You are on page 1of 16

Science Education Lesson Plan

Stage and Topic


Stage 4: Temperature, Freezing points and Chemical reactions.
Big Ideas Associated with the Topic

The common concept is that water freezes at 0oC degrees without much thought as to why and how it
occurs. There are certain factors that contribute to why water changes from liquid to solid which include
atmosphere pressure, the excited of water molecules and crystallization reaction point of water. Salt will
reduce the freezing point of water when it is dissolved. The salt ionic bonds break making sodium and
chlorine in the solution which, then the water molecules are attracted to these elements preventing them
to rejoin together again. This is also the reason why the freezing point of water reduces when salt is added
and is classified as a chemical reaction. Although when sugar is dissolved in water it is a physical change as
sugar simply change form a solid to a liquid in the water.
Alignment with Outcomes

Chemical World 4 (CW4): Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and
can occur at different rates and involve energy transfer (New South Wales. Board of Studies, 2012).

Students: C. Describe the effects of factors, eg temperature and catalysts, on the rate of some common
chemical reactions (New South Wales. Board of Studies, 2012).

SCLS-4WS: asks questions that can be tested and makes predictions (New South Wales. Board of Studies,
2012).
Lesson Objectives

The students will:


Explain how dissolving salt and sugar into water will affect the freezing point depression of water.
Predict the freezing points of the water solutions containing either salt or sugar and which will freeze
first.
Demonstrate the ability to record and analysis the data collected from the experiment as they engage in
critically thinking about the topic.
Display the ability to formulate equations of salt dissolved in water and sugar dissolved in water.
Explain the differences between a physical and chemical reactions.
Materials and Preparation Before Class Safety Issues Addressed

Materials for students: 100mm clear plastic test tubes, test Students may get water, salt or sugar into
tube lid or cork, test tube rack, water at 10oC, salt, sugar, their eyes. All students must wear safety
periodic table, freezer, teaspoon., marker, timer, foam glasses. If contact with eyes, wash out at
spheres of different sizes and colours to represent the eye wash station.
elements: Na, Cl and H2O. Small wooden sticks to represent
connections for the elements and compound. Students may play around with the
thermometers inappropriately. Student will
Additional Materials: Freezer, monitor in front of be asked to keep thermometer on the
classroom, access to the internet, large bottles of water at tables unless in use. Must wear glasses to
100C, correct chemical and physical equations for both salt prevent being poked in the eyes. If injury
water and sugar water. occurs call first aid stuff or send to nurse if
present with another student.

Paper can be thrown and potentially cause


minor eye injury. Monitor class thoroughly
to reduce the chances of the hazard. If
injury occurs call first aid stuff or send to
nurse if present with another student.

Potential for students to bump into each


other as they place and remove the test
tube racks from the freezer. Address before
the experiment that they must line up and
wait for the other group to get their rack
first and to walk not run in the classroom.

Foam spheres and wooden sticks are a


potentially eye hazard. Monitor class
thoroughly to reduce the chances of the
hazard.

If injury occurs call first aid stuff or send to


nurse if present with another. Wear safety
glasses.
Time Teachers Work Students Work Assessment
5 min
Start the classroom with a brain storm to draw out Participate in the Review the
students current understanding and knowledge of brain responses of the
freezing points and common chemical reactions. storm. students and
address them within
Ask the question Ok class what come to mind Possible responses: this lesson or in
when you think about the word freeze? Ice future lessons.
Write the word freeze on the board with a circle Ice cream
around it. Ice block Record the
Liquid to solid misconceptions the
Ask how is relates to the topic chemical world. Because its cold students have and
Temperature address them in the
Guide their thoughts to the lessons focus without lesson.
influencing there the responses. Write down the
responses from the The responses the
By asking: broad into their student wrote down
How does something freeze? book will be reviewed in
Why it freezes? the next lesson to
What happens when something freezes? see if their ideas
and misconceptions
have changed.
5 min Explain to the class the aim of the today lesson will The students are
be on the freezing points of water, salt water and able to follow the
sugar water. Listen to the instructions
teachers throughout the
Explain safety procedures of the experiment before instructions. lesson.
commences.
Assign students into groups. 4-5 students per
10 group. Give the students roles within the group: Listen to the Check the students
min timer (keeps track of the time), recorder (writes teachers methods sheets to
down results), handler (mixing the solutions instructions. gauge the progress
together) and retriever (takes and places the test and if they are on
tube rack in the freezer). task.

