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QoS

Mechanisms

NSA/spicard © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1

What Is QoS ?

•  Acronym for Quality of Service
•  For certain traffic
Controlled latency
Dedicated bandwidth
Improved loss characteristics

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 2

Who Cares ?

•  Network telephony
•  Interactive applications
•  Transaction applications

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 3

e. Cisco Systems.com 4 . RSVP) •  Differentiated Services (RFC2475) Manage available resources based on a “tag” associated per flow (IP prec or new DSCP) QoS mechanisms © 2001. “IntServ” or ”DiffServ” •  Integrated Services (RFC1633) Request for resources per flow with a signalling protocol (i.cisco. www. Inc.

com 5 . Cisco Systems. Integrated Services ‘IntServ’ •  Applications signal their QoS requirements via RSVP to the network •  Every network node along the path must check to see if the reservation request can be met •  Resources are reserved if the service constraints can be met •  An Error message is sent back to receiver if the constraints cannot be met •  Network nodes make sure there are no violations of the traffic contract •  Non conforming packets are either marked down or dropped QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. Inc. www.

com 6 . www. Differentiated Services ‘DiffServ’ •  Technique for providing QoS in TCP/IP •  No need for per hop signaling and flow state maintenance as required by RSVP •  Each network device classifies. Inc. Cisco Systems. polices and schedules packets in a flow •  Uses the Type of Service (ToS) byte in the IP header to identify or set the priority level •  6 most significant bits of the ToS byte are called DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) •  3 of these DSCP bits identify the IP Precedence QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco.

www. ‘IntServ’ or ‘DiffServ’ •  Integrated Services Network needs to maintain each reservation “all or nothing” mechanism real time traffic oriented •  Differentiated Services Define limited “flow classes” more scalable.com 7 .cisco. but provisioning QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc.com 8 . ‘DiffServ’ •  Flow Classification and policing Classifier Conditioner Forwarding Queuing (Per Hop Behaviour) QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. Cisco Systems. www.

Cisco QoS components •  Classifier (ACL. www. LLQ) Congestion avoidance (wRED) •  Fragmentation and Interleaving (MLPPP. FRF11/12) QoS mechanisms © 2001. CBWFQ. CB-shaper) •  Queuing/Scheduling Congestion management(PQ. CQ. FTRS. Inc. WFQ.cisco.CB-marking) •  Conditioner Policy based Routing (PBR) Committed Access Rate (CAR. Cisco Systems. NBAR. CB policing) Traffic Shaping (GTS.com 9 .

1.10 route-map lab permit 10 match ip address 101 set ip precedence 4 QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 10 . Inc. www.22.cisco. Cisco Systems. Policy Based Routing interface Ethernet0/0 ip policy route-map lab access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.

application requests (url. sqlnet …) •  Additional Protocols Easily Added •  NBAR engine is driven by Packet Description Language (PDL) •  No changes required to the engine •  PDL files will be read from flash .cisco. Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR) •  Classification based on protocol type.com 11 . Cisco Systems. Inc.no IOS upgrade required to adopt new protocols QoS mechanisms © 2001. L4 ports. www.

Inc. Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR) •  A New IP Packet Classifier Capable of Matching on… •  Dynamically-assigned TCP/UDP port numbers •  URL matching using regular expressions •  Sub-port criteria such as transaction types QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 12 .cisco. www. Cisco Systems.

Committed Access Rate (CAR) •  Two functions Packet Classification—IP precedence and QoS group setting Access Bandwidth Management through rate limiting QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 13 . www. Inc. Cisco Systems.cisco.

com 14 . Cisco Systems. Committed Access Rate (CAR) •  Rate Limiting (Policing) •  Packet Classification •  Similar to Traffic Shaping.cisco. Recolor • 4) IP access list Traffic Traffic Action Matching Measurement Policy Specification Instrumentation QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Recolor • 2) IP precedence • Exceed Action: • 3) MAC address • Drop. Transmit. Inc. Transmit. but no Buffering Matching specification: Confirm Action: • 1) All traffic • Drop.

CAR Policy Examples Recolor Drop Drop Multimedia Recolor Mission-Critical Per Application CAR QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.cisco. Cisco Systems. www.com 15 .

Cisco Systems. Inc. www.com 16 .cisco. Traffic Shaping Internet Service Provider (ISP) 128 Kbps Cloud T1 Branch Office Central Bottleneck Site •  Reduces outbound traffic flow to avoid congestion (via buffering) •  Eliminates bottlenecks in topologies with data rate mismatch •  Provides mechanism to partition interfaces to match far-end requirements QoS mechanisms © 2001.

etc.g. Cisco Systems. www.cisco.) Classification by: “Leaky Extended Access Bucket” List Functionality Shaping (GTS only) QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 17 . CQ. WFQ. Traffic Shaping Traffic Transmit Output Destined Queue Line for Interface Match Classify No Match Configured Queuing (e. Inc.

Inc.com 18 . LLQ … FIFO. LLQ … SubIntf 1.cisco.1 CIR=48 kbps Output Tx Q ring TS Always FIFO Main Intf 1 TS SubIntf 1. Shaping Q vs Output Q Shaping Queue FIFO.2 Output CIR=48 kbps Interleaving Dual fifo if Output FRF12 Shaping Queue Interface FIFO. WFQ… QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Cisco Systems.

Traffic shaping packet path Packet path: When a packet arrives at the interface for transmission. Cisco Systems. If possible. the following happens: •  if the SHAPING queue is empty. the arriving packet is processed by the traffic shaper. the packet is placed in the shaping queue. Otherwise. www. the packet is placed in the SHAPING queue and sent in next Tc. (Means if number of bits allowed during Tc is not reached) 2.com 19 . 1. the traffic shaper removes the number of packets it can transmit from the SHAPING queue every time interval. QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. •  If the SHAPING queue is not empty. Inc. the traffic shaper sends the packet to the OUTPUT queue. When there are packets in the SHAPING queue.

