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. .

2006
517.936

, .. : /
.. . : , 2006. 447 . ISBN 985-417-476-X

. :
-
; -
;
-
; -
, , -
,
;
.
, -
.
-
.
. 140 .

: - , ,

.. ;
- ,

. .. ..;
- , ,


. .. .

ISBN 985-417-476-X c .., 2006





.
H p p
, J. Pfaff, C. Gauss, J.Jacobi,
J.Liouville, .., .., G.Darboux, H.Poincare,
S.Lie, ..p, G.Frobenius, .., J.Cartan,
.H.p, H..p, H..p, .. p.
- -

.
[54; 70 72; 75; 89]

.
, J.Liouville [138; 139] ( pp-
p ) p pp-
pp p , ,
p p,
p p -
.
[128 130] J.Jacobi p
p p p -
p p. [129] -
(, p pp
) p p p.
, p
p, p .. [131], .. [87],
.. [74], ..p (. [90, . 569 576]),
.H.p [81], .. [55].

-

[82; 124],
3
..

,
[4; 5; 12 16; 26; 27; 29; 38; 44; 45; 47; 48; 50 52; 56].
p
S.Lie, p , -
p pp [135; 136].
p p pp, -
p pp. -
p pp p
p [134], -
[133; 140].
, p -
p , -
, p p . -
p: E.Cartan [77; 78], H..p [55], H.. p
[119], L.Eisenhart [121], .. [113], .. p [7],
.. [98], P.Olver [100], .. [114]. p-
p -
[11; 73; 99; 127].
p p , -
H..p [68; 69], -
, p p p p-
. H p p
.. [19; 20; 108].
p pp
p , -
p p
.
p -
p p pp-
p .. [57 67].
..p p -
p [91; 93; 94] -
p -
p [92].
, pp -
p p,
p p p . p p-

4
..

p -
p p -
p , , ,
p , -
p, p p p
p p-
.
J.Pfaff [139] pp p -
p pp p
p. p p-
C.Gauss [123] p pp
J.Jacobi [130], S.Lie [132], G.Frobenius [126], J.Drach
[125], E.Cartan [78].
-
, -
. -
, , , , -
. -
-
-
, , , -
, .
p p p
p . p
pp, p, p
p . p -
pp p pp ,
p p ; p-
p pp; p p-
(..H [97], ..p [107], .. [15; 16;
18], ..p [102 106], ..p [53], .. [1; 2],
H.H. [84 86]) p.

-
.
. p p pp p
p p p p

5
..

p p .. [16; 17] -
.. [1].
, -
, -
,
[118],
-
. -
, -
.
-
[24; 27; 28; 34;
38; 41 43; 51; 52; 101; 110; 117].
[12 14; 55;
93; 111] [9; 23;
26; 29; 32; 33; 35; 36; 44; 45; 47; 50; 56; 57 72; 79; 81; 82; 96;
109; 112; 117].

-
, -
.
[1; 30; 39; 40; 48; 88].
-
[27],
.

: ,
, -
,
, ,
, , , ,
, , , -
.

6
..

-
:
(CD) (. 15);
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) (CD) -
(t0 , x0 ) (. 16);
(ICD) (CD) (. 17);
( )
(. 35);
(N ) -
(. 39);
(Pf) (. 77);
(CDs) s- -
(c. 112);
(ACD) -
(c. 112);
(ICDs) (CDs) (c. 112);
(IACD) (ACD) (c. 112);
(PCD) -
(c. 168);
(IPCD) (PCD) (c. 168);
A (PCD) (. 179);
(PCDA)
A (c. 179);
(IPCDA) (IPCD) A (c. 179);
(APCD)
(c. 187);
A (APCD) (. 201);
7
..

