thus shalt thou be strengthened to pursue it unto the attainment of the Stone of the Wise, the Summum Bonum, True Wisdom and Perfect Happiness. See Magick in Theory and Practice and Equinox Vol I, No. 6. From Magick without Tears, available from New Falcon Press. "... Now there is one really important matter. The only thing besides The Book of the Law which is in the forefront of the battle. As I told you yesterday, the first essential is the dedication of all that one is and all that one has to the Great Work, without reservation of any sort. This must be kept constantly in mind; the way to do this is to practice Liber Resh vel Helios, sub figura CC, pp. 425-426 - Magick.

There is another version of these Adorations, slightly fuller; but those in the text are quite alright. The important thing is not to forget. I shall have to teach you the signs and gestures which go with the words. ..." "...Particularly useful against the fear of death is the punctual and vigorous performance of Liber Resh. Meditate on the sun in each station: his continuous and even way: the endless circle. That formula in the Tarot book is most valuable. ..." From Eight Lectures on Yoga, available from New Falcon Press. " ... The classic of the subject is Liber Astarte vel Berylli, the Book of Devotion to a Particular Deity. This book is admirable beyond praise, reviewing the whole subject in every detail with flawless brilliancy of phrase. Its practice is enough in itself to bring the devotee to high attainment. This is only for the few. But every student should make a point of saluting the Sun (in the manner recommended in Liber Resh) four times daily, and he shall salute the Moon on her appearance with the Mantra Gayatri. The best way is to say the Mantra instantly one sees the Moon, to note whether the attention wavers, and to repeat the Mantra until it does not waver at all. ..." It is not clear what Crowley may have done to make Liber Resh "slightly fuller", aside from normal variation in group ritual application. The student may easily extend the ritual to expand the devotions, to include a personal magical name or otherwise to modify the ritual slightly. This ritual should not be lengthened much; to do so might diminish the effect. Liber Resh is intended to fix the diurnal cycle in the mind and body of the student. At the four gates of the day, the mind and body change to match the course of the Sun. Regular practice of this ritual gives insight into these states and a sense of the eternity of this cycle. The gestures for this ritual are also not widely known, and appear to be suited to the circumstances. One may use the larger postures associated with Liber Reguli, NOX and IAO; or mudras of the hands can be used. Grady McMurtry once recounted seeing Crowley perform Liber Resh silently on the upper deck of an open omnibus in London, using small hand gestures alone. It is a simple matter to shape the hands to produce the triangular signs of the four elements, and that can easily serve. --- Editor

An Introduction to Liber Resh vel Helios by Frater AShR Originally appeared in"The Waratah Volume 1. Number 1." Oceania Lodge, Ordo Templi Orientis,Australia. 1996

"Neglect never the fourfold Adorations of the Sun in his four Stations, for thereby thou dost affirm thy place in nature and her Harmonies" Liber CXI vel Aleph But what are the "fourfold Adorations of the Sun" and what are their use to the magician? Crowley gives us three answers to this in his confessions: "The object of this practice is firstly to remind the aspirant at regular intervals of the Great Work; secondly, to bring him into conscious personal relations with the centre of our system; and thirdly, for advanced students, to make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the Sun and thus to draw actual force from him."(1) From this it would seem that Liber Resh vel Helios is much more powerful and advanced than may initially be assumed. The three 'objects' of the ritual show a spiritual advancement that leads, in the third objective, to "contact with the spiritual energy of the sun" (Sun = ThPARTh = Holy Guardian Angel), and may be seen as a lead up excercise to Liber Samekh(2). But this, as Crowley states, is for the advanced student, and the earlier objectives are eqully important and ultimately necessary to reach this final stage when working within the Thelemic Magical system. For this reason the success of Liber Resh depends upon the aspirant approaching it in steps or stages. The first stage has the same aims as performng "Will"(3) regularly before meals and more strenuous exercises such as those in "Liber Jugorum"(4). Discipline is here the key, discipline of the mind to the obedience of the Will, or to "create a sentinel to stand watch at the threshold of the mind"(5). It is, initially, not easy to perform the ritual everyday at the appointed times. Most modern lifestyles need some adjusting for the correct observance of the ritual, especially if in a working environment where lunchbreaks are taken when and if you can, and sleep takes its toll long before the stroke of midnight. But this is aided by Liber Resh's simplicity. It is very short and can be performed anywhere; walking down a street, looking out a window, or standing beneath the Sun's glory in a park. Overall, discipline is here the key. The second objective is the same as that of the Lesser Banishing Ritual of the Pentagram(6) and variations such as the Star Ruby. It is to create for one's self a circle of working by extending the Will to the four quarters and invoking the Godforms associated with them. The four god-forms of Resh are of Egyptian origin, not Judaic as in the Lesser Banishing Ritual, and derived in a large part from the symbolism of the Golden Dawn system of magick. They are Ra in the East, Ahathoor in the South, Tum in the West, and Kephra in the South. All four Godforms are representative of different aspects of Ra, the princple Sun God of the Egyptians. In the ritual the magician is placed symbolically on the Tree of Life at the intersection of the paths of Samekh and Peh. This is confirmed by the grade signs to be used in the ritual "Where the aspirant has no grade, let him give the signs given in Vol.1 [Liber O in The Equinox Vol.1 No.2]: the LVX signs at dawn, 4º=7 at noon, 2º=9 at sunset, 3º=8 at midnight"(7), which are the Golden Dawn grade signs attributed to Tiphareth, Netzach,

Yesod and Hod respectively. But how the attributed Godforms fit into this arrangement is not so clear. Ra in the East fits perfectly. Ra is the Sun, Tiphareth, as in the "Egyptian Book of the Dead"(8) he rises in the morning "in the eastern horizon of the sky"(9). The attitude to be taken while facing east should be something similar to that expressed in Chapter 15 of the Egyptian Book of the Dead; "I have come unto you and I am with you in order to see yourdisk everyday; I will not be restrained or repulsed, but my flesh will be renewed at seeing your beauty..."(10) thereby taking full effect of the sun's regenerative process. This first adoration of the day is especially effective if the magician has performed "Liber XLIV The Mass of the Phoenix"(11) the sunset prior where the "essence of the Sun is safely sheltered until dawn"(12) in the body of the magician. From dawn the sun travels south (in the northern hemisphere) and reaches its most southern point at noon. In the southern hemisphere these physical directions are reversed, but does this mean the northern and southern points of the ritual are reversed? I think that this depends on whether you wish to work the ritual qabalistically or merely as an adoration of the sun in its quarters. I personally feel that only by working the ritual Qabalistically, whilst still realising the geographical significance of the directions(13) can any real advancement be seen. Nevertheless, Ahathoor, the godform attributed to the South can fit neatly into both of these categories. The name Ahathoor means literally "Mansions of Horus"(14) and symbolises the womb in which Horus (another form of the Sun God Ra) was protected. She was also in some legends the daughter of Ra. In 777 she is described as "The Egyptian Venus"(15) and is attributed to Netzach on the Tree of Life. To Netzach is attributed the Golden Dawn grade sign of 4º=7 which is the goddess Thoum-aesh-neith and Fire. In her main form as a cow goddess Ahathoor principally displays the Venusian aspects of fertility and fecundity but she also shows a more fiery side; "As for the Celestial Cow, She is the Sacred Eye of Re".(16) In one story Ra, fearing that mankind is plotting against him, sends Ahathoor to avenge himself. Ahathoor succumbs to bloodlust and becomes Sakhmet 'the Powerful', destroying all men before her and Ra must step in before the world is destroyed. He does this by tricking her into thinking red wine (or sometime beer) is blood and she drinks herself into a drunken stupor. Of this double aspect of Ahathoor George Hart says; "The turmoil of ecstasy which can result from physical desire is reflected in the conflicting forces of Ahathoor's personality as "Eye of Re" or a goddess of heavenly charm."(17) It is in this vengeful aspect that Ahathoor is most fittingly the Sun in the South (or the Sun in the North for the the Southern Hemisphere) of which Crowley says in Book Four; "The ancient initiates, dwelling as they did in lands whose blood was the water of the Nile or the Euphrates, connected the South with life withering heat, and cursing that quarter where the solar darts were deadliest."(18) Crowley also attributes the Sun in the South to the letter (Ayin) which is also "The Devil" of the Tarot trumps and "He is the Open Eye of the exalted Sun, before whome all shadows flee away: also that Secret Eye which makes an image of it's God, the light, and gives it power to utter oracles, enlightening the mind". (19)

Sakhmet, Ahathoor transmuted as the "Eye of Re", is also considered as a separate goddess and is another Daughter of Ra in the form of a cat. This conforms to one of Crowley's manuscript notes to "Magick in Theory and Practice" where he replaces "Ahathoor in Thy triumphing" with "Mau the Lion very lordly", and in the Invocation of Horus(20) where "Mau, I invoke Thee, Lion of the Midday Sun!" is given. Cat's have a strong link with Ra with Bastet and Sakhmet both being his Daughters and both being Cat goddesses symbolic of different degrees of the sun's heat. And from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, "As for that Cat, he is Re himself, who was called 'Cat' when Sia spoke about him; he was cat-like in what he did, and that is how his name of 'Cat' came into being" (21) Ahathoor's domain is said to stretch to the Mountains of Manu (the Western Mountains) where she meets Tum. Tum, or Atum, is most often depicted as an elderly and stately official leaning on his staff of office, sometimes wearing the combined crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt and always wearing a beard. As the other major sun-god of Heliopolis, wlong with Ra, these two god names were often linked as Ra-Atum. Most often they are mentioned as RaHorakhty(22) and Atum-Horakhty (23). Horakhty translated as "Horus of the Two Horizons", 'akhety' being the plural form of 'akhet' or horizon. Thus we have the coalescence of two gods depicting the beginning and end of the Sun's journey before it sinks into the darkness of the underworld. Further links can be seen here with the grade sign given in relation to this quarter of the sun. Shu is both the a god of sunlight and air and is seen as variously an alternate form of Tum or, more commonly, as his first son originating from the mucus which Atum sneezed from his nostrils. Shu is said to be responsible for setting in motion the events which bring Ra back into being everyday. Shu, dwelling directly on the horizon as he does, is also linked to the underworld as the leader of a band of torturers and executioners. All this symbolism of the elderly and stately figure descending into an underworld or darkness and death is also very indicative of the darker sides of Yesod. With the sun's descent behind the Mountains of Manu(24), the Egyptians turned to nature for an explanation of what happened to their life-giver. Noting that the Sun survived its journey through the darkness of the underworld, rising each morning with seemingly renewed energy, they saw a correlation with the native scarab beetle (scarabaeus sacer) or dung beetle. The scarab starts its life-cycle when a fertilised egg hatches inside a ball of dung. The lava eats the available dung until it grows into a pupa before emerging from the ball as an adult beetle. This image of life through death and putrification is essential to a correct understanding of the forces being invoked when assuming the godform of Kephra. Most Egyptian imagery show Kephra as rolling the disk of the sun through the underworld until Ra's emergence on the eastern horizon with the coming of every dawn. The sight of dung beetles rolling balls of dung across the ground would have been a common site to the ancient egyptians. The priests of Heliopolis assserted that Kephra arose on the primeval mound of the Benu Bird, which later became the Phoenix in the writings of the greek historian Herodotus. Thus, the sun-god Ra was reborn every day unto the splendour of the world, arising from the ball of dung (symbolic of death and

putrification) which Kephra had so carefully and successfully navigated through the underworld. Keeping all this in mind Liber Resh can be seen as much more than a simple adoration of the Sun. Although this is only a superficial study of the godforms relevant to Liber Resh I hope that can serve to illustrate a point about the depths to which even the simplest rituals can, and should, be taken to obtain the utmost benefit.
NOTES
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(1) "The Confessions of Aleister Crowley", Aleister Crowley. edited by John Symonds and Kenneth Grant. Penguin Arkana 1979. (2) "Book Four" Aleister Crowley. edited by Hymenaeus Beta. Samuel Weiser 1994. pg504. "Liber Samekh" was written by Crowley at the Abbey of Thelema in Cefalu especially for the Australian, Frank Bennett (Frater Progradior) who later became O.T.O. National Grand Master General. (3) ibid pg 213 (4) ibid pg 647 (5) loc.cit (6) ibid pg 605 (7) ibid pg 645 (8) "The Egyptian Book of the Dead - The Book of Going Forth By Day - being the Papyrus of Ani" trans. Dr.R.O.Faulkner and Dr.O.Goelet Jr. Conceived by James Wasserman. Chronicle Books, C.A. 1994 (9) ibid plate 1 (10) ibid plate 15 (11) "Book Four" pg 559 (12) "Magick of Thelema" Lon Milo DuQuette. Samuel Weiser 1993. pg188 (13) For a more complete study of Direction in Ritual see "Natzel" by Frater B.A.L. in "Laylah Vol.2 No's 2 & 3" Oceania Lodge, Australia 1995 (14) "Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses" George Hart. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1986. pg 76 (15) "777 & Other Qabalistic Writings" Aleister Crowley. Samuel Weiser 1973. pg 81 (16) Faulkner & Goelet op.cit. plate 9 (17) Hart op.cit. pg 80 (18) "Book Four" pg 165 (19) loc.cit (20) ibid pg 413 (21) Faulkner & Goelet op.cit. pg 102 (22) Ra-Hoor-Khuit - see Gardiner-Gunn translation of the Stelé of Revealing in "Holy Books of Thelema" (York Beach: Weiser, 1983) (23) Faulkner & Goelet op.cit. ch 15 (24) And, if the Magician has correctly performed "Liber XLIV - The Mass of the Phoenix", its essence is safely stored in the initiate's body

