good material for biaxial stress system

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good material for biaxial stress system

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acts in both x and y directions and all stress components in z- direction

vanish is known as biaxial stress system. It is different from one

dimensional or uniaxial stress condition considered in the previous

section. Thus it is assumed that all the components in the z-direction

( xz = yz = z =0) shown in Fig. No.1 are zero. The stress element

shown in Fig. No. 2 is obtained; it is the most general condition that can

exist. Biaxial stresses arise in the analysis of beams, pressure vessels,

shafts and many other structural members.

FIGURE NO. 1

y

y

xy

xy

x

x x

xy

xy

y

FIGURE NO. 2

A class of common engineering problems involving stresses in a thin

plate or free surface of a structural element, such as the surfaces of thin

walled pressure vessels under external or internal pressure, the free

surface of shafts in torsion or beams under transverse loads.

In general if a plane element is removed from a body it will be

subjected to the normal stresses x and y together with the shearing

stress xy as shown in fig 3. It is desirable to investigate the state of

stress on any inclined plane t defined by angle , positive ccw as shown

in fig 4. The resulting relations would make it possible to determine

y

n

y

xy

xy x

x x

xy

xy

y

FIGURE NO. 3

normal stress n and the shear stress on the inclined plane t form

normal n to the inclined plane t form knowledge of normal and shear

stresses on the X and Y planes (usually known). Note that the normal n

to the inclined plane t make an angle with the x-axis. This angle is

considered to be positive when measured in the ccw direction from the

positive end of the x-axis. According to sign convention, which is the

one used throughout this text, a shear stress is positive if it produces

clockwise rotation of the element on which it is acting and negative if it

produces counterclockwise rotation. Thus xy on the X plane in Figure

is positive while xy on the Y plane

(i.e., yx) is negative. However, as was stated earlier, normal stresses are

positive if tensile and negative if compressive. Isolate the small wedge

to the left of the inclined plane and construct its free-body diagram as

shown in Figure (4). If one assumes the area of the inclined plane to be

A square units, then the area of the X plane would be A cos square

units and the area of the Y plane would be A sin square units, as

shown in Figure (5). Thus the forces on the three faces of the wedge

produced by the normal and shear stresses acting on them can be

determined in terms of A and the trigonometric functions of the angle ,

as shown in Figure (5).

y

n

xy n

x

xy

t

y

A

A cos

x

A sin

Evidently the desired stresses acing on the inclined planes are

internal quantities with respect to the element shown in Fig. 4.

Following the usual procedure of introducing a cutting plane so as to

render the desired quantities external to the new section, the originally

rectangular element is cut along the plane inclined at the angle to the

x-axis and thus obtain the triangular element shown in Fig. 5. Since half

of the material have been removed in the rectangular element, it has

been replaced it by the effect that it exerted upon the remaining lower

triangle shown and this effect in general consists of both normal and

shearing forces acting along the inclined plane.

y

A cos

n

xy nA

A cos

x

A

x

xy A sin

t

y

xy .A cos

. s i n n. A

cos

. A.

xy

x y .A

.c

os

.

co x

s

x .A cos .A

x

.A

s

.c

c. o

os

s

.

o

si

.c

n

. A

x

yx

y .A yx .A sin

si n

.A

. s

si n

co .co

.s

s si n

i

.A

n

yx

y .A sin

s i n.sin

y .A

FIGURE NO. 6

Magnitudes of the normal and shearing stresses corresponding to these

forces have been designated by n and respectively as discussed

earlier. Thus our problem reduces to finding the unknown stresses n

and in terms of the known stresses x, y, and xy. It is to be carefully

noted that the free-body diagram, Fig. 4. indicates stresses acting on the

various faces of the element, and not forces. Each of these stresses is

assumed to be uniformly distributed over the area on which it acts.