(APCDA) (APCD) A (c. 201);


(IAPCD) (APCD) (c. 208);
(APDj)
, (APCD) (c. 208);
(IAPCDA) (IAPCD) A (c. 209);
B A (. 228);
(APCDB) (APCD) B (. 228);
(IAPCDB) (IAPCD) B (. 233);
(AD) -
(c. 313);
(ADj) -
, (ACD) (c. 324);
( ACD) -
, (ACD) (. 330);
(ED)
(. 330);
(APD) -
(c. 376).

(, ..) -
(k.l), (k.l.m) (k.l.m.n) (k.l, k.l.m k.l.m.n),
k (, ..), l -
, m , n .
.

8

1.

Rn -
Ox1 . . . xn
e1 , . . . , e n .
x Rn -
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ).

n
X
A(x) = ai (x)i , x X,
i=1

i xi , -
.

n
X
a: x ai (x)ei , x X,
i=1

A.
.
, X a
A -
Da DA .
ai , i = 1, n , -
a, A.
, A , -
k -
X, - a
. :
A C(X), A X;
A C k (X), A k -
X.
9
. 1, 0, ..

A -

Xn
= ( )e
=1

- a

A(x) = a(x), x X.

A , DA = X, = 1, q , (1)

X, R -
, = 1, q , , -
,
q
X
A (x) = O, x X.
=1

R , = 1, q ,
, , x 0 -
X
q
X
A (x0 ) = O,
=1

(1) x 0 .

x0 .
, X,
X.


.
[98, c. 113 114].

10
.. . 1, 0,

X -
X.

.

A(x0 ) = O,

x0 A.
pp [31, c. 105 108, 116]. -
pp (1) X, -
: X R,
q
X
(x)A (x) = O, x X, (2)
=1

q
X
(x) 6= 0, x C X0 ,
X
=1

1 X0 pp (1).
(2) , = 1, q,
X , ,
pp (1) X.
-

n
X n
X
A(x) = Ai (x)i , x X, B(x) = Bi (x)i , x X,
i=1 i=1


n
X 
[A(x), B(x)] = ABi (x) BAi (x) i , x X,
i=1
1
CX X0 X0 X.
11
. 2, 0, ..


n X
X n

[A(x), B(x)] = A (x) Bi (x)B (x) Ai (x) i , x X.
i=1 =1

, -
A B

[A(x), B(x)] = A(x)B(x) B(x)A(x), x X,

AB = A(B).

.

2.
V R n . -

n
X
(x) = ai (x) dxi , x V,
i=1

-
1- V.
.
1- -
q- [76,
c. 203 230; 118, c. 111].
q-
V
X
(x) = ai (x) dxi . . . dxiq ,
1 ...iq 1
16i1 <...<iq

x V, 1 6 q 6 n,

12
.. . 2, 0,

q- -
ai ...iq .
1
q- -
D. D = V.
: 0- -
V -
V.
f C 1 (V ). -
0- f
f, , 1-
n
X
df (x) = i f (x) dxi , x V.
i=1

q-
ai ...iq
C k (V ), , -
1

k, C k (V ).
q-
(q + 1)-
X
d(x) = dai (x) dxi . . . dxiq ,
1 ...iq 1
16i1 <...<iq

x V, 1 6 q 6 n.

1 (. ) [118, c. 111]. -
C 2 (V ),

d(d(x)) = 0, x V.

q- c D = V -
, (q 1)- 1
c D1 = V,
d1 (x) = (x), x V.

13
. 2, 0, ..


d(x) = 0, x V, (3)

( ) .
c D = V
, (3).

:

(x) = d1 (x), x V, C 1 (V ) =

= d(x) = 0, x V.

V -
.
M Rn -
A(a),
X(x) M

AX = x : x = x + (a x), 0 6 6 1

M.
, -
. , -
.
2 (. ) [76, . 222]. -
-
.

14
1
H

1.

