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Verification – Hand Calculations

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Introduction
SLOPE/W is formulated based on limit equilibrium theory. The forces acting on a sliding mass can
therefore be verified using hand calculations. Moreover, the verification process can increase the
analyst’s confidence and understanding of the software. The objective of this example is to
demonstrate the verification calculations.

Numerical Simulation
The model domain used for this illustration is shown in Figure 1. It is a simple 2:1 slope that is 10 m in
height. The unit weight () of the soil is 20 kN/m3, the effective cohesion (c’) is 5 kPa and the effective
angle of friction (’) is 30°. Only one slip surface is analyzed.

1

the Bishop method requires an iterative solution because the factor of safety and slice force equations are non- linear. Results and Discussion The problem was analyzed using the Ordinary and Bishop methods. In contrast. and base pore-pressure (u) are presented in Table 1. The slice weight (W) and slice base length (L) were computed in the spreadsheet using the following equations: 𝑊=ℎ∗𝑏∗𝛾 Equation 1 𝑏 Equation 2 𝐿= 𝛼𝜋 cos( ) 180 2 . It is noted that the pore- pressure for the two slices above the piezometric line was set to zero for expediency. slice width (b). 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Metres Figure 1. The Ordinary Method The geometric information about the sliding mass and the discretization can be copied from SLOPE/W and pasted into a spreadsheet using the Draw Graph functionality. Example configuration. base inclination angle (α). The Ordinary Method is amenable to hand-calculations because an iterative solution strategy is not required. The slice height.

912 0. Geometric data for the slices.952 110.666 -37. The column titled ‘Friction’ represents the frictional component of the shear 3 .321 0.277 0.024 12.920 1.462 0.531 14 6.778 -52.329 0.523 28 0.981 44.004 -30.143 -27.989 0.952 123.115 1.401 0.039 9.139 -40.820 0.248 0.952 59.012 14. 2005): Equation 3 𝐹𝑜𝑓𝑆 = ∑ [𝑐'𝐿 + (𝑊cos 𝛼 ‒ 𝑢𝐿cos2 𝛼)tan 𝜙'] ∑𝑊sin 𝛼 Table 2 presents the calculated terms for each slice.960 22.966 18.952 78.452 1.782 0.585 7.807 12.009 45.623 0.028 45.887 0.081 -47.965 1.870 40.735 1.317 20.405 0.789 7 6.022 7.702 1.781 26 1.465 0.971 43.952 94.323 25.821 0.252 30.183 -3.899 22 3.088 -24. The sum of the denominator in the factor of safety equation is 795.989 12.954 37.975 0.019 15.955 27.109 41.952 112.080 2.606 0.Table 1.780 0.194 35.651 0.952 102.925 -22.955 1.952 48.108 29 0.390 17 5.387 -57.263 13 6.182 20 4.851 9.123 0.120 23 2. Slice # Height b (m) W (kN) Base α Base L u (kPa) (m) (m) 1 0.035 8 6.971 0.952 34.340 kN.952 116.963 41.136 0.952 36.477 4.000 3 3.952 107.293 15 5.935 0.952 115.766 -5.148 38.265 0.058 6.574 16 5.132 The factor of safety for the Ordinary method is calculated as (Duncan and Wright.088 11 6.724 -19.613 0.537 1.551 0.252 21 3.639 0.119 1.952 123.118 0.958 39.772 -0.415 19.952 121.757 18 4.989 29.035 0.050 44.087 1.507 0.609 0.727 -43.100 10 6.542 -16.952 119.072 0.511 -8.858 0.559 -33.000 2 2.351 1.339 1.952 93.300 23.902 0.841 1.952 69.818 1.952 122.571 6 5.914 24 1.956 1.989 4.381 0.273 25 1.577 0.441 9 6.460 12 6.801 1.423 0.424 -13.685 19 4.362 1.140 1.406 27 0.989 19.204 5 5.952 101.952 119.077 43.870 14.663 0.989 25.952 87.404 -11.286 0.994 45.857 1.853 4 4.393 0.391 2.953 30.204 17.234 93.217 0.287 -62.