Summation of forces in Fig. along the direction of n Fn = 0.

n A x A cos cos y A sin sin yx A sin cos xy A cos sin

n x y 2 xy

2 2 2

x x . cos 2 y y . cos 2

n xy sin 2

2 2 2 2

x y

n

1

x y cos 2 xy sin 2 (1)

2 2

Summing the forces along (t-direction) ft = 0.

Shearing Stress acting parallel to the inclined Plan.

A. x A cos sin y . A sin cos yx A sin sin xy . A cos cos

x cos sin y sin cos yx sin 2 xy cos 2

Consider an element

x y sin cos xy cos 2 sin 2

x y sin 2 cos 2 (2 )

xy

2

The stresses 'x and ' acting on a plane at right angle to the inclined

plane on which x and act are obtained by substituting ( ) for in

2

1 & 2.

Then these equation are as follows

x y x y

'n cos 2 xy sin 2 (3)

2 2

x y

' sin 2 t xy cos 2 (4 )

2

By combining 3 & 4 the resulting equation is

n 'n x y (5)

constant. Similarly comparison of B & B' results is

' (6)

This shows that shear stresses on perpendicular planes are equal in

magnitude but opposite in sign.

Sin(2+180) = -Sin(2)

Principal Stresses and location of angles

on which that act.

In the design and stress analysis, the maximum stresses are desired in

order to ensure safety of the load carrying member. The above

equations can be used if we know at what angle it occurred. The angle

can be found by differentiating the function and setting the result

equal to zero.

d n

0

d

x y x y

n cos 2 xy sin 2

2 2

d n x y

0 sin 2 (2) xy cos 2 (2)

d 2

0 x y sin 2 2 xy cos 2

sin 2 cos 2

0 x y 2 xy

cos 2 cos 2

0 x y tan 2 2 xy

2 xy

tan 2 P (7 )

x y

1 2 xy

1

P tan (8)

2

x y

Equations 7 & 8 define the planes of maximum and minimum normal

stresses.

Planes defined by equation 7 and 8 are known as principal planes. Thus

there are two solutions of equation 7, and two values of 2p (differing

by 180o) and also two values of p (differing by 90o).

The normal stresses that exist on these planes are called principal

stresses. On one of these two planes, the normal stress is maximum and

on the second the normal stress is minimum. It will be further shown

that the Principal Plane are free from shear stresses and therefore

another way of defining is that the Principal stress are the normal

stresses acting on the planes on which shear stresses are zero.

Values of maximum and minimum normal stresses can be obtained by

substituting values of P from 7 or 8 into 1. In order to get cos2 and

sin 2 a right angle triangle is drawn as shown in Fig 7 (a & b).

The values of sin 2 p and cos 2 p as found from the above two

diagram may now be substituted in equation (1) to get maximum and

minimum values of normal stresses.

2

x y

xy 2

2

xy

2P1

x y

2

2

x y

xy 2

2

xy

2P2

x y

FIGURE NO. 7 (a, b) 2

x y

cos 2p 2

x y 2

xy 2

2

x y

cos 2p1 2

x y 2

xy 2

2

x y

2

cos 2p2

x y 2

xy 2

2

xy

sin 2p

x y 2

xy 2

2

xy

sin 2p1

x y 2

xy 2

2

xy

sin 2p2

x y 2

xy 2

2

Substituting these values in A

x y

x y x y 2 xy xy

max

2 2 x y

2

x y

2

xy 2 xy 2

2 2

2

x y

max

x y

2

xy

2

2 x y

2

x y

2

xy 2 xy 2

2 2

2

x y

xy 2

x x 2

max

2 x y

2

xy 2

2

2

x y x y

max xy 2 (9 )

2 2

x y

x y x y 2 xy .( xy )

min

2 2 x y

2

x y

2

xy 2 xy 2

2 2

2

x y

x y 2 xy 2

min

2 x y

2

x y

2

xy 2 xy 2

2 2

2

x y

xy 2

x y 2

min

2 x y

2

xy 2

2

2

x y x y

min xy 2 (10 )

2 2

2

x y x y

1 max xy 2

(11)

2 2

2

x y x y

2 min xy 2 (12 )

2 2

Principal

Stress

Principal

Stress

P

FIGURE NO. 8

The stresses given by 11 and 12 are the principal stresses and they

occur the on the principal plane. By substituting one of the values of p

from equation 7 into equation 1 one may readily determine which of the

two principal stresses is acting on that plane. The other Principal stress

naturally acts on the other Principal plane.