Explain what to do in the practical and to fellow the


methods sheet that was handed out. Perform the Ask questions
experiment to/and evaluate the
Ask the students to make their predictions on what the according to the students thought
will happen to the three solutions before and methods sheet. process and
during the practical. Predict the aim of the direction.
experiment, if students are confused or havent
identified the correct aim help them factor it out or Perform the Questions to ask:
provide the aim if necessary. assigned roles Can you explain to
within the group. me why you come
Guide or provide assistance at the start of the up with that
experiment without influencing the students
thought processes. Walk around the classroom.
Record and analysis prediction?
After the students record the first lot of results for the results from the
the practical introduce the boxes foam spheres experiment. Thats an
representing the elements: Na (Sodium), Cl interesting concept
(Chlorine), C12H22O11 and H2O to each group. Predict the results (name of student)
of the experiment what made you
Start with saying: Ok class lets zoom in on whats before and during think of that?
happening to the three solutions in the freezer. I the task in the
have a box of elements and compounds of the prediction section of Observe and record
water, salt and sugar the methods sheet. the foam sphere
models the students
Ask if the students know the common names of Predict the possible are making to
elements and compounds of chemical symbols on basic chemical or evaluate their level
the foam spheres. Allow them to refer to their physical formulas of understanding of
periodic table for guidance. for water, salt water elements or
and sugar water formulas.
Use sugar as an example: using the foam
spheres and
Sugar is make up of these elements Carbon, wooden sticks from
Hydrogen and Oxygen which of the spheres has the box provided.
these elements?
Predict the possible
Followed by: Now what can Hydrogen and Oxygen errors of the
make and which of the spheres represents water? experiment
during the task in
Instruct the student to predict what is happening to the possible errors
all three solutions using the foam spheres. section of the
methods sheet.
20 Discussion and evaluation of the practical. Contribute to the Participation in
min class discussions. class discussion.
Prepare a table for the combined results of the all
class. Have the recorder of each group write down
their result on the table.

Discuss the predictions and errors from each group Observe the
and compare them with all class. Correct any Listen to the students level of
misconceptions the students may have. Ask teacher. attention to
questions to why the thought that way and how it demonstration and
relates to the topic. discussions.

Discuss if by dissolving salt and sugar is a chemical Look at notebooks


change or physical one referring to the experiment Observe the before letting them
the student preformed and foam modals. demonstration. leave the classroom.

Demonstrate what the correct formula for salt


water and sugar water and the how the freezing
point of water is reduced using the foam spheres.
Video representation of why salt reduces the Watch the video.
freezing point of water with similarities to the foam
models (only if time is available). Ask questions
throughout the
Link to video: lesson.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkhWV2uaHaA
Similarities in 0:50 seconds to 1:12 minutes of the Write down notes
video. form the broad.

Discuss and compare the video with the experiment


the student preformed and demonstration with the
class.
Adaptations / Accommodations for Students Needs

Gifted and talented students: Ask them to identify other common chemical reactions and physical changes
using the internet and their devices if they have them or use the computer in the classes. Have them share
the discoveries with the class during the discussion period.

Students with disabilities: Student has visual impairments display larger font methods sheets, have a
student read out the introductions and provide a large timer on the display in front of the classroom.
Student has reading difficulties provide visual representation of methods sheet for them and have a
student explain to them the procedure and encourage them to participate during the discussion period.
102086 Designing Teaching & Learning 2H 2017
Assignment 2: APST and QT Analysis Template

Section 1: Australian Professional Standards for Teachers

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Only
standards directly addressed in Designing Teaching & Learning that are relevant to this assignment have been
included. However, this does not mean the other standards are irrelevant to lesson planning and evaluation
more generally.