1.
. (CD). . -
. . -
. -
. .

t = (t1 , . . . , tm ) x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) -
Rm Rn , m < n, dt dx -
dt = colon (dt1 , . . . , dtm ) dx = colon (dx1 , . . . , dxn ).
n m (n , m )
Mn,m .
X Mn,m kXij k, Xij

Xij : (t, x) Xij (t, x), (t, x) D, i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,

D = T X, T Rm , X Rn , T X .

dx = X(t, x) dt (CD)
.
(CD) R n -
, Rm+n -
, Rm .
1. T 0 , T 0 T , -
(CD) -

15
. 1, 1, . 1 ..

x : T 0 Rn ,
:
1) x T 0 ;
2) (t, x(t)) D, t T 0 ;
3)
dx(t) = X(t, x(t)) dt, t T 0 . (1)

(CD) : -
x : t x(t), t U(t0 ), -
U(t0 ) t0 , U(t0 ) T , (CD),
x0 t = t0 , (t0 , x0 )
D.
--
U(t0 ) (CD), -
x(t0 ) = x0 .
(t0 , x0 ) ;
t0 = (t01 , . . . , t0m ) -
- t; x 0 = (x01 , . . . , x0n )
.
:
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) (t 0 , x0 )
(CD);
x : t x(t; (t0 , x0 )), t U(t0 ), x : t x(t),
t U(t0 ), (t 0 , x0 ).
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) .
1. .
, (CD)-(t 0 , x0 ) -
, t0 T
U(t0 ), T , -
- U(t 0 ) (CD)
x : t x(t), t U(t0 ), -
x(t0 ) = x0 , (t0 , x0 ) D.
2. .
, (CD)-(t 0 , x0 )
,
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) R m
t0 ,
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) .
16
.. . 2, 1, . 1

-
,
2. (CD) -
D0 D,
(t0 , x0 ) D0 (CD)-(t0 , x0 )
.
, (CD)
,
(CD) (CD).
D (CD) -
(ICD).
3. , -
.
-

x : t x(t; (t0 , x0 )), t U(t0 ).
, ,

(ICD)-(t0 , x0 ).

2.
.
. . -
.

(CD) ,
X C 1 (D), , X ij -
D .

.
2.1.
X C 1 (D), -
:
(t0 , x0 ) D
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ), (CD)-(t0 , x0 ) -
.
17
. 2, 1, . 1 ..


1. (CD) X C 1 (D).
(t0 , x0 ) D -
Rm ,
(CD)-(t 0 , x0 )
.
. D -
(t0 , x0 ), (CD)-(t 0 , x0 )
.
Rn+m , -
Rm
v t 0 ,
kvk = r. r ,
Rm Dm r (t0 ) r -
t0 U(t0 ) t0 .
U(t0 ) ,
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) .
(CD) v, ,

t = t0 + v, [0; 1],
n-
dy = X(t0 + v, y)v d. (1)

y : x(t0 + v ), [0; 1],

x : t x(t; (t0 , x0 )), t U(t0 ),
(CD), [0; 1] (1).
y(0) = x(t0 ) = x0 .
, (CD)-(t 0 , x0 ) v
(1)-(0, x0 ).
X C 1 (D), (1)-(0, x0 )
.
, (CD)-(t0 , x0 ) -
18
.. . 2, 1, . 1

Rm r t 0
.
Dm r (t0 )
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) .

2.2.
1. (CD) X C 1 (D) -
D,
n
X n
X
tj Xi + Xj x Xi = t Xij + X x Xij ,

=1 =1
(2)
(t, x) D, i = 1, n , j, = 1, m .

.
x : t x(t), t U(t0 ),
(CD)-(t 0 , x0 )
(t0 , x0 ) D.
X C 1 (D)
dx(t) = X(t, x(t)) dt, t U(t0 ),

, - x -
U(t0 ).
, U(t0 ) -
x :

tj t xi (t) = t tj xi (t), t U(t0 ), i = 1, n , j, = 1, m .



tj t xi (t) = t tj xi (t) = t Xij (t, x(t)) =

n
X
= t Xij (t, x)| + x Xij (t, x)| t x (t) =
x=x(t) x=x(t)
=1
19
. 2, 1, . 1 ..

 n
X 
= t Xij (t, x) + X (t, x) x Xij (t, x) , t U(t0 ).
|x=x(t)
=1


 n
X 
tj Xi (t, x) + Xj (t, x)x Xi (t, x) =
|x=x(t)
=1

 n
X 
= t Xij (t, x) + X (t, x)x Xij (t, x) ,
|x=x(t)
=1

t U(t0 ), i = 1, n , j, = 1, m .

