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11
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12
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ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ Óy!v˛¸Ó˚ Ñ)˛ú˛ô%ˆÏÓ˚y!£ˆÏì˛Ó˚ õì˛yò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ˛˛ô%ˆÏãy v˛yò!îÑ˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ÷Ó˚& Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £Î˚– xyÓ˚ ˆÎˆÏ£ì%˛ ܈Ïíü Ó®òy
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˛˛ô%ˆÏãy ÷Ó˚& Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚ ì˛y£z !¢!k˛îyì˛yÓ˚ ~£z fl˛iyò ˛ô!Ó˚Óì≈˛ò– ≤Ã̈Ïõ =Ó˚&Ó®òy Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚ ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚ !¢!k˛îyì˛yˆÏÑ˛ Ó®òy
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !Ó!ï xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ ÷Ó˚& Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚ ˆîÓ# î%Ü≈yÓ˚ ˛ô%ˆÏãy– î%Ü≈y˛ô%ˆÏãyñ G%˛úò ~ÓÇ xyò%°Ïy!DÑ˛ xòƒyòƒ xò%¤˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ¢y!Ó≈Ñ˛
ÓƒÓfl˛iy˛ôòyÎ˚ ÎyÓ˚ ¢!e´Î˚ xÓîyò ¢Óâ˛y£zˆÏì˛ ˆÓ!ü !ì˛!ò £ˆÏúò î%ú%ÓyÓ%Ó˚ ˆäÈy›˛¶˛y£z ¢#ˆÏì˛w ˆõy£ò îyˆÏ¢Ó˚ Ñ˛!ò¤˛ ˛ô%e
13
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!¢k˛yÌ≈ ˆõy£ò îy¢ SˆÖyÑ˛òV–˛ Óì≈˛õyˆÏò î%ú%ÓyÓ%Ó˚ î%£z ¶˛y£zˆÏ˛ôy ˆì˛ˆÏãw ˆõy£ò
~ÓÇ Ó˚ˆõÏ w ˆõy£ò ÓÎ˚¢ ã!òì˛ Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆíÏ ˛ô%ˆã Ï yÓ˚ ì˛_¥yÓïyˆÏò ¢Ó˚y¢!Ó˚ Î%_´ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏì˛
˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ò òy ÓˆÏú õì˛ Óƒ_´ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– ì˛ˆÏÓ î%ú%ÓyÓ%Ó˚ xòƒyòƒ ¶˛y£zˆÏ˛ôyÓ˚y Á ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚
ˆäȈÏúˆÏõˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y !ò¤˛yÓ˚ ¢yˆÏÌ ˛ô%ˆÏãy â˛y!úˆÏÎ˚ Îyò– ˆì˛ˆÏãw ˆõy£Ïò xyüyÓyî#
Ó˚yã!°Ï≈ñ ˆîÓ!°Ï≈ñ Ó˚yõˆÏõy£òñ ãÎ˚î#˛ôñ Ó˚yã òyÓ˚yÎ˚í ~ÓÇ xyÓ˚Á xòƒyòƒˆÏîÓ˚
£yì˛ ïˆÏÓ˚ ò#úõ!í îyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ÷Ó˚& Ñ˛Ó˚y ˛ô%ˆÏãy ~!܈ÏÎ˚ â˛úˆÏÓ î%ˆÏüy˛ ÓÍ¢ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !îˆÏÑ˛–
¢Çfl˛,Ò!ì˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ xò%Ó˚yÜ
~ Óy!v˛¸Ó˚ ~Ñ˛ xyÑ˛°Ïí≈ #Î˚ !Ó°ÏÎ˚ !äÈú ¢Çfl˛,Ò!ì˛ ˆ≤Ãõ– ~£z ¢Çfl˛,Ò!ì˛ õòfl˛Òì˛yÓ˚
˛ô!Ó˚â˛Î˚ ˛ôyÁÎ˚y ˆÎì˛ Ñ˛ÖòÁ G%˛úò ÎyeyÓ˚ xy¢ˆÏÓ˚ñ Ñ˛ÖòÁ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ xò%¤˛yˆÏòÓ˚
xyˆÏÎ˚yãˆÏò– G%˛úò Îyeyñ G%˛úò Üyò Îy ~ÖòÁ î%ú%ÓyÓ%Ó˚ ÓÇüïÓ˚Ó˚y â˛y!úˆÏÎ˚
ÎyˆÏFäÈò– Î!îÁ ¢õˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ¢yˆÏÌ ¢yˆÏÌ !Ñ˛ä%È›˛y ¶§˛y›˛y ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ˆÏäÈ– ~ÖyòÑ˛yÓ˚ ܧyˆÏÎ˚
܈ÏOÓ˚ õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚y Î!îÁ Ö%Ó ~Ñ˛›˛y !ü!«˛ì˛ !äȈÏúò òy ì˛Ó%Á ˆÎ ¢Ó G%˛úò Üyò ˆì˛ˆÏãw ˆõy£ò îy¢
!úˆÏÖˆÏäÈò ˆ¢=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ¢%Ó˚ Á Ñ˛ÌyÓ˚ õyò !äÈú xì˛ƒhs˛ v˛zß¨ì˛–
~ Óy!v˛¸ˆÏì˛ ˆÎ òy›˛õ!®Ó˚!›˛ xyˆÏäÈ ˆ¢!›˛ ÷ï% î%Ü≈y˛˛ô%ˆÏãyÓ˚ ãòƒ ÓƒÓ£yÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚y £ì˛ òy– ~ÖyˆÏò£z ≤Ãî!ü≈ì˛ £ì˛ ¢ÓyÑ˛ Á
xÓyÑ˛ â˛ú!Fâ˛e– Ñ˛!Ó˚õÜO ü£ˆÏÓ˚ !¢ˆÏòõy £ú â˛yú% £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ ~£z òy›˛õ!®ˆÏÓ˚£z !›˛!Ñ˛›˛ ˆÑ˛ˆÏ›˛ ˆúyˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y !¢ˆÏòõy
ˆîÖˆÏì˛ò– !˛ô. ˆÑ˛. ÓˆÏú ˛ô!Ó˚!â˛ì˛ ~Ñ˛ Óƒ!_´Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛yúòyÎ˚ â˛ú!Fâ˛e ˆîÖyˆÏòy £ì˛– !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ¢yÇfl˛,Ò!ì˛Ñ˛ xò%¤˛yòÁ ~£z
òy›˛õ!®ˆÏÓ˚ xò%!¤˛ì˛ £ì˛– !ÓÖƒyì˛ ò,ì˛ƒ!ü“# v˛zîÎ˚üB˛Ó˚ã# ~£z òy›˛õ!®ˆÏÓ˚ ò,ì˛ƒ ≤Ãîü≈ò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈò– ì˛yäÈyv˛¸y !Ó!ü‹T Ñ˛#ì≈˛ò#Î˚y