Another useful relation is obtained by adding the values of Principal

stresses

1 2 x y (13)

It states that sum of the normal stresses on any two orthogonal planes

through a point in a stressed body is constant.

Shear stress is zero at principal plane.

The vanishing of the shear stress on Principal planes can be shown if

the values of cos2p and sin2p is substituted in equation 2.

x y

. sin 2 xy cos 2 (2)

2

x y xy

.

x y

2 x y

2 xy

x y

2

xy 2 2 xy 2

2 2

0

It can be concluded that on the element on which principal stresses act

the shear stress is zero regardless of the values of x, y, xy.

Maximum shearing stress and its location.

There are certain values of angles that leads to maximum value of

shear stress for a given set of stresses x, y, xy, the orientation of the

planes on which maximum shear stress can be found using the same

technique i.e. differentiating equation 2 w.r.t. and setting it equal to

zero.

x y

. sin 2 xy cos 2

2

d x y

cos 2 (2) xy ( sin 2 )(2) 0

d 2

dividing by cos 2

sin 2

xy .2 x y

cos 2

1 ( x y )

tan 2 (14)

2 xy

x y

2s tan 1 (15)

2

xy

Maximum shearing stress

This equation defines two values of 2s differing by 180o or two values

of s differing by 90o. Corresponding to one of these two angles is

algebraic maximum and to the second is algebraic minimum. The two

values of the angles 2 s satisfying equation may be represented as

shown.

2

x y

xy 2

2 x y

2

2s2

xy

2

x y

xy 2

2 x y

2

2s1

xy

Where the upper sign refers to case 8a and lower to case 8b.

x y

sin 2s1

2R

x y

sin 2s2

2R

xy

cos 2s

R

Where the upper sign refers to case 1 and lower to case 2.

xy

cos 2s1

R

xy

cos 2s2

R

Substituting these values of coss and sins in 2.

x y

max sin 2 xy cos 2

2

x y x y xy

max xy .

2 2R R

2

1 x y 2 1

max ( xy ) .

R 2 R

2 2

1 x y x y

max ( xy ) 2 ( xy ) 2

R 2 2

Positive sign represents the maximum shearing stress and the

2

x y

max ( xy ) 2 (16)

2

2

x y

min ( xy ) 2 (17)

2

two equation have tangent that are negative reciprocal of each other and

therefore angle (2p) is 90o away from (2s). In other words Principal

plane are inclined to the planes of maximum or minimum shear by a 45o

angle.

Normal stress on Maximum shear stress Element

In order to see if there is any normal stress existing on the element

having maximum shear stress s is to be substituted in 1.

x y 1

( x y ) cos 2s xy sin 2s

2 2

x y 1 xy x y

( x y ) xy .

2 2 R 2R

x y

, (18)

2

x y

ave (19)

2

Therefore it can be concluded that on the element on which max occurs

there will be a normal stress equal to the average of initial normal

stresses.

x y

max R Major Principal stress

2

x y

min R Major Principal stress

2

max R

max min 2 R

1 2 2R

1 2

max

2

Major or Minor Principal stresses.

when both tensile or compressive Stresses act together, the tensile

stresses are always the major principal stresses irrespective of

numerical values.

If both principal stresses are compressive the one with smaller

magnitude is the major principal stress.

Pure shear.

If both x or y are equal in magnitude but of opposite sense then

x = -y = 0

max = 0

Then this element is subjected to pure shear at an angle of 45.

0

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