861 13.14 5 71.185 4.764 69.648 5.386 108.335 20.367 39.939 17.951 4.61 20 1.245 40.281 41.52 12 45.072 4.063 21.931 5.935 42.906 109.608 41.855 105. Slice # W sin α CxL W cos α uL Friction Resistance kN kN cos^2α kN kN 1 12.613 45.126 41.810 22.731 5.248 37.27 17 15.214 44.618 26.375 10.798 48.642 31.000 12.764 32.64 3 74.718 5.587 4.628 39. The column titled ‘C x L’ represents the cohesive component of the shear resistance.505 41.12 16 20.830 36.140 112.770 87.738 99. Table 2.309 29.14 23 -5.005 8.916 41.30 13 39.047 112.529 32.150 11.872 36.145 27.48 9 62.381 5.776 59.401 3.681 41.56 Sum 795.075 46.235 26.212 30.640 4 .30 11 51.300 25.643 12. The combination of these two (Resistance) is the numerator in the factor of safety equation.972 92.206 39.220 21.388 8.062 29. The factor of safety is given as: 930.06 18 9.658 15.060 36.069 15.076 62.369 24.762 78.313 35.266 47.329 17.608 37.340 930.390 42.741 45.535 5.788 94.13 24 -6.86 8 66.952 39. Factor of safety calculations for the Ordinary method.600 46.951 4.616 73.412 23.936 1.292 6.290 11.57 28 -4.196 4.930 1.816 100.122 24.64 𝑘𝑁 Equation 4 𝐹𝑜𝑓𝑆 = = 1.108 57.530 37.589 32.62 10 57.418 42.resistance along the slip surface.031 35.307 4.568 39.795 5.76 7 69.380 39.752 33.625 9.291 10.230 5.752 19.545 5.350 29.341 40. The sum of the Resistance is 930.688 0.156 47.23 27 -5.58 15 27.847 7.030 4.252 111.156 11.158 6.15 2 34.502 29.74 4 68.197 18.460 6.68 29 -1.141 4.268 8.91 22 -4.542 5.106 12.377 5.640 kN.580 20.842 7.712 37.18 6 71.63 26 -6.208 4.546 104.337 40.65 14 33.645 3.912 29.789 0.908 5.887 4.64 𝑘𝑁 This value is identical to the result calculated by SLOPE/W presented in Figure 2.838 34.513 5.920 5.170 795.911 47.596 38.890 43.50 19 5.90 25 -6.316 6.969 40.567 13.958 5.321 35.116 14.277 8.000 3.40 21 -2.969 111.258 83.

Free body diagram for Slice 5.571 ∗ 0.3232 𝜎𝑛' = 55. the free body diagram for Slice 5 (Figure 3). The total base normal (N) is: 5 .6320 𝑘𝑃𝑎 Equation 6 Figure 3.571 kPa.73 kN and the pore-pressure (u) at the mid-point of the slice base is 25.7198 ∗ 0. 1.170 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Metres Figure 2.2475 = 42.73 ∗ 0. for example. Ordinary method factor of safety from SLOPE/W.965° and the base length (L) is 1. Additional hand-calculations can be done by examining the details for each slice.7198) 𝐿 1. The effective normal stress (σn’) at the slice base is: 𝑊cos 𝛼 102.3232 m.7198 Equation 5 𝜎𝑛' = ‒ 𝑢cos2 𝛼 = ‒ (25. The total slice weight (W) is 102. The base inclination (α) is 43. Consider.8794 ‒ 13.