Ó˚yïyÓ˚yí#ñ !ü“# Ó˚Ì#w ˆáy°Ïñ ï#ˆÏÓ˚w â˛w !õeñ =Ó˚&îy¢ ӈϮy˛ôyïƒyÎ˚ñ õ!úòy ˆîÓ#Ó˚yÁ ~£z òy›˛õ!®ˆÏÓ˚ xò%¤˛yò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈò–
v˛zˆÏîƒy_´y !äȈÏúò Ó˚ˆÏíw ˆõy£ò îy¢ Sî%ú%ÓyÓ%V–
Ó˚ˆÏíw ˆõy£ò îy¢ ÈÙÈ î%ú%ÓyÓ%
~¢Ó ã!õîyÓ˚# ~ÓÇ ÓˆÏòî#Î˚yòy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ¢ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏú xyõÓ˚y î%úÓ% yÓ%Ó˚ â˛!Ó˚ˆÏeÓ˚ xyÓ˚Á ~Ñ˛!›˛ !îÑ˛ ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôy!Ó˚– !ì˛!ò
~Ñ˛!îˆÏÑ˛ ˆÎõò ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ Á ¢Çfl˛,Òì˛ˆÏ≤Ãõ#˛ õyò%°Ï !äȈú Ï ò xòƒ!îˆÏÑ˛ ~Ñ˛ãò ˆÎy܃ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ˆòì,˛cÁ !äȈú Ï ò– ¶˛y°Ïy !ÓˆÏúÓ˚
!ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ !ì˛!ò£z ≤ÃÌõ ≤Ã!ì˛Óyî Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äȈÏúò– ãÁ£Ó˚úyú ˆòˆÏ£Ó˚&Ó˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛Á Ñ˛ˆÏ‡˛yÓ˚¶˛yˆÏÓ ≤Ã!ì˛Óyî ãy!òˆÏÎ˚!äȈÏúò–
fl˛øÓ˚í Ñ˛Ó˚y ˆÎˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ Ó˚ˆÏíw ˆõy£ˆÏòÓ˚ !˛ôì˛y Öƒyì˛òyõy fl˛∫yï#òì˛y ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ# Ó˚õí# ˆõy£ò îy¢ xyã#Óò ~Ñ˛ãò
¢õyãˆÏ¢Ó# !äȈÏúò– î%ú%ÓyÓ%Ó˚ !˛ôì˛y Ó˚yÎ˚ Óy£yî%Ó˚ Ó˚õí# ˆõy£ò îy¢ !äȈÏúò ~Ñ˛ Ñ˛õ≈# ˛ô%Ó˚&°Ï– Ñ˛!Ó˚õ܈ÏOÓ˚ ò!›˛ÖyúˆÏÑ˛
~Ñ˛!›˛ ¢%£z!õÇ ˛ô%ú !£¢yˆÏÓ ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˆâ˛ˆÏÎ˚!äȈÏúò– !Ñ˛ls˛ õye 57/58 ÓÍ¢Ó˚ ÓÎ˚ˆÏ¢ xÑ˛yú õ,ì%˛ƒÓ˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏí ˆ¢!›˛ xyÓ˚
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ v˛z‡˛ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ò!ò– Ó˚ˆÏíw ˆõy£ˆÏòÓ˚ xyˆÏ˛ôy°Ï£#ò ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ# ˆâ˛ì˛òyÁ ì§˛yÓ˚ !˛ôì,˛ú∏˛ v˛z_Ó˚y!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ¢)ˆÏe£z ≤ÃyÆ !äÈú–
19ˆü ˆõÛÓ˚ £ì˛ƒyÑ˛yˆÏ[˛Ó˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ≤Ãïyòõs˛f#Ó˚ !òÑ˛›˛ ˆ≤Ã!Ó˚ì˛ ~Ñ˛ ì˛yÓ˚Óyì≈˛yÎ˚ ˆÑ˛!wÎ˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ £hfl˛ˆÏ«˛˛ô îy!Ó Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò Ó˚ˆÏíw
ˆõy£ò îy¢– 24ˆü ˆõñ !£®% õ%¢úõyò Óí≈ÈÙÈïõ≈ ãy!ì˛ !ò!Ó≈ˆÏüˆÏ°Ï õ£y!õúˆÏòÓ˚ Ó˚yÖ# Óı˛ò v˛zÍ¢ˆÏÓ ¢y!õú £ˆÏÎ˚ «˛õì˛y
v˛zk˛ì˛ xy¢yõ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ÓˆÏm°Ï Á £ì˛ƒyò#!ì˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ÓyˆÏî xyõÓ˚í ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ ü˛ôÌ !òú ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ# ãòì˛y– ÎyÓ˚ ˆòì,˛c
!îˆÏúò Ó˚ˆÏíw ˆõy£ò îy¢–
14
¢Æîü ¢ÇÖƒy

¢yˆÏv˛¸ îü !ÓˆÏá ã!õÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ !ò!õ≈ì˛ ˆîv˛¸ü ÓäȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ô%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏòy Ó˚yÎ˚Óy£yî%Ó˚ Ó˚õí# ˆõy£ò îyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˙!ì˛£ƒÓy£# Óy!v˛¸
!Óïyò ¢¶˛yÎ˚ Ó˚yヶ˛y°Ïy !Óì˛ˆÏÑ≈˛ xÇü@˘Ã£í Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆì˛ˆÏãyî,Æ ¶˛y°ÏyÎ˚ xÑ˛y›˛ƒ Î%!_´Ó˚ ˛ôÓ˚ Î%!_´ v˛z˛ôfl˛iy˛ôò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚ˆÏíw
ˆõy£ò îy¢ ˆ¢!îò ˆÎ ¢%î#á≈ ¶˛y°Ïí !îˆÏÎ˚!äȈÏúò ì˛yÓ˚ ˙!ì˛£y!¢Ñ˛ =Ó˚&c ˆÎõò x¢yïyÓ˚í !äÈú ˆì˛õ!ò ì˛yÓ˚ v˛z˛ôfl˛iy˛ôòyÁ
!äÈú â˛õÑ˛≤Ãî– Ó˚Ó#w ãß√ üì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈ ÓyÇúy¶˛y°ÏyˆÏÑ˛ ¢õy!ï !îˆÏì˛ Ók˛˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛Ó˚ ¢îˆÏòÓ˚ ¢î¢ƒˆÏîÓ˚ v˛zˆÏjÏüƒ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚ˆÏíw
ˆõy£ò ÓˆÏú!äȈÏúò ÈÙÙÙÙÈ “You are preparing for centinary celebration of Rabindranath, you are translating
his writings, you are recognising him as the greatest poet of the country but the tragedy lies that you
won’t recognise the language of the poet himself.”