, (t0 , x0 ) D -
, (2).
(2) -
(CD).
(CD) m

n
X
Xj (t, x) = tj + Xij (t, x)xi , (t, x) D, j = 1, m , (3)
i=1

-
(CD), p
(CD).
(2) (3) -

 
Xj (t, x), X (t, x) = O, (t, x) D, j, = 1, m . (4)

2.3.
(CD)
(2) (t 0 , x0 ).

20
.. . 2, 1, . 1

(2)
1- X(t, x(t)) dt
B, T .
( 1 ), 1-
B.
Rt
X(, x( )) d
t0
B .
B
Zt
x(t) = x0 + X(, x( )) d. (5)
t0

1. B,
T , (5)
(2)
x : B R n , , :
1) x B;
2) (t, x(t)) D, t B;
3) t0 B
Zt
x(t) = x0 + X(, x( )) d, t B. (6)
t0

, (5) -
t0 , ,
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ).
2. X C 1 (D)
(2), B -
T . x : B R n
B (CD)-(t 0 , x0 ),
-
(5).
. . x : B R n -
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ) B.

21
. 2, 1, . 1 ..


dx(t) = X(t, x(t)) dt, t B. (7)

Rt
X(, x( )) d B, -
t0
(7) t0 t, ,
x(t0 ) = x0 , (6).
, , x : B R n , -
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ), -
(5).
. x : B Rn -
(5)
(2).
(6).
t, (7).
, - x (5)
B (CD).
(6), t = t 0 , ,
x(t0 ) = x0 .
, x (CD)-(t 0 , x0 ).
2 (5) -
(CD)-(t0 , x0 ).

2.4.
3. X C 1 (D)
(2). (CD) -
D.
. ,
t0 (5) -
.
X C 1 (D) , , -
x D : X Lip x (D)loc.
(t0 , x0 ) D
U0 , U0 = U(t0 , x0 ), U0 D, --
Xij X U0

22
.. . 2, 1, . 1

M > 0 : |Xij (t, x)| 6 M, (t, x) U0 , i = 1, n , j = 1, m , (8)

U 0 -
x

Xij (t, x00 ) Xij (t, x0 ) 6 L max x00 x0 ,

=1,n

(t, x0 ), (t, x00 ) U0 , i = 1, n, j = 1, m , (9)

x0 = (x01 , . . . , x0n ), x00 = (x001 , . . . , x00n ), L > 0.

,
:
1) (t, x) U 0

kt t0 k 6 , x x0 6 mM , = 1, n ;

2) mL < 1.
,
U0 (t0 , x0 ) .
V x : t x(t),
m  
= t0j ; t0j + , ,
j=1


x (t) x0 6 mM kt t0 k 6 , = 1, n . (10)

V
n o
(x0 , x00 ) = max x0 (t) x00 (t) : t , x0 , x00 V.
=1,n

(V, ) -
-
.

23
. 2, 1, . 1 ..


