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Lahore University of Management Sciences

POL 100 Introduction to Political Science


Fall 2009

Instructor: Rasul Bakhsh Rais


rasul@lums.edu.pk
Room No: 239-E ext. 8107
Office Hours: Tuesdays, Thursdays 9:30-10:30 or by appointment

Important Note: It is tentative and incomplete course outline. The final and complete outline
will be given to you on the first day of classes, August 25.

Course Description:
This course introduces students to the basic concepts and ideas of Political Science in the areas
of political theory, comparative politics, and international relations. As such, the course offers a
survey of the basic concepts which animate discussion about the nature of society, government
and politics. We will try to understand politics by exploring how conflicting interests, quest for
power, justice, rights and legitimacy shape the political process. In doing this we will focus on
foundational ideas, ideologies, political institutions and structures and their variants in different
political systems.

Course Objectives:
1) Enable students to comprehend the social, political and economic forces that have
historically constituted the purpose and practice of politics so that they may be conscious of
the conceptual and ideological basis of their own political thinking as well as that of others.
2) Introduce students to the systematic study of politics so that they may understand the
interplay between ideologies, institutions and personalities that shape politics in the modern
world.
3) Provide students with knowledge and analytical tool for greater civic engagement as citizens
of Pakistan.
4) To serve as a preparatory study for students majoring in Political Science, Politics and
Economics and as a general overview for students of other majors and concentrations.

Grading:
Attendance 5%
Participation 10%
4 Discussion Papers 20%
Midterm Exam 30%
Final Exam 35%
There will be 28 lectures for this course. We will devote roughly fifty minutes of our second
session of the week to discussion of the topics and their various aspects covered during that
week. Every third week, twenty minutes of class time will be reserved for students to write a
discussion paper that is meant to integrate the assigned readings, lectures and discussion.

Attendance: Regular attendance is a requirement for this class. You will be allowed two
absences. After that every missed class will mean deduction of 1 point from your attendance
grade and after 10 such unexcused absences you will get a zero for the attendance/participation
grade. If you are enrolled or intending to enroll in this course you must start attending the
classes from day one.
Readings: The reading package will be placed on reserve at the library. The first part of the
reading package comprises of readings, which are compulsory and the second part of the
package comprises of reference material, that is, articles that have been highly recommended in
the course outline. As we are revising and expanding this course, you may use reading packs of
SS 132 for first few weeks.

Cheating and Plagiarism


Written work must be properly cited in accordance with accepted style manuals (Chicago
Manual of Style, APA, MLA, etc.). If you take an idea from the text, another book, newspaper,
or any other source, you must give the author credit. Furthermore, changing one or two words in
a sentence is not an acceptable substitution for not using quotation marks. It is expected that all
assignments represent original work not previously or simultaneously handed in for credit in
another. Cheating, plagiarism, or any other violations of the honour code will be dealt with
according to LUMS policy.

Course Outline

Week 1: Political Science Its study and its objectives

Session 1: Introduction to the Course, The study of politics and its objects
Andrew Heywood. What is politics? in Politics. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1997: 3-22
Robert Jackson and Doreen Jackson. The World of Politics: Countries and Concepts in A
Comparative Introduction to Political Science. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1997: 1-15
Andrew Heywood. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 96-98 (political
science)

*Highly Recommended:
Munroe Eagles and Larry Johnston, Politics: An Introduction to Democratic Government. 19-59
J.C.Johari. Principles of modern political science. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1989: 12-3
(Some Definitional Statements)

Session 2: Power, Authority and Legitimacy


Andrew Heywood. Political Ideas and Concepts: an introduction London: Macmillan
Publishers, 1994: Chapter 4
Ellen Grigsby. Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. USA: Wadsworth, 2002:
36-49
Andrew Heywood. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 15-6 (authority),
29-30 (legitimacy) 35-37 (power)

* Highly Recommended:
Bertrand Russell, Forms of Power in Steven Lukes (ed.) Power. UK: Basil Blackwell, 1986:
19-28
Max Weber, Domination by Economic Power and by Authority in Steven Lukes (ed.) Power.
UK: Basil Blackwell, 1986: 28-37

Session 3: Discussion Questions


1. Is political science superior to all other social sciences? Which definition of political science
appeals to you the most?
2. What is power? When are we interested in power- in studying, acquiring, maintaining,
increasing, reducing or destroying it?
3. Do you understand the following words: concepts, ideologies, approaches, values, systems,
structures and levels in the context of political science?