~£z õ£yò ¶˛y°Ïy ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ#Ó˚ ãˆÏß√Ó˚ üì˛Ó°Ï≈ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜú !Ñ˛ls˛ õyì,˛¶˛y°ÏyÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ xye´õí ~ÖòÁ ˆÌˆÏõ ÎyÎ˚ !ò– ~ÖòÁ
õyì,˛¶˛y°ÏyÓ˚ Ñ˛t˛ ˆÓ˚yï Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ â˛e´yhs˛ ¢õyˆÏò â˛úˆÏäÈ– ~£z ¢ÇÑ˛›˛ ãòÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚!fl˛i!ì˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ v˛z_Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ãòƒ ˆÎ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ# ˆâ˛ì˛òyÓ˚
≤ÈÏÎ˚yãòñ ì˛yÓ˚ Óv˛¸ x¶˛yÓ xyã ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ– ≤ÃÎ˚yì˛ Ó˚ˆÏíw ˆõy£ò îyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ# ã#Óò !ò!ÿ˛ì˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ Óì≈˛õyò ≤Ããß√ˆÏÑ˛
xò%≤Ãy!íì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓ ~£z ¢ÇÑ˛›˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚eyˆÏíÓ˚ v˛z˛ôyÎ˚ Ö§%ãˆÏì˛– î#á≈!îò ïˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎy܃ ˆòì,˛ˆÏcÓ˚ x¶˛yˆÏÓ Ñ˛!Ó˚õ܈ÏOÓ˚ v˛zßΨ ˚ò
hfl˛∏˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜˆÏäÈ– v˛zߨÎ˚í õ)úÑ˛ ¢Ñ˛ú ≤ÃÑ˛“ ˆÎy܃ ˆòì,˛ˆÏcÓ˚ x¶˛yˆÏÓ xòƒe â˛ˆÏú ÎyˆÏFäÈ– Ñ˛!Ó˚õÜO £ˆÏÎ˚ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ˆÏäÈ xy¢yˆÏõÓ˚
xò%ߨì˛ì˛õ ˆãúyÓ˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛– ì˛Ó% ˆãˆÏÜ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏì˛ £Î˚ñ xyd˛ô!Ó˚â˛ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ¢ÇÑ˛›˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ õ%!_´Ó˚ xyˆÏúy Ö§%ãˆÏì˛ £Î˚– Ö§%ãˆÏì˛ £Î˚
◊ˆÏk˛Î˚ Ó˚ˆÏíw ˆõy£ò îyˆÏ¢Ó˚ õì˛ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ# Óƒ!_´cñ ÎyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ !äÈú ˆ¢£z xyˆÏúyÓ˚ ˛ôÌñ ÎyÓ˚ ¢y!ß¨ïƒ !äÈú v˛z°å õõì˛y xyÓ˚
ˆfl˛¨ˆÏ£Ó˚ !fl˛¨?˛ì˛yÎ˚ õï%Ó˚ Á ˛ô!Óe–
xò%ˆú
Ï Öò É äÈ®y Ó˚yÎ˚ !¢Ç

15
¢Æîü ¢ÇÖƒy

òyˆÏõÓ˚ ˆòüyÎ˚ .... ¢Æ!°Ï≈ !ÓŸªy¢

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xyd!˜•˜ öíöì„þ ö¢£z ò›yóö”îû xy!› !‰þ!˜ ˜y– !‰þ˜öì“þ ‰þy£zç ˜y xy›yîû ›öì›Å îûy›²Ì¢yöì”îû ò›yó éôé xy›yîû£z ›y ëyöì„þ ~„þ”y
‹µöìîûîû ö‡yöìîû övþöì„þ þy› ò›y ›yíy !Ýþöìþ™ ”yçó– ò›y– †œy Ö!„þöìëûöìŠé ‹œ ”yçó– ö¢£z ò›yó ëyöì„þ îýë%† þ™y£z!˜ xy›yîû
öîûy† ŸëÄyîû !Ÿëûöìîû éôé öîûy†ësþf’yîû †£ö옖 ë%† ësþf’yîû †£ö옖 xydësþf’yîû †£öì˜ xy!› xy›yîû îû_« ›y‚öì¢îû ›yöì„þó£z
vþy!„þ– î!œ ò!“þö위þ ”¤yvþüy çöìîû Ÿ›’–  ¦þöìîû ›yóöì„þ vþy!„þ ö›yîû !îþ™”„þyöìœ îÊáþ›ëû# xyö좘 !„þó˜y xyö좘 ö”!…ó

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ÓˆÏú v˛yÑ˛ÓyÓ˚ñ ÚõyÛ ÓˆÏú v˛yÑ˛!äÈ ~£z ïπ!ò!›˛ˆÏÑ˛ !òã ◊ÓˆÏí ˆÜy§¢y£zã#Ó˚ Ñ˛˛ôyˆÏúÓ˚ !ì˛úˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ !£Çfl˛Àì˛yˆÏÑ˛£z ÷ï%– ¢%ì˛Ó˚yÇ
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19
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Óƒ!_´õyò%ˆ°Ï ÓÏ ˚ !òãfl˛∫ ã#ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ ãˆÏò£z ¢Oyì˛– ~Ñ˛!ÓÇü õy Á ÓyÓy–Û
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¢hs˛yòˆÏîÓ˚ ã!Ó˚õyòy xÌÓy Ñ˛yÓ˚yîˆÏ[˛Ó˚ !Óïyò â˛yú% Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ world as the United Nations International Day of

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xò%ÎyÎ˚# ˆÎ ¢Ó ¢hs˛yò ÓyÓyÈÙÈõyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ Ñ˛yäÈ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ î)ˆÏÓ˚ ÌyˆÏÑ˛ñ facing the aged.