In practice: add Overflow an increment of Tokens B tokens every Tc « excess » or every time a packet arrive Packets Enough token in YES: Conform arriving bucket ? (transmit at line rate) NO: Exceed (drop. www. enqueue or use excess) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.Token arrival rate.cisco.Burst size max in bits = bucket size R R .com 20 . Cisco Systems. Token/leaky bucket B .

www. Cisco Systems.com 21 . Inc. packet gets dropped (policer) or queued (shaper) Burst must take into account max packets length and TCP window size (slow start).cisco. Token/leaky bucket •  bucket is filled at defined rate with ‘tokens’ (at each Tc or elapsed time between incoming pkts) •  Incoming Packets take available tokens in bucket •  Packets can to take up to ‘burst’ bits (excess burst is just a 2nd bucket mechanism) •  If no credits in bucket. QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Inc. Traffic Shaping •  Both ensure that traffic does not exceed a (contracted) BW limit •  Both limit BW but with different impact on traffic Policing drops more often .more retransmits Shaping adds variable delay (buffering) •  Policer causes TCP Retransmits Oscillation of Windows in TCP •  Policer can be a Marker also QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. www.com 22 . Policing vs.cisco.

com 23 . www. Cisco Systems. policer allows bursts •  Shaper can adapt to Network congestion (BECN. Policing vs. Traffic Shaping •  Policer on input or output interface. Shaper on output interface •  Shaper use regular Tc interval. policer use elapse time between packet to credit ‘bucket’ •  Shaper ‘smooth’ traffic. Inc.cisco. FECN) •  Shaper ‘create’ shaping queues (can be use as a congestion mechanism in virtual intf like tunnel) QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Inc. Traffic Shaping Policing Traffic Traffic Traffic Rate Traffic Rate Time Time Shaping Traffic Traffic Traffic Rate Traffic Rate Time Time QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems.com 24 .cisco. www. Policing vs.

Queuing Algorithms •  Congestion management algorithms First In First Out Priority Queuing Custom Queuing Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Class based WFQ (CB-WFQ) and LLQ QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Inc.cisco.com 25 . Cisco Systems.

www. Cisco Systems. Inc. Queuing Algorithms •  Congestion avoidance algorithms Weighted Random Early Detection (wRED) QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 26 .cisco.

platform dependant !) When intf queue doesn’t use FIFO CSCdk17210.cisco. www. CSCdm75220. CSCdk70536 TxQ is automatically reduced (based on intf BW) Changed w/ Tx-ring-limit or in order to activate fancy queuing earlier show vip tx-polling-high <interface> If configured too small (high level of interrupts) <new-tx-polling-high> If configured too large (high latency) QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 27 . Cisco Systems. tx-ring vs tx-queue Forwarder Interface Yes Congested? FIFO/PQ/CQ/WFQ (output hold-queue interface ‘hold’ compromise latency/ No buffering ) Tx-Queues Transmission Tx-ring Always FIFO Queue (tx-ring) (high-end txq=2+ BW/512k) (in particles or packets. Inc.

www. Cisco Systems. Inc. default Bw/ 4000 (min=2) on VIP (500ms for 250B) QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. short enough to reduce latency •  Tx-ring tuned automatically when fancy queuing configured (CSCdk17210) •  Tx-queue default 64 on low-end.com 28 . tx-ring vs tx-queue •  Tx-ring is the ‘driver queue’ (“L2 queues”) •  Tx-queues used ONLY when tx-ring is full (fancy queuing is activated “L3 queues”) •  Tx-ring configurable (platform/adapter dependant) high enough to accommodate line rate.

cisco. www. Inc. First In First Out (FIFO) Transmit Queue Output Line •  Simplest Queuing Algorithm •  “packets leave in order of arrival” •  Fixed Queue Lengths (default 40) Result in dropping from tail of queue under load QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 29 . Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems.cisco. promptness and buffer allocation •  Does not provide protection against ill- behaved sources •  Bursty sources may cause high delay in delivering some time sensitive control/ signaling messages QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. FIFO •  Order of Arrival completely determines the bandwidth.com 30 . Inc.

Traffic Destined Medium Transmit Output for Interface Queue Line Classify Normal Low Q Length Defined by Q Limit Absolute Priority Scheduling Interface Buffer Classification by: Resources •  Protocol (IP. Priority Queuing (PQ) Interface Hardware •  Ethernet •  Frame Relay •  ATM •  Serial Link High •  Etc.) •  Incoming Interface (EO.) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. DecNet. S1. Bridge. IPX. SO.com 31 . etc. www. etc. AppleTalk. SNA. Inc.cisco.

cisco. Inc. www. Cisco Systems.com 32 . Priority Queuing Forwarder Priority Classification (Access) List Low Medium High Priority Priority Priority Transmission Queue QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Medium. Inc.com 33 .cisco. www. Normal. Low •  Packets not classified by priority-list mechanism fall into normal queue QoS mechanisms © 2001. Priority Queuing •  Four priority queues - High. Cisco Systems.

Inc. may still be unpredictable •  Resource allocation lower priority queues may starve QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Priority Queuing •  Can cause traffic lockout if configured incorrectly •  FIFO within priority Within priority. Cisco Systems.com 34 .cisco.

each packet started is sent) Classification by: Interface Allocate •  Protocol (IP. Bridge. Buffer Proportion of SNA.com 35 . DecNet. Inc. etc.) Resources Link Bandwidth •  Incoming interface (EO. S1. SO. etc. AppleTalk. IPX.cisco. Traffic Destined 3/10 for Interface Transmit Output 2/10 Queue Line Classify 3/10 Up to 16 Link Q Length Utilization Weighted Round Deferred by Ratio Robin Scheduling (byte count min Queue Limit default 1500.) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Custom Queuing (CQ) Interface Hardware •  Ethernet •  Frame Relay 1/10 •  ATM •  Serial Link 2/10 •  Etc. www. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems.cisco.com 36 . Custom Queuing Forwarder Priority (Access) Control Traffic List Queue #0 Queue #1 Queue #9 Queue #2 Queue #10 Queue #3 Queue #11 Queue #4 Queue #12 Queue #5 Queue #13 Queue #6 Queue #14 Queue #7 Queue #15 Queue #8 Queue #16 Transmission Queue QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc. www.

Custom Queuing •  Identify the traffic •  Distribute into FIFO queue by class •  Dequeue in some rotation Remove some number of bytes at most Move to next queue in round robin order QoS mechanisms © 2001. www.com 37 .cisco. Cisco Systems. Inc.

Priority vs. not delay QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 38 . Custom Queuing PQ CQ •  4 Queues: High. Cisco Systems. •  16 Queues Normal. Inc.cisco. www. Low •  Packets classified by protocol or •  Packets classified by protocol interface or interface •  FIFO within priority •  FIFO within priority •  Weighted round robin •  Absolute priority scheduling scheduling •  Lower priority queues may •  WRED and RSVP not supported starve •  Guarantees BW per queue. Medium.

. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Q Classification: •  Source address 1 1 Reserved queues •  Dest address .. Port 2 2 2 •  Tos bits (not prec!) Weight: 3 •  IP Precedence ..cisco.. Cisco Systems. www.... IP Precedence 7 •  RSVP/RTP Reserve De- •  W=32384/(prec+1) 4 4 queue . •  Source port (RSVP and RTP Reserve) •  Dest.com 39 . 6 6 6 (Best Effort/Hash queues) QoS mechanisms © 2001. 5 5 IP Precedence 0 . Inc..

www. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) •  8 fixed system queues: LMI. Sport. Dport. PPP control.cisco. Dadd. Routing protocol •  2n dynamic queues (hashing) IP Flow = 109-bit string = {Sadd. Cisco Systems. PID.com 40 . ARP. default is 256 (11. 5-bit ToS} (not prec !) 16 -> 4096. Inc.2) •  x RSVP queues 0 -> 1000 [def: 0] QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Cisco Systems. www.com 41 .5T) non ip flow use default 32384 internal traffic (CDP) use 4096 •  RSVP use w=4*(max_rsvp_bw/flow_bw) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.cisco. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) •  system queues has fixed weight (1024) •  dynamic queues use IP prec (w=32384/(prec +1)) (since 12.0.

Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)
•  Output scheduling based on a TDM
mechanism.
Tail_time = tail_time(t-1) + packet_size*W
F(A1)=0+100
F(B1)=50+300 A1[100]
B1[300]

F(A2)=100+20 A2[20]
F(B2)=350+300 F(A3)=120+10 A3 [10]
B2[300]

t 100 70 60 50 0

Hence the resulting scheduling is:

B2 B1 A3 A2 A1

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 42

Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)

•  Output Dropping based on a threshold.
Congestive Discard Threshold (CDT)
Not related to precedence

run-downleft#sh queue s 0/1
Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: weighted fair
Output queue: 7/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops)
Conversations 5/5/256 (active/max active/max total)
Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 43

Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)

Upon enqueue of a new packet,
IF the sum of all subqueues > Max-limit (default 1000),
THEN, if the tail time of the new packet is > current system tail time,
then the new packet is dropped
else the system tail-time packet is dropped and the new one is
enqueued
IF CDT(default 64) < the sum of all subqueues < Max-limit,
THEN, if the new packet’s tail time > current system tail time
then drop the new packet
else enqueue the new packet
Exception: a packet classified into an empty sub-queue is never dropped

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 44

www.cisco.com 45 . Cisco Systems. Inc. Weighted Fair Queuing •  Provides relative bandwidth guarantees and dropping mechanism Fair Queuing (FQ) allocates equal share of bandwidth to each active queue Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) allows for unequal allocation of bandwidth sub_Queue BW= BW*(TOS+1)/ Σ (TOS+1) QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Cisco Systems.Tos 4 5/16*48K = 15 Kbps •  1 HTTP . WFQ •  1 FTP .Tos 5 6/16*48K = 18 Kbps ______________ Σ (Tos+1)= 16 QoS mechanisms © 2001. www.Tos 0 get 1/16*48K = 3 Kbps •  1 FTP .com 46 .Tos 2 3/16*48K = 9 Kbps •  1 Voice .Tos 0 1/16*48K = 3 Kbps •  1 Telnet . Inc.cisco.

Inc. Cisco Systems. IP Prec: 2) WFQ 4 4 4 4 QoS mechanisms © 2001. PQ-WFQ (IP RTP Priority) •  To prioritise Voice traffic (on FR.cisco.g.com 47 . Circuit 3 3 3 3 e. 2 2 V V PQ e. IP Prec 4) 4 3 2 1 1 WAN Data (Medium. PPP) •  Create a priority queue (weight=0) + BW limit •  RTP only (range of UDP ports) •  Reduce voice latency Router Exhaustive Voice 1 1 Queuing (Highest) Data (High.g. www.

com 48 . Class-Based WFQ (CBWFQ) Class queues 1 1 Max: 255 since 12. WFQ System 6 6 6 (unclassified traffic) QoS mechanisms © 2001.2(6) CSCdv49675 (256 including the default class-queue) ...cisco. 2 2 2 De-queue 3 Default class-queue OR 5 5 Classify . Inc... www. Cisco Systems.

cisco. CBWFQ Forwarder Per class class-default (ACL) Per flow Class #1 (hash) Class #2 Flow #3 Class #3 Flow #2 Class #64 Flow #1 Scheduling based on Finish Time QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc. www.com 49 . Cisco Systems.

www. CBWFQ •  256 Classes (255 + default) –  Bandwidth x (min guarantee) –  wRED within classes •  “default class” : class-default –  fair-queue & queue-limit –  fair-queue & wred –  bandwidth & queue-limit –  bandwidth & wred QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. Inc.com 50 . Cisco Systems.

(non-TCP updates) use « PAK-flag » •  routing updates (TCP) use default queue !! •  Output scheduling is still “weighted” between classes: w = f(1/class_BW .com 51 . Inc. CBWFQ •  By default sum of BWclasses <=75% BW (for L2 overhead+ default class) can be change with “max-reserved bandwidth xx” on main intf or PVC (CSCdv06837) •  FIFO queuing per class (default 64 pkts) •  Hellos. www.cisco. 1/#hashed_queues) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. keepalives.

Cisco Systems.cisco.com 52 . www. Inc. PQ-CBWFQ or Low Latency Queuing LLQ Forwarder Per class class-default (ACL) Per flow Class #1 (hash) Class #2 Flow #256 Class #3 Flow #2 Class #63 PQ Flow #1 Scheduling based on Finish Time QoS mechanisms © 2001.

com 53 . Cisco Systems. www. Inc.cisco. PQ-CBWFQ (LLQ) •  Priority Classes –  priority and max BW (not limited to RTP flows) –  burst size (200ms of traffic by default) –  “Expedite Forwarding” class in diffserv model –  low latency queuing classes –  Only 1 fifo PQ (even if several priority classes !!) –  « CAR like » policed if congestion (exept LLQ in FR is ALWAYS policed but drop if congested) QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Inc. Cisco Systems. www.com 54 . no guarantees •  Pclass. BW max allowed •  Prec define weight. BW (“CAR” like limiting) •  PQ-WFQ for RTP only •  BW define weight (not prec) •  wRED per class (prec oriented) QoS mechanisms © 2001. WFQ vs LLQ WFQ LLQ •  %BW min guarantee per class •  Shared BW.cisco.

com 55 . Random Early Detection (RED) Packets Queue Arriving Queue Pointer •  Without RED when the queue fills up ALL packets that arrive are dropped—Tail drop •  With RED as oppose to doing a tail drop the router monitors the average queue size and using randomization choose connections to notify that a congestion is impending QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc. Cisco Systems. www.cisco.

