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10/2/2017 VDMIS Newsletter - August 2017

AUGUST 2017

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FLIPPED AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT Tools


Evelyn Doman, University of Guam, Guam, USA & Marie Webb, Indiana University SEARCH BACK ISSUES
of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania, USA FORWARD TO A FRIEND
Defining Flipped Assessments PRINT ISSUE
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Much has been written about the flipped classroom and
strategies to implement a flipped approach to classroom
teaching (Bergmann & Sams, 2012; Bishop & Verleger,
2013; Doman & Webb, 2017 & 2015), so much that the
idea of a flipped classroom has spread across the world,
being utilized in many fields of study for all ages of
students. In the flipped approach, work normally Evelyn Doman
completed in classsuch as the attainment of knowledge
through lectures or explicit teacher-fronted instructionis
moved from the classroom to the home, and homework
(problem-solving, writing, etc.) is done in class (Bergmann
& Sam, 2012; Webb & Doman, 2016).

Yet, no one has to date extended concepts about the


flipped approach to assessment practices for second
language learning. As an evaluation tool, the flipped
approach serves to make assessments more authentic
Marie Webb
bridging the gap between contrived, traditional evaluations
to real-life authentic evaluations. However, because
flipping an assessment requires a dramatic shift in
paradigms for teachers and learners, questions arise about how to best
implement flipped assessments.

In this article, based on a session presented at the 2017 TESOL convention


in Seattle, Washington, USA, we exhibit examples of how flipped
assessments can be utilized. As part of an ongoing investigation into the
flipped classroom, we have provided in related publications qualitative and
quantitative data to support the flipped approach, most notably its correlation
to student achievement in the ESL/EFL classroom. In workshops at previous
TESOL conventions, we showed participants the benefits and drawbacks of
flipping, the difficulties encountered when embarking on the flipped journey,
tools used to flip mini-lessons, and resources to supplement the flipped
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approach. Additionally, we shared software that assists in establishing a


smooth flipped classroom with participants in hands-on activities. What was
special about the 2017 workshop, though, was that participants delved into
the idea of flipping their assessments as they worked in small groups to
develop a listening assessment after viewing examples of how the flipped
approach worked with other language skill-based assessments.

Examples of Flipped Assessments

When applying the same fundamental concepts to assessments, tests meant


to be completed in the classroom can be worked on at home as well,
although not in the same vein as a take-home paper-based test; such
assessments might look more like a task or project leading to a final grade.
The flipped approach sees learning as a process, not a product; therefore, a
flipped assessment should focus on the process of learning, not solely on the
final product. Flipped assessment happens in the flow of learning rather than
at the end of learning. It allows the learner and teacher to measure individual
strengths and weaknesses and focus on distinct learning needs. It is frequent
and interactive, and it checks the users progress and understanding
throughout the learning process to identify learning gaps and allow for
appropriate teaching adjustments.

Consider some examples of flipped assessments to get a better idea of how


this might be achieved. First, for a traditional writing assessment, many
teachers might assign an essay to be completed and allow students to turn in
one or two drafts before submitting the final product. However, a flipped
essay assessment for tertiary-level English language learners might look
something like the following.

Writing Assessment Description

Students are to write an analytical essay describing literary techniques used


in a book.

1. Students create collages of three important quotes they want to use in


their essays and briefly present them to the class.

2. Students paraphrase those quotes in a scored paraphrase assignment


and turn in a short reflection on how they went about paraphrasing.

3. The teacher grades the paraphrases using student-generated rubrics.

4. Learners write short reflective plans on how to improve their


paraphrases for their essays.

5. Students write their essays and turn in all previous work in portfolios.
Paraphrases are rescored as a portion of the essay rubric.

6. Learners meet with the teacher to discuss first draft grades and
comments.

7. Students rewrite their papers. They submit reflection papers or


video/voice recordings about major changes made and why they were
made.

8. Teachers grade the final drafts.

9. Learners do multimodal reflections.

Grading for this assignment might appear as:

5% Collage presentation
10% Metacognitive reflection

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15% Uploaded paraphrase assignment goals


20% Portfolio
50% Final essay grade

Flipped components for such an assessment, however, might include the


following.

1. Watch a video lesson about the quote collaging assignment before


class and work on the collage in class.

2. Watch a video lecture on paraphrasing and complete a short online


practice quiz, with multiple attempts allowed and encouraged, prior to
coming to class. Students work on paraphrasing in class.