Zt X
m
yi (t) = x0i + Xij (, x( )) dj , t , i = 1, n , (11)
t0 j=1

Y : x Y (x), x V,
V .
,

y : t y1 (t), . . . , yn (t) , t , (12)
(11) x : R n
(V, ),
( x : Rn X ).
, (11), (8) -
x : Rn (V, ), ,
kt t0 k 6
Zt m
X
y (t) x0 6 X ij (, x( )) d

j 6 mM , = 1, n .


t0 j=1

, (12) (10), ,
V.
Y, (11), -
V .
, Y : x Y (x), x V, -
(11),
V.
(9)
= 1, n
Zt
00 m
X

y y 0 6 Xij (, x00 ( )) Xij (, x0 ( )) dj 6


t0 j=1

6 mL (x0 , x00 ).
24
.. . 2, 1, . 1

,

Y (x0 ), Y (x00 ) 6 mL (x0 , x00 ), x0 , x00 V.


mL < 1,
Y -
V .
-
[80, c. 75].
, (5) -
.
2 (CD)-(t 0 , x0 )
.
(t0 , x0 ) D -
. (CD)
D.
1 ( -
) 3 ( -
)
2 (.. ). X C 1 (D),
(CD) D
, (2).
1, -

3. (CD)-(t0 , x0 ), X C 1 (D),
, -
(t0 , x0 ) , -
.

25
. 1, 2, . 1 ..

2. p

1. p
.
.

(CD) X C(D), ,
Xij D .
1. -
D0 D p -
F : D0 R -
D0 (CD) X C(D),
F (CD)
D0 :
dF (t, x)| = 0, (t, x) D0 . (1)
(CD)

p F (CD) p
m
X n
X
dF (t, x)| = tj F (t, x) dtj + xi F (t, x) dxi | =
(CD) (CD)
j=1 i=1

m 
X n
X 
= tj F (t, x) + Xij (t, x)xi F (t, x) dtj =
j=1 i=1

m
X
= Xj F (t, x) dtj , (t, x) D0 ,
j=1

Xj , j = 1, m , (3.2.1).
p (1)

Xj F (t, x) = 0, (t, x) D0 , j = 1, m , (2)


26
.. . 1, 2, . 1

, -
pp Xj pp p-
p (CD).

-
, (1).
1. F : D0 R -
D0 D (ICD) X C(D),
, -
D0 ,
x : T 0 X 0 , T 0 X 0 = D0 , (ICD):
F (t, x(t)) = C, t T 0 , C = const.

-
D (CD),
, .
1.
dx1 = x1 dt1 + 3x1 dt2 ,
(3)
dx2 = (1 + x1 + 2x2 ) dt1 + (x1 + 3x2 ) dt2
,
X1 X2
 
X1 (t, x), X2 (t, x) =
h i
= t1 + x1 x1 + (1 + x1 + 2x2 )x2 , t2 + 3x1 x1 + (x1 + 3x2 )x2 =

= (3 x1 )x2 , (t, x) R4 ,

- R 4 .
3.2.1, (3) .
1

F : (t, x) x1 exp (t1 + 3t2 ) , (t, x) R4 , (4)

R4 (3).
, (CD),
, X C 1 (D).
27
. 2, 2, . 1 ..

(4.2.1) ( 2.2.1)
D (CD).

2. p
.
.

D0 D k

Fs : D0 R, s = 1, k , (1)
-

F : (t, x) F1 (t, x), . . . , Fk (t, x) , (t, x) D0 .

1. (1)
D0 (CD),
: (t, x) (F (t, x)), (t, x) D0 , (2)

EF ,
D0 (CD).
. p 1.1 -
(1)

Xj Fs (t, x) = 0, (t, x) D0 , j = 1, m , s = 1, k .

,
k
EF = EFs , -
s=1
D0 (CD)
k
 X
Xj F (t, x) = Fs (F )| Xj Fs (t, x) = 0, j = 1, m .
F =F (t,x)
s=1

1.1, (2) p p-
D0 (CD).
28
.. . 3, 2, . 1

p p
p p p p:
F1 : D0 R p p
D0 , D0 D, (CD),

1 : (t, x) (F1 (t, x)), (t, x) D0 ,

p
EF1 , p p -
D0 .
pp p -
p, p D 0 . p
-
p p (CD).
1. -
D0 p p (1) (CD)
p p D 0 ,
p p : D0 R
p

(t, x) = F1 (t, x), . . . , Fk (t, x) , (t, x) D0 ,

p , -
k
EF = EFs . k p
s=1
pp p p D 0
(CD).