A Synthetic Epistle on Liber Resh

Liber Resh is one of the shortest rituals of Thelema, taking no more than a few minutes at most to perform. The confusion comes when one realizes how this seemingly simple ritual is actually very complex & layered. This essay is intended to collect & synthesize the various amounts information about this solar adoration, which are found in many sources listed above. Much of the work below is not my own, but relevant information is taken, sometimes altered, and put into its proper place in this article. Origin of the ritual: Aleister Crowley was led to Stele #666 or the Stele of Revealing by his wife Rose Crowley in the Boulaq Museum in Cairo in 1904. The paraphrasings of the hieroglyphics on this stele are found in the Book of the Law and are the basis of Liber Resh. Crowley had a translation done by Egyptologist Bugsch Bet in 1904 and again by Sir Alan Gardiner and Battiscombe Gunn in 1912, which inevitably leads to some differences in the names in the translations. The Title: The actual name of this ritual is “Liber Resh vel Helios” or Book Resh of the Sun. Helios was the Greek personification of the Sun and Heliopolis was an ancient Egyptian city where Atum, a composite solar deity, was worshipped along with Horus and Ra-harakhty (Ra-Hoor-Khuit) later in time which are both solar deities. Resh is a Hebrew letter with the value of 200 making this Liber 200. Resh means “Face” and “Head” in Hebrew which could refer to the literal head or the head of the penis, referring to the generative power. Resh is attributed to “The Sun,” the 19th Tarot Key which is also attributed to the planetary energy of the Sun, doubly reinforcing the connection of Resh to the Sun. General information: This ritual is said to be performed standing at the intersection of Samekh & Peh on the Tree of Life (as if it was laid out on the floor). This relates the East to Tiphareth, South to Netzach, West to Yesod, and North to Hod. This position implies equilibration of the 4 elements along with the 4 quarters of the sun (Dawn, Noon, Dusk, Midnight) and the 4 seasons (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter). This equilibration is of the utmost importance in the Work and means that the aspirant should perform all 4 adorations regularly to correctly balance the solar tides & energy. The ritual contains the actual adorations of the Sun in its proper quarter and also an adoration from the paraphrasing of the hieroglyphics on the Stele of Revealing. The four adorations of Liber Resh are a means of invoking, uniting with, and identifying with the Sun God in his four primary forms. To adore is to worship or honor a Deity and to invoke is to call in the force of a God and to raise oneself to the Godhead. To adore the Sun in its 4 quarters is to recognize that it doesn’t actually die at night like the ancient thought. This is the significant change from the Aeon of Osiris to the Aeon of Horus: whereas the Aeon of Osiris worked by the formula of the dying god (Jesus, Krishna, Osiris, Quetzalcoatl, Adonis, etc.) where the Sun represented the death and rebirth of the self, the Aeon of Horus recognizes that the Sun is eternal and constant and we are only spinning around it. This is significant because we, also, are stars according to Liber AL I:3, and are one, individual, and eternal that was, and is, and is to come.

Purpose: Aleister Crowley wrote in his Confessions: "The object of this practice is firstly to remind the aspirant at regular intervals of the Great Work; secondly, to bring him into conscious personal relation with the centre of our system; and thirdly, for advanced students, to make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the Sun and thus to draw actual force from him." The first object of the practice is discipline of the mind to the obedeThe “centre of our system” is simply the Sun, the center of our particular solar system. He also says in Liber Aleph “Neglect never the fourfold Adorations of the Sun in his four Stations, for thereby thou dost affirm thy place in nature and her Harmonies.” 0. These are the adorations to be performed by aspirants to the A.·. A.·. 1. Let him greet the Sun at dawn, facing East, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night! Each line describes the station of the sun and a property of it in its specific station. In this case, Ra is rising like the rising sun and his property is “strength.” The aspirant is facing East, the direction of Tiphereth in this station. This also relates to the Spring quarter of the year. Sign of the grade: The four L.V.X. Signs, or the Sign of the Cross (Sign of Osiris Slain) which is the Sign of the Qabalistic Sephira called Tiphareth (of the 5=6 degree), may be used.

Ra: Ra was the Hawk-Headed Sun god of the Egyptians who went under many names and who was worshipped as the Chief Deity at Heliopolis at one point (among other places). The hieroglyph for Ra is an open mouth, an extended arm and a God seated with a sun and Uraeus upon its head. The sunrise can easily be seen as an opening of the mouth (“Mouth” also refers to Peh who rules Mars and the 16th Tarot Key: The Tower) with arms of light extending outward. It can be seen in many Egyptian depictions of the sun that the sunbeams are pictured as extending hands. The Uraeus is the stylized, upright cobra found on the forehead of many solar deities (and the Priest of the Gnostic Mass); it was a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, and divinity along with the other attributions of the serpent in general (eternity/immortality, the serpent power/Kundalini, transformation, wisdom, etc.) Budge says that it was “by the agency of the god Khepera, who brought this result about by pronouncing his own name” and Khepera (or Khepra in Liber Resh) does precede Ra in his station at Midnight.

“strength:” Strength is the name of the 5th Sephira, Geburah which rules Mars, referring back to the “mouth” reference. This shows the influence of Mars upon the rising sun; Horus was seen as a warriorgod and also a personification of the Sun. “bark:” The bark is a boat, referring to the actual Sun. The bark is the Sektet boat: “Sek” meaning that which gathers together and girds itself against something, “Te” meaning a kiln or hot, and the final “T” being the normal ending of nouns. “Tet” also signifies stability or duration. Therefore, the bark is the hot, stable, & concentrated/gathered boat of the Sun. The bark of the sun can also be seen as analogous to the Chariot of the Tarot. Tahuti: Tahuti, or Thoth, is the Ibis-Headed God of Wisdom and magic, inventor of hieroglyphic writing, scribe of the Gods, and inventor of the Tarot (or Book of Thoth). His parallels are Hermes and Mercury in Greek and Roman mythology respectively. He sits at the front, stem, or prow of the ship. An ancient hymn from the papyrus of Ani (Egyptian Book of the Dead) says “Thoth stands at the prow of thy boat, smiting all thine enemies.”

“splendour:” Splendour is the name of the 8th Sephira, Hod which rules Mercury. Therefore “Tahuti stands in his splendour” showing his normal Mercurial attribution to the Sephira of Hod. Ra-Hoor: Ra-Hoor is another name for Horus which means “the house of Ra.” Ra-harakhty was a synchronistic solar deity of the Egyptians at one time and Ra-Hoor-Khuit is the deity pictured facing Ankh-af-na-khonsu on the Stele of Revealing. Ra-Hoor is the essence or driving power of the Sun. The papyrus of Ani further states “I have seen Horus at the helm and Thoth acting at his command” further showing the symbolism of Ra as the driver and Thoth as the guard and guide.

NOTE: Ra-Hoor, or Ra-Hoor-Khuit, can be seen on the Stele of Revealing. It should also be noted that Ra-Hoor transliterated into Hebrew (RA-HVVR) = 418). 2. Also at Noon, let him greet the Sun, facing South, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy triumphing, even unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy beauty, who travellest over the heavens in thy bark at the Mid-course of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Morning! Each line describes the station of the sun and a property of it in its specific station. In this case, Ahathoor is triumphing as the Sun’s light triumphs over the darkness of night at midday or noon; the property of the triumphing sun is “beauty.” The aspirant is facing South, the direction of Netzach in this station. This also relates to the Summer quarter of the year. Sign of the grade: The Sign of Fire of the 4º=7 degree, which is the Element pertaining to the Qabalistic Sephira called Netzach, which is also called the Sign of the Goddess Thoum-aesh-Neith.

Ahathoor: Known as Ahathoor, Het-Hert, Het-heru, or Hathor, which, when translated, means “the dwelling or house of Horus.” She was also known as “the mother of Light” and was a sky goddess in general but also considered both a sun and moon goddess. She is an aspect of Isis as the Great Mother and relates to Nuit. Ahathoor also represents the sky from the eastern to the western horizon. Being the symbolic celestial cow who gave birth to the universe, we honor Her at noon to give recognition for Her creation at its peak. She often was depicted, very aptly, being carried upon a boat, for water was Her

element. Hathor was also the goddess of beauty. The papyrus of Ani mentions Ahathoor with this sentence: “O thou beautiful being, thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk within thy mother Hathor.” The solar disc is often depicted between her horns. Ahathoor being the goddess of beauty is pertinent for this relates her to Venus which is often related to the element of Fire; Crowley wrote in Book 4, “The ancient initiates, dwelling as they did in lands whose blood was the water of the Nile or the Euphrates, connected the South with life withering heat, and cursing that quarter where the solar darts were deadliest.” Also, “AHA” taken as Hebrew letters enumerates to 7 which is the number of Venus (Crowley wrote a poetic piece “AHA!” with the subtitle, “The sevenfold mystery of the ineffable Love…” Hathoor is also placed in the Sephira of Netzach in col. XIX of Liber 777.

“triumph:” The triumph here refers to the victory of the Sun’s Light over Darkness. “Triumph” is also similar to “Victory” which is the name of the 7th Sephira, Netzach which further relates Ahathoor and this station to Venus. “beauty:” Goddesses of beauty like Ahathoor, Aphrodite, Venus etc are typically attributed to Netzach which is ruled by Venus. Beauty is also the name of the 6th Sephira, Tiphareth which is ruled by the Sun. 3. Also, at Sunset, let him greet the Sun, facing West, giving the sign of his grade. And let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto Thee who art Tum in Thy setting, even unto Thee who art Tum in Thy joy, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Down-going of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Day! Each line describes the station of the sun and a property of it in its specific station. In this case, Tum is setting like the setting sun and his property is “joy” The aspirant is facing West, the direction of Yesod in this station. This also relates to the Autumn or Fall quarter of the year.

Sign of the grade: The Sign of Air of the 2º=9 degree, which is the Element pertaining to the Qabalistic Sephira called Yesod, which is also called the Sign of the God Shu supporting the Sky.

Tum: Known also as Atum, he was the original Lord of the City of the Sun, Heliopolis, preceding Ra. His name meant “to be complete” or “to make an end of” reinforcing the notion of the setting Sun completing a day. He is mentioned in the papyrus of Ani when it is said, “I am Atum when he was alone in Nun, I am Ra when he dawned, when he began to rule that which he had made.” Tum is also the representation of the “old god, who grows weary,” the father of Ra. The Boulaq translation spells his name “Toum,” which is reminiscent to our word “tomb,” like it is implying the setting Sun is the Sun going into a tomb for the night. Atum is also very close to our word “autumn” which is when the sun’s rays are slowly becoming less strong, in between the hot summer and the cold winter.

“joy:” Joy could be said to belong to Tiphareth, the 6th Sephira of the Sun. 4. Lastly, at Midnight, let him greet the Sun, facing North, giving the sign of his grade, and let him say in a loud voice: Hail unto thee who art Khephra in Thy hiding, even unto Thee who art Khephra in Thy silence, who travellest over the heavens in Thy bark at the Midnight Hour of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Evening. Each line describes the station of the sun and a property of it in its specific station. In this case, Khephra is hiding like the Sun is hidden from our view on Earth during midnight; the property of the sun in this quarter is “silence.” The aspirant is facing North, the direction of Hod in this station. This also relates to the Winter quarter of the year. Sign of the grade: The Sign of Water of the 3º=8 degree, which is the Element pertaining to the Qabalistic Sephira called Hod, which is also called the Sign of the Goddess Auramoth.

Khephra: Known as Khephra, Khepra, Khepri, Kheperi; the sacred scarab beetle of the Ancient Egyptians who’s name means “he who becomes or “self created,” therefore a resurrection god. Most Egyptian imagery show Kephra as rolling the disk of the sun through the underworld until Ra's emergence on the eastern horizon with the coming of every dawn. In the Papyrus Nashkehm it says, “In the twelfth hour of the night, Ra enters into the confines of thick darkness. In this region the god is born under the form of Khepera.” It is not Ra who is seen in the boat now, but a beetle that stands in the center.