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25
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!ö˛üyÓ˚# Á ˛ô!Œ›˛∆Ó˚ ÓƒÓ¢y ÎÖò ˆÎ ¢%ˆÏÎyÜ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚!äÈñ ì˛y£z ≤Ã̈Ïõ !òã @˘Ãyõ ˛ôpyÓ˚˛ôyÓ˚ˆÑÏ ˛ Ñ˛õ≈¶˛) !õ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˆÓˆÏäÈ˛ ˆò£z–
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äÈ– 1966 ÈÙÈˆì˛ fl˛¨yì˛Ñ˛ !v˛!@˘Ã £y!¢ú Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ≤Ã̈Ïõ ~£z @˘ÃyˆÏõ xì˛ƒhs˛ !˛ôäÈ˛ôv˛¸y xò%ß¨ì˛ ˆ◊!íÓ˚ õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ Óy¢y–
ÓîÓ˚˛ô%Ó˚ ˆÓ˚ú £y£zfl˛%ÒˆÏú !ü«˛Ñ˛ì˛yÓ˚ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚– Ñ˛Ûõy¢ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ xyÌ≈ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ v˛zߨÎ˚íñ !ü«˛y Á Óy¢fl˛iyˆÏòÓ˚ ÓƒÓfl˛iy
Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ˆ¢ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ £zhfl˛ö˛y– ˆ¢ ÓäÈÓ£˚ z !üúÇ ~Ó˚ xy¢yõ !äÈú ≤Ãïyò ú«˛ƒ– ˆ¢ úˆÏ«˛ƒ ˆ˛ôÔ§äȈÏì˛ ¢ÇˆÏÜ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚!äÈúyõ
¢!â˛ÓyúˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ ˆÎyÜîyò– î%Ûõy¢ ˛ôÓ˚ ˆ¢ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛Á xyˆÏÓ˚y Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛ãò !Ñ˛ˆÏüyÓ˚–
£zhfl˛ö˛y– ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚ 1967 ÈÙÈˆì˛ ÓyÓ˚£z@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ ãö˛Ó˚Üv˛¸ ~õ.£z. ≤Ã̈Ïõ ≤ÃyÆ ÓÎ˚fl˛Ò !òÓ˚«˛Ó˚ˆÏîÓ˚ fl˛∫y«˛Ó˚ Ñ˛Ó˚y– !mì˛#Î˚ì˛É
fl˛%ÒˆÏú ¢£ !ü«˛Ñ˛ì˛yÓ˚ !ì˛ò õy¢ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ £zhfl˛ö˛y– ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚ Ü,££#òˆÏîÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛y!Ó˚ ¢£yÎ˚ì˛yÎ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 50!›˛ xyÓy¢ Ü,£
1968 ÈÙÈÓ˚ 16 ˆö˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆúyÎ˚yÓ˚£yö˛úÇ ~õ.£z fl˛%ÒˆÏú !òõ≈yí– ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ì˛É fl˛∫“ ¢M˛ÈˆÏÎ˚ v˛zÍ¢y£ îyò– â˛ì%˛Ì≈ì˛É @˘Ãyõ#í
≤Ãïyò !ü«˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˆÎyÜîyò Á 1999 ÈÙÈÓ˚ !v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫Ó˚ @˘Ãs˛iyÜyÓ˚ ¢,!‹T Á x!ïÑ˛ ö˛¢ú ö˛úyÁ x!¶˛ÎyˆÏò õîì˛ îyò–
õyˆÏ¢ ˆúyÎ˚yÓ˚£yö˛úÇ £y£zfl˛%ÒˆÏúÓ˚ ≤Ãïyò !ü«˛Ñ˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ~¢Ó Ñ˛yˆÏã ¢ö˛úì˛yÓ˚ fl˛∫#Ñ,˛!ì˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛_≈Ñ, ˛ üÇ¢y˛ôe
â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xÓ¢Ó˚ @˘Ã£í– 2000 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xy£zò ÓƒÓ¢yÎ˚ Á ˛ô%Ófl˚ ˛ÒyÓ˚ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ!˚ äÈ– fl˛∫“ ¢M˛ÈÎ˚ x!¶˛ÎyˆÏò 1960 ÈÙÈ~ x!Ó¶˛_´
ˆÎyÜîyò– 2001 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ v˛z_Ó˚ Ñ˛yäÈyv˛¸ fl˛∫ÈÙÈüy!¢ì˛ ˛ô!Ó˚°ÏˆÏîÓ˚ xy¢yˆÏõ xyîü≈ @˘Ãyõ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˆÑ˛w#Î˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ãyì˛#Î˚ ¢M˛ÈÎ˚
26
¢Æîü ¢ÇÖƒy

!Ó¶˛yÜ Ñ˛ì≈˛, Ñ˛ fl˛∫#Ñ,˛!ì˛îyò Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ È– ˆ¢Óy ÈÙÈ xy˛ôòyÓ˚ ˆúÖyˆÏú!ÖÓ˚ Óƒy˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ ãyòˆÏì˛ â˛y£zˆÏÓy–