3.

. -
-
. .
.

(CD) , -
, , Xij : D R, i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,
D.
29
. 3, 2, . 1 ..

(ICD), 1 ,
t0 T ,
(ICD) .
, (ICD)
[16, c. 39 41].
1.

x : t x(t; (t0 , x0 )), t, t0 T 0 ,

T 0 -
T (ICD). -
t T 0

x : t x(t; (t , x )), t T 0 ,

(ICD) x = x(t ; (t0 , x0 )) ,

x(t0 ; (t , x(t ; (t0 , x0 )))) = x0 .

. x e
e x
e -
(ICD):

e : t x(t; (t0 , x0 )), t T 0 ,


x

e
e : t x(t; (t , x(t ; (t0 , x0 )))), t T 0 .
x

x e
e(t ) = x
e(t ).
T 0 ,
t0 t , , :

x e
e(t), t T 0 .
e(t) = x

x e e(t0 ) = x0 ,
e(t0 ) = x

x(t0 ; (t , x(t ; (t0 , x0 )))) = x0 .

1
., , 3.3 [16, c. 26].
30
.. . 3, 2, . 1

1. (ICD)
(t0 , x0 ) D -
, n -

(t0 , x0 ) .
.
x : t x(t; (t0 , x0 )), t T 0 ,

(ICD), T 0 3 t0 .

F : (t, x) x(t0 ; (t, x)), (t, x) U0 , U0 = U((t0 , x0 )),


X
x(t; (t0 , x0 )) = x0 + ak (t t0 )k , t U(t0 ),
k=1

,

X
F (t, x) = x(t0 ; (t, x)) = x + ak (t0 t)k , (t, x) U0 .
k=1

-
, F U 0 .
x (t0 , x0 ) :
x F (t, x)| = E.
(t0 ,x0 )

U0 ,
det x F (t, x) 6= 0, (t, x) U0 .
x
U0 Fi : U0 R, i = 1, n ,
F.
1
F (t, x(t; (t0 , x ))) = x(t0 ; (t, x(t; (t0 , x )))) = x .
31
. 3, 2, . 1 ..

, F -
(ICD).
, 1.1,

Fi : (t, x) Fi (t, x), (t, x) U0 , i = 1, n , (1)


U0 (ICD).
2. (ICD) -
n U 0
(t0 , x0 ) (1). -
: U0 R (ICD)

(t, x) = (F (t, x)), (t, x) U0 ,

p ,
n
EF = EFi ,
i=1

F : (t, x) F1 (t, x), . . . , Fn (t, x) , (t, x) U0 .
. (1)
(ICD)

Fi : (t, x) xi (t0 ; (t, x)), (t, x) U0 , i = 1, n ,

det x F (t, x) 6= 0, (t, x) U0 .

t F
S
F (t, S(t, x)) = x, (t, x) U0 . (2)


: (t, x) (t, S(t, x)), (t, x) U0 ,

(t, x) = (t, F (t, x)), (t, x) U0 .
32
.. . 3, 2, . 1

, U0 t :

tj (t, x) = 0, (t, x) U0 , j = 1, m .

(2) t :

tj F (t, S(t, x)) + x F (t, S(t, x)) tj S(t, x) = 0,

(t, x) U0 , j = 1, m .

(1) (ICD).
j
tj F (t, x) = x F (t, x)X (t, x), (t, x) U0 , j = 1, m ,

j 
X (t, x) = X1j (t, x), . . . , Xnj (t, x) , (t, x) D, j = 1, m .

U0
j 
x F (t, S(t, x)) tj S(t, x) X (t, S(t, x)) 0, j = 1, m .