NOTE: Khephra is also sometimes portrayed simply as a scarab, often with the Sun in its mandibles. “hiding:” Khephra is hiding like the Sun appears to be hiding at midnight. “silence:” The word “silence” refers to the god of silence, Harpocrates or Hoor-pdaar-kraat. Hoor-paarkraat is the silent, passive half of Heru-ra-ha (Horus) with Ra-hoor-khuit being the outward, active half, showing this aspect of the Sun being similar to the Hoor-paar-kraat aspect of Horus. The papyrus of Nesi-Khensu says about Khepra is one “who is unknown and who is more hidden than the other gods, the unknown one who hideth himself from that which cometh forth from him.” 5. And after each of these invocations thou shalt give the sign of silence, and afterward thou shalt perform the adoration that is taught thee by thy Superior. And then do thou compose Thyself to holy meditation. It is generally understood that “the adoration that is taught thee” refers to Liber AL III:37-38: Unity uttermost showed! I adore the might of Thy breath, Supreme and Terrible God, Who makest the gods and death

To tremble before Thee: -I, I adore Thee! Appear on the throne of Ra! Open the ways of the Khu! Lighten the ways of the Ka! The ways of the Khabs run through To stir me or still me! Aum! let it fill me! The light is mine; its rays consume Me: I have made a secret door Into the House of Ra and Tum, Of Khephra and of Ahathoor. I am thy Theban, O Mentu, The prophet Ankh-af-na-khonsu! By Bes-na-Maut my breast I beat; By wise Ta-Nech I weave my spell. Show thy star-splendour, O Nuit! Bid me within thine House to dwell, O wingèd snake of light, Hadit! Abide with me, Ra-Hoor-Khuit! 6. Also it is better if in these adorations thou assume the God-form of Whom thou adorest, as if thou didst unite with Him in the adoration of That which is beyond Him. The images of the godforms are listed next to their names above. 7. Thus shalt thou ever be mindful of the Great Work which thou hast undertaken to perform, and thus shalt thou be strengthened to pursue it unto the attainment of the Stone of the Wise, the Summum Bonum, True Wisdom and Perfect Happiness. Who And What Are Those Egyptian References In Liber Resh? By Lita-Luise Chappell - Camp of the Golden Lotus

Who And What Are Those Egyptian References In Liber Resh? The Stele of Revealing, from whence Crowley created Liber Resh, was a translation from the Ancient Egyptian to the French by the assistant creator of the Boulaq Museum in Cairo, under the supervision of the Egyptologist Bugsch Bet in 1904. In 1912, Crowley had the translation done again by Sir Alan Gardiner and Battiscombe Gunn. There were, not surprisingly differences of opinion about some of the words and names. In Crowley's The Holy Books of Thelema, the modern publishers included an additional modern translation done in 1982. Since the three different translations are available in the above book, I sought to add some otherwise additonal historical and phonetic observations upon the three. It is interesting to note, that the words that Crowley created for Liber Resh were never updated and are still found in the first translation. Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the Helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night! The sun god had a plenitude of names, Ra or Re being the Sun God of Heliopolis. The hieroglyph for Ra is an open mouth, an extended arm and a God seated with a sun and Uraeus upon its head. Watching the sunrise upon the horizon, one can easily see why it appears as a mouth opening, its arms of light extending outward. A God sitting upon the edge of the world, or appearing to be born from the primeval abyss of water, which for the Egyptians was the Red Sea in the East. Budge declares that it was "by the agency of the god Khepera, who brought this result about by pronouncing his own name". And, indeed, Khepera does proceed Ra coming from the darkness unto the light of day. Ra's bark is the Sektet (or Manjet) boat ("the barque of millions of years"), which carries Him across the watery abyss of the celestial sky. Sektet can be translated as 'sek'-that which gathers together and girds itself against something; and, 'te'-meaning a kiln or hot; and 't' is often used as an ending on nouns; Also, 'tet' signifying stability or duration. Thus, the stable "hot boat" which is and protects Ra. The crew of this boat is made up of the gods of creation, wisdom and magic. Tahuti, or Thoth, the God of Wisdom and magic, inventor of hieroglyphic writing and scribe of the Gods sits in the front of the Sektet boat, like the baboon that ceremoniously, every day faces the rising of the sun; but in this case appears as an Ibis bird. Ra-Hoor, is another name for Horus, or meaning "the house of Ra". An ancient hymn, from the papyrus of Ani describes this. "Thoth stands at the prow of thy boat, smiting all thine enemies," and "I have seen Horus at the helm and Thoth acting at his command. " Hail unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy triumphing, even unto Thee who art Ahathoor in Thy beauty, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Midcourse of the Sun. Tahuti standith in His spendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Morning! Ahathoor, Het-Hert, Het-Heru or Hathor when translated means "the dwelling or house of Horus" and was also known as "the mother of Light". She is the symbolic celestial cow who gave birth to the universe. She was a sky goddess in general; but she was also considered both a sun goddess and a moon goddess. She also represents the sky from the eastern to the western horizon. So honoring Her at noon, is to give recognition for Her creation at its peak. She is often depicted, being carried upon a boat, as water was Her element. She was also identified astronomically with the star Sept, or Sothis, which is called "the second sun".

Hathor was also the goddess of beauty. The Hathor Mirror, with its round brass face when highly polished was used by women of the Pharonic courts as a personal hand mirror. The suns celestial light was captured in the face of the beholder. The beauty of the sun transferred to the one who held the mirror. From the papyrus of Ani comes this sentence: "O thou beautiful being, thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk within thy mother Hathor." The solar disc is often depicted between her horns. And Her role of caring for the dead led Her to be called the Queen of the West, as she also ushered the dead to the underworld and fed the souls upon her milky tits. Historically speaking, Hathor was not known to be the noon deity, Ra was, and Khepri or Khephera was the morning God, as Atum was in the evening. In the Boulaq translation, however, she is mentioned as one of the four main gods. Hail unto Thee who art Tum in Thy setting, even unto Thee who art Tum in Thy joy, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Down-going of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His spendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Day! Tum or Atum, was the original god of Heliopolis, preceding Ra. He was a sun god whose name meant "to be complete" or "to make an end of". He represents the sun in the evening and in His form of the snake, he represents the concept of the end of the universe. Atum is also pictured as a bearded man wearing the Double crown of the Pharaoh. Also from the papyrus of Ani is found this line: "I am Atum when he was alone in Nun, I am Ra when he dawned, when he began to rule that which he had made." There is also: "The glory of Unas is in the sky, his power is in the horizon, like Atum his father who fashioned him." which is from the Pyramid Texts of the Fifth dynasty (2600 BC). Tum is the representation of the "old god, who grows weary", the father of Ra. The Boulaq translation spells his name "Toum". Gardiner & Gunn spell it "Tom" and the modern translation is "Atum". Hail unto Thee who art Khephra in Thy hiding, even unto Thee who art Khephra in Thy silence, who travellest over the heavens in Thy bark at the Midnight Hour of the Sun. Tahuti standith in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Evening. Khepra (the Boulaq translation) or Khepri (Gardiner & Gunn translation) and Kheperi (the modern translation) is known as the sacred scarab beetle and "he who becomes", or "self created". Historically, again, Khepra symbolized the dawning sun, having been born in the East, not as Crowley spoke of him at night. His interpretation of the beetle, who rolled together a ball of dung for which the female laid her eggs and buried it in the earth until it was time to hatch, gives the impression that this was a time of darkness. At the time of a funerary death, it was a scarab amulet that was placed over the heart, which was intended to stimulate the dead heart to beat again at some future time. From the "Book of That Which is in the Underworld, (Papyrus Naskhem), it says, "In the twelfth hour of the night, Ra enters into the confines of thick darkness. In this region the god is born under the form of Khepera." It is not Ra who is seen in the boat now, but a beetle that stands in the center. And from the papyrus of Nesi-Khensu: The god Khepera,"who is unknown and who is more hidden than the other gods, the unknown one who hideth himself from that which cometh forth from him." Unity uttermost showed, I adore the might of Thy breath, Supreme and terrible God, Who makest the gods and death to tremble before Thee: I, I adore thee! Unity uttermost showed is the poetic paraphrasing of the grouping of the Stele's gods, Khepera, Ra, Hathor and Atum. The above became the dramatic interpretation from the Boulaq translation, "o

formidable soul, who inspires terror of himself among the gods." Appear on the throne of Ra. Open the ways of the Khu, Lighten the ways of the Ka. The ways of the Khabs run through To stir me or still me, Aum, let it fill me. The throne of Ra is the horizon. It is also that which is our eternal, internal flame. The Khu is known as several things. Primarily, it is of the spiritual self. It is a spirited intelligence that has a higher and a lower form. In the lower form it shows itself visually as a specter of low flame. It is the seat of intelligence and mental perception. It is part of the person and their thought forms that perform thought, reason, judgment, analysis, reflective facilities, memory and acts as the creative self. It can be trained and disciplined and dedicated to the higher form of Khu. There is always the possibility of it developing as vampiric. The higher form is the "Glorious, or Shining One. " Its form is the crested heron, having a shining or luminous effect. It is the spiritual side of man. The Gods and Goddesses and divine persons can have several spirits or Khus. Using this Khu, one can pass into the domains of Thoth and Hathor. One of the seven souls of Ra was a Khu, depicted as a disc raining down in the meaning of "splendour". In the Boulaq translation, it is spelled, "n khu" meaning "to the bright one." or “ khu" the brightness. For Gardiner & Gunn, they translated it as the "Sekh"; and the modern translates to "ah" or "i". The sentence refers to opening to this higher source within. The Ka is the double or abstract personality; the inner self; the principle of the body; the consciousness self; the protective genius. It is the transcendent part of man. The Ka governs the senses, perceptions and consciousness. It is the sum of all the senses. Visually, it is a light shadow, the etheric and the astral body. It could separate itself from or unite itself to the body at will and could move about freely. Funeral offerings were made to the Ka or offerings were painted on the tomb walls. There were "priests of Ka," who performed services in honor of the Ka. Its hieroglyph is seen as two connecting arms held up. It is a part of the astral inner self. The Boulaq translation states that Ka means elevated or sublime. Also, "kha", elevated or appearing. Gardiner & Gunn translated it to a different part of the subtle body, the BA soul. The modern translation spells it "ka" meaning the "high one". The sentence refers to the lightening of those physical senses and allowing the astral to ascend. The khabs is from the Boulaq translator who was referring to the Khaibit. It is the shadow, the dweller on the threshold. Khaibit, means, "to veil or cover". In general it is where the power of the seven planets converge and manifest in each individual. The Boulaq translation spelled it "n khab" meaning "to the shadow" or "to the body." Gardiner & Gunn named it the "khabt". The modern translation was very different, sw(t) (i), meaning "my shadow". There are two aspects to the Khaibit, the lower and the higher. The lower khaibit is the black shadow attached to every person. It can be independent and free at will and can go out into open sunlight. Sometimes it is visible as an aura of light. It can be vampiric and similar to Don Juans' shadow. This shadow is also known to the Greeks as the Umbra. When it is seen as light in its lower form, it appears as a flickering ectoplasmic light. In the higher khaibit form the hieroglyph is depicted as a 'shade.' Within the khaibit, as the dweller on the threshold, it is the "protective God of the heavens," the "opposer and terrible defender of the door". Within it rests the element of self-deception, but it is also the bridge to the higher planes where the "ill will" will not go. It is the producer of motion and emotion; it sustains sensory perception; and sustains blood; and is therefore very important in diseases. It is considered to be the "abode of the psychic pattern". Because of its heavenly influences, it can cause delusions and the "sin factor". It is the root of emotional sensitivity and the proficiency of creative arts. As the dweller, it sustains and enhances pride, jealousy, fear and anxiety. It is therefore also volatile and

can influence others. It is the plus and minus poles of the imagination. There are invocations to bring it out from the physical body through the use of a mirror. It is also closely associated with the Ba soul. The sentence refers to the association we have with our shadow. Will it keep us still to the point of stagnation or will it stimulate us to our fullest creative potential? The light is mine: its rays consume Me: I have made a secret door into the House of Ra and Tum. Of Khephra and of Ahathoor. I am thy Theban, O Mentu, The prophet Ankh-af-na-khonsu. We are each filled with our own individuated light. The secret door is that process by which we open ourselves up to the different aspects of ourselves in the form of each of these Gods, which are a phase, a path, a transmutation where we find experience. The amount of light we shed upon these parts of ourselves, both within a twenty-four hour period in the way in which the lighted heavenly bodies give us their light and through time, from birth until death. This is the consuming culmination of all the rays. May this light transpose us. It was in Thebes, now Luxor, the great city of the dead, that the greatest tombs and monuments are found. Thebes was the home of the High priests that ruled Upper Egypt when it was divided in the 21st Dynasty. Its Egyptian name also means "Wise". It is also the largest city in which Mentu or Montju or Mont was honored. Mentu was the warlike falcon-headed or bullhead god who came to power in the eleventh Dynasty. In the twelfth, Amun rose to power and Mut his consort adopted Montu into the Theban triad. He was compared and equated with Ra, Amun and Horus. One of his titles was "Horus with the strong arm". Ankh-af-na-khonsu is the deceased prophet of Mentu, Lord of Thebes, who is "true of voice", honored in the Stele of Revealing. He is also the son of a person of the same rank as Bes-n-maut, and of the priestess of Ammon-Ra, the mistress of the house Ta-nech. On the reverse of the stele with the Boulaq translation, it says that it is he who "has left the multitudes and rejoined those who are in the light, he has opened the dwelling place of the stars; now then, the deceased , Ankh-af-na-khonsu, who has gone forth by day in order to do everything that pleased him upon earth, among the living." In the Gardiner & Gunn translation, he is "the Opener of the Doors of Nut in Karnak, the Justified". The modern translation spells his name, "Ankhef-en-Khonsu. To further translate the meaning might be closer to the following: "Ankh" is both a tool and a symbol meaning of "new life". The hyphen "af" is always part of another word that lends exclamatory force. The word, "na" is generally used as a preposition, such as "to, for, belonging to, through, or because". "Khonsu" was the adopted son of Amun and Mut from the Theban triad. His name comes from a word meaning, "to cross over" or "wanderer" or "he who traverses". So, his entire name may be translated as "the truth that has crossed over". By Bes-na-Maut my breast I beat; By wise Ta-Nech I weave my spell. Show thy star-Splendour, O Nuit. Bid me within thine House to dwell, O wing'd snake of light, Hadit, Abide with me, Ra-HoorKhuit. In the Boulaq translation, Bes-na-maut is the "son of mnbsnmt (the fathers name who was a foreigner) and born of the Sistrum-bearer of Amon, the Lady Atne-sher." It is also stated that Bes n mut, was the son of the priestess-musician of Amun-re, mistress of the house Ta nech. Bes-na-Maut (also spelled Besen-mut in the modern translation) can be broken down to mean, Bes, as "bs" means to introduce, be initiated into a mystery or having mysterious form. Bes, was also a popular domestic deity, a bearded dwarf with shaggy hair, bandy legs and a tail, often wearing a lion's skin. He was the Patron of music,