~¢Ó ˆ¢Óyõ)úÑ˛ Ñ˛yã 1958 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 1964 ˛ôÎ≈hs˛– !Ñ˛ ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ !Ó°ÏÎ˚ xy˛ôòyÓ˚ ˆúÖyÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ≤Ãyïyòƒ ˛ôyÎ˚ ~ÓÇ
ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚Á !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ¢õˆÏÎ˚ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ fl˛iyˆÏò ܇˛òõ)úÑ˛ Ñ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ ˆÑ˛ò⁄
xÇü#îyÓ˚ !äÈúyõ– xyãÁ xy!äÈ– v˛z _ Ó˚ È Ù È ˆúÖyˆÏú!ÖÓ˚ !ӰψÏÎ˚ ÓúˆÏì˛ ˆÜˆÏú xyõyÓ˚
ˆ¢Óy ÈÙÈ xy˛ôòyÓ˚ ~£z ˆÎ õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ãòƒ xhs˛Ó˚ˆÏÓîòyñ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆúÖyˆÏú!Ö ˆÓÔ!k˛Ñ˛ ¢õyˆÏã ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y úyˆÏ¶˛Ó˚ ãòƒ òÎ˚–
ãòƒ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ì˛y!Üî ÈÙÈ ≤ÃÌõyÓfl˛iyÎ˚ ~ ïÓ˚ˆíÏ Ó˚ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ îyÎ˚Ók˛ì˛y Á xòƒyÎ˚ x!Óâ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ !òˆÏãÓ˚
ˆ˛ôäȈÏò Úˆîü¶˛yˆÏÜÓ˚Û ˆÑ˛yò ¶)˛!õÑ˛y !äÈú !Ñ˛⁄ ≤Ã!ì˛Óyî ¢yÓƒhfl˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y– ì˛î)˛ô!Ó˚ òyÜ!Ó˚Ñ˛ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Ó˚«˛yÎ˚
v˛z_Ó˚ ÈÙÈ ˆîü¶˛yÜ Á ˆîüyhs˛Ó˚ î%!›˛ ᛲòy£z ~Ñ˛¢)ˆÏe Ó§yïy– ãòõì˛ Ü‡˛òñ ¢õyˆÏã !˛ôäÈÈÙÈ˛ôv˛¸y ˆ◊í#Ó˚ î%ÉÖ î%î≈üyñ
xyõyÓ˚ ˜üüˆÏÓ ˆîü¶˛yÜ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– Ó%G˛ˆÏì˛ ˛ôy!Ó˚!ò– 1947 õyì,˛¶˛y°ÏyÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Á Óì≈˛õyò ¢õˆÏÎ˚ !v˛ÈÙȈ¶˛y›˛yÓ˚ Á
ˆÌˆÏ Ñ ˛ 1953 ¢õÎ˚ › ˛y ˜üüÓ È Ù È xyõyÓ˚ ˜üüÓÑ˛yú– ÓyDy!úˆÏîÓ˚ òyÜ!Ó˚Ñ˛c !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆÑ˛w Á Ó˚yモÓ˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ î,!‹T
xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ Óy!v˛¸ˆÏì˛ xk≈˛¢yÆy!£Ñ˛ xyò®ÓyãyÓ˚ ˛ô!eÑ˛y ¶˛!D £zì˛ƒy!î– ì˛yäÈyv˛¸y !ÓˆÏî!ü !Óì˛yv˛¸ˆÏòÓ˚ òyˆÏõ xy¢yˆÏõ
v˛yÑ˛ˆÏÎyˆÏÜ xy¢ì˛– ˛ô!eÑ˛y Óy!v˛¸ˆÏì˛ xy¢yÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ÖÓÓ˚ ãyòyÓ˚ Ó¢Óy¢Ñ˛y!Ó˚ ÓyDy!úˆÏîÓ˚ ˆ£òhfl˛y ~¢Ó !Ó°ÏÎ˚ äÈyv˛¸yÁ Óì≈˛õyò
ãòƒ Óy!v˛¸ˆÏì˛ @˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ¶˛#v˛¸ ãˆÏõ ˆÎì˛– Ñ˛yÑ˛y ˛ô!eÑ˛y !ü«˛yò#!ì˛ £zì˛ƒy!î£z xyõyÓ˚ ˆúÖyˆÏú!ÖˆÏì˛ ≤Ãyïyòƒ ˛ôyÎ˚–
˛ôˆÏv˛¸ ˆüyòyˆÏì˛ò– ¢Óy£z !Ñ˛ÇÑ˛ì≈˛Óƒ!Óõ)벸– ÖÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ñ˛y܈Ïã xyõyÓ˚ ˆúÖy Ó£z Ú¢õˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ¢yì˛Ñ˛y£òÛ £ú !Ó!¶˛ß¨
fl˛iyˆÏò fl˛iyˆÏò Ó˚yÎ˚›˛ñ ú%t˛òñ £ì˛ƒyÓ˚ ÖÓÓ˚£z ≤Ãyïyòƒ ˆ˛ôì˛– ¢õˆÏÎ˚ ¢ÇÓyî˛ôˆÏe ≤ÃÑ˛y!üì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛!›˛ ≤ÃÓı˛– ˆÎ Ó£zˆÏÎ˚
1951 ˆì˛ Ñ˛!Ó˚õ܈ÏO fl˛%ÒˆÏú ¶˛!ì≈˛ £ÓyÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ˆîÖúyõ v˛z˛ôˆÏÓ˚ v˛z!Õ‘!Öì˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ¢Ó !ӰψÏÎ˚Ó˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ î,!‹T˛ôyì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y
Óì≈˛õyò ˛ôy!ÓœÑ˛ £y£zfl˛%ÒˆÏúÓ˚ õyˆÏ‡˛ v˛zmylfl˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ãòƒ xfl˛iyÎ˚# £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ì˛î)˛ô!Ó˚ ÓÓ˚yÑ˛ v˛z˛ôì˛ƒÑ˛yÓ˚ !Ó˛ôÎ≈hfl˛ ˆÎyÜyˆÏÎyÜ
xy◊Î˚ !ü!ÓÓ˚– ˆ¢£z !ü!ÓÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !Ó!ãÍñ ¢%!òõ≈úñ xò%˛ôõñ ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚Á =Ó˚&c ˆÏîÎ˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ–