Evaluation score 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)

Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Know students and how they learn


1.3 Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds
1234 Comments: The teacher mentions guiding the students throughout the experiment and
5 course of the lecture.
1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students
1234 Comments: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are not mentioned in the lesson plan as
5 there is limited scope to mention about them in the plan.
1.5 Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities
1234 Comments: Mentions the strategies to involve gifted and talented students and students
5 with disabilities.
1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability
1 2 3 4 Comments: Mentions the needs of students with disability in the lesson plan.
5
2 Know the content and how to teach it
2.2 Content selection and organisation
1234 Comments: The content of the lesson is organised into constructive teaching sequence and
5 learning.
2.3 Curriculum, assessment and reporting
1234 Comments: All the tasks in the lesson are assessed formally and informally by the teacher.
5
2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
1234 Comments: There is minimal use of technology in the lesson plan, although there is scope
5 to integrate it in the lesson plan.

3 Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning


3.1 Establish challenging learning goals
1234 Comments: All the goals set in the lesson plan could be achieved in the duration of the class.
5
3.2 Plan, structure and sequence learning programs
1234 Comments: The structure of the plan is systematic and is in alignment with the sequence of
5 learning outcomes.
3.3 Use teaching strategies
1234 Comments: The teaching strategies are driven by the teacher and assessed by the teacher
5 that students understand the topic by asking questions to the students along the course of
the lesson
3.4 Select and use resources
1234 Comments: Practical is setup in the lesson, along with a youtube video but there is scope in
5 the lesson plan to have ICT integration.

4 Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments


4.1 Support student participation
1234 Comments: The lesson plan involves the participation of the students by having group
5 activities in practicals, however there is a chance that students may divert from work.
4.2 Manage classroom activities
1234 Comments:
5
4.3 Manage challenging behaviour
1234 Comments: There is no mention in the plan to overcome challenging behaviour.
5
4.4 Maintain student safety
1234 Comments: Safety precautions have been mentioned in the lesson plan and the actions to
5 take if a casualty takes place.
4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically
1234 Comments: One mention to video is done which has links to the curriculum, however it
5 would be used only if the time permits.
5 Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning
5.1 Assess student learning
1234 Comments: Throughout the lesson the teacher assesses students learning in a formal and
5 an informal way.

5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning


1234 Comments: Feedback is provided to the students throughout the lesson in discussions.
5

Section 2: NSW Quality Teaching Model

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following NSW Quality Teaching model elements.

Evaluation score refer to NSW QTM Classroom Practice Guide for each element

Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Intellectual quality
1.1 Deep knowledge
1 2 3 4 Comments: The focus of the lesson is on freezing of water which is there in entire lecture.
5
1.2 Deep understanding
1 2 3 4 Comments: The teacher asks questions to students which allows them to demonstrate their
5 understanding of the concept.

1.3 Problematic knowledge


1 2 3 4 Comments: The information presented is as facts and it is set to achieve a particular set of
5 results but some information allows to think multiple perspective.

1.4 Higher-order thinking


1 2 3 4 Comments:
5
1.5 Metalanguage
1 2 3 4 Comments: C12H22O11, H2O, experiment are examples of metalanguage used in the lesson
5 plan.

1.6 Substantive communication


1 2 3 4 Comments: The lesson plan gives an opportunity to the students to interact with the
5 teacher.

Quality learning environment


2.1 Explicit quality criteria
1 2 3 4 Comments:
5
2.2 Engagement
1 2 3 4 Comments: The lesson seems engaging as it has discussions, completion of worksheets.
5
2.3 High expectations
1 2 3 4 Comments: Students knowing the common names of elements or compounds and the
5 elements in sugar is an example of high expectation.