Inc. Cisco Systems. RED algorythm for each packet arrival calculate the average queue size (avg) if min_threshold > avg queue arriving packet else if min_threshold <= avg < max_threshold calculate packet-drop probability (p) with packet-drop probability p drop the arriving packet or queue the arriving packet else if max_threshold <= avg drop arriving packet QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. www.com 56 .

min_th) / (max_th . Cisco Systems.1/2^n)) + current_queue_size * 1/2^n) •  ‘n’ exponential-weight-constant keyword •  ‘P’: drop probability prob = mark_prob * (avg . Inc.cisco. www. RED •  The average queue size is calculated based on the previous average and the current size of the queue Avg = (old_avg * (1 .min_th) default mark_prob = 1/10 QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 57 .

Cisco Systems. weighted RED Two drop slopes are shown. Inc. Up to eight can be defined Prec 0 Probability drop of Packet profile Discard Prec 1 “Slope” is adjustable drop profile Queue Length IP Prec 0 IP Prec 1 Max0/max 1 Min. www.cisco. •  Configure min and max threshold per IPprec (or per DSCP drop pref) QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 58 . Min.

www. Inc. Cisco Systems. wRED (TCP behavior “slow start”) •  Sends as much as credit allows •  Starts credit small Avoid overloading network queues •  Increases credit exponentially To gauge network capability QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 59 .cisco.

presume it indicates a lost packet Send first unacknowledged message right away Halve current credit Increase linearly to gauge network throughput QoS mechanisms © 2001. wRED (TCP behavior) •  If ACK acknowledges something Update credit and send •  If not. www.com 60 .cisco. Cisco Systems. Inc.

com 61 . www.cisco. Inc. Cisco Systems. TCP and tail drop ‘global synchronization’ Queue 100% Utilization Time Tail Drop 3 Traffic Flows Start Another Traffic Flow at Different Times Starts at This Point QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Cisco Systems.com 62 . www.cisco. wRED •  Dropping a message is a way of telling the sender to slow down •  Randomly drop (instead of tail drop) avoid ‘global synchronization’ •  Weighted drop thresholds based on IP Prec QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.

Cisco Systems. however. with “Random- detect flow” (IOS non-vip only) •  FRED maintain flow queues and drop based on: avg*scaling_factor < Flow_queue_depth Means that this flow takes too much ressources (is considered as non-adaptive) RED must be activate first!! QoS mechanisms © 2001. wRED (non TCP behavior) •  wRED will be unable to force the application to back off. Inc. wRED will drop its packets in proportion of its sending rate •  ‘Flow RED’ can discard per flow for non- adaptive flows (ie UDP).cisco. www.com 63 .

com 64 . Others . QoS mechanisms © 2001. www... Inc. •  Selective Packet Discard (SPD) discard input packets based on precedence (“router protection”) •  QPPB flow classification based on IP prec.cisco. set and carried in BGP attribute (community-list). Cisco Systems.

com 65 .cisco. Inc. Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI) Traffic Destined Transmit Output for Interface Queue Line IP Voice Jumbogram WFQ Large Packet Multlink PPP Fragmentation: with LFI Fragment Size Based Or Frame on Required Delay Realy with FRF 11/12 QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Cisco Systems.

www. Cisco Systems.cisco.com 66 . LFI •  Fragment Large Size Packets on Slow Links (<768kb/s) •  i.1500 Byte takes 215 ms on a 56kbs link (packet/rate) •  Optimize voice delay an jitter •  same mechanism for Frame Relay QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.e.

MultilinkPPP / FRF. Inc.com 67 .12 Voice 2 Voice 1 Jumbogram Fragment 4 Fragment 3 Voice 2 Fragment 2 Voice 1 Fragment 1 •  Line overhead •  Segmentation/reassembly overhead (ppp multilink or FRF12 overhead) •  Fragment all packets greater than fragment size defined •  Interleave packets from OTHER queues QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Cisco Systems.11 & .cisco.

Cisco Systems.voice Interface 1 1 High PQ V V WAN Circuit 2 L L 1 1 V V 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 4 3 2 L 1 1 WFQ Low 4 4 4 4 QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 68 . www. PQ-WFQ for Frame Relay •  Dual Interface FIFO is turned on automatically when FRTS& FRF12 is configured •  Interface Queue operation before PQ-WFQ in 12.0(5)T: LMI and PQ contents (VoIP and VoFR) to Hi queue Everything else.0(5)T: LMI and unfragmented packets (VoIP. VoFR) to Hi queue All fragmented packets (data) to Lo queue •  Interface Queue operation with PQ-WFQ in 12.cisco. Inc. regardless of fragmentation (data) to Lo queue Per PVC Per Interface dual FIFO V V Router PQ .

www.cisco. PQ-WFQ FR (detailed) Voice flow Data flow Inter- WFQ leaving Data flow de-queuing Fragmentation PVC A Interface queues Voice flow High FIFO Data flow PVC B Inter- WFQ Tx Ring Data flow leaving de-queuing Fragmentation Normal FIFO Voice flow Data flow PVC C Inter- WFQ Data flow leaving de-queuing Fragmentation Frame Relay traffic-shaping with FRF 12 then FRF11 QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.com 69 . Cisco Systems.

“voice bandwidth” Do NOT mix non-VoFR real-time traffic with VoFR on the same PVC: it can NOT be interleaved (due to FRF.cisco.2T If a voice packet present. Cisco Systems.1. LLQ for FR updates •  BW in the priority class given in Kbps max allowable BW for “priority” classes is mincir does NOT take cRTP into account class is policed to given BW (cannot burst like the data classes) •  Voice is no longer shaped in 12. Inc.11 Annex C fragging spec) QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 70 . www. it is sent in the next Tc timeslot Bc is decremented for voice (even if already negative) Data will be held back until Bc is positive again •  VoFR: will also use the PQ of LLQ. but does not use the “class” configuration priority classes can be configured in LLQ at the same time this is not recommended BW available to priority classes while VoFR is present is: mincir .

