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DUNKER DIAGRAM

1. Teacher Dilemma: The real problem was how to lower her stress at workplace.

Problem: Teaching is becoming increasingly more difficult.

OK TO: OK NOT TO:

Quit Teaching Okay not to


Quit Teaching

Find a New Job Retire Lower Stress


More Leisure
Time Level
Office Substitute
Manager Teacher Teach every Teach half
other team days

Teach a Change
different grade schools

2. Public Accountant Dilemma: The real problem was how to lower her stress at workplace.

Problem: Being public accountant is getting harder and family time is decreasing gradually.

OK TO: OK NOT TO:

Quit Public Okay not to


Accounting Quit Public
Accounting

Find a New Job Take a leave of More family Lower Stress


absence Time Level

Hire Start
Recruiter small Avoid working Take day
business over times offs/ leaves

Go to family dates Change Company


during free time near home
SITUATION ANALYSIS

1.

PROBLEM TIMING TREND IMPACT SITUATION ANALYSIS


Earthquake is happening. H H H DA
House breaking due to the Earthquake H M M PPA/DA
Might slip due to panic mode H M H DA/PPA

2.
PROBLEM TIMING TREND IMPACT SITUATION ANALYSIS
Burning food L L L PA
Argument with the wife L L L PA
Massive Explosion H H H DA
POTENTIAL PROBLEM ANALYSIS

A. Buying a Used/ Second Hand Car

POTENTIAL PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES PREVENTIVE ACTION CONTINGENCY PLAN


Buying a car that its Car in accident Determine if front or Dont buy a car.
wheels are improperly and real wheel tracks
aligned. follow same direction
Car body condition may be Car in accident or Look for signs that Offer much lower price.
partially damaged. body rust out truck were a different
color
Car has suspension Hard use or poor Check tire treads for Require suspension be fixed
problems maintenance peaks and valleys along before buying.
the outer edges.
There are Leaking fluids Poor maintenance Look under hood and Require seals be fixed
on the ground for signs before buying.
of leaking fluids
Odometer not correct Tampered with or Check windows or Offer much lower price.
broken bumpers, look for
excessive wear on
accelerator and brake
pedals.

B. New Sandwich were introduced to a Burger restaurant all of a sudden

POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCE POSSIBLE PREVENTIVE ACTION CONTINGENCY PLAN


PROBLEM CAUSES
People dont Restaurant Customers dont Make own signs for Have cashiers suggest
buy sandwich. losses money know about sandwich chicken to customers
sandwich
Bacteria in Illness, Lawsuits Chicken stored Set up dating system Inspect and discard
food too long chicken if necessary
Substandard Customer Sandwich seats Mark discard times on Inspect sandwiches
sandwich complaints too long under sandwich before serving
quality heat lamps
Substandard Customer Sandwich Always have chicken Have sandwiches
service quality complaints preparation precooked. premade.
takes too long
DECISION ANALYSIS
A. Choosing a Paint Gun, choose an electrostatic paint spray gun. The paint guns
available are Paint Right, New Spray and Gun Ho.
MUSTS Paint Right New Spray Gun Ho
Adequate Flow GO GO NO GO
Acceptable Appearance GO GO GO
WANTS RATING/SCORE RATING/SCORE
Easy Service 7 2 14 9 63 NO GO
Low Cost 4 3 12 7 28
Durability 6 8 48 6 36
Experience 4 9 36 2 8
TOTAL 110 135

B. Buying a Laptop, choose a laptop brand based on an average student standards. The
brands are HP, Sony Vaio and Toshiba.
MUSTS Toshiba Sony Vaio HP
Fast Processor GO GO NO GO
Acceptable Appearance GO GO GO
WANTS RATING/SCORE RATING/SCORE
Security 5 5 25 8 40 NO GO
Low Cost 9 7 63 4 36
Durability 8 7 56 5 40
Experience 5 6 30 6 30
TOTAL 154 146

STATEMENT-RESTATEMENT

1. In the 1960s scientists recognized that there was no available material that would survive the
high temperatures generated on the capsule's surface during reentry to the earth's atmosphere.
Consequently, a government directive went out to "find a material able to withstand the
temperatures encountered on reentry." By the early 1970s no one had produced a suitable material
that satisfied the directive, yet we had sent astronauts to the moon and back. How had this
achievement been possible? The real problem was to protect the astronauts upon reentry, rather
than to find a material that would withstand such high temperatures. Once the real problem was
determined, a solution soon followed. One of the scientists working on the project asked a related
question: How do meteors eventually reach the earth's surface without disintegrating completely?
Upon investigation of this problem, he found that although the surface of the meteor vaporized while
passing through the atmosphere, the inside of the meteor was not damaged. This analogy led to the
idea of using materials on the outside of the capsule that would vaporize when exposed to the high
temperatures encountered during reentry. Consequently, the heat generated by friction with the
earth's atmosphere during reentry would be dissipated by the vaporization of a material that coated
the outside of the space capsule. By sacrificing this material, the temperatures of the capsule's
underlying structural material remained at a tolerable level to protect the astronauts. Once the real
problem was uncovered, the scientists solved the problem by using analogies and transferring ideas
from one situation to another.
Statement 1: Find a material that will withstand the high surface temperature of the capsule
resulting from frictional heating upon reentry into the earth's atmosphere.
Restatement I: Find a way to slow the reentry into the earth's atmosphere or to redesign the
capsule so that the capsule surface temperature will be lower.

Restatement 2: Find a way to cool the capsule or absorb the frictional energy during reentry
so that the surface temperature will be lower.

Restatement 3 Find a way to protect the astronauts on their reentry into the earth's
atmosphere.

Restatement 4: Find a disposable material that could surround the capsule and could be
sacrificed to absorb the frictional heating.

2. As land is arid and there is no cultivation, we clearly need to design and build a dam
to divert river water inland to irrigate the land.
Statement 1: As land is arid and there is no cultivation, we clearly need to design and build a
dam to divert river water inland to irrigate the land.

Restatement I: As land is characterized by a severe lack of available water , and there is no


growth of agricultural plants , we clearly need to design and build a dam to divert river water
inland to artificially supply the land with water.

Restatement 2: Also as seen earlier, supplying water need not be the only solution even if lack
of water is the only problem. For example, we can apply genetic engineering to develop new
plants that will grow in the existing conditions. Or, instead of traditional agricultural crops,
crops such as millets and sorghum (that are well suited for arid conditions) can be grown.

FIND OUT WHERE THE PROBLEM CAME FROM

A. Problem: Samariah couldnt take the exam because shes late for school.
Who: Samariah
Why: She sleep and woke up late
What: Samariah couldnt go to school on time
When: Before the exam starts
Where: At her school
Problem Statement: Samariah couldnt go to school before the exam starts because she
sleep and woke up late.

B. Problem: The blender is broken before it was turned on.


Who: The blender
Why: Has short circuited
What: The blender doesnt work
When: Before it was turned on
Where: In the kitchen
Problem Statement: The blender in the kitchen is broken because it short circuited before
it was turned on.