2.4 Social support


1 2 3 4 Comments: The comments are directed towards all students in the class with a positive
5 feedback.

2.5 Students self-regulation


1 2 3 4 Comments: There is no mention for students self-regulation in the lesson plan
5
2.6 Student direction
1 2 3 4 Comments: Discussions and experiment are student directed, whereas the remaining
5 lesson plan is mainly teacher directed.
3 Significance
3.1 Background knowledge
1 2 3 4 Comments: The teacher attempts to know the past knowledge of students at the start of
5 the lesson by asking questions.

3.2 Cultural knowledge


1 2 3 4 Comments: There is no mention of culture in the lesson plan although there is a minor scope
5 to put it in the lesson plan.

3.3 Knowledge integration


1 2 3 4 Comments: The scope to integrate application of salt to melt ice is shown through the video.
5
3.4 Inclusivity
1 2 3 4 Comments: The mention of inclusivity is not found specifically in the lesson plan
5
3.5 Connectedness
1 2 3 4 Comments: There is a lack of implication to the outside world, although the video helps for
5 that.
3.6 Narrative
1 2 3 4 Comments: There is lack of narrative techniques in the study plan.
5

Section 3: Identifying Areas for Improvement

Identify the two APST standards and two NSW QT model elements you are targeting for improvement.
APST
1) 1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres 2) 4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically
Strait Islander students
QT model
1) 2.6 Student direction 2) 3.6 Narrative

Lesson Plan (Simplified for DTL)

Topic area: Science Stage of Learner: Stage 4 Syllabus Pages: 54-56

Date: 29/09/2017 Location Booked: Science room Lesson Number: 5

Time: 60 min Total Number of students: 25 Printing/preparation:


Kahoot quiz on freezing and melting
point of water for a revision
25 Method sheets for practicals
100mm clear plastic test tubes,
Test tube lid or cork,
Test tube rack,
Water at 10oC, salt, sugar,
periodic table,
Freezer, teaspoon,
Marker, timer,
Foam spheres of different sizes and
colours to represent the elements:
Na, Cl and H2O.
Small wooden sticks to represent
connections for the elements and
compound.
Thermometers
10 Funnels
Safety glasses
Monitor in front of classroom,
access to the internet,
Large bottles of water at 100C,
Correct chemical and physical
equations for both salt water and
sugar water.

Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to


Syllabus outcomes Lesson assessment Chemical World 4 (CW4): SCLS-4WS: asks questions that
Different types of can be tested and
SC4-1VA: develop an appreciation of Informal assessment makes predictions
chemical
the contribution of science via Kahoot quiz C. Describe the effects of
reactions are
to finding solutions to factors, eg temperature and
Discussions and asking used to produce a
personal, social and global catalysts, on the rate of some
issues relevant to their lives questions through the range of products
common chemical reactions
now and in the future course of the lesson and can occur at
different rates
Guiding the students and involve
SCLS-4WS: asks questions that can be during practicals energy transfer
tested and makes
predictions

Cross Curriculum themes & General capabilities Explicit subject specific concepts and skills
Sustainability(melting ice on roads) Students will be learning how the dissolving of sugar
ICT capability-Kahoot and youtube videos and salt affects the freezing point of water,

Critical thinking-Practical in the class, reporting the results

Literacy-Writing the worksheets and results


Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred

T/S
Intro Teacher: Ask the student to volunteer for prayer. In Teacher
the mean time teacher sets up the Kahoot for the
2 min Prayer class.
Volunteer from the students leads the prayer

Student: Students participate in the prayers

Resources: Projector and Kahoot login screen

Body Kahoot Quiz Teacher: Teacher asks students to take out their Student
smart device and guides them to log in to Kahoot.
What is the boiling point of water? The teacher reminds the class that it is a recall of
3 min What is the freezing point of water? what students have studied.

How long does it take water to freeze?