jollity, and childbirth. He was associated with human pleasures of all kinds and he protects mankind by first strangling then devouring any serpent that might threaten the one wearing his likeness as a charm. The word, "na," again to reiterate, means "to, for, belonging to, through, or because". It can also be a negative, meaning "not", or in this case may introduce a proper noun. As for Maut, we must assume the phonetic pronunciation and make it that of the Goddess, Maat. Maat, in short was the personification of Truth and Justice, who was seen as wearing a single feather. The feather represented truth and it is seen in the judgment as being weighed on a scale in balance against the heart of an individual. So even though the name is foreign and there is no clue to the vocalization, if we use the Gardiner & Gunn translations, the name could be translated as an oath meaning essentially, "by the mysteries of initiation, I swear by all that is true," or something similar. For Ta-Nech we may break it down thus: "Ta" is the singular, feminine form for "this or the". Once again, the particular spelling of "Nech" is not to be found on its own, and only conjecture can aid us here. It is of interest to note that it sounds very close to God, Nekht, one of the fourteen names for Ra's souls, meaning strength. It is also the root word for Nechabet, who was the vulture goddess most often shown on the double crown of Egypt, which represented the union of upper and lower Egypt. The name itself could be translated as meaning "by the wise uniting powers" that guide. The starry spendour that is Nuit, or Nut, is both an eager and desirous request to be shown the night sky, and to be placed therein, as a star "in the company of stars". The god, Hadit in the Boulaq translation was spelled "Hudit". By Gardiner & Gunn as "Behdet"; and in the modern translation as "Hehedite." If we break down the syllables of the form that Crowley chose, we get these various meanings: "Ha" is a desert god. "Had" or "hd" means "to punish" or "defeat," or to be "victorious." The "it" means, "father". If we add an "n" to "it" it means the "sun" or the "sun's disk". So, I think we begin to see what Crowley was trying to say. He was invoking the light of night and the light of day that wings its way across the heavens, to be a part him. "Ra-Hor Khut", was as the Boulaq translation tells us, "chief of the gods" who faces Ankh-f-na-khonsu on the stele. Thankfully, there is a god of Egypt's history, spelled only in a slightly different manner, as Ra-heru-Khuti. This is a compound name of the gods and attributes of "Ra", "Horus" and "Khuti. There is only one reference with Crowley's spelling of "Khuit". She was an ancient female deity from Anthribes that later became directly associated with "Hathor". It is not surprising then, that Crowley chose the spelling of a goddess that was the personification of the great power of nature which was perpetually conceiving and creating. She was "the mother of her father, " and "the daughter of her son". Thus, Ra-Hoor-Khuit, was the Father, the son and the Mother, a potent triad in one magical formula. And after saying this all-encompassing power word, what could possibly be conveyed but the power of silence, with the sign of silence.

AN OPEN EPISTLE ON LIBER RESH VEL HELIOS, Part I by Frater Achad Osher This paper is adapted from series of lessons distributed in our branch of the AA titled The Magickal Essence of Aleister Crowley, Understanding the New Aeon through the teachings of the Great Beast. Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law.-AL I:40 It is no secret that many people have difficulty understanding how the solar tides flow from within as well as outside our body. It is easy to state that our Sun is the source of the elemental or astral tides manifesting upon our Earth but it usually confuses students when we mention that the same tides bring forth our subconscious and archetypal dreams. We tend to believe that everything occurring in our mind is solely ours rather than connected to a vast waterway of inner tides which are attached to everyone. However, our mind is simply one of many islands floating in the vastness of these heavenly waters, bathed and illuminated by the forces descending through our Sun and the stars. Most people haven't the faintest idea of this solar connection but in Aleister Crowley's most holy volume, Liber AL vel Legis, it plainly states that "Every man and every woman is a star."(AL I:3) Few individuals understand what is implied by this statement or have any comprehension of their internal solar connection. Most approach this verse from the lowest point of view, that of beginners, and go no further. Crowley simplified the concept for these folks by writing that "every human being is intrinsically an independent individual with his own proper character and proper motion" (1) and thus a star. Rarely do these beginners read all of Crowley's commentaries and writings on the full implications of this verse. Then again, one's ability to understand this verse, or any in Liber AL vel Legis, is in relation to their personal spiritual growth. If your psyche or nervous system were similar to twenty-two gauge wire, how much current could you draw before the wires burned out? Could it draw 100 amps? Of course not. A burn-out would be inevitable causing a serious fire. Without careful training to become a vehicle for the 93 current either through magick, yoga, or similar methods, most psychic systems will be ill-prepared for any influx or surge of Life current. This energy normally animates us and its strength is in relation to its ability to flow through our psychic system unhampered. The greater the system, the more current it can take. The easiest way to begin strengthening your psychic system in order to avoid a burn out is by doing a simplistic ritual known as Liber Resh vel Helios, sub figura CC (2) These are four adorations to be said four times daily at sunrise, noon, sunset and midnight. They correspond to the four elemental tides of air, fire, water and earth which stream forth from our Sun at given times during each day. Most Crowleyites are told to perform this ritual daily but are usually oblivious of its full potential. In greeting the Sun in the morning toward the east, one says, "Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy Strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night!" A similar adoration is given to the south to Ahathoor at noon, in the west to Tum at sunset and at midnight, facing the north unto the goddess Khephra. I'm not going into the full details of this ritual because it has been published so often it would only be redundant. You can easily find this ritual published in many of Crowley's book and papers or in other books by modern Thelemic authors. It is important to understand the basic symbolism behind the ritual. Resh is a Hebrew letter whose numerical value is that of 200. This is what the sub figura CC implies since C in Latin is the number 100 and thus CC is numerically 200. Of course Helios is Greek for the Sun. If you're familiar with Tarot

Cards you know that each of the 22 major trumps are ruled by one of twenty two major Hebrew letters. The letter Resh rules the card known as The Sun and astrologically this card is also ruled by the Sun itself. One should also know that the word Liber means book, thus Liber Resh is often referred to as The Book of the Sun. In other words, if there was ever any doubt, the title of this ritual definitely lets the reader know that it deals completely with Solar accomplishments. At this point I'd like to briefly mention a verse from The Book of the Law, or Liber AL vel Legis which I find pertinent to these lectures. In Chapter Three, verse 38 it states: "There is a secret door that I shall make to establish thy way in all the quarters, (these are the adorations, as thou hast written), as it is said. The light is mine; its rays consume Me: I have made a secret door Into the House of Ra and Tum, Of Khephra and of Ahathoor." I don't need to remind you that Crowley has commented that the adorations 'as thou hast written them' refers to the ritual of Liber Resh vel Helios. On the most basic level this ritual unconsciously prepares an individual as a vehicle for the solar current. The Book of the Law tells us "There is a secret door" which will be opened, but what it refers to is not fully written. Although you may not notice any differences while doing the ritual, subtle changes are occurring. Like any prayer you must have faith and trust that it is working. It is easy to go to the gym, do the exercises and see bodily results. This keeps you going. After all, if you achieved nothing you'd probably drop out of the gym. On the other hand it is harder to see results when doing Liber Resh since the change occurs on a more subtle level. I once asked Grady McMurtry how I would know if the solar adorations were doing any good. He simply replied that if I survived my elemental workings (Enochian-VIIIth Degree OTO) unscathed then obviously I laid a good foundation for them to work. If I showed signs of obsession, delusions, chaos or anything unstable in my character then obviously my prayers were not listened to, meaning that I had failed to prepare myself properly. It was pointed out to me that all explorers, even a person climbing Mt. Everest, must do some physical or mundane preparations before attempting any quest. As to the nature of Liber Resh I'd like to quote a few paragraphs from a paper published privately in 1980 by a member of Aleister Crowley's Ordo Templi Orientis. It's a good place to begin and will enable us to have a better understanding of this ritual. The person in question quoted an entry from his Magickal Diary which read, "It was a slightly cool, but clear night with only a few clouds rolling across the sky. The heavens were lit up by the stars and it was a beautiful New England night. I turned and gave a slight smile toward my friend and fellow Initiate. Facing toward the north I then assumed the god-form of Isis mourning. With deep emotions I began the Salutations of Khephra toward the night-sky. I wondered what the neighbors thought of my bellowing, but I knew it would have been difficult for them to hear me over the pounding of the waves as they hit the rocks. As I finished I wondered how many other Thelemites across the country were doing the exact same Salutation as I had just done at that given moment, thus uniting us strongly together on the astral. I gave a little smile as I stared up toward the stars. I then turned toward the Initiate who was quiet throughout my recital. He himself had chosen not to perform the Adoration for what reason I didn't bother to ask. He looked at me sort of puzzled and asked, 'Why is it that we're obligated to do this ritual?' I tried to explain basically, but soon gave up on my efforts. How can one explain that this seemingly simplistic ritual is one of the most complicated of all." (3)

As brief as the above paragraph is, it lays out the fundamental problem facing most people after reading this ritual. How is this seemingly simplistic ritual one of the most complicated of all? It is no secret that this ritual is very, very layered. Crowley gives a brief breakdown of the most obvious layers when he writes: "Here are given the four Adorations to the sun, to be said daily at dawn, noon, sunset and midnight. The Object of this practice is firstly to remind the aspirant at regular intervals of the Great Work; secondly, to bring him into conscious personal relation with the centre of our system; and thirdly; for advanced students, to make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the sun and thus draw actual force for him." (4) Crowley mentions that the first reason for doing this ritual is to remind the student of the Great Work. The nature of this work could fill volumes and is often contradictory depending upon which author you're reading. In the most simplistic sense, the Great Work implies that one has achieved the Knowledge and Conversation of their Holy Guardian Angel. Within the AA the foundation for this is accomplished in the degree known as Adeptus Minor which rules the sphere on the Qabalistic Tree of Life known as Tiphereth, or the Sun. Thus it is connected to Liber Resh. Crowley has further written that "the first essential (that all aspirants must do) is the dedication of all that one is and all that one has to the Great Work, without reservation of any sort. This must be kept constantly in mind; the way to do this is to practice Liber Resh vel Helios." (5) The second reason Crowley gave for doing Liber Resh was "to bring him (the aspirant) into conscious personal relation with the centre of our system." This is probably the most confusing point of Liber Resh and also the most misunderstood. The 'system' which Crowley refers to is not any particular belief structure taught within his organization intended to draw the unwary into the spider's lair. The most it might do on this level is to possibly tie you to a personal knowledge that others are doing the same ritual at approximately the same time that you are. The real system that Crowley refers to is the Solar System itself and the very center of this system is our Sun. Why anyone should need to become consciously aware of this school boy fact is important in light of how the New Aeon of Aquarius differs in solar belief from that prevalent in the Age of Pisces, often referred to as the 'dying god' syndrome. One individual who attempted to explain this New Aeonic solar principle to humanity was Charles Stansfeld Jones, who wrote under the magical name of Frater Achad. Before his fall from grace as a close friend and personal student of Aleister Crowley, the Beast wrote a unique book especially for him entitled Liber Aleph, the Book of Wisdom or Folly. In this book Crowley told Achad, "Neglect never the fourfold Adorations of the Sun in his four stations, for thereby thou dost affirm thy Place in Nature and her Harmonies." (6) Obviously Frater Achad did not take this command idly as shown by his own writings. He achieved a profound understanding of the Solar principles through his rituals and spent the rest of his life telling the world about that which Crowley taught. According to Achad, a Higher Truth was given to mankind now that the Aeon of Aquarius was upon us. He wrote that this truth is waiting in readiness for all those who will consciously accept it but it had to be realized before it was understood. He asked everyone "to come with me-if you will-just across the border-line of the Old Aeon and gaze for a moment at the New. Then, if the aspect pleases you, you will stay, or, it may be, you will return for a while, but the road once open and the Path plain, you will always be able to get there again, in the twinkling of an eye, just by readjusting your Inner sight to the Truth." (7) He wrote the above comment in a short essay called Stepping out of the Old Aeon into the New. He submitted it to Aleister Crowley who promptly published it the following year in The Equinox Vol.III:1 (1919). Although it is published anonymously we know it was written by Frater Achad because his personal diaries state, "On Sept. 1st (1918) I obtained a clear understanding regarding the Will and the Law ... on Sept. 15th I wrote Stepping Out of the Old Aeon into the New." (8) I would like to quote more