Week 2: Emergence of the Modern State and Nationhood

Session 4: Emergence of the modern state


John Merriman. Emergence of Early Modern Europe in Modern Europe: From Renaissance to
the Present. New York: WW Norton, 1996: 19-34
Gianfranco Poggi. The State, its Nature, Development and Prospects. UK: Polity Press, 1990:
19-34
Andrew Heywood. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 37-42 (state and
sovereignty)

*Highly Recommended:
JS McClelland. The Modernity of the Modern State in A History of Western Political Thought.
NewYork: Routledge, 1996: 277-295
J.C.Johari. Principles of modern political science. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1989: 118-
119 (Comparative Illustration of the Views of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau on state and
government)

Session 5: Nations and Nationalism


Andrew Heywood. Political ideologies: An Introduction Third Edition. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2004: 155-187
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 251-256 (nation, nation-state,
and nationalism), 259-260 (supra-nationalism)

Session 6: Discussion Questions


1. How do we know what is a nation and what is not?
2. Is nationalism ethically problematic?
3. What is a state? What is a nation? Do all nations possess their own states?
4. Are states the key decision-makers in world politics?

(Discussion Paper 1)

Week 3: Political Culture and Socialization

Session 7 and Session 8: Political Culture, Political Socialization and Society


Austin Ranney, Governing: An Introduction to Political Science. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
1996: 45-67
Andrew Heywood. Politics. London, MacMillian, 1997: 186-202
Larry Diamond Toward democratic consolidation in Larry Diamond and Marc Plattner (eds.)
The Global Resurgence of Democracy 2nd edition, JHU Press: Baltimore, 1996: 227-240
Andrew Heywood. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 216-217
(political culture), 17-18 (civil society)

Session 9: Discussion Questions


1. How do individuals and groups acquire their political values and attitudes?
2. Do democratic regimes depend on the existence of a distinctive civic culture?
3. Are modern societies characterized by free competition between values and ideas or by a
dominant culture?

Week 4: Modern Ideologies

Session 10: Understanding Ideology


Andrew Heywood. Political ideologies: An Introduction Third Edition. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2004: 1-23
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 22-4 (Ideology), 27-9
(Left/Right)

Session 11: Liberalism


Andrew Heywood. Political ideologies: An Introduction Third Edition. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2004: 25-69
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 60-2 (liberalism)

Session 12: Discussion Questions


1. What is political ideology?
2. How have the major ideologies changed over time?
3. Has ideology come to an end? Could ideology come to an end?
4. Compare and contrast classical and modern liberalism on matters of liberty and government?

(Discussion Paper 2)

Week 5: Modern Ideologies (continued)

Session 13: Conservatism and Socialism


Andrew Heywood. Political ideologies: An Introduction Third Edition. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2004: 69-83, 102-4 and 105-17, 143-54
---. Politics. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1997: 46-8 and 50-6
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 52-5 (conservatism), 75-8
(socialism), 67-70 (New Right and New Left), 73-5 (social democracy), 63-5 (Marxism)

Session 14:

Session 15: Discussion Questions


1. What rival traditions or internal tensions do conservatives and Marxism encompass?
2. Why did Marx believe that capitalism necessarily generated class conflict? What role did
government play in this conflict?
3. Do you see a religious source of socialist ideology?
4. Understand the tensions between the liberal new right and the conservative new right

Week 6: Modern Ideologies (continued)

Session 16: Fascism


Ellen Grigsby. Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. USA: Wadsworth, 2002:
115-128
Andrew Heywood. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 56-8 (fascism),
65-7 (nazism), 184-5 (totalitarianism)

Session 17: Feminism and Environmentalism


Ellen Grigsby. Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. USA: Wadsworth, 2002:
130-146
Andrew Heywood. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 58-60
(feminism), 55-6 (ecologism), 101-2 (post-modernism)

Session 18: Discussion Questions


1. What is the connection between fascism and totalitarianism?
2. Compare and contrast the fascism of Mussolini and Hitler. In your estimation is the KKK in
the USA a fascist organization? Explain your position.
3. How is feminism similar to liberalism? Compare and contrast liberal, classical and diversity
feminism.
4. Discuss ownership and stewardship as they pertain to environmentalist perspectives
5. Environmentalism asserts the importance of assuming an ecological perspective and of
seeking to protect ecosystem integrity. What is an ecological perspective? What is
ecosystem integrity?