â˛!Ó˚e xyˆÏÓ˚y xˆÏòÑ˛ xyõyÓ˚ ÓˆÏÎ˚!¢ äÈye ò#úõ!í £y£zfl˛%ÒˆÏú Ú¢õˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ¢yì˛Ñ˛y£ˆÏòÛÓ˚ õì˛ xyÓ˚Á !ì˛ò!›˛ Ó£z äÈy˛ôyÓ˚
¶˛!ì≈˛ £ˆÏÎ˚!äÈú– ÁˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ ˆãˆÏò!äÈ !Ñ˛¶˛yˆÏÓ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ õì˛ ˛ôy[%˛!ú!˛ô xyõyÓ˚ £yˆÏì˛ xyˆÏäÈ !Ñ˛ls˛ xÌ≈y¶˛yˆÏÓ ì˛y Ó£z
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ≤Ãyí Á õyò Ó§yâ˛yÓyÓ˚ ì˛y!܈Ïî Óylfl˛!¶˛ˆÏ›˛ ì˛ƒyÜ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyÑ˛yˆÏÓ˚ ≤ÃÑ˛yü Ñ˛Ó˚y ¢Ω˛Ó £ˆÏFäÈ òy–
v˛zmylfl˛ !ü!ÓˆÏÓ˚ õò%ˆÏ°Ïƒì˛Ó˚ ã#Óò Îy˛ôò Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏäÈ– xˆÏòÑ˛ ˆ¢Óy ÈÙÈ Óì≈˛õyò ¢õˆÏÎ˚ ≤ÃÓ#íÈÙÈ≤ÃÓ#íyˆÏîÓ˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛/
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ xyd#Î˚ fl˛∫ãˆÏòÓ˚ ˛ôyˆÏü xy◊Î˚ !òˆÏΈ˚ äÏ È– ¢y¡±îy!Î˚Ñ˛ ˛ôy!Ó˚Óy!Ó˚Ñ˛ ¢õ¢ƒy Á ~Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ v˛zÏ_ÏÓ˚í ÈÙÈ ~ Óƒy˛ôyˆÏÓ˚
îyDyÎ˚ xˆÏòˆÏÑ˛ ≤Ãyí !îˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò– Ñ˛ì˛ õyÈÙȈÓyòÓ˚y ï!°Ï≈ì˛y xy˛ôòyÓ˚ õì˛yõì˛ ãyòˆÏì˛ â˛y£zˆÏÓy–
£ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈòñ ì˛yÓ˚ ¢!‡˛Ñ˛ !£ˆÏ¢Ó ˛ôyÓyÓ˚ ˆãy ˆò£z– v˛z_Ó˚ ÈÙÈ xy㠈̈ÏÑ˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 35 ÓäÈÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ xyõyÓ˚ ~Ñ˛yhs˛
¢!ì˛ƒ ÓúˆÏì˛ ˆîü¶˛yˆÏÜÓ˚ ö˛ˆÏú ˆÎ¶˛yˆÏÓ õyòÓì˛y Óı%˛ !ÓÖƒyì˛ ¢õyã !ÓK˛yò# xïƒy˛ôÑ˛ Óyí#≤âߨ !õ◊ xy¶˛y°Ï
¶)˛ú%!Z˛ì˛ £ˆÏÎ!˚ äÈú– ì˛yÓ˚ Óyhfl˛Ó!â˛e ˆîˆÏÖ Á ÷ˆÏò ˛ôÓ˚Óì≈˛#ˆÏì˛ !îˆÏÎ˚!äȈÏúò ˆÎ ¶˛!ӰσˆÏì˛ ≤ÃÓ#í òyÜ!Ó˚Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ãòƒ Ó,k˛y◊õ
!ò˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ñ xӈϣ!úì˛ õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ãòƒ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ xò%ˆÏ≤ÃÓ˚íy ˜Ïì˛Ó˚#Ó˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò £ˆÏÓ– xyã ì˛y Óyhfl˛ˆÏÓ ˛ô!Ó˚íì˛–
ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚!äÈ– ~£z xyï%!òÑ˛ Î%ˆÏÜ x!ì˛ o&ì˛ Ü!ì˛ˆÏì˛ ¢õyã ÓƒÓfl˛iy
27
¢Æîü ¢ÇÖƒy

˛ôyˆÏŒ›˛ ÎyˆÏFäÈ– ã#Óò ÈÙÈ ã#!ÓÑ˛yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãˆÏò õyò%°Ï xyã ì˛yÓ˚y ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛#Î˚ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ î!úú ˛ôe ˆîÖyˆÏì˛ x«˛õ– òì%˛Óy
~Ñ˛yߨÓ_≈# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyÓ˚ˆÏäÈ òy– fl˛iyÎ˚# Óy¢fl˛iyˆÏòÓ˚ !ÓˆÏî!ü ›˛∆y£zÓ%òƒyú ~Ñ˛ì˛Ó˚ö˛y Ó˚yÎ˚ !îˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò– ≤ß¿ £ú
Concept xyã xˆÏòÑ˛yLjÏü ˆÜÔí– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe fl˛∫yõ#ÈÙÈfl˛f# Á ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ó≈Ï ˚ xˆÏòÑ˛ ¢yïyÓ˚í õyò%ˆ°Ï ÓÏ ˚ £yˆÏì˛ î!úú˛ôe ˆò£z–
~Ñ˛ Óy î% £ z ¢hs˛yò !òˆÏ Î ˚ ˆäÈ y ›˛ ¢Ç¢yÓ˚ – xˆÏ ò Ñ˛›˛y£z ì˛y£z ÓˆÏú !Ñ˛ ì˛yÓ˚y fl˛∫ˆÏî!ü òò– ~¢Ó õyòÓì˛y !ÓˆÏÓ˚yï#
xydˆÏÑ˛!wÑ˛– fl˛∫yõ#ÈÙÈfl˛f# Á ˆäȈÏúˆÏõˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ õyG˛ÖyˆÏò Î!î Ó,k˛ ≤Ãüy¢!òÑ˛ Ñ˛yãˆÏÑ˛ ¢õÌ≈ò Ñ˛!Ó˚ òy– ˆÎˆÏ£ì%˛ xy!õ òyÜ!Ó˚Ñ˛
ÓyÓy ÈÙÈõyÓ˚ xÓfl˛iyò áˆÏ›˛ñ ì˛y£ˆÏú xˆÏòˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ ˆ¢›˛y x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ¢%Ó˚«˛y xò%Ó˚*˛ô xòƒyòƒ ¢Çfl˛iyÓ˚ ¢ÇˆÏÜ Î%_´ ì˛y£z