Protocol. PQ: Strict Scheduling priority robin arrival time) WFQ: Fair weight and CBWFQ: BW Fair/BW Delay Yes No No Yes No Yes guarantee BW PQ: yes No No No Yes Yes Guarantee WFQ: No Used for Last No No Yes No Yes Voice resort QoS mechanisms © 2001. RSVP.cisco. RTP VoFR and Protocol. IP RTP Mod CLI Mod CLI protocol. Inc. Priority port 1 PQ + 64 1 PQ + # queues 4 16 Per flow WFQ classes CBWFQ Fair: PQ: Strict Strict Round. Queuing Summary (updated) LLQ PQ CQ WFQ PQWFQ CBWFQ (PQ-CBWFQ) IP Prec. VoFR and Classification interface interface Reserve. www.com 71 . Cisco Systems. Fair (weight.

Inc.Precedence Mapping (multiple VC) Bundle Management •  Phase 3 . Cisco Systems. QOS & ATM (Paris Project) •  Implemented on PA-A3 (TX-queue per VC allows ‘fancy’ queuing per VC) •  Phase 1 .com 72 .Per-VC WRED (single VC) •  Phase 2 .cisco. www.Per-VC WFQ QoS mechanisms © 2001.

www. Inc. Cisco Systems.com 73 .cisco. Per-VC WRED : Ph 1 Traffic Threshold Exceeded Shaping VIP2-50 PA-A3-XX VC1 VC2 VC3 No discard Per-VC Per-VC on PA WRED: Queues Intelligent Discard QoS mechanisms © 2001.

4 VC2: ABR •  A single Bundle routing neighborship! (several PVCs grouped in one intf) •  Flexible IP CoS mapping to VCs •  RED (WRED) runs on each VC queue QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems.7 VC1: VBR-nrt Prec: 0 .com 74 . Inc. IP ATM COS-Ph2: Bundle Prec: 5 .cisco. www.

VC Bundle Mgmt •  Two Modes: Protected VC rule : when a protected VC goes down. the bundle goes down Protected group rule : when all members in the protected group fail.cisco. no traffic is forwarded out of the bundle QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Cisco Systems. Inc.com 75 . the bundle is declared DOWN When a bundle is declared down.

Bumping •  VC bumping: possibility for a traffic mapped to a VC X to be forwarded onto another VC Y. Cisco Systems. Inc. www.com 76 . QoS mechanisms © 2001. Implicit bumping rule : Y is the next lower precedence level VC is selected. in case of failure of X.cisco. Explicit bumping rule : Y is explicitely specified.

QoS mechanisms © 2001. Bumping (Cont. the bundle will be declared down.com 77 .) •  Traffic is restored to the original VC when it comes back. •  « Reject Bumping »: It is possible for a VC to be configured not to accept the bumped traffic •  When no alternate VC for some bumped traffic.cisco. Cisco Systems. www. Inc.

www. QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc. the traffic will follow the bumping rules specified for that VC.cisco. Bumping (Cont.com 78 .) •  To prevent from declaring a bundle DOWN due to the failure of the lowest precedence VC. explicit bumping should be configured on the lowest precedence. •  Should be used in conjunction with the protected group rule •  If the VC which carries the bumped traffic fails also.

ATM UBR Protected Group Based on MPLS-EXP (since 12.2(8)T) QoS mechanisms © 2001.ATM VBR-nrt Protected Group .cisco.ATM VBR-nrt Protected Group. Bundle example TOS 6-7 <-> VC 1 .ATM VBR-nrt Protected VC TOS 4-5 <-> VC 2 .bump implicit TOS 0-1 <-> VC 4 .com 79 . Inc. Cisco Systems.bump explicit 7 TOS 2-3 <-> VC 3 . www.

Cisco Systems.cisco. www. Inc.com 80 . LLQ per VC:ph3 •  Allows LLQ per PVC (in bundle) QoS mechanisms © 2001.

•  ECN bits used for host Congestion Notification (RFC3168.cisco. Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP) IPv4 ToS IP prec “ToS bits” U DSCP ECN Former ToS byte = new DS field •  DS codepoint: a specific value of the DSCP portion of the DS field. www. The bits of the DSCP field encode the DS codepoint. Cisco Systems. used to select a PHB •  DS field (rfc2474): the IPv4 header TOS octet or the IPv6 Traffic Class octet when interpreted in conformance with the definition given in [DSFIELD].com 81 . Inc. cscdu83511) QoS mechanisms © 2001.

DSCP 3 bits used for CoS (User Priority)! Layer 2! 802.com 82 . www.1p.! SFD! DA! SA! PT! DATA! FCS! 4 Bytes! Layer 3 ! IPV4! Standard IPV4/IPV6: Type of Service field! Version! ToS! Len! ID! offset! TTL! Proto! FCS! IP-SA! IP-DA! Data! Length! 1 Byte! IP Prec (3 bits)! DSCP (6 bits)! ECN! Layer 2 mechanisms exist on LAN segment Layer 3 mechanisms can provide end-to-end classification DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) encoding compliant with RFC 2474 + ECN in RFC3168 Class Selector Code Points (CSC) . Inc.1Q/p! TAG! PREAM.cisco. Cisco Systems.backward compatibility to IP Precedence Keywords in CB marking “CS0 to CS7” (DCSP= xxx000) QoS mechanisms © 2001. IP Precedence. 802.

com 83 . DS field (RFC 2474. 2598) Per-Hop Behaviours (PHB) DiffServ Code Points (DSCP) 46 Expedited Forwarding EF 101110 Assured Forwarding Low Drop Med Drop High Drop Pref Pref Pref 10 12 14 Class 1 AF11 AF12 AF13 001010 001100 001110 18 20 22 Class 2 AF21 AF22 AF23 010010 010100 010110 26 28 30 Class 3 AF31 AF32 AF33 011010 011100 011110 34 36 38 Class 4 AF41 AF42 AF43 100010 100100 100110 0 Best Effort BE 000000 QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc. www. 2597.cisco.

Inc. DS field pools DiffServ Code Points (DSCP) ‘pools’(RFC2474) Pool 1 DSCP=xxxxx0 standard DSCP Pool 2 DSCP=xxxx11 Local usage Pool 3 DSCP=xxxx01 Local usage (reserved for future std) QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco.com 84 . www. Cisco Systems.