(Discussion Paper 3)

Week 7: Types of State and Forms of Government

Session 19: Functions of the State


Andrew Heywood. Politics. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1997: 83-99
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 19 (government), 196
(constitution)
Austin Ranney, Governing: An Introduction to Political Science. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
1996: 25-34

Session 20: Types of Governmental Systems (Democratic and Non-democratic)


Austin Ranney, Governing: An Introduction to Political Science. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
1996: 93-112
Philips Shively. Power and Choice: An introduction to political science. USA: McGraw Hill,
1995: 140-54
Andrew Heywood. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 158
(authoritarianism), 162 (consociationalism), 166 (dictatorship), 169 (liberal democracy),
125 (democracy),
* Highly Recommended:
Ellen Grigsby. Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. USA: Wadsworth, 2002:
148-175

Session 21: Discussion Questions


1. Are states likely to vanish and be replaced by some other form of political organization
2. Do you understand what the differences are between a state, government, regime and
political system?
3. What is the definition of democracy? What is implied by this definition, that is, what does it
presuppose? What is implied by the concept of transition when used in discussing democracy
and non-democracy?
4. What is a non-democratic government?
5. Is Islam incompatible with the goals of democracy? Are Islamic states non-democratic?

Week 8: Structural Components and Levels of the Government

Session 22: Structural Components of the Government


Andrew Heywood. Politics. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1997: 273-358
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 172 (parliamentary government),
179 (presidential government), 190 (Bill of Rights), 191 (bureaucracy), 201 (executive),
206 (Judiciary), 214 (parliament), 220 (president), 224 (prime minister), 229 (separation
of powers).

Session 23: Levels of Government


Andrew Heywood. Politics. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1997: 122-137
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 237-245 (centralization,
devolution, federalism), 249 (local government)

Session 24: Discussion Questions


1. What defines and differentiates presidential and parliamentary systems?
2. How significant is separation of powers for a democratic government?
3. Should judges play an activist or minimalist role in politics?
4. To what extent does a constitution shape political practice?
5. Where does the power lie in political executives? How should political leadership be
understood?
6. Why are bureaucrats so powerful and why has bureaucratic power expanded? What explains
bureaucratic corruption?
7. To what extent is there a scope in modern societies for community to replace the nation as
the central focus of politics?
8. Compare and contrast the advantages or disadvantage s of unitary, federal and confederal
states.

(Discussion Paper 4)
Week 9: The Political Process

Session 25: Political Parties and Interest Groups


Andrew Heywood. Politics. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1997: 229-68
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 218 (political party), 232 (social
movement), 222 (pressure group)

Session 26: Electoral Politics, Voting Behavior and Media


Andrew Heywood. Politics. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1997: 205-227
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 143 (representation), 199
(election), Mass media (210)
Austin Ranney, Governing: An Introduction to Political Science. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
1996: 136-56

*Highly Recommended:
Ellen Grigsby. Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. USA: Wadsworth, 2002:
177-214

Session 27: Discussion Questions


1. Compare and contrast political parties and interest groups.
2. Compare and contrast interest group pluralism, democratic corporatism and state autonomy
3. Identify three ways in which parties can differ across democracies.
4. Do parties exist in non-democratic countries? Explain.
5. Compare and contrast SMP, PR and STV election systems.
6. How do voters make decisions about which candidate they prefer? Explain retrospective,
prospective and sociological cleavage models
7. How does media affect the political process?

Week 10: International Politics

Session 28: Introduction to International Politics


Ellen Grigsby. Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. USA: Wadsworth, 2002:
233-261
Austin Ranney, Governing: An Introduction to Political Science. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
1996: 405-58
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 91 (idealism), 105 (realism)

Session 29: Complex Interdependence and Globalization


Joseph Nye. Understanding International Conflict: An introduction to Theory and History. New
York: Longman, 2000: 177-206
---. Key Concepts in Politics. London: MacMillan Press, 2000: 243 (globalization), 248
(internationalism), 209 (market)
Session 30: Discussion Questions:
1. Identify three example of foreign policy making after WW2 that were influenced by bipolar
considerations
2. Should human rights dictate foreign policy decisions? Compare and contrast idealist and
realist perspectives on this issue?
3. What are the arguments in favor of viewing the UN as an effective organization? What are
the arguments against this position?
4. Compare and contrast the World Bank, IMF and WTO? Despite their different tasks all three
share a larger philosophical and political goal- what is it?
5. What are SAPs and what are some of the criticisms of these programs?
6. Identify three ways in which you think your life would be different if you lived in a high-
income country vs a low-income country. How do you think these differences would change
your view of politics?
7. How has globalization changed the role of the state?

(Discussion Paper 5)

Final Exam