What is the difference between frozen water and Student: Take out their smart device and open
boiling water? Kahoot

Resources:
https://play.kahoot.it/#/lobby?quizId=f86a691a-
c5e5-45f1-bb82-b79eb3d102b5

Pin no: 703685

Teacher: The teacher asks students and write their Student


responses on board. The teacher asks students to
5 min Brainstorm copy the responses from the board in their books.
The teacher asks the students what comes to their Student: The students participate in brainstorming
mind when they come across word freeze. The and give answers according to their understanding.
teacher after hearing the answers of the students The students then write the responses from board
guides their thoughts towards lesson focus by in their books.
asking

How does something freeze?


Resources: Marker and board
What happens when something freeze?

Why does it freeze?

Write the responses of students on the board.

10 Explanation Teacher: The teacher explains the students about Teacher


min aim of the lesson and asks question to the students
The teacher explains to the student that lesson will to assess them.
be focused on freezing points of water, salt water
and sugar water. Then assigns students in groups of
5 students per group for the experiment. Give the
students roles within the group: timer (keeps track
of the time), recorder (writes down results), Student: Listen to the teachers instruction and
handler (mixing the solutions together) and respond to the questions asked
retriever (takes and places the test tube rack in the
freezer). Resources:

The teacher explains the experiment to the


students and then addresses the safety issues to
them.

Addressing Safety Issues and Experiment Teacher: Distributes the method sheets of Student
experiment to the students, the projector is set to
15 The teacher instructs students to wear their safety display the method sheet and instruments used in
min glasses and not to mishandle the instruments. the experiment.
Further reads the method sheet of the experiment
to the students.

The teacher directs students towards the Student: Negotiation of behaviour


instruments and experiment while reading through
the method sheets. Pair learning for engaging in task

Ensuring safety and wellbeing of students


Explain what to do in the practical and to
follow the methods sheet that was handed Instructional quality and direct instructions
out.

Resources: Method sheet, apparatus needed for


Ask the students to make their predictions on
practical
what will happen to the three solutions before
and during the practical.

Predict the aim of the experiment, if


students are confused or havent identified
the correct aim help them factor it out or
provide the aim if necessary.

Guide or provide assistance at the start of the


experiment without influencing the students
thought processes.

Walk around the classroom.

After the students record the first lot of results


for the practical introduce the boxes foam
spheres representing the elements: Na
(Sodium), Cl (Chloride), C12H22O11 and H2O to
each group and show them the video.

5 min Youtube video: Student watch a youtube clip that Teacher: Sets up the video clip and plays. Student
helps them understand the dissolving of salt in
water. Visual representation allows for Link:
differentiated learning. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAWiJKhmbQc

Pauses the video at required points to explain.

Student: Watching the video


Resources:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAWiJKhmbQc

5 min Discussion Teacher: Observe and record the foam sphere Student
models the students are making to evaluate their
Start with saying: Ok class lets zoom in on whats level of understanding of elements or formulas and
happening to the three solutions in the freezer. I helps them where needed. Teacher also asks
have a box of elements and compounds of the further questions to assess what the students
water, salt and sugar. understood to scaffold less capable students the
teacher groups them with more capable students.
Ask if the students know the common names of
elements and compounds of chemical symbols on
the foam spheres. Allow them to refer to their Student: Predict the possible basic chemical or
periodic table for guidance. physical formulas for water, salt water and sugar
water using the foam spheres and wooden sticks
from the box provided.
Use sugar as an example:

Sugar is make up of these elements Carbon, Resources: Foam spheres and wooden sticks
Hydrogen and Oxygen which of the spheres has
these elements?

Followed by: Now what can Hydrogen and


Oxygen make and which of the spheres represents
water?

Instruct the student to predict what is happening to


all three solutions using the foam spheres.