base pore-pressure (u). the normal force N becomes a function of the factor of safety and is given by: (𝑐'𝐿sin 𝛼 ‒ 𝑢𝐿sin 𝛼tan 𝜙') Equation 10 𝑊‒ 𝐹 𝑁= sin 𝛼tan 𝜙' cos 𝛼 + 𝐹 The denominator in this equation is often given the variable name mα.6320 ∗ 0.170 The value is identical to that shown on the free body diagram of Slice 5 (Figure 3). The normal force at the base of the slice is determined by summing forces in the vertical direction. while the factor of safety is a function of the normal force (Equation 11). base length (L). The denominator 6 .3232 = 90.48 𝑘𝑁 𝐹𝑜𝑓𝑆 1.1844 Equation 9 𝑆𝑚𝑜𝑏 = = = 33. The slice weight (W).3232 + 42. and base inclination (α) are obtained from Table 1. The Bishop Method The Simplified Bishop Method considers inter-slice normal forces. An iterative solution procedure is therefore required to solve the equations.5774 = 39.2462 𝑘𝑁 Equation 7 The total shear resistance (S) at the slice base is: 𝑆 = 𝑐'𝐿 + 𝜎𝑛' tan 𝜙' Equation 8 𝑆 = 5 ∗ 1. It is important to note that the mobilized shear is required in the force equilibrium equations.571) ∗ 1. not the total shear available from the soil strength.𝑁 = (𝜎𝑛' + 𝑢)𝐿 = (42. As a result.1844 𝑘𝑁 The portion of S that is mobilized (Smob) is: 𝑆 39. the Bishop factor of safety can be computed from: Equation 11 𝐹𝑜𝑓𝑆 = ∑ [𝑐'𝐿 + (𝑁 ‒ 𝑢𝐿)tan 𝜙'] ∑𝑊sin 𝛼 The normal force in Equation 10 is a function of the factor of safety. Once N is known for each slice. The Bishop factor of safety can be computed in a spreadsheet fairly readily.6320 + 25.

688 24 -6.1078 1.2922 0.438 31.632 28. It is necessary to assume a value for the factor of safety on the first iteration.5416 5.1221 0.464 10.188 5 71.413 46.7952 5.1052 116.in the factor of safety equation (Wsinα) remains the same for all iterations.7623 1.8304 0.209 35.653 4 68.546 54.416 26.642 13.0623 103.7992 23.056 45.591 14.0893 107.0952 114.170.5867 4.910 40.7306 5.236 Equation 12 Table 3.0616 0.242 16.060 13.4599 6.0380 94.262 8.1116 117.2579 1.916 40. The starting value used in the spreadsheet was the Ordinary method factor of safety.952 3.258 28 -4.735 34.3401 = 1.9506 4.284 29 -1.708 25 -6.7880 1.995 11.0811 110.921 39.081 44.030 44.681 15.212 38.128 14 33.1974 0.1413 4.988 39.3072 4.9692 1. Calculations with a trial factor of safety equal to 1.843 17 15.058 31. Slice # W sin α Cohesion mα N Friction Total kN kN kN (M+N) 1 12.321 9.8712 33.3774 5.0770 102.747 33.432 40.177 41.3156 6.6481 5.552 41.077 6 71.9590 61.200 21 -2.3812 5.306 47.9030 39.734 8 66.0626 97.890 21.2522 1.8552 1.7168 7.091 795.087 12 45.8364 29.1961 4.9307 5. 𝐹 = 983.762 47.799 11 51.0052 8.743 26 -6.0066 78.8162 1.959 12.378 22 -4.934 2 34.0993 110.0274 85.9042 8.028 18 9.7385 1. Table 3 shows the calculations when the trial factor of safety is 1.959 33.947 41.0467 1.1402 1.7980 0.039 4.859 8.614 28.9838 70.776 47.971 3 74.844 5.5345 5.0460 92.461 47.5454 5.342 23.9716 1.9058 1.729 20 1.9320 51.8874 4.1148 117.322 20.4011 0.322 10 57.0299 4.684 37.144 41.7761 0. The same is true for the cohesive component of the resistance in Equation 11.7593 16.663 7 .997 19 5.044 36.078 41.2909 10.7177 5.835 46.564 7 69.7643 0.447 25.8469 7.908 28.878 17.2896 0.113 46.884 15 27.6250 9.903 47.170.5461 1.1147 118.1070 113.0757 1.214 20.647 39.3861 1.0720 4.696 41.7702 1.2081 4.1853 4.224 23 -5.914 42.641 9 62.1122 115.9083 5.713 27 -5.9508 4.9550 36.0012 93.458 16 20. The new computed factor of safety is the total resistance divided by the total driving force (Wsinα).6160 1.9204 5.0629 0.196 13 39.