Class-based Marking DSCP and IP Prec Router(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp ? <0-63> Differentiated services codepoint value af11 Match packets with AF11 dscp (001010) af12 Match packets with AF12 dscp (001100) af13 Match packets with AF13 dscp (001110) … af42 Match packets with AF42 dscp (100100) af43 Match packets with AF43 dscp (100110) cs1 Match packets with CS1(precedence 1) dscp (001000) cs2 Match packets with CS2(precedence 2) dscp (010000) … cs6 Match packets with CS6(precedence 6) dscp (110000) cs7 Match packets with CS7(precedence 7) dscp (111000) default Match packets with default dscp (000000) ef Match packets with EF dscp (101110) •  Requires CEF on the interface (see also CSCdt74738 for marking internal flows) QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Inc. Cisco Systems.cisco.com 85 .

www. Cisco Systems.cisco. Modular QoS CLI (MQC) •  Configuring Classification policies •  Associate policies to class •  Attaching policies to interface (in/out) QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 86 . Inc.

cisco.1(4)T) QoS mechanisms © 2001.1p/Q mpls Multi Protocol Label Switching (exp) not do not match protocol Protocol (nbar …) qos-group Qos-group source-address Source address (mac) (multicast supported since CSCdr34902 12. DSCP) cos 802. Modular QoS CLI class-map PQ match … access-group Access group destination-address Destination address (mac) input-interface Select an input interface to match ip IP specific values (prec. Inc. www. Cisco Systems.com 87 .

www. violate) +2 rate policer + multiple actions QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. Cisco Systems. CLP…) shape Traffic Shaping: avg (CIR) or peak (CIR*(1+be/bc)) police traffic policing (conform. Modular QoS CLI policy-map test class PQ bandwidth Bandwidth in kbps or percent/percent remaining priority Strict Scheduling Priority for this Class+ burst (default 200ms of traffic) queue-limit Queue Max Threshold for Tail Drop random-detect Enable WRED as drop policy (IPprec or DSCP based) + ECN bits option service-policy Configure QoS Service Policy-------> hierarchical set Set QoS values (prec. DSCP. FRde.com 88 . exeed. Inc. exp.cos.

Cisco Systems. www.com 89 . Hierarchical policy •  Allow multi level (2) policing policy-map bandwidth-allocation-policy class udp bandwidth <bw specification> service-policy udp-hierarchy class tcp bandwidth <bw specification> service-policy tcp-hierarchy policy-map udp-hierarchy class nfs bandwidth <bw specification> class tftp bandwidth <bw specification> policy-map tcp-hierarchy class http bandwidth <bw specification> class ftp bandwidth <bw specification> QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.cisco.

cisco. Inc. Cisco Systems. Hierarchical limitations •  Any to any combination supported on vip •  Other platform parent/child restrictions: parent level Bandwidth & Bandwidth Shaping Police Shaping Child level Bandwidth Police Police Police Priority Bandwidth QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 90 . www.

Cisco Systems. WRED) QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco.com 91 .1T. avoid multiple cascading classification. www. improve perf input common classification input access lists input marking input policing CEF/fast switching output common classification output access lists output marking output policing Traffic shaping queueing (CBWFQ. Common classification QoS feature ordering Since 12. Inc.

7600 (OSM modules) use: PXF processors technology QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems.cisco. ‘High-end’ routers QOS mechanisms •  7500 series + VIP use: ‘CEF distributed’ QOS features •  GSR use: CAR + VOQ and MDRR/WRED •  7200-NSE. www.10000. Inc.com 92 .

Cisco Systems. 7500 Distributed QOS •  dWFQ supports Flow-based WFQ ToS-based Qos group-based dLLQ QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.com 93 .cisco. www.

Inc. Flow based dWFQ Forwarder Classifier .Compute Hash Flow Queue Queue Queue Queue Queues 0 1 2 511 Calendar Queues Transmission Queue Output scheduler aka “calendar” is round robin (weight=1) QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. www.com 94 . Cisco Systems.

www. ToS based dWFQ Forwarder lower 2bits IP Prec-Based Classifier Flow Queue Queue Queue Queue Queues 0 1 2 3 Weight Calendar Queues Transmission Queue “calendar” has 4 default weighted classes (10.cisco. Cisco Systems.40%) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.30.20.com 95 .

www. Cisco Systems. Qos group dWFQ Forwarder QoS group set using CAR or QoS policy progation via BGP Classifier QOS- Group Queue Queue Queue Queue 0 1 2 99 Queues Weight (1-100) Calendar Queues Transmission Queue QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. Inc.com 96 .

com 97 . Cisco Systems.cisco. www. dLLQ Forwarder Per class (ACL) Class #1 Class #2 Class #3 Per flow Per flow Per flow (hash) (hash) (hash) Flow #2 Flow #2 Flow #2 Flow #1 Flow #3 PQ Flow #1 Flow #3 Flow #1 Flow #3 Scheduling based on Calendar Queueing QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.

dLLQ features •  Class default 1% min guarantee •  Class default BW always garanteed (=totale_BW – sum(classes_BW)) •  Fair queue option per class •  Weight used in calendar queue <99 QoS mechanisms © 2001. www.cisco.com 98 . Inc. Cisco Systems.

www. dLFI… •  Non distributed QOS (RSP based) no longer supported QoS mechanisms © 2001.dWRED. dNBAR. dTS. dfrf12. dGRE. dLLQ.cisco. dmlppp.com 99 . Inc. Cisco Systems. Distributed features •  dCEF.

cisco. Inc. QOS Mechanisms in GSR CAR Meter Inbound Traffic Classifier Marker Conditioner Queuing Stream (from dCEF MDRR ToFab F CAR CAR Select dest xACL or or A slot/intf) Policy Routing WRED B R I Meter C Outbound FromFab Traffic Queuing Conditioner Marker Classifier Stream QOS features available depend on line card QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 100 . Cisco Systems. www.

Cisco Systems. www.com 101 . GSR: input queuing (VOQ) Receive Side of Input line card Input Ports Per Dest Slot VOQ.cisco. 8 Virtual Each Slot has 8 CoS Output Queues Assigned Queues W-RED /dest slot MDRR Crossbar Switch Fabric dCEF QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.

Inc.com 102 .cisco. Cisco Systems. www. GSR: output queuing Transmit Side of output line card W-RED MDRR Output Ports Crossbar Switch Fabric QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Modified Deficit Round Robin
(MDRR)

•  All queues, except low-latency queue,
are serviced in round robin fashion
•  Two modes for servicing the low-latency
queue
Alternate Priority and Strict Priority

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 103

Modified Deficit Round Robin
(MDRR)
Strict Priority
•  In Strict Priority mode, the low
latency queue is always serviced if
packets are queued. Remaining
.. queues are serviced in ‘round
robin’ fashion

Alternate Priority
•  In Alternate Priority mode, service
alternates between the low-latency
queue and the other queues.
.. Remaining queues are serviced in
‘round robin’ fashion

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 104

Operation of DRR

•  Weights can be applied to queues to further
control packet individual de-queue rate when
interface is congested
•  Packet de-queue quantum q is:
q= MTU + (weight - 1)*512
(1<weight<100 to avoid large delays)
•  For Tx side MDRR local MTU is used
•  For Rx side MDRR largest MTU of destination
interfaces is used
QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 105

•  If positive. avoid accumulation of credits) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Operation of DRR •  Dequeue packets until the queues counter is zero or negative. Cisco Systems. retain the value until the next cycle. (i. •  If negative. reset to zero.e. www. •  Move to next queue.cisco. Inc.com 106 .