,
j
tj S(t, x) = X (t, S(t, x)), (t, x) U0 , j = 1, m ,

x F U0 .
,
(ICD), :

tj (t, x) = tj (t, S(t, x)) + x (t, S(t, x))tj S(t, x) =


j
= tj (t, S(t, x)) + x (t, S(t, x))X (t, S(t, x)) = 0,

(t, x) U0 , j = 1, m .

33
. 3, 2, . 1 ..

p 1 2
1. (ICD)
D
n.
1. pp

dx1 = dt1 , dx2 = dt2 ,


(3)
dx3 = x1 g(x1 , x2 ) dt1 + x2 g(x1 , x2 ) dt2 ,

g X R 2 ,
D0 = R2 X R

F1 : (t, x) t1 x1 ,
F2 : (t, x) t2 x2 , (4)
F3 : (t, x) g(x1 , x2 ) x3 .

, 1.1 (4) -
D0 (3).


1 0 1 0 0

0
J(F1 , F2 , F3 ; t, x) = 0 1 0 1

0 0 x g(x1 , x2 ) x g(x1 , x2 ) 1
1 2

D0
rank J(F1 , F2 , F3 ; t, x) = 3.

, (4)
D0 .
, 1, (4) -

(3) D0 .

34
.. ... . 1, 3, . 1

3.

1. p p
.
( ). . -
,
,
, , -
p . ,
-
.
, . -
. -
.

Lj (x)y = 0, j = 1, m , ()


n
X
Lj (x) = uji (x)i , x X, X Rn , j = 1, m , (1)
i=1

p p -
p .
() p p,
(1),
p uji -
X.
1. -
X 0 , X 0 X, p F : X 0 R
X 0 (),

Lj F (x) = 0, x X 0 , X 0 X, j = 1, m . (2)
35
. 1, 3, . 1 ... ..

, p pp (1),
p p (),
X.
p -
().
, pp (1)
X. p

u(x) = uji (x) mn , x X, (3)

p1
rank u(x) = s(x), 0 6 s(x) < min{m, n}, x X.

s = max s(x) pp (1), -


X
p X 0 -
X, CX X 0 p.
pp p p
p p, p X 0
p p (), -
p pp, -
.
pp (1) -
X. p (3) X p
rank u(x) = m, x X 0 ,
X 0 , X
p CX X 0 = 0.
m 6 n.
1
(m n)-p M C 1 (G), G Rs , -
G 0 G, CG G 0 p -
p pp Rs , G 0 p p M
:
rank M (z) = r, z G 0 , 0 6 r 6 min{m, n},
CG G 0 p p M r. p
r p p M G.
36
.. ... . 1, 3, . 1

m = n, -
X pp (1) pp p
X p p (3) p n.
() -
p pp X 0 X p-

i y = 0, i = 1, n .

y : x C, x X 0 ,
C p ,
.
1. m = n, ()
p p, -
.

() X -
pp (1) p m < n.
1.

F : x F (x), x X 0 , = 1, k , (4)

p p X 0
X (),

: x (F (x)), x X 0 ,

F (x) = (F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x)), x X 0 ,


, -
X 0 ().
, 1,

Lj F (x) = 0, x X 0 , j = 1, m , = 1, k .

, X 0

37
. 2, 3, . 1 ... ..

k
X
Lj (F (x)) = F (F )| L F (x) 0, j = 1, m .
F =F (x) j
=1

2. -
X 0 X p p
(4) () p p
X 0 (), p
p : X 0 R p

(x) = F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x) , x X 0 ,

p -
k
EF = EF . k p
=1
pp p p X 0
().

2.
. . .
. (N ). .

1. () -
X,
(1.1)
Lj , j = 1, m , , -
X :
m
X
 
Lj (x), Ll (x) = Ajls (x)Ls (x), x X, j, l = 1, m . (1)
s=1

2. (1.1)
X, () -
.
1. X ()
.
. X -
pp (1.1) p ,
38
.. ... . 2, 3, . 1
 
Lj (x), Ll (x) = O, x X, j, l = 1, m . (2)

(2) p (1), p -
Ajls (x) = 0, x X.
3.

j y = Mj (x)y, j = 1, m , (N)

n
X
Mj (x) = ujs (x)s , x X, j = 1, m , (3)
s=m+1

p -
.
2. p .
. (N) (),

Lj (x) = j Mj (x), x X, j = 1, m .