615 40.286 47.590 28.2081 4.010 14.8073 23.048 45.284 9 62.598 29.902 6 71.300 46.7177 5.810 42.0629 0.2922 0.112 16.222 31.397 42.0830 107.5416 5.815 21.0467 1.0793 115.438 8 66.147 29 -1.180 15 27.0052 8.957 42.4011 0.091 The forces are then updated using the latest factor of safety (Table 4) and the new factor of safety is calculated as: 𝐹 = 991.471 14.113 9.197 38.3401 991.435 26.302 2 34.1221 0.795 41.092 19 5.071 48. Calculations with a trial factor of safety equal to 1.010 33.453 39.536 Totals 795.9353 51.3072 4.449 31.936 47.7623 1.8469 7.1023 116.0757 1.857 11.710 55.Totals 795.7952 5.3774 5.8874 4.603 13 39.8162 1.9610 61.6160 1.9716 1.073 5 71.403 42.8433 29.780 20 1.6481 5.642 26 -6.346 41.124 28 -4.8304 0.0719 103.035 17 15.593 27 -5.7643 0.179 40.1413 4.7385 1.9074 39.9307 5.622 25 -6.9506 4.5345 5.301 23.0640 111.7687 16.328 7 69.237 41.927 13.546 48.409 21.678 5.3812 5.9508 4.733 3.9204 5.247 Equation 13 Table 4.0440 105.818 4 68.170 23 -5.636 795.5461 1.1402 1.1024 119.0616 0.1078 0.066 35.236.9847 70.7761 0.304 36.1037 118.1974 0.613 24 -6.0905 117.701 16 20.9803 95.211 21 -2.5867 4. Slice # W sin α Cohesion mα N Friction Total kN kN kN 1 12.358 47.354 22 -4.354 38.606 5.905 10 57.2579 1.9058 1.2909 10.322 11 51.2896 0.0587 97.050 41.997 47.580 15.628 7.394 25.8552 1.661 3 74.0299 4.432 44.229 20.0185 96.2522 1.170 18 9.0981 118.288 10.636 8 .9328 37.7702 1.211 43.9083 5.479 14 33.463 45.0720 4.255 39.0063 78.552 12 45.809 12.3861 1.7980 0.0258 85.135 8.0433 92.993 33.3401 = 1.0983 114.1961 4.720 29.7306 5.3156 6.465 36.3401 983.6250 9.5454 5.8768 33.1853 4.8809 8.7880 1.7274 7.466 48.9692 1.4599 6.792 17.0918 111.

8443 29.1413 4.275 38.363 45.348 39.9204 5.2896 0.7177 5.0882 117.967 9 .5867 4.113 42.529 36.982 42.0412 105.3861 1.126 29 -1.225 15 27.9358 51.9771 95.6250 9.586 28.0757 1.788 20 1.247.609 25 -6.117 35.3401 = 1.1221 0.0581 98.7980 0.1974 0.000 4 68.386 25.893 56.832 41.262 10.449 47.547 8 66.0629 0.517 Totals 795.1961 4.8304 0.068 14.692 40.215 20.8773 8.570 5.0969 114.967 795.256 43.6481 5.586 42.7952 5.738 16 20.624 12 45.7880 1.376 38.666 13 39.361 41.3812 5.403 11 51.9613 61.190 48.190 42.565 15.9848 70.1402 1.360 2 34.211 5 71.645 48.609 42.0429 92.064 17 15.8469 7.350 22 -4.192 18 9.9307 5.8777 33.486 44.7306 5.8552 1.116 8.7623 1.4011 0.706 29.209 40.9294 37.906 13.803 21.092 16.7385 1.1853 4.0155 96.995 10 57.1020 118.8162 1.778 5.9083 5.593 7.724 40.601 24 -6.162 23 -5.8874 4.4599 6.734 29.447 7 69.248 31.533 14 33.0616 0.1005 119.9506 4.526 45.2579 1.626 26 -6.7702 1.596 21.213 21 -2.030 33.2081 4.0960 119.0711 103.7761 0.5461 1. Slice # W sin α Cohesion mα N Friction Total kN kN kN 1 12.135 47.575 48.0299 4.248 Equation 14 Table 5.106 19 5.786 12.2922 0.081 9.The forces are again updated (Table 5) and the new factor of safety is: 𝐹 = 992.8085 23.0768 115.6160 1.371 46.0820 107.3401 992.3156 6.415 48.0052 8.438 26.778 17.452 14.384 9 62.9692 1.3774 5.451 31.575 27 -5.5345 5.294 23.0256 85.0614 111.104 28 -4.0062 78.3072 4.7290 7.2522 1.9081 39.018 33.7643 0.017 47.0720 4.1008 116.318 36.5416 5.1078 0.700 3.9508 4.0467 1.836 11.568 41.031 6 71. Calculations with a trial factor of safety equal to 1.7701 16.769 3 74.5454 5.9716 1.0906 111.2909 10.9058 1.