Parallel eXpress Forwarding overview US Patent 6. Inc.101.599 Column Column Memory Memory 0 1 2 3 IM IM IM IM Ingress Demux Packet Packet Egress Mux 4 5 6 7 Headers In IM IM IM IM Headers Out 8 9 10 11 IM IM IM IM 12 13 14 15 IM IM IM IM Column Column Memory Memory feedback • A PXF Processor is a 4x4 CPU Array QoS mechanisms © 2001. www.cisco.com 107 . Cisco Systems.

•  Each column of CPU provides a specific service or set of services.cisco. www. •  Multiple rows allow processing in parallel. •  Each row is a pipeline where services are applied simultaneously to multiple packets. Inc. PXF overview •  Only header (64B) of a packet are sent through the PXF processor. Cisco Systems.com 108 . (but no ‘out of order’ packets) •  Ability to run multiple pass in the array for complex feature (that requires more cpu cycles) QoS mechanisms © 2001.

www. ACLs. policing CBWFQ. PXF cascading PXF Services cascading CEF VTMS. • PXF Services are platform dependant QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 109 . Inc. Cisco Systems. Classification WRED.cisco. Accounting shaping. LLQ ….

com 110 . Versatile Traffic Management Services (VTMS) •  VTMS is a set of PXF services for OSM modules (7600/6500) •  allow classification. queuing and congestion mngt QoS mechanisms © 2001. www. Cisco Systems. Inc.cisco. shaping.

cisco. www. Inc.com 111 . CHOC. EIR (future) WRR w/ POS. per direction DSCP-based for up to 64 classes per direction Classify (64+default +system) One VTMS queue per class (2048) •  Shaping per queue Ingress. GE WAN FQ w/ ATM CBWFQ w/ ATM (future) • Congestion Avoidance RED per queue w/ current OSMs WRED per queue w/ future OSMs QoS mechanisms © 2001. VTMS Overview Scheduling RED Queues Wheel •  Classification Per logical interface. Cisco Systems. egress • Congestion Management CIR.

www. EXP … •  Dual rate policer •  QOS in MPLS •  Bw percent in LLQ •  RSVP classification •  QoS preclassify •  FRTS interface congestion (12. ATM CLP.com 112 . Inc.2(4)T) QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco.2 …(T) •  set FR de. Updates 12. Cisco Systems.

www. Inc.1 service-policy output rate-limit QoS mechanisms © 2001.1 service-policy input DE-ToS policy-map rate-limit policy-map FRDE class police class class-default police 512000 1500 1500 set fr-de conform-action transmit exceed-action set-frde-transmit interface s4/0. Frame Relay DE bit class-map match-fr-de match fr-de FR policy-map DE-ToS class match-fr-de set ip precedence 1 interface s4/0. Cisco Systems.cisco.1 ! Only when be is used service-policy output FRDE interface ser4/0.com 113 .

www. Inc. ATM CLP bit ATM policy-map SETCLP policy-map rate-limit class class-default class police police 512000 1500 1500 set atm-clp conform-action transmit ! exceed-action set-clp-transmit ! interface atm1/0/0 interface atm1/0/0 service-policy output SETCLP service-policy output rate-limit QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems.com 114 .cisco.

Single Rate/3 colors Policer (RFC2697) Tc: token available in bucket1 Te: token avail in bucket2 QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. Inc. Cisco Systems.com 115 . www.

Inc.cisco. Dual Rate/3 Colors Policer (RFC 2698) Tp: token available in bucket1 Tc: token avail in bucket2 QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. www.com 116 .

cisco. www. Actions (colors) Conform / Exceed / Violate Actions drop set-dscp-transmit set-mpls-exp-transmit set-prec-transmit set-clp-transmit set-frde-transmit set-qos-transmit transmit (since CSCdt11400 multiple actions for each ‘color’) QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc.com 117 .

Inc. www. Cisco Systems. QoS and MPLS 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Label | EXP |S| TTL | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ •  Two methods are possible –  Single LSP per ‘QoS’ FEC: E-LSP use EXP field in MPLS header to select Diff-Serv queue By default IP prec copied in EXP labelS (cisco) By default exp is not copied ‘down’ (in label below or prec) –  Multiple LSPs per ‘QoS’ FEC: L-LSP use Label to select Diff-Serv queue: QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 118 .cisco.

Inc.com 119 .cisco. www. Cisco Systems. End to End QoS Customer CE PE Customer QoS QoS SP QoS QoS QoS Uniform mode: QoS bits modified by each domain … Short pipe: Core QoS is independant of edge Pipe: SP devices QoS is independant of ingress End to End: Transparency is assured CE to CE QoS mechanisms © 2001.

Inc. MPLS « CoS transparency » LSP TE LSP LDP MPLS MPLS exp 5 or n exp 2 IP: dsp 5 MPLS MPLS exp 5 or n IP: dscp 5 MPLS exp 5 or n exp 5 or n MPLS IP: dscp 5 MPLS exp 5 or n exp 5 or n IP: dscp 5 IP: dscp 5 •  By default ingress IP prec copied in EXP labels (or manually set to ‘n’ new cli set mpls exp imposition ‘n’ replace set mpls exp ‘n’) •  Classification behavior on egress PE use DSCP •  PHP should not be configured (use explicit-null) and use QOS group to map EXP to QOS-group for egress PE classification based on EXP QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems.com 120 .cisco. www.

Requires specific mapping dscp->mpls-exp- >dscp if the distinct PHB’s are encoded using more than the 3 precedence bits •  Egress PE classification based on IP DSCP QoS mechanisms © 2001. CoS transparency Uniform mode Assume something recolors the top-most label here to 0 ‘set mpls experimental top-most (0-7)’ IP: MPLS MPLS IP: dscp exp 5 exp 0 dscp 5 0 MPLS MPLS MPLS exp 5 exp 5 exp 0 IP: IP: IP: dscp dscp dscp 5 5 5 •  in both the MPLS-to-MPLS and the MPLS-to-IP cases.cisco. ‘mpls propagate-cos CSCdv21062’ •  Only works for 8 distinct PHB’s. Inc. the PHB’s of the top-most popped label is copied into the new top label or the IP DSCP if no label remains. Cisco Systems. www.com 121 .