from this piece since I don't believe I can do better than his clarity on explaining the second reason for doing Liber Resh. Achad writes, "You know how deeply we have always been impressed with the ideas of Sun-rise and Sun-set, and how our ancient brethren, seeing the Sun disappear at night and rise again in the morning, based all their religious ideas in this one conception of a Dying and Re-arisen God. This is the central idea of the religion of the Old Aeon, but we have left it behind us because although it seemed to be based on Nature (and Nature's symbols are always true), yet we have outgrown this idea which is only apparently true in Nature. Since this great Ritual of Sacrifice and Death was conceived and perpetuated, we, through the observation of our men of science, have come to know that it is not the Sun which rises and sets, but the earth on which we live which revolves so that its shadow cuts us off from the sunlight during what we call night. The Sun does not die, as the ancients thought; It is always shining, always radiating Light and Life. Stop for a moment and get a clear conception of this Sun, how He is shining in the early morning, shining at mid-day, shining in the evening, and shining in the night. Have you got this idea clearly in you minds? You have stepped out of the Old Aeon and into the New. Now let us consider what has happened. In order to get this mental picture of the ever-shining Sun, what did you do? You identified yourself with the Sun. You stepped out of the consciousness of this planet; and for a moment you had to consider yourself as a Solar Being. Then why step back again? You may have done so involuntarily, because the Light was so great that it seemed as Darkness." (9) I think Frater Achad clearly points out that what Crowley refers to as the "center of our system" is not only our physical Sun but is also the identification of every individual as a Solar Being. I would like to remind you of a verse from Liber AL vel Legis: "Every man and every woman is a star." Why it's important to discuss these first two reasons for doing Liber Resh will become apparent in the next Epistle when we elaborate the third reason for doing this ritual, but first we need to lay a foundation of preliminary understanding. There is a part of the actual ritual of Liber Resh which requires further understanding. You'll read that an aspirant or student, is told to give the "sign of his grade" while doing the four adorations. These 'Signs' consist of a posture along with hand gestures touching various parts of the body. It is the placement of the hands which is the most important part. They are usually placed over the chakra, or psychic power zone, which the given initiated degree, or grade, typifies. This may be done either as a warning of what is at jeopardy if one violates his oaths or as a means of activation as in the case of doing Liber Resh. Through yoga we learn that the palms of our hands contain two of the most powerful psychic centers in our system, next to the chakras. These are known as marmas, or areas where three major psychic lines intersect. The left hand is capable of manipulating Lunar currents while the right rules Solar. Even the fingers themselves play an important part as an extensions of the type of energy one wishes to manifest. For instance, using the thumb implies the nature of Venus, whose sacred animal, the Dove, is found on the OTO Lamen. It's more complicated than merely mentioning attributions but, for the beginner, it's simply important to realize that no hand gesture of touching the body is done randomly or without purpose in magickal rituals. Although I advocate using any magickal sign or posture in which a hand touches a chakra, the most common are taken from our own AA system. These grade signs are symbolic god-forms and are shown in the photographs published in Crowley's opus, Magick in Theory & Practice. (10) These postures understandably use Egyptian sounding titles, especially considering the fact that the ritual of Liber Resh is oriented with ancient Egyptian terms and phrases. The god form assumed when facing east in the morning is known as Osiris risen; standing erect with your feet together and arms crossed on your chest as if one is laid out in a tomb. At noon you do the god form of Typhon; feet apart with arms out stretched above the head as if reaching toward the Sun. At sunset you do Osiris slain; taking almost the posture of

Christ slain, being a death posture as the Sun slowly sinks below the horizon. Finally at midnight you do the god form of Isis Mourning; forming the body into a swastika. Within Aleister Crowley's more mundane fraternity, the Ordo Templi Orientis we were once told that you can simply do the Sign of the Initiated Degree you had attained to. The author and one time friend of the Great Beast, Israel Regardie, has rewritten these adorations. His versions are oriented toward universal principals and lack any required god forms. You simply face toward the quarter and say his adoration. (11) This is OK if you're too embarrassed to be seen doing a strange zen like pose while reciting ancient incantations. After all, people do stare, even in California. Basically anything you chose is OK, just be consistent. Some people gently touch, with their index finger, the area of the chakra which is ruling the tide at that given moment. This can be done inconspicuously so that no one would notice, unless of course you're in a crowded room at midnight but that is another story. Another student of Crowley's, Grady Louis McMurtry, tells a great story about when he first saw the Great Beast doing Liber Resh. It's worth repeating. While they were in London Grady writes that, "We had taken one of those big red double-decker buses and were sitting on the bottom level on the left about half way. We were sitting there talking, when suddenly Crowley glanced up to the left, said, 'Pardon me a moment', closed his eyes, made some mystic passes with the fingers of his right hand, and mumbled something unintelligible. Unintelligible to me, anyway. It wasn't until later that I figured out that he had been doing the noon Liber Resh. The thing that is so striking is that he was so quiet about it. To hear some people talk you would think that he would have rushed up to the top deck and shouted it 'from the housetops' to all of greater London. There may have been times when he did, but he didn't do it that day." (12) One of the major excuses I have heard as to why people fail to do Liber Resh is the time requirements. In this day and age with our hectic life styles, many people either don't get up at sunrise or they are unconscious around midnight. It seems that everyone's schedule is different and, typically, one of the four adorations is always impossible to do. First of all it's more important to do the adorations rather than worry about the time constraints. It was originally suggested to me that the adorations of sunrise should be performed when you wake up and the adorations of midnight when you go to bed, if their normal times are unable to be reached. Be flexible. The exact moment, although better, is not necessary. Let me tell you a little secret about the Tattwas, serious magicians know how to plot these tides just like the tides of an ocean. They know that the astral tides change every day. A tide which rules at 6:00am one month will not be manifesting at the exact same time the following month. Therefore they plot the daily course of the tides. It's not hard to do. All you need to do is find the exact moment of sunrise which should be listed in your daily papers. Then, realize that tides run approximately every two hours from sunrise to sunrise. The first tide following the exact moment of the sun's rays on the horizon will always be air, the second fire, third water and the final tide is earth. Knowing this it is easy to make a schedule. Yes, I know some magical books and theories state that there are five tides and not four. Although this is somewhat true they lack an understanding of how the fifth manifests. The fifth tide is known as Akasha or spirit. It does not necessarily rule any given period of two hours as much as it is the binding factor throughout the other four tides at any given moment during their manifestation. Some will disagree with this and some 'authorities' will even tell you that the first tide to appear as the sun rises will always be Akasha. However, common sense dictates that five tides, ruling two hours each, when divided into a twenty four hour period do not fit. These 'authorities' forget that everything must be orderly or it has no place in the structure of our Universe. If four tides are divided into a twenty four hour period, the last tide will always be earth which is followed by air, thus completing a perfect elemental scheme. If Akasha rules the first two hours then simple figuring will show that the twenty-first and twenty-second hours do too. This means that the last two hours before sunrise will always be ruled

by air and thus the manifestation of the tides order as fire, water and then earth, are skipped and they would have us believe the next tide is Akasha again. This is totally illogical. The original intent of people doing adorations at 6:00am, 12:00pm, 6:00pm and 12:00am is simply a symbolic structure for beginners. Is this wrong? Not necessarily. Every tide is not purely the element which it rules, rather the element ruling is just the strongest. To examine the air tide, air is the strongest quality, while the second strongest quality is fire, followed by water and then earth. Their strength follows the flow of tides themselves. This implies the second tide of fire contains water, earth and the weakest, being previously the strongest, or air. It's an easy structure to figure out, being very methodical. Why I'm bothering to discuss the intricacies of the tides is to point out that each contains all four qualities in varying degrees. Therefore doing an adoration at any time will automatically tap into the elemental quality, even if the tide which you wanted is the weakest at the point when you were doing the adoration. Initially Grady McMurtry told me to begin doing Liber Resh at least three full months before I started any Enochian ritual. This is because if I were to choose, through some bizarre feat of stupidity, to do every single adoration at its weakest point, three months will still be an adequate amount of time to enable me to prepare my psychic system and begin establishing a door. Yes, I can only say that Liber Resh is integral to any working. If you're not willing to do this you shouldn't even bother to read further. The next article, or Part II on Liber Resh, will deal with the 'secret door' into the four quarters and its implications and effect on our psychic anatomy. This is what Aleister Crowley referred to as the third reason for doing Liber Resh vel Helios. To end this aticle a verse from one of Grady McMurtry's poems comes to mind, "Frater Perdurabo, you've wandered afar, Please tell us concerning the mystical star." (13) Love is the law, love under will.-AL I:57.
NOTES: 1. Aleister Crowley, Magick, ed. J. Symonds and K. Grant (New York: Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1974), p. 132. 2. Crowley, Magick (1974), p. 489. 3. "The Theory & Practice of the Ritual of Liber Resh-Part I," The Minerval Obligations, Lesson One (Connecticut: Brocken Mountain Lodge OTO, 1980), p. 1. 4. Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of, ed. J. Symonds and K. Grant (London: Jonathan Cape, 1969), p. 674. 5. Crowley, Magick Without Tears (Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications, 1973), p. 2. 6. Crowley, Liber Aleph (San Francisco: Level Press, 1974), p. 16. 7. Frater Achad, "Stepping out of the Old Aeon into the New," The 'Blue' Equinox, Vol.III No.1, ed. Aleister Crowley (New York: Samuel Weiser Inc., 1973), p. 183. 8. Frater Achad, Liber 31 (San Francisco: Level Press, 1974), p. 6. 9. Achad, "Stepping out," pp. 183-184. 10. Crowley, Magick (1974), photo between pp. 200-201. 11. Israel Regardie, Twelve Steps to Spiritual Enlightenment (Texas: Sangreal Foundation, Inc., 1969), p. 11. 12. Hymenaeus Alpha 777, "On Knowing Aleister Crowley Personally," O.T.O. Newsletter, Vol.II Nos. 7 & 8, Berkeley, California May 1979, p. 6. 13. The Poetry of Grady Louis McMurtry, Red Flame, A Thelemic Research Journal, No.1 (California: Corneliuses, 1994). The verse is from the poem "Perturbations."

AN OPEN EPISTLE ON LIBER RESH VEL HELIOS, Part II by Frater Achad Osher
This paper is adapted from series of lessons distributed in our branch of the AA titled The Magickal Essence of Aleister Crowley, Understanding the New Aeon through the teachings of the Great Beast.

Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law.-AL I:40 We shall now address the third reason why an individual should do Liber Resh. Although I will be giving an overview on the subject, I highly recommend reviewing the previous two reasons before attempting to understand anything in this article. In all honesty, most of what I shall discuss will be unattainable for the average person. After all, Aleister Crowley plainly stated the third reason is "for advanced students" so they could "make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the sun and thus draw actual force" into themselves. What I shall be discussing are certain aspects about the ritual of Liber Resh which Grady Louis McMurtry taught to me years ago. We have already discussed the astral tides and, although it is easy for us to state that our Sun is the source of these tides, it usually befuddles people when we mention that we have an internal door which allows these tides to manifest within ourselves. To understand this statement we must discuss human sexuality and psychic anatomy in relation to elementals. However, this opens up a can of worms on many levels. After making the above statement, I'm aware that I'll probably be addressing extremely difficult topics for the average student. The subject of western sex magick is avoided in most books or watered down to the point of being repressive. However, sex itself is neither moral or immoral, it is totally amoral. The current views of any given society are what tips the scale in either direction. From an amoral point of view most true magicians, like Aleister Crowley, have studied this topic for years, and a solar-phallic perspective is the key to most of the Beast's writings. From teachings found in eastern mysticism, we know that our psychic anatomy is composed of two invisible nerve currents called the Ida and the Pingala which snake themselves around the Sushumna, or central spinal column, like fine wires of positive and negative currents. Attached to this column are seven power zones known as chakras which equate to one, or more, of the spheres on The Tree of Life. Some schools claim there are more than seven but I tend to agree with the thought that they are confusing chakras with lesser power zones known as marmas. These chakras are attached to the central spinal column by a thin stem which gently rises outward until it blooms like a flower into a beautiful spiral or circular vortex just above the surface of our body. Most books fail to point out that these chakras open and close daily by the continual movement of energy and that without such you'd be dead. Unfortunately in the average person the energy may never fully open any given chakra, nor does it follow a perfect order from the lowest to the highest. It may only briefly fulfill an individual's requirements to exist on a daily basis as typified by our emotions and senses. Some eastern schools make it seem like these power zones remain tightly closed unless, through certain secret teachings, one learns how to activate them. This is total rubbish. Yes, certain yogic teachings do unravel the knots and activate the chakras in a certain order. This has its place in the scheme of things but we are not concerned with these practices. The energy within our subtle anatomy which activates the chakras is known as the Kundalini. It is considered a 'pure' energy, one which has the potential to transform everything it embraces. It is often called the Serpent Power because it is said to be coiled like a snake at the base of our spine, just waiting to be awakened from its trance-like sleep. When it wakes this energy rises upward to embrace and activate the chakras. The whole process is like flipping a switch so that electricity flows through wires to light a bulb.