3. In class writing is begun and formal online peer reviews completed in


class and at home via the learning management system. Learners
receive homework points for finishing online peer reviews.

4. At home, students watch a video lecture of the teacher addressing


common issues on the course papers. Students write short online
reflections for homework points about the biggest take-away of the
lecture.

Listening Assessment Description

For a typical listening test, a normal teacher might play an audio file and
have students listen one or two times while answering comprehension
questions about the listening passage. A teacher who follows best
assessment practices might play the audio file and have students engage in
a discussion or do some research before answering questions about the
listening passage. A teacher utilizing a flipped authentic assessment
approach, though, might create a more interactive flipped listening
assessment, one that could involve the following steps.

1. Engage students in a prelistening activity of matching new vocabulary


words with corresponding pictures.

2. While listening to the audio file, students complete a handout, which


asks them to take notes individually and make connections with themes
in the listening passage.

3. The teacher collects the notes, which form part of the assessment.

4. After listening once, small groups generate questions they believe


ought to appear on the final test.

5. For the postlistening activity, students summarize and respond to the


theme of the listening passage. They do so using screencasts or
videos of themselves, or even better, tap into any of their multiple
intelligences for creating a product that embraces their response. This
might be a poem, rap song, art work made from nature, or any other
creative product.

6. Students take the listening test, which includes student-generated


items.

7. Finally, learners reflect on the theme as well as the difficulty of the


listening assignment.

The grade breakdown for this assessment might be:

20% Notes
20% Multimodal summaries and responses

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50% Listening test


10% Reflection

Flipped components for the assessment include the following.

1. Students watch a short video lecture online about the components of


the flipped listening test and how it may be different from prior listening
tests. They complete short discussion responses in an online forum
that serve as initial reflections about the lecture.

2. Students plan out their postlistening activities in class via storyboards.


They start working on the activities in class and, when finished, submit
their projects on a discussion forum at home.

3. Students watch a short video lecture demonstrating an example of the


oral or written reflection component.

Flipped assessments are beneficial, as in the essay and listening tests


described above, because there are more opportunities to engage with the
test material, and you can involve analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating
informationall crucial higher order thinking skills. In the 21st century, these
skills are invaluable to student success both inside and outside the
classroom.

How to Create Flipped Assessments

Before writing a flipped assessment, consider these questions:

1. What are the learning goals?

2. How will you determine the knowledge gap?

3. How will you map out a strategy to obtain the goals leading students to
mastery?

After identifying an assessment end product, think of creative ways to meet


these goals. Allow students opportunities to work on the assessment in
chunks, completing parts of the assessment in ways that encourage them to
use their individual multiple intelligences, work steadily to reach the goals,
and reflect in all steps along the way. By giving students active roles in the
assessment process, you will reinforce student buy-in, and they will submit
superior end products.

Conclusions

It is important as teachers to create assessments that involve the real-world


skills of analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information that students can
use outside of the classroom. Assessments should measure learners skills
that have been acquired in the classroom and are realistic as to what
students can and should be able to do. One-size-fits-all evaluations should
be avoided in favor of assessments that measure skills. By changing how we
think of assessments, teachers can better measure how students will
perform real-life tasks.

References

Bergmann, J.,, and Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every
student in every class every day. Eugene, Or.: International Society for
Technology in Education.

Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013, June). The flipped classroom: A


survey of the research. Paper presented at the meeting of the American
Society for Engineering Education, Atlanta, GA.

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Doman, E., & Webb, M. (2015). Benefits of flipping an EFL classroom in


Macao. In E. Doman (Ed.), Reframing English Education in Asia (pp. 157
176). Salt Lake City, Utah: American Academic Press.

Doman, E., & Webb, M. (2017). The flipped experience for Chinese
university students studying English as a foreign language. TESOL Journal,
8, 102141. doi: 10.1002/tesj.264

Webb, M., & Doman, E. (2016). Does the flipped classroom lead to increased
gains of learning outcomes in ESL/EFL contexts? CATESOL Journal, 28(1),
129.

Dr. Evelyn Doman is an associate professor of TESOL in the School of


Education at the University of Guam. Her research interests include teacher
training, learner autonomy, and technology-enhanced language learning.

Marie Webb is a doctoral candidate in English composition and applied


linguistics at Indiana University of Pennsylvania and a TESOL instructor at
Anaheim University. Her research interests include teacher education,
directed self-placement, technology-enhanced language learning, and
narrative and arts-based inquiry.

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