Cisco Systems.cisco. www. CoS transparency Short-Pipe mode IP: MPLS MPLS IP: dscp exp 5 exp 0 dscp 5 5 MPLS MPLS MPLS exp 5 exp 5 exp 0 IP: IP: IP: dscp dscp dscp 5 5 5 •  the PHB’s of the top-most popped label is copied into the new top label but not copied in IP DSCP •  Egress PE classification still based on IP DSCP QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 122 . Inc.

Inc. CoS transparency Pipe mode IP: MPLS MPLS IP: dscp exp 5 exp 0 dscp 5 5 MPLS MPLS MPLS exp 5 exp 5 exp 0 IP: IP: IP: dscp dscp dscp 5 5 5 •  the PHB’s of the top-most popped label is copied into the new top label but not copied in IP DSCP •  classification is based on mpls-exp field (use qos group) of the top-most received MPLS frame •  PHP should not be configured (use explicit-null) QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco. Cisco Systems.com 123 . www.

CoS Transparency
End to End
CE
PE

MPLS MPLS
IP: MPLS exp 2
dscp exp 2 exp 2
5 IP: MPLS
IP: exp 2
dscp dscp
5 5 IP:
dscp
Push a Null-Label and 5
use its EXP field to
convey result of Copy EXP of popped Null-label
classification into EXP of pushed labels
Preserve DSCP

•  QOS policy is done on CE side, reduce load/complexity on PE
the mpls-exp of the received mpls frame is copied in memory and later
copied in all the mpls-exp field of the pushed labels.
mpls ip encapsulate exp-null on CE intf facing PE
QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 124

Diff-Serv over MPLS:
“coloring” MPLS Frames (PE)
class-map match-all DSCP-VoIP
match ip dscp 40
class-map match-any DSCP-Business
match ip dscp 32
class-map match-all DSCP-Management
match ip dscp 48
!
policy-map UPC
class DSCP-VoIP interface Serial0/0.1
set mpls exp 2 service-policy input UPC
class DSCP-Management
set mpls exp 1 (since 12.1(5)T)
class DSCP-Business
police 40000 1500 1500
conform-action set-exp-transmit 1 (since 12.2(1)T)
exceed-action drop violate-action drop
class class-default
set mpls exp 0
(set mpls experimental top-most (0-7) CSCdv19041
+CSCdv26453+ mpls propagate-cos CSCdv21062)
QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 125

Diff-Serv over MPLS:
“matching” MPLS Frames (P)
class-map match-all MPLS-VoIP
match mpls exp 2 (since 12.0(7)T)
class-map match-any MPLS-Gold
match mpls exp 1
!
policy-map MPLS-QoS
class MPLS-VoIP
priority 24
class MPLS-Gold
bandwidth 44
random
class class-default interface Serial0/1
bandwidth 22 bandwidth 125
random max-reserved-bandwidth 90
tag ip
service-policy output MPLS-QoS

QoS mechanisms © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 126

www.com 127 . Cisco Systems. if egress QOS is based on MPLS-EXP field QoS-group and discard-class (new) are used for egress classification and droping. Qos-group and discard-class INPUT POLICY on Egress PE’s OUTPUT POLICY on egress PE’s class-map AF1 class-map AF11 match qos-group 1 match mpls exp top 0 … … policy-map input policy-map output class AF11 class AF1 bandwidth percent 20 set qos-group 1 random-detect discard-class-based set discard-class 1 As egress PE remove all labels. Inc.cisco. QoS mechanisms © 2001.

PATH and RESV msgs Default/BE! •  Since CSCdp21647 RSVP is able to recognize voice flow and put it in PQ •  Or use “ip rsvp pq-profile…” (12.com 128 . Inc. Class2! voice signalling traffic. www. RSVP admitted flows Reserved! Classifi.cisco. Cisco Systems.1(3)T) •  picks up bearer traffic only .another classification mechanism must be used to prioritize signalling traffic (use “ip rsvp signalling dscp nn” to assign dscp value to sig) QoS mechanisms © 2001. RSVP Packet Classification Egress Interface/PVC Unclassified Queuing (LLQ) flows voice conforming. admitted flows PQ! non-voice conforming. Queues! cation Class1! non-admitted flows.

Cisco Systems.com 129 . www. LLQ Configuration >> Absolute Percent Specification (CSCds25849) policy-map Multiservice policy-map Multiservice 75% rule class VoIP class VoIP applies priority 240 priority 240 (OR priority percent 10) OR priority percent 10 class business class business bandwidth percent 30 bandwidth 512 class data class data bandwidth percent 20 bandwidth 256 >> Relative Percent Specification policy-map Multiservice 75% rule class VoIP doesn’t priority percent 10 apply class business bandwidth remaining percent 30 (75% rule always apply on PQ) class class-default bandwidth remaining percent 20 QoS mechanisms © 2001. Inc.cisco.

(2)T for 2600/3600 QoS mechanisms © 2001. Cisco Systems. QoS pre-classify •  when « IP is in IP » output intf can’t classify based on inner IP header •  for GRE. crypto-map or V template •  Store a copy of initial IP header for classification after encap •  12.2. www.com 130 . IPSec.cisco.1(5)T for 7100/7200 12. Inc. L2TP •  QoS preclassify cmd applied on tunnel.

Inc. www.com 131 . Cisco Systems. Future enhancements •  Voice Adaptive Traffic Shaping Possibility to use CIR when no voice packets And use minCIR when voice is active •  Flow based QOS CBWFQ on low-end Already available in 7500 via ‘fair-queue’ cmd •  CLI Hierarchical CBmarking Percent keyword for CBpolicing QoS mechanisms © 2001.cisco.

metering. www. requires provisioning •  Requires for each flow: Classification.cisco. Cisco Systems. Conclusions •  QoS not inherent to network •  no BW creation.com 132 . Inc. and congestion control QoS mechanisms © 2001.

cisco. Conclusions •  PQ.) •  Requires upgrade plan .. Cisco Systems. •  New mechanisms for “real” QoS. Inc. QoS mechanisms © 2001.com 133 .2 (T .. www. available only since 12.1-12... CQ (and FIFO) available for ages but many side effects.