The lowest of these chakras is known as the Muladhara or root chakra. It is situated at the base of the spine between the sexual organs and the anus. It is misleading to say that this chakra is the home of the Fire Serpent or Kundalini when it sleeps. This is a misnomer although many books on yoga state this as if it were a fact. Magicians have long known that the force actually comes from beyond our psychic system and only flows through this chakra. Of these seven chakras, four are directly associated with the astral tides. The Muladhara chakra rules the astral tide of Prithivi or earth, but it is important to stress that it is also the source of all four unmanifested tides. In other words the Muladhara is merely the door through which all four solar tides enter into our body. As these tides rise upward into our system, the earth tide remains in the Muladhara chakra and this is why yogic masters claim it rules this element. The Muladhara has four distinct divisions of energy or types of vibrations swirling around its top. These are often referred to as petals in Tantric writings, each represents one of the four tides. The other chakras also have a specific number of petals and this is why chakras are often referred to as lotuses or flowers which bloom when the energy is drawn near. In the center of the Muladhara, between the four petals, is said to dwell a 'Hidden Sun' which continually exudes a dangerous poison. This Hidden Sun is critical to western sex magick but is shunned by eastern religions. Tantric writings refer to this poison as the sun-fluid of mortality because he who eats of this nectar will surely die. It's a bit dramatic and definitely not true. The facts are far simpler. We all die. No one has yet to escape this mundane inevitability, so avoidance of the nectar is ludicrous. Through Liber Resh a perfectly balanced four-fold door is opened, like the petals of the Muladhara chakra and an inner Sun in revealed. The true key, however, is that this Hidden Sun is not contained in the Muladhara chakra. The chakra is a doorway which opens to universal currents emanating from the Sun found in our own Solar System. Thus, the Sun is the true origin of the Kundalini, the serpent coiled around our Universe. This is the truth behind Hadit. There are many, many other mysteries regarding this chakra. Tantric writings show there are sacred symbols which typify each power zone. All symbols are depicted as being round, with the respective number of petals situated around the perimeter. In the case of the Muladhara, there are obviously four petals. The next symbol found within the Muladhara circle is that of a square which represents the earth as well as the four-fold door in respect to the tides. There are other symbols, but I do not wish to go into them as they do not relate to where I'm going. However, every chakra has letters inscribed on the petals as well as letters of a given mantra, or the name of a sound, in the very center of the design. If this sound is vibrated over and over, at least twelve times, these mantras transform the consciousness as the Kundalini moves through the chakra which the sound represents. It is important to realize that these letters are not just words representing the alphabet, they are vibrational rates of a chakra which reflects the ability of a universal life-force to manifest. The Muladhara mantra is a three letter word, LAM. In Crowley's The 'Blue' Equinox Vol.III No.1 there is a drawing of a large headed Master which is entitled The Way. He further writes that this is LAM, and "is the Tibetan word for the Way or Path, and Lama is He who Goeth, the specific title of the Gods of Egypt, the Treader of the Path, in Buddhistic phraseology." (1) When a friend who visited Crowley's apartment in London during World war II commented on this drawing, wondering if it was the product of his imagination, the Beast replied, "That? He's my guru!" (2) To this day LAM has remained extremely perplexing amongst Crowleyites. We know this entity appeared to Crowley while he was in New York around 1918. Some claim this occurred during the infamous Amalantrah Working but, unfortunately, the full record of this magickal working has not survived. We have copies of only the first six months and there is no mention of LAM. Regardless, scholars of all types have expressed with deepest sincerity their beliefs as to who or what LAM is, myself included. Some of the theories border on the bizarre, as when an author claims the drawing looks like a 'gray' or a certain type of alien seen by abductees of UFOs. Other theories simply refer to LAM as a hidden gateway. I personally feel this is closer to the truth. LAM represents the frequency whereby the hidden door is opened and the energy rises. He is truly The Way. Crowley's

magick, being so phallic and tied closely to the solar currents found in the Muladhara chakra, is naturally drawn to this path and this explains why he refers to LAM as his Guru. Crowley attributed LAM's Qabalistic numerical value as 71 to reflect the Hebrew word for Silence. However, during one our own workings in 1982, we learned that in addition to 71, LAM is portrayed by many numbers, one such being 631. This is because in Hebrew Qabalah the letter 'L' has the numerical value of thirty, while the 'A' is one, and the 'M' being Mem-final in the word is numerically six hundred rather than just forty. When I previously mentioned the verse in Liber AL vel Legis which claimed that there was a 'secret door', I failed to point out that numerically, using English Qabalah, the words 'secret door' adds to 631. Therefore LAM not only represents The Way but is also the secret door made into the four quarters which will enable the student "to make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the sun" as Crowley has stated. Thus each individual will be able to draw the actual force into themselves. At this point I suggest that the student use this mantra in conjunction with Liber Resh vel Helios, preferably right after the evocations. The next chakra to be activated when the Kundalini moves up the spine is the Svadhisthana. This is located in and around the sexual organs themselves and rules the tides of Apas or water. The third chakra is known as the Manipura and is located on the right side of the body. It rules Tejas or the fire tides. The fourth is the Solar Chakra or Anahata. It is located just under the rib cage and rules the tides known as Vayu, or air. The other three higher chakras need not concern you at present. For now concentrate on the lowest chakras only. If one wishes to work with a given elemental quality internally then you must allow the tide to rise into the chakra which dictates the inherent quality of that force. Meditation and visualization upon the location of the chakra while using the appropriate mantra draws the energy into that area. However, working off a given chakra is primarily done for internal spiritual purposes rather than summoning elemental or astral beings. Some argue that drawing the Kundalini into the chakra ruling the elemental quality prepares an individual as a vehicle for performing solar phallic magick in relationship to that force. This subject is very contradictory depending upon whom you're reading. Although, in all honesty, working off the Muladhara from a magickal point of view automatically taps into all four qualities. It is important to reflect upon the Tantric writings which claim that this inner Sun exudes the poison of mortality. This is purely an old Aeonic concept, based on dying gods, and has no place in our system of magick. We must look beyond the belief that states everything which is born upon this plane must follow the course of the Sun through its birth, life and death. Nothing truly dies, it merely transforms into something else. Energy can not dissipate. Everything has a purpose, even these solar fluids. Magicians look upon this inner Sun of the Muladhara as the source of not only our death but also the Illusions which binds us to these very concepts. Like Adam and Eve who were tempted by the Serpent and became mortals, we too attain a similar reward when the Kundalini rises and remains in the lowest chakra. We bathe ourselves in this sun-fluid of mortality and reap it's sexual rewards upon our psychic system, being mortal. In eastern teachings there are certain yogic practices which attempt to stem the flow of this solar fluid, hoping to taste instead the fluid of immortality flowing from the Sahasrara, or crown, chakra. This is justifiable, but we are more concerned with the solar tides and their relationship with phallic power and the actual emission of semen. Some believe this is the main reason why many schools of eastern Tantras and yoga condemn western schools as dealing primarily with Black Magick, because we use the solar currents rather than lunar. However, I wish to point out that even in India there are Tantric groups known as Uttara-Kaulas who "arouse Kundalini in the Muladhara to satisfy their desire for world-enjoyment and do not lead Her upwards to the Highest Centre which is the object of Yoga seeking super-worldly bliss." (3) At this point I stress that although I fully support further study, the student will quickly realize that eastern Tantric goals are far different than our own. There is the old adage that one man's meat is another man's poison. I state this with no pun intended when discussing bathing ourselves in Solar phallic nectar. To us their dogma is like all religions, it may spew forth negativity against our techniques,

as we occasionally do toward theirs. Take everything with a grain of salt and do further research for yourself as a true scientist would. What you will get out of studying eastern views is the realization that we share an almost identical belief structure in regards to terms and phrases. It is our methods and goals which differ. It was explained to me that the main difference between us is one of direction. Eastern Tantras deal with escapism from this plane by the purification of body and soul, thus seeking immortality. Western forms of Tantra immerse themselves into reality, realizing that the illusions are our playground and that everything we create will fade away with time. The only sin is the restriction we place upon ourselves. After all, the Spirit in both cases is perfect. We believe that experience is the key. In basic terms, one method has its practitioners trying to get off this plane by no longer incarnating while the other method realizes that we are bound here for all eternity, living one life after another, so enjoy it. Most books approach Tantric yoga purely from an eastern point of view and express the belief that we should stem the flow of solar fluids in hope of tasting the nectar of immortality descending from the Sahasrara or crown chakra. This nectar signifies a feminine aspect of the Goddess, through use of her lunar currents, and is hardly reflective of solar phallic magick. However, in most true western magickal schools both aspects are pursued. In other words, I'm not saying that you shouldn't strive to obtain lunar currents but don't be as narrow minded as some eastern schools which claim their method is the only true path to follow. As a scientist remember that everything has a purpose. Let's review some important facts so that you can have these concepts in the forefront of your mind before we go further. It is important for a magician to understand these finer points. First, as just previously stated, the Sun which is revealed when the Muladhara opens its four petals is the same Sun found in our solar system. Second, the four-fold petals also have a strong connection to the 'secret fourfold door' which opens during Liber Resh. Third, this Sun is also the source of the Kundalini, or energy, which is often falsely stated as originating within the chakra itself. What this implies is that there is one tide which animates both our external and internal realities. There is only one major difference; like images in a mirror, our internal tides manifest in reverse order to the tides emanating from the Sun which bathes our planet. Instead of air, fire, water, and then earth, the internal tides manifest in reverse order in our psychic anatomy when the Kundalini begins to rise. The first chakra rules the earth, the second water and so on. If all this is confusing it might be easier to simply accept that we have a secret door to the Sun's tides (energy) in our psychic anatomy. If magicians utilize this doorway, as Crowley explains, we can "make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the sun and thus draw actual force." (4) Concluding this article, it is obvious that humanity has a powerful tool at its disposal which must be handled very carefully. These solar tides represent the sum total of all life's energy and are the very building blocks of the universe itself. We know that sexuality plays an important key in opening the secret four-fold door and allowing this energy to manifest within us but it is also the quickest route to a descent into meaningless torment if misused. As for beginners, I'd recommend to simply do Liber Resh without the lust of result. After all, the third reason for doing this simplistic ritual is for advanced students. Although I touched upon it in this article, it was only an overview, lacking much reflection of the direction in which your studies could take you if this is your goal. Love is the law, love under will.-AL I:57. NOTES: 1. Aleister Crowley, "The Supplement", The 'Blue' Equinox Vol.III No.1 (New York: Samuel Weiser Inc., 1973), p. 1. 2. Friends & Acquaintances of Aleister Crowley, Red Flame , A Thelemic Research Journal, No.3, ed. J.Edward & Marlene Cornelius (California: Corneliuses, 1996), p. 139. 3. Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe), The Serpent Power (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1974), p. 12. 4. Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley (New York: Hill & Wang Inc. 1969) p. 674.

Introduction To The Study Of The Daily Adoration Liber Resh Vel Helios Arranged by Frater L.V.V.O. (c) Introduction This is a condensed version from Frater Achad Osher article upon the 'Liber Resh Vel Helios,' from which he extrapolates from various select works of Aleister Crowley, which specifically relates to, the Liber Resh Vel Helios. It also reflects some of the Cicero's thoughts upon the Liber Resh Vel Helios, which can be found in the book titled "Self-Initiation into the Golden Tradition." 1 The rearrangements are my own with the intent of getting to the heart of the The Liber Resh vel Helios, in a more direct and condensed manor, while still keeping intact Frater A.O.'s article 2 and thoughts, but yet more suited for the beginning student. The Liber Resh vel Helios is taken from the works of Aleister Crowley's, 'Liber AL vel Legis.' This is perhaps the only ritual you will see within the SOM that utilizes a Crowley ritual, but it would be unfair to not give due credit for this original well-known ritual that many magical Orders use. The version that Sanctuary of Ma'at has chosen to adopt for the beginning students is a modified version of Crowley's Liber Resh Vel Helios, which utilizes the Signs of the Neophyte in all four quarters, rather than each of the different god-form positions and hand gestures; these will be more fully discussed in greater detail as one passes through the higher grades. To begin I would like to quote three paragraphs from the Cicero's 'Self-Initiation Into The Golden Dawn Tradition.' 1 "It is important for a magician to feel a link with the Divine Source of the universe every single day. In our modern secular society, human beings can easily become detached from that which is spiritual. In order to reaffirm our awareness of ourselves as beings who are a part of a greater Divine Self, it is important to make a ritual gesture confirming a link between the Eternal and ourselves. This Eternal Self is readily symbolized by the luminary of Sol, the Sun; the symbol of both Light and Life on Earth." "Although the Divine Self is encompassed by the idea of One, Sol, as a visible representation of the Divine is referred to four daily positions: East-Dawn, South-Noon, West-Sunset, and North-Midnight. Consequently, an adoration is directed towards Sol at each of these four positions." "Israel Regardie suggested that the student perform the four adorations from Aleister Crowley's Liber Resh vel Helios." 1 The Sanctuary of Ma'at has adopted these Senior Golden Dawn adepts' points of view, to include the Neophyte Signs in all four quarters. Basic Symbolism Frater A.O. writes, "It is important to understand the basic symbolism behind the ritual. Resh is a Hebrew letter whose numerical value is that of 200. Of course Helios is Greek for the Sun. If you're familiar with Tarot Cards you know that each of the 22 major trumps are ruled by one of twenty two major Hebrew letters. The letter Resh rules the card known as The Sun and astrologically this card is also ruled by the Sun itself. One should also know that the word Liber means book, thus Liber Resh is