5867 4.562 15.0610 111.7952 5.0616 0.9692 1. Calculations with a trial factor of safety equal to 1. Slice # W sin α Cohesion mα N Friction Total kN kN kN 1 12.592 48.0765 115.603 41.232 15 27.607 25 -6.0819 107.8874 4.363 39.399 9 62.600 24 -6.833 11.350 22 -4.3401 = 1.8778 33.435 48. the new factor of safety is: 𝐹 = 993.9614 61.0408 105.565 5.5345 5.5454 5.588 7.744 16 20.1002 119.783 12.009 10 57.0720 4.0428 92.208 48.1402 1.450 14.8087 23.535 45.0757 1.903 13.802 21.6481 5.786 3 74.6250 9.0580 98.4599 6.When the trial factor of safety is 1.736 29.7761 0.624 26 -6.539 36.741 40.9358 51.3812 5.439 26.213 20.051 6 71.213 40.076 9.794 5.3156 6.380 41.463 48.412 45.8469 7.572 27 -5.019 33.123 29 -1.2579 1.8768 8.789 20 1.1974 0.213 21 -2.7306 5.263 43.9058 1.8445 29.101 28 -4.9766 95.514 Totals 795.0255 85.369 2 34.161 23 -5.1005 116.776 17.0629 0. Table 6.1078 0.9083 5.0150 96.0967 114.7177 5.7702 1.1853 4.7385 1.009 42.415 11 51.173 795.0052 8.385 25.252 31.173 10 .661 48.248.1221 0.157 47.0710 103.8162 1.212 42.676 13 39.3861 1.0467 1.6160 1.036 33.248 (Table 6).9289 37.029 47.615 42.383 46.068 17 15.0957 119.635 12 45.541 14 33.838 41.9204 5.288 38.2909 10.9508 4.640 42.7643 0.0905 111.2522 1.723 29.625 21.089 16.564 8 66.5461 1.125 35.729 40.379 38.7704 16.9082 39.7980 0.029 4 68.137 42.232 5 71.921 56.466 7 69.0062 78.8552 1.8304 0.1961 4.109 19 5.3401 993.4011 0.3774 5.113 8.0879 118.2922 0.3072 4.9307 5.293 23.1413 4.9716 1.451 31.7293 7.195 18 9.1017 118.258 10.9848 70.320 36.2896 0.495 44.249 Equation 15 which is the same value computed by SLOPE/W (Figure 4).0299 4.7880 1.695 3.5416 5.077 14.9506 4.585 28.2081 4.7623 1.

249). 1. Summary and Conclusions This example demonstrates how spreadsheet calculations can be used to spot-check the SLOPE/W computed values. which is the mobilized shear shown on slice 5. Figure 5.G.M and Wright.051 kN. Soil Strength and Slope Stability. References Duncan. p.249 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Metres Figure 4.248 gives 38. which is the same as shown in Figure 5 (based on a factor of safety equal to 1. The hand-calculated normal force for Slice 5 in Table 6 is 105.. Dividing this by the factor of safety 1.50 kN. J. 67 11 . Slice 5 for the Bishop analysis. S. Bishop method factor of safety from SLOPE/W. This type of exercise helps to heighten our understanding of the limit equilibrium formulation.03 kN (based on the 2nd last trial FofS). The total resistance in Table 6 is 48. 2005. Figure 5 shows the free body diagram for Slice 5. Inc. John Wiley & Sons.