20 Discussion and evaluation of the practical Teacher: Sets up the table for combined results. Student
min Guides the discussion and rectify the misconception
Prepare a table for the combined results of of the students.
the all class. Have the recorder of each group
write down their result on the table.
Student: Contribute to the class discussion, listen to
the teacher, observe the demonstration.
Discuss the predictions and errors from each
group and compare them with all class.

Correct any misconceptions the students may Resources: Discussion question sheet
have.
Ask questions to why they thought that way
and how it relates to the topic.
Discuss if by dissolving salt and sugar is a
chemical change or physical one referring to
the experiment the student preformed and
foam modals.
Demonstrate what the correct formula for salt
water and sugar water and the how the
freezing point of water is reduced using the
foam spheres.
5 min Video representation of why salt reduces the Teacher: Sets up the Youtube clip on the screen. Teacher
freezing point of water with similarities to the foam Directs the thoughts of the student to understand
models (only if time is available) relevance of video with the experiment. Looks at
notebooks before letting them leave the classroom.

Link to video: Student: Watch the video, take notes


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkhWV2uaHaA
Resources: Youtube clip

Similarities in 0:50 seconds to 1:12 minutes of the https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkhWV2uaHaA


video.

Discuss and compare the video with the experiment


the student preformed and demonstration with the
class.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording

SC4-1VA Informal Formative assessment during discussion of


experimental results.

SC4-6WS Informal Formative assessment by observation and


questioning during the practical component of the lesson
Academic Justification
The original lesson plan was satisfactory however, there was a scope of improvement in the plan
with respect to Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (AITSL, 2016) for Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT). Furthermore, improvement was made in the lesson plan for
students with disability and Indigenous students.

Standard 4.5 is met by the addition of the Kahoot quiz (facepalms, 2017) and YouTube videos
(Reactions 2015, USF students 2013) added in the lesson plan. Information and Communication
Technologies inclusion in teaching has shown a positive effect on the literacy of students in science
in Australia as well as Canada (Luu & Freeman, 2011). Moreover, the standards for the use of ICT are
met by the use of educational YouTube videos and the Kahoot quiz being monitored by the teacher.
The video representation helps the students to understand the topic who are visual learners.

Standard 1.4 is addressed by the addition of the method sheets and demonstration by the teacher
that would help the students providing them with visual cues. Working with students with special
needs and different abilities is a part of differentiated classroom. As indicated by the 8 Aboriginal
ways or learning (8ways, 2016) demonstrations or working non-verbally with hand on conversation
is an effective pedagogy for Indigenous and Torres Strait Islanders. This is addressed by the
demonstration given by the teacher for the experiment and later with the foam spheres.

In narrative and student direction the improvement was made with respect to NSW quality teaching
model the introduction of the YouTube video clip is narrative and allows students to think in
different dimensions linking the class lesson with the outside world (Harisson & Greenfield, 2011).
The video has a practical application of the lesson thought in class and has a narration about
different parts of the world.
References
8ways. (2016). 8 Aboriginal Ways of Learning. Retrieved 25 September 2017
http://8ways.wikispaces.com/

AITSL. (2016). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Retrieved from


http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-forteachers/standards/list

facepalms (2017).Freezing point & boiling point. Retrieved from


https://play.kahoot.it/#/lobby?quizId=f86a691a-c5e5-45f1-bb82-b79eb3d102b5

Harrison, N., & Greenfield, M. (2011). Relationship to place: positioning Aboriginal knowledge and
perspectives in classroom pedagogies. Critical Studies in Education, 52(1), 65-76.
doi:10.1080/17508487.2011.536513

Luu, K., & Freeman, J. (2011). An analysis of the relationship between information and
communication technology (ICT) and scientific literacy in Canada and Australia. Comput. Educ.,
56(4), 1072-1082. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.11.008

Reactions, (2015). How Does Salt Melt Ice? Retrieved from


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkhWV2uaHaA

USF students, (2013). How Salt Dissolves in Water. Retrieved from


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAWiJKhmbQc
Learning Portfolio Web Link
http://mshehzadshaikh.weebly.com/