Óyv˛¸!ì˛ ˆÓyG˛y !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ Üòƒ £Î˚– ˆ¢ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe Ó,k˛ õyÈÙÈÓyÓyÓ˚ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ õyÏõ Á Ñ˛úˆÏõÓ˚ myÓ˚y x«˛Ó˚ â˛y°Ï Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚
ˆ¢ÓyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ ¢%!Óâ˛yÓ˚ £Î˚ òy– xÓüƒ xˆÏòÑ˛ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ~¢Ó ˆ«˛ˆÏe ≤Ã!ì˛Óyî ¢yÓƒhfl˛ Ñ˛Ó˚!äÈ ~ÓÇ ¶˛!ӰσˆÏì˛Á Ñ˛Ó˚Ó–
Óƒ!ì˛e´õÁ xyˆÏäÈ– ≤ÃÓ#í òyÜ!Ó˚Ñ˛Üí ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆfl˛¨ˆÏ£ ΈÏb ˆ¢Óy ÈÙÈ ˆ¢ÓyÛÓ˚ ~Ñ˛yîü˛¢ÇÖƒyÓ˚ v˛zˆÏß√yâ˛Ñ˛ !äȈÏúò xy˛ô!ò–
˛ôy!úì˛ ˆäȈÏúˆÏõˆÏÎ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ !òÑ˛›˛ xˆÏòÑ˛ !Ñ˛ä%È xyüy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– ~Öò ˆ¢ÓyÛ ¢Æîü ¢ÇÖƒy ≤ÃÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏÌ– ˆ¢ÓyÛ ˛ô!eÑ˛y
ˆÎõò Óyï≈ˆÏÑ˛ƒ ˆÎò ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆäȈÏú Óy ˆõˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ¢¡ôˆÏÑ≈˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛!›˛ Ñ˛Ìy ÷òˆÏì˛ â˛y£zˆÏÓy–
ˆ¢ÓyÎb Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– !Ñ˛ls˛ ~ ˆ«˛ˆÏe Óyhfl˛ÓˆÏÑ˛ ˆõˆÏò ˆòÎ˚y v˛z_Ó˚ ÙÈ £§ƒyñ ˆ¢ÓyÛÓ˚ Ñ˛í≈ïyÓ˚Üí xyõyˆÏÑ˛ ˆ¢ÓyÓ˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛ ¢ÇÖƒy
v˛z!â˛ì˛– â˛yÁÎ˚y ~ÓÇ ˛ôyÁÎ˚yÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ì˛ö˛yÍ £ˆÏú£z î%ÉÖ ÓyˆÏv˛¸– v˛zˆÏß√yâ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ¢%ˆÏÎyÜ !îˆÏÎ˚!äȈÏúò ì˛y !â˛Ó˚!îò fl˛øÓ˚ˆÏí ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓ–
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üƒyõú ~ÓÇ üƒyõúÓ˚Oò ˆîÓ Ñ˛yãú Ñ˛y!hs˛ ˆîÓ

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!îˆÏì˛ â˛yÎ˚ñ xy!õ£z Óyïy !î£z– ˆ£§ˆÏ›˛ ˛ô)Ó!îˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ˆîÁÎ˚yú ¢Çú@¿ Ñ,˛°åâ)˛v˛¸y ÜyˆÏäÈÓ˚ ¢yõˆÏò
ÈÙÙ ˆì˛yõyÓ˚ Óv˛z!îÁ â˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ì˛– ì˛ˆÏÓ Ñ˛# ãyˆÏòyñ !܈ÏÎ˚ î§yv˛¸yÎ˚ ò%˛ô%Ó˚– â˛yÓ˚˛ôyˆÏü õ%?˛ î,!‹TˆÏì˛ ì˛yÑ˛yˆÏì˛ ì˛yÑ˛yˆÏì˛
ˆäÈy›˛ˆÏÓúy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓ˚yã ¢Ñ˛yˆÏú xy!õ xyÓ˚ ÓyÓy â˛y Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓˆÏúñ Óy£‰ñ Ñ˛ì˛ ö%˛ˆÏúÓ˚ ÜyäÈ xy˛ôòyÓ˚ Óy!v˛¸ˆÏì˛– Ñ˛y!õò#ñ
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â˛y Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Öy£zˆÏÎ˚!äÈ– Á xy˛ô!_ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúÁ xy!õ ÷òì˛yõ òy– ~Ñ˛!›˛ xy◊ˆÏõÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ î§y!v˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ xy!äÈÈÙÈÊ
ÈÙÙÈ ˆ¢ ˆì˛y ãy!ò îyîy– Óv˛z!îÓ˚ x¢%ˆÏÖÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛Ìy›˛y ÷ˆÏò xy!õ ~Ñ˛›%˛ â˛õˆÏÑ˛ v˛z‡˛úyõ– ~ÓÇ õˆÏò
ˆì˛y ¢Ó!Ñ˛ä%È£z xy˛ô!ò Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ò– õˆÏò ≤Ã#!ì˛ ˆÓyï Ñ˛Ó˚úyõ– xˆÏòˆÏÑ˛ ÓˆÏúˆÏäÈ Ñ˛Ìy›˛y– ≤Ãí!ì˛Ó˚
ÈÙÙÈ ì%˛!õ ãyòˆÏú ˆÑ˛yˆÏaˆÏÑ˛⁄ î%£z ¶˛y£z!G˛Ó˚ ~Ñ˛ãò ì˛yÓ˚ !˛ô¢#õ!íÓ˚ fl˛ø,!ì˛â˛yÓ˚íyÎ˚ !úˆÏÖˆÏäÈ
ÈÙÙÈ ˆÎÖyˆÏò£z Îy£zñ xy˛ôòyÓ˚ ≤âD v˛z‡˛ˆÏú£z ¢Ñ˛ˆÏú É Her house was so neat and clean and well
~Ñ˛£z Ñ˛Ìy ÓˆÏúñ Óv˛z!îˆÏÑ˛ ¢%fl˛i Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ãòƒ xy˛ô!ò ≤Ãyí˛ôyì˛ organised that while entering there it made us
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈò– feel like entering a temple !