often referred to as The Book of the Sun. In other words, if there was ever any doubt, the title of this ritual definitely informs us that it deals completely with Solar accomplishments." 2 "The four adorations are to be said four times daily: at sunrise, noon, sunset and midnight. They correspond to the four elemental tides of air, fire, water and earth which stream forth from our Sun at given times during each day. Most are told to perform this ritual daily but are usually unaware of its full potential." "One of the major excuses as to why people fail to do Liber Resh is the time requirements. In this day and age with our hectic life styles, many people either don't get up at sunrise or they are unconscious around midnight. It seems that everyone's schedule is different and, typically, one of the four adorations is always impossible to do. First of all it's more important to do the adorations rather than worry about the time constraints. If their normal times are unable to be reached, the adorations of sunrise should be performed when you wake up and the adorations of midnight when you go to bed. Be flexible. The exact moment, although better, is not necessary." "This ritual is very, very layered, but basically this ritual is a Solar ritual, and as a Solar ritual it deals primarily with the concept of the "solar tides," and "spiritual energy." On the most basic level this ritual unconsciously prepares an individual as a vehicle for the solar current. Although you may not notice any differences while doing the ritual, subtle changes are occurring. Like any other ritual or prayer you must have faith and trust that it is working." "In greeting the Sun in the morning toward the east, one says, "Hail unto Thee who art Ra in Thy rising, even unto Thee who art Ra in Thy Strength, who travellest over the Heavens in Thy bark at the Uprising of the Sun. Tahuti standeth in His splendour at the prow, and Ra-Hoor abideth at the helm. Hail unto Thee from the Abodes of Night!" A similar adoration is given to the south to Ahathoor at noon, in the west to Tum at sunset and at midnight, facing the north unto the goddess Khephra. I'm not going into the full details of this ritual because it has been published so often it would only be redundant, it can also be found in our lesson book." "Crowley gives a brief breakdown of the most obvious layers when he writes: 'Here are given the four Adorations to the sun, to be said daily at dawn, noon, sunset and midnight. The Object of this practice is firstly to remind the aspirant at regular intervals of the Great Work; secondly, to bring him into conscious personal relation with the center of our system; and thirdly; for advanced students, to make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the sun and thus draw actual force for him.' " "Most people haven't been introduced to the idea of this solar connection, or have any understanding of their internal solar connection. Most approach this ritual from the lowest point of view, that of beginners, and go no further without realizing the full implications of this ritual." We will not go into the solar tide concepts at great lengths at this time, as they will be discussed in future lessons. It is enough for now, to know "that these solar tides flow from within as well as outside our body, and that our Sun plays a significant roll upon the elemental or astral tides manifesting upon our Earth." Frater A.O. continues, "If your psyche or nervous system were similar to a twenty-two-gauge wire, how much current could you draw before the wires burned out? Could it draw 100 amps? Of course not, a burnout would be inevitable causing a serious fire."

"Without careful training to become a vehicle for the magical and solar current most of us will be ill prepared for any great influx or surge of these currents. The spiritual and solar energies that animates us, and its strength, is in relation to its ability to flow through our sphere of sensation (aura) and our numerous psychic centers unhampered. The more we practice our meditations and rituals, the more current our sphere of sensation and psychic centers can take in. The easiest way to begin strengthening our sphere of sensation and psychic centers in order to avoid such a burn out is by doing this simplistic ritual." Why is it that were obligated to do this ritual? "The first reason for doing this ritual then as Crowley mentions, "is to remind the student of the Great Work." In the most simplistic sense, the Great Work implies that one has achieved the Knowledge and Conversation of their Holy Guardian Angel. Within the Golden Dawn the foundation for this is accomplished in the degree known as Adeptus Minor which rules the sphere on the Qabalistic Tree of Life known as Tiphereth, or the Sun. Thus it is connected to Liber Resh. Crowley has further written that "the first essential (that all aspirants must do) is the dedication of all that one is and all that one has to the Great Work, without reservation of any sort. This must be kept constantly in mind; the way to do this is to practice Liber Resh vel Helios." "The second reason Crowley gave for doing Liber Resh was "to bring him (the aspirant) into conscious personal relation with the centre of our system." This is probably the most confusing point of Liber Resh and also the most misunderstood. The 'system' which Crowley refers to is not any particular belief structure taught within his organization, but rather to the Solar System itself and the very center of this system is our Sun. "Neglect never the fourfold Adorations of the Sun in his four stations, for thereby thou dost affirm thy Place in Nature and her Harmonies." 2 The third reason for doing this ritual, requires a much deeper understanding. It is enough for now to know that the higher grade signs, the god-forms, astral tides and the flowing tides of the Tattwas, along with the 'secret door' into the four quarters, will all be used for the more advanced students while doing the four adorations. These will all be discussed in greater details over a period of time while progressing through the higher grades. End of arrangement.
1 2

Cicero. Self-Initiation into the Golden Dawn Tradition, p. 86-87. Frater Achad Osher. An Open Epistle On the Liber Resh Vel Helios Part I Bibliography Self-Initiation into the Golden Dawn Tradition. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1998. An Open Epistle On the Liber Resh Vel Helios Part I Aleister Crowley, Magick, ed. J. Symonds and K. Grant (New York: Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1974) Crowley, Magick (1974) The Theory & Practice of the Ritual of Liber Resh-Part I," The Minerval Obligations, Lesson One (Connecticut: Brocken Mountain Lodge OTO, 1980), p. 1. Crowley, Magick Without Tears (Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications, 1973), p. 2. Crowley, Liber Aleph (San Francisco: Level Press, 1974), p. 16. Israel Regardie, Twelve Steps to Spiritual Enlightenment (Texas: Sangreal Foundation, Inc., 1969), p. 11.

http://www.barbelith.com/topic/24937 Liber Resh As I've noted in another topic, I've recently started doing Crowley's Liber Resh vel Helios, which can be found here, among many other places. I've been thinking about what this ritual is, and what it means, and I thought I'd share my thoughts as the foundation for a discussion of the ritual. So the below is from my notes, tweaked a bit here and there to make things flow a bit better. As you'll see, much of what's below isn't really original to me (although I do think I tracked down Crowley's source material, which I hadn't seen before). Here we go: Crowley's Liber Resh vel Helios (or "Liber Resh") is a fairly standard practice among Golden Dawnstyle magicians. It basically consists of stopping four times a day to do a brief "adoration" of the Sun – a short visualization/prayer/invocation. Like many of Crowley's rituals, the instructions above are pretty bare bones. They assume a certain amount of familiarity with Golden Dawn magic and its symbolism and practice -- or at least assume that the practitioner has an experienced tutor. Nowadays, authors writing about Liber Resh often will provide a bit more detail and a few tweaks. For example, Kraig's "Modern Magic" substitutes the elemental grade signs for the grade of the practitioner and simple elemental visualizations for the god forms. So what's the point of this ritual? And what's going on? First the title: Liber is a Latin word meaning "book." Resh, which literally means "head" in Hebrew, is the letter of the Hebrew alphabet associated with the Sun by Hermetic-tradition kabbalists. Vel is Latin for "or," and "Helios" is, of course, Greek for "sun" or the Greek god of the sun. So we've got a Latin/Hebrew/Greek mishmash here -- common for Crowley or Golden Dawn-style syncretic magic. Crowley, the ritual's author, said that the purpose of Liber Resh is "firstly to remind the aspirant at regular intervals of the Great Work; secondly, to bring him into conscious personal relation with the centre of our system [the solar principle]; and thirdly; for advanced students, to make actual magical contact with the spiritual energy of the sun and thus draw actual force for him." On the first purpose, he also said that "the first essential is the dedication of all that one is and all that one has to the Great Work, without reservation of any sort. This must be kept constantly in mind; the way to do this is to practice [Liber Resh vel Helios]. There is another version of these Adorations, slightly fuller; but those in the text are quite alright. The important thing is not to forget." Crowley disciple Frater Achad (Charles Stansfield Jones) elaborated a bit on the second purpose: "You know how deeply we have always been impressed with the ideas of Sun-rise and Sun-set, and how our ancient brethren, seeing the Sun disappear at night and rise again in the morning, based all their religious ideas in this one conception of a Dying and Re-arisen God. This is the central idea of the religion of the Old Aeon, but we have left it behind us because although it seemed to be based on Nature (and Nature's symbols are always true), yet we have outgrown this idea which is only apparently true in Nature. Since this great Ritual of Sacrifice and Death was conceived and perpetuated, we, through the observation of our men of science, have come to know that it is not the Sun which rises and sets, but the earth on which

we live which revolves so that its shadow cuts us off from the sunlight during what we call night. The Sun does not die, as the ancients thought; It is always shining, always radiating Light and Life. Stop for a moment and get a clear conception of this Sun, how He is shining in the early morning, shining at midday, shining in the evening, and shining in the night. Have you got this idea clearly in you minds? You have stepped out of the Old Aeon and into the New. Now let us consider what has happened. In order to get this mental picture of the ever-shining Sun, what did you do? You identified yourself with the Sun. You stepped out of the consciousness of this planet; and for a moment you had to consider yourself as a Solar Being. Then why step back again? You may have done so involuntarily, because the Light was so great that it seemed as Darkness." Modern Golden Dawn practitioners Chic and Sandra Cicero, who use a similar ritual at the suggestion of their teacher (and former Crowley student) Israel Regardie offer a similar rationale: "[i]t is important for a magician to feel a link with the Divine Source of the universe every single day. . . . In order to reaffirm our awareness of ourselves as beings who are part of a greater Divine Self, it is important to make a ritual gesture confirming a link between the Eternal and ourselves. This Eternal Self is readily symbolized by the luminary of Sol, the Sun; the symbol of both Light and Life on Earth." Lon Milo DuQuette put it simply: "Resh serves as an excellent form of background concentration which requires us to acknowledge our magical relationship with the sun at least four times in our busy day." So Liber Resh is intended to tune the magician in to the divine, or the classic Solar principle, by identifying with the Sun as it progresses across the heavens during the day. By requiring regular, daily practice it also reminds the magician that he or she is a magician. At least in theory, it also may allow the magician to draw spiritual sustenance or energy from the sun. So how does the ritual try to do this? First, obviously, it has the practitioner invoke (or at least hail) certain Egyptian gods – Ra, Ahathoor, Tum and Khephra. Not Jesus, not Adonai or YHVH, but Egyptian gods. Why identify with gods at all? It seems to me that this is a classic method of spiritual development – make the practitioner identify with something considered outside the self, and superior to the self, so he or she can aspire to be something greater than he or she already is. (I'll reserve judgment for now about whether the ritual actually involves contacting these gods.) Why use Egyptian gods? Well, all things Egyptian seem to have been popular in England in the 19th century, and Egyptian gods were heavily incorporated into the rituals of the Golden Dawn, the magical organization that originally trained Crowley. To people raised in the Judeo-Christian tradition, the use of Egyptian gods quite possibly adds a bit of alien-ness or otherness to the ritual, reminding the practitioner that he or she is doing something outside the realm of the everyday, and giving it a bit of an extra "charge." The ritual itself seems to be based on ancient Egyptian prayers reproduced in E.A. Wallis Budge's translation of the Book of the Dead. Here's a selection from "A Hymn of Praise to be Sung to Ra When He Riseth on the Horizon, and When He Setteth In the Land of Life": "Homage to thee, O Ra, when thou risest as Tem-Heru-Khuti. Thou art to be adored. Thy beauties are before mine eyes, thy radiance is upon my body. Thou goest forth to thy setting in the Sektet Boat with

fair winds, and thy heart is glad." "Homage to thee, O thou who are Ra when thou risest, and who art Tem when thou settest in beauty. Thou risest and thou shinest on the back of thy mother Nut, O thou who art crowned the king of gods! Nut welcometh thee, and payeth homage unto thee, and Maat, the everlasting and never-changing goddess, embraceth thee at noon and at eve." So why is the ritual done four times a day? It's a standard spiritual practice to say prayers at different times of the day. I'd guess Crowley was influenced by both Islam, which requires adherents to face Mecca and pray five times a day (at dawn, midday, mid-afternoon, sunset, and nightfall), and Catholicism, which once required the devout to say the eight offices (matins, lauds, prime, terce, sext, none, vespers, and compline) at various times during the day. Four is a pretty standard magical number, and the day breaks pretty easily into 6-hour quarters. It also allows for a bit of discipline, since (if done to the letter) it requires the aspirant to either stay up late to do the midnight adoration or wake up early to do the dawn adoration. In the classic form of Liber Resh, you intensely visualize and identify yourself with one of these four gods as you recite the words of the ritual appropriate for that time of day. Why use the four gods Ra, Hathoor, Atum and Khepra? Ra, Atum and Khepra are all forms of the Egyptian solar god as the sun travels across the sky during the day. Ra is the classic sun god with the head of a falcon, Atum (or Tum) is the ancient creator god, sometimes shown with the head of a ram, and Khephra or Khepri is a god of the morning, usually depicted in the form of a scarab or dung beetle (which pushes a big ball of dung that was associated with the sun moving across the sky). Hathoor is the Egyptian Venus, the wife or daughter of Ra, sometimes depicted as a cow. Oddly, Crowley's attributions were a bit off. Traditionally, Khephra is associated with the sun in the morning, Ra at noon, and Atum at evening. Hathoor accompanied Ra as he journeyed across the sky in his solar bark during the day, but wasn't associated with a phase of the sun at all. (Some practitioners have corrected Crowley's attributions – for example, modern Golden Dawn practitioners the Ciceros wrote and use a ritual called "Kheperu Nu Ra" which uses Khepera, Ra, Temu, and Amon (the "hidden" solar god) at the four times of day.) So what does it say that Crowley wrote Liber Resh based in part on an ancient Egyptian source, and that he tweaked the attributions used for the gods? For one thing, it shows that a practitioner should be able to adopt and change old rituals to develop something personally workable and meaningful. (For example, Crowley may have added Hathoor because he thought a female deity needed to be included for balance.) The LBRP, the Star Ruby, and any given chaos ritual aren't graven in stone. Just like a recipe or the score of a song, the rituals that came before you can be tweaked and customized like a good suit. In that spirit, here's a variation I put together and may end up using. I'm not half the poet Crowley is, but I don't like pseudo-Biblical language, and if I'm going to use gods, I may as well use the correct attributions and the names I like best for each. At dawn, face East, give grade sign (Enterer – left foot forward, arms thrust forward). [Visualize self as scarab with sun disk. God of resurrection and rebirth.]