ÈÙÙÈ ì˛Ó% Á ˆì˛y Ó§yâ˛yˆÏì˛ ˛ôyÓ˚úyõ òy ÁˆÏÑ˛– ~Ñ˛›˛y xyˆÏÓ˚Ñ˛ãò ˛ô#Î)°Ï ¶˛Ryâ˛yÎ≈ñ Óı%˛Ó˚ ¢¡ôˆÏÑ≈˛ ¶˛y܈Ïòñ
î#á≈Ÿªy¢ ˆö˛ˆÏú xy!õ Ó!ú– fl˛ø,!ì˛â˛yÓ˚íyÎ˚ !úˆÏÖˆÏäÈñ Óy!v˛¸Ó˚ ¢yõ!@˘ÃÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏÓü xˆÏòÑ˛
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Ñ˛Ó˚y ˆúyÑ˛ !îˆÏÎ˚ ÁÓ˚ ÷◊*°Ïy Ñ˛Ó˚yˆÏì˛ xy!õ Ñ˛ÖˆÏòy â˛y£zì˛yõ òy– xy!Ó‹ÒyÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚úyõñ Óy!v˛¸Ó˚ ¢õhfl˛ !Ñ˛ä%È£z ÁÓ˚ £yˆÏì˛ Ó§yïy–

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≤ÃyÓ!ı˛Ñ˛ñ ¢ˆÏÓy≈ ˛ô!Ó˚ !äȈú
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36 ˛ô,¤˛yÓ˚ ˆü°ÏyÇü

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ÈÙÙÈ ˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òyÈÙÈÊ
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ÓyÇúy xò%ÓyîÑ˛ ÈÙÈ ¢%üyhs˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ñ
S!¢@˘Ãò ◊#Óyhfl˛Ó ãyõ≈yò õ)ˆú
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~ÓyÓ˚ ¢ls˛ˆÏÑ˛ !ò!ÿ˛hs˛ õˆÏò â˛y ˆÖˆÏì˛ îyÁ– ÓÎ˚¢ £ˆÏÓ– xÓò#îy ~!܈ÏÎ˚ !܈ÏÎ˚ ÓúˆÏúòñ ~Ñ˛ @’y¢ ãú
Óv˛z!î xyõyÓ˚ !îˆÏÑ˛ ì˛y!Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚ {°ÏÍ ˆâ˛yÖ !›˛ˆÏ˛ô ÖyÁÎ˚yˆÏÓ⁄
Ñ˛Ìy›˛y Óúì˛– xy!õ !òÉüˆÏ∑ £y!¢ !îˆÏÎ˚ v˛z_Ó˚ !îì˛yõ– !Ñ˛ˆÏüy!Ó˚ Óv˛z!î £hs˛îhs˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ áˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !¶˛ì˛Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
Óv˛z!î ãyˆÏò ì˛yÓ˚ fl˛∫yõ#›˛y xydˆÏ¶˛yúy– ˆúyˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ î%ÉÖÈÙÈÎs˛fíyÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ á!›˛ ãú ~ˆÏò !îú– xÓò#îy ÜúyÎ˚ ˆë˛ˆÏú ˆî ˆîÔv˛¸–
Ñ˛Ìy ÷òˆÏú !‡˛Ñ˛ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ òy– Óv˛z!îÁ ˛ôyÓ˚ì˛ òy ~¢Ó ì˛yÓ˚˛ôˆÏÓ˚ xyÓ˚ ˆîÖy £ÈÎ˚!ò Ó˝!îò– !Ñ˛ls˛ õˆÏòÓ˚ xyÎ˚òyÎ˚
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ˆÑ§˛ˆÏî Óy§!ⲠxÓfl˛iy– ÖÓÓ˚ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ v˛zì˛úy £úyõ– õy Óúúñ xÓò#Ó˚
ÓyãyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ì!ú £yˆÏì˛ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ xÓò#îy !õ!äȈÏú !òÿ˛£z ˆÓì˛ò Óı˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜˆÏäÈ– Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÎ˚ úÑ˛xyv˛z›˛ â˛úˆÏäÈ–
â˛ˆÏú ˆÜˆÏäÈò– Óv˛z!î ӈϢ xyˆÏäÈ Ñ˛Öò ÓyãyÓ˚ xy¢ˆÏÓ– áˆÏÓ˚ x¶˛yÓ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏú Óv˛z !Ñ˛ xyÓ˚ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓ– ì˛yÓ˚Á ˆì˛y
î%˛ô%Ó˚ !ì˛òˆÏ›˛ òyÜyî xÓò#îy !ö˛Ó˚ˆÏúò– fl˛¨yò Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúò– Óv˛z!î î%ÈÙȈÓúy î%ˆÏ›˛y ¶˛yì˛ â˛y£z–
45
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!òˆÏãÓ˚ ¢Ç¢yÓ˚ˆÏÑ˛ xyˆÏÜ õãÓ%ì˛ Ó˚yˆÏÖ– ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚ ˆîü ˆ¢Óy– ÌyÑ˛yÓ˚ ãòƒ Óv˛z!î ¶˛#°Ïí x¢£yÎ˚ ˆÓyï Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚– ~Ñ˛›˛y
Üyı˛#ã#Ó˚ Î%Ü ˆü°Ï– ~Öò =[˛y!Ü!Ó˚Ó˚ Î%Ü– õy¢ú õƒyòÓ˚y£z ˆäȈÏúÈÙȈõˆÏÎ˚ !Ñ˛ä%È ÌyÑ˛ˆÏú ˆ¢ xyÓ˚ ~õò ¶˛yˆÏÓ â˛ˆÏú ˆÎì˛
¢õyˆÏã !›˛ˆÏÑ˛ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓ– ì˛yÓ˚y£z Ó˚yãò#!ì˛Ó˚ ˛ôyˆÏú £yÁÎ˚y òy– ~Ñ˛yÑ˛#c õ,ì%˛ƒÓ˚ ˆâ˛ˆÏÎ˚Á ¶˛Î˚B˛Ó˚–
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â˛yÓ˚!îˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ Ó_,´ì˛yÎ˚ G˛yúy˛ôyúy £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆ¢yãy Ó§yïy ÎyÎ˚– ì˛ˆÏÓ ˆÑ˛ò Óv˛z!îˆÏÑ˛ Ó§yïˆÏì˛ ˛ôyÓ˚ú òy–
xÓò#îyÓ˚ Óy!v˛¸– xÓò#îy ~Ñ˛›˛y Ó£z £yˆÏì˛ Ö%Ó õˆÏòyˆÏÎyÜ xÓò#îyˆÏÑ˛ Óúúyõñ xy˛ô!ò Îyò– Óv˛z!îˆÏÑ˛ !òˆÏÎ˚
!îˆÏÎ˚ ˛ôv˛¸!äÈú– xyõyˆÏÑ˛ ˆîˆÏÖ õ%Ö ì%˛ˆÏú ì˛yÑ˛yú– ì˛ˆÏÓ õ%ˆÏÖÓ˚ xy¢%ò– Óv˛z!î òy ÌyÑ˛ˆÏú xy˛ôòyÓ˚ ÖyÁÎ˚yÈÙÈîyÁÎ˚yÁ ˆì˛y
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Óv˛z!î ˆì˛y ÎyÎ˚ òy– £‡˛yÍ Ñ˛# Óƒy˛ôyÓ˚⁄ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy £‡˛yÍ xyõyˆÏÑ˛ ÓúˆÏúòñ ì%˛£z ~Öò Óy!v˛¸ Îy– xy!õ ~Ñ˛›%˛
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˛ôyÓ˚úyõ òy– ì˛y£z £Î˚ˆÏì˛y...– ÎyÁ Óy ˛ôyˆÏFäÈ ˆ¢›˛y Óy!úÓ˚ Ó§yï– üy¢Ñ˛ ˛ôˆÏ«˛Ó˚ ïyE˛yÎ˚
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˜â˛ˆÏeÓ˚ G˛ˆÏv˛¸Ó˚ õˆÏì˛y v˛zˆÏv˛¸ ˆÜú– xˆÏòÑ˛ ˆõ£òì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !ò˛ô%í !ü“#Ó˚ õˆÏì˛y áy¢ ˆÑ˛ˆÏ›˛ â˛ˆÏúˆÏäÈò v˛zˆÏ‡˛yˆÏò ӈϢ–
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