Hail, Khepra in rising and birth! Coursing through the heavens at sunrise! Horus at the helm and Thoth at the prow. Hail to you from the realm of night! Then Sign of Silence (stamp left foot, left forefinger to lips). At noon, face South, give grade sign: [Visualize self as man with hawk head with sun disk. Sun god, creator god.] Hail, Ra in your triumph and strength! Coursing through the heavens at noon! Horus at the helm and Thoth at the prow. Hail to you from the realm of morning! Then Sign of Silence. At sunset, face West, give grade sign: [Visualize self as bearded man on a throne with a double crown, or bull with sun disk between his horns. Primal creator and creation.] Hail, Tum in your setting and joy! Coursing through the heavens at sunset! Horus at the helm and Thoth at the prow. Hail to you from the realm of the day! Then Sign of Silence. At midnight, face North, give grade sign: [Visualize self as bearded man on a throne with a double plume crown. Hidden god of creation.] Hail, Amun in hiding and silence! Coursing through the heavens at midnight! Horus at the helm and Thoth at the prow. Hail to you from the realm of evening! Then Sign of Silence. More later. Any thoughts? Just for the hell of it, here's a de-godified version of Resh I put together that simply focuses on the sun itself. (Remember, I never claimed to be a poet.) Not sure if I'll end up using this, either: Dawn (enterer, then air grade sign):

Hail, Sun in the morning! Spreading rosy fingers over the world, Bringing new light and purpose to the day! Welcome from the realm of night! (Sign of silence) Noon (enterer, then fire grade sign): Hail, Sun at noon! Coursing through the center of the sky, Warming the earth with your fire! Welcome from the realm of morning! (Sign of silence) Sunset (enterer, then water grade sign): Hail, Sun in the evening! Setting joyously over the land, Painting the world crimson and gold! Welcome from the realm of day! (Sign of silence) Midnight (enterer, then earth grade sign): Hail, Sun at midnight! Moving secretly through the night, Regarding us through your silver reflection! Welcome from the realm of evening! (Sign of silence) Cheers, E. That's fascinating stuff. Nothing practical to add at this juncture, I'm afraid. You might be interested in some of the old stuff from Thelemic website Beast Bay, if you can find it (might have to use Wayback machine). There was a big discussion over there on which time of day to do it - according to your natual sleeping and waking rhythms, or dividing the day into 4 quarters. IIRC there was mucho debate about the latter, getting very into dividing the day up quite mathematically, taking account of actual sunrises and sunset times. A bit mad, but quite fun, if you like that sort of thing. The purpose of assuming godforms is in the classical tradition to attract certain energies to the sphere of sensation of the magician. A godform is not the same an invocation, its an identification. The difference is like taking on the clothes of the pharaoh and actually being the pharaoh. Classic GD treats magical energy as invisible light that the practitioner alters and adds colour to. Certain

symbols numbers and shapes attract specific colours. That is how we come to the reason the egyptian gods were used. When looking at most known pantheons in those days, the egyptian one was the least human. Most of the gods don´t look human, and they´re inbetween greek Olympian gods and the Titans in their functions. This serves the GD practitioner well. -Its easier to visualise a werewolf thing commanding powers of death (Anubis) then to visualise a human male, with black hair, stars for eyes and pale skin. ****** As each individuals highest conception of God is their HGA/ADNI within the system, it is maybe fair to assume that it (resh) is a long-term invocation to ones higher self because that is what one is trying to connect to. Ax Liber XV quotes: "Thou who art One, our lord in the universe the sun, our lord in ourselves whose name is ..." In other words: resh, being a solar adoration, in a system which basically worships the sun and that which it represents, the highest conception of the divine is the sun, but untill we have reached it and become one with it (C&K HGA) it is merely our own higher self, ADNI which we praise invoke and try to reach. as they say in rituals: "Oh ADNI thou mighty, and secret, soul that is my link with the infinite spirit" Thanks, Illmatic. I've seen the discussions about whether to do the rituals at precise midnight, noon, sunrise, and sunset (including whether to stay up late or get up early) or whether there's actually a bit of flexibility. I've even seen discussions about whether to do the ritual at noon or when the sun is actually precisely overhead based on your location. Seems to me that while being perfectly precise might be nice -- and even helpful in terms of getting in touch with the sun's rhythms -- it smacks of scrupulosity (obsessive-compulsive disorder mixed with religiousness), and the benefits aren't really worth the burdens. As for Switch: I think you've touched on the key to the ritual. Resh is essentially "a long-term invocation to one's higher self" that, using the sun as a proxy, is intended to eventually put the ritualist in touch with not just his or her own higher self but "the divine" -- whatever that means. But it would be nice to see some cites or sources for your comments. For example, where (if anywhere) has it been said that the Golden Dawn chose the Egyptian pantheon because they were "the least human"? Just one other point: It's open to question whether Resh really does put the magician into contact with his or her higher self or the Divine (whatever those might be, if they exist at all). However, it's pretty much beyond question that Resh does "remind the aspirant at regular intervals of the Great Work."

On a very practical level, every atom in our bodies was likely born in our sun. Tuning into this simple majesty is itself quite illuminating and speaks directly to the solar consciousness inherent in terrestrial life. Someone, I think it was Steiner, came to regard the solar system as a conscious being, with each of the planets representing a different psychological aspect. But clearly the sun is the most pronounced entity in our local region as no life or even planets would exist without it. As others have noted here, Resh is a path to empower the personal sun to invoke the higher sun, which itself is a gateway for the universal (trans-dimensional?) solar energies. Frater Achad wrote: "The Sun does not die, as the ancients thought; It is always shining, always radiating Light and Life... You have stepped out of the Old Aeon and into the New." This is a brilliantly simple summation of the evolution from deathly sacrifice to continual rebirth, as represented by Crowley's aeonics. One could also consider this as the progression of human logic from binary either-or propositions to tertiary non-dualism. BTW, E to tha G, do you actually hit the sunrise/sunset/midnight times or do you just do Resh 4 times throughout your waking period? I was always turned off by Resh cause it's very hard for me to consistently be awake at dawn/6am, be available to ritualize at noon and sunset, and actually be awake at midnight. I do it early in the morning (as soon as I'm actually awake and lucid -- not immediately upon rising), at noon, at sunset, and at midnight. Damned if I'm going to wake up at sunrise, even for a god of the sun or my own higher self. Here's a great bit by Grady McMurtry on Crowley doing the ritual: "We had taken one of those big red double-decker buses and were sitting on the bottom level on the left about half-way. We were sitting there talking, when suddenly Crowley glanced up to the left, said 'Pardon me a moment,' closed his eyes, made some mystic passes with the fingers of his right hand, and mumbled something unintelligible. Unintelligible to me, anyway. It wasn't until later that I figured out that he had been doing the noon Liber Resh. The thing that is so striking is that he was so quiet about it. To hear some people talk you would think that he would have rushed up to the top deck and shouted it 'from the housetops' to all of Greater London. There may have been times where he did, but he didn’t do it that day." This raises an interestig point about the malleability and personal nature of ritual. It's almost like a prayer in this telling. Reminds me that the real point is a simple focus of will cutting through the baseline drone of waking consciousness. In any given day there are surely sufficient moments to open one's awareness of the infinite even just a bit. Not sure if anyone is interested, but I'm starting to pull together some notes on the LBRP along the lines above. For example:

The words of the Kabbalistic Cross -- "Atah malkot v'geburah v'gedulah l'olam amen" -- are a rough translation of Matthew 6:13 (and the end of the Lord's Prayer): "For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever, amen." But as far as I can tell it seems to be sloppy pseudo-Biblical Hebrew patched together by someone with a 19th century English-to-Hebrew dictionary ("You kingdom, and power, and greatness, forever, amen"). (Moreover, despite the modern kabbalistic attributions it isn't even remotely Jewish.) A much better translation is Ki l’kha ha-mamelekha v’ha gevurah v’ha tiferet l’olemei olamim amen. http://hebrew4christians.com/Prayers/The_Lord_s_Prayer_6/the_lord_s_prayer_6.html (Note the use of Tiferet rather than Gedulah.) Of course that's not quite as easy to break down into little taps on your forehead, shoulders, etc. as you visualize a big glowing cross. If people are up for discussing the LBRP, perhaps we should start (or restart) a topic on the subject, breaking the ritual down and analyzing it part by part. I suspect plenty of people have ideas and experiences to share. That IS a killer article (both part 1 and part 2) -- I used it in putting together my notes on Liber Resh above. Combining Resh with prayers/observances before showering and meals reminds me of my Orthodox and Hasidic relatives. They say prayers upon waking, before and after all meals, before washing their hands, upon seeing a rainbow, etc. etc. They say it's to make them more conscious of their daily activities and bring them into a closer relationship with God. But the more you do, the closer I think it comes to obsessive-compulsive disorder. "Ahathoor is the egyptian venus. She existed as a reason to get drunk" Just thought I'd add another note about Liber Resh. After a few weeks of renewed practice I've just realized today that while I've been doing the adorations, visualizations, and so forth properly, I haven't taken the time to actually LOOK AT THE SUN before, after, or during the adorations. In other words, in a ritual that's supposed to be all about identifying with the sun, drawing upon solar power, etc., I hadn't focused at all on the REAL SUN IN THE SKY. I guess that says something (unflattering) about my heavily theoretical approach to magic. In the future (except for midnight adorations) you can bet I'll take a few seconds to find the real sun in the sky and appreciate it before launching into the rest of Liber Resh. That little step isn't mentioned in any of the versions of the ritual I've seen, but it makes a lot of sense to me.

http://www.ritualmagick.org/Kheperu+Nu+Ra Kheperu Nu Ra The Evolutions of Ra
This is an alternative to Crowley's Daily Adoration by Chic and Sandra Cicero. At Dawn, facing East, stand in the Sign of the Enterer. Praise be to thee, O Khepera in thy rising, Yet unto thee, O Khepera in thy birth, Hail, thou Disk, Lord of Rays, Lord of Might! Hail, thou Reborn One, Lord of Life, Lord of Light! Isis and Nephthys salute thee O Risen One of the Sky, Homage to thee, O Khepera, who art the morning's Eye. Give the Sign of Silence. At Noon, facing South, stand in the Sign of the Enterer. Praise be to thee, O Ra in thy Zenith, Yet unto thee, O Ra in thy Strength, Hail, thou Disk, Lord of Rays, Lord of Might! Hail, thou Shining One, Lord of Life, Lord of Light! Isis and Nephthys salute thee O Brilliant One of the Sky, Homage to thee, O Ra, who art the Midday's Eye. Give the Sign of Silence. At Sunset, facing West, stand in the Sign of the Enterer. Praise be to thee, O Temu in thy setting, Yet unto thee, O Temu in thy peace, Hail, thou Disk, Lord of Rays, Lord of Might! Hail, thou Subsiding One, Lord of Life, Lord of Light! Isis and Nephthys salute thee O Fading One of the Sky, Homage to thee, O Temu, who art the Evening's Eye. Give the Sign of Silence. At Midnight, facing North, stand in the Sign of the Enterer. Praise be to thee, O Amon in thy hiding, Yet unto thee, O Amon in thy veil, Hail, thou Disk, Lord of Rays, Lord of Might! Hail, thou Eternal One, Lord of Life, Lord of Light! Isis and Nephthys salute thee O Concealed One of the Sky, Homage to thee, O Amon, who art the Midnights's Eye. Give the Sign of Silence.

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