X
   
Lj , L l = j M j , l M l =
   
= j , l M l Mj , l M l =
     
= j , M l Mj , l + Mj , M l =
n
X n
X n
X
= j uls s + l ujs s + (Mj uls Ml ujs )s =
s=m+1 s=m+1 s=m+1

n
X
= vjls s , j, l = 1, m ,
s=m+1

vjls : X R, j, l = 1, m , s = m + 1, n .
39
. 3, 3, . 1 ... ..

(N) , X
(1):
m m
  X X
Lj , L l = Ajls Ls = Ajls (s Ms ) =
s=1 s=1

m
X m
X
= Ajls s Ajls Ms , j, l = 1, m .
s=1 s=1
 
Lj , Ll -
,

Ajls (x) = 0, x X, j, l, s = 1, m .

, ,
(N), p (1),
(2), , (N) .

3. H

. , -
, . .
.

1. y C 2 (X 0 ) -
X 0
L1 (x)y = 0, L2 (x)y = 0,

X 0
 
L1 (x), L2 (x) y = 0.

-

:
 
L1 , L2 y(x) = L1 L2 y(x) L2 L1 y(x), x X 0 .
40
.. ... . 3, 3, . 1

Hp 1
2. y C 2 (X 0 ) -
X 0 (),

 
Lj (x)y = 0, Lj (x), Ll (x) y = 0, j = 1, m , = 1, m1 ,

(1)
= 1, m2 , m1 6 m, m2 6 m, j , l {1, . . . , m}.

-
, (1) .
() , (1)
X ,
()
 
Lj (x), Ll (x) y = 0, j , l {1, . . . , m}. (2)

() ,
 
L (x) = L (x), L (x) , , {1, . . . , m},

L j , j = 1, m .
()
L (x)y = 0,

L
Lj , j = 1, m , -

Ls (x)y = 0, s = 1, k1 , m < k1 6 n, (3)

, Ls , s = 1, k1 , -
X.
, :
1) k1 > m, , ()
;
2) () (3)
(2);
41
. 3, 3, . 1 ... ..

3) () (3) -
X 0 X.
(3) , .
(3) , -
(3), .
, -
. ,
, , ,
, n .
. -, ()
m = n 1.2 -
.
, n -
, n -
X n- -
Rn , -
X.
,
() -
.
-, () -
-

  h  i
Lj (x), Ll (x) y = 0, L (x), Lj (x), Ll (x) y = 0,

h h (4)
 ii
L (x), L (x), Lj (x), Ll (x) y = 0, . . . ,

= 1, m1 , = 1, m2 , = 1, m3 , = 1, m4 , . . . , ms 6 m,
s = 1, 2, . . . , {1, . . . , m} 3 j , l , , , . . . .

.
1. () -
X -
.
42
.. ... . 4, 3, . 1

-
.
1. r
(), X
-
r (4).
,
, ,
(), -
X .
, () r ,
0 < r 6 n m.
, r = 0,
() ,
r
0 6 r 6 n m.

4.
. -
.
, -
.
() . -
. .

1. -
p p p-
.
.
e X
x : (), X, e Rn , (1)

p X Xe Rn .
p Lj (x)y(x) p p p (1):

Lj (x)y(x)| =L e x X, j = 1, m ,
e ()z(), X, (2)
x=() j

43
. 4, 3, . 1 ... ..

e
z() = y(()), X.

(1) () p
e ()z = 0, j = 1, m .
L (3)
j

pp L e j , j = 1, m , -
p
X.e
e ,
(3) X
() X.
(2) :

Lj (x)Ll (x)y(x)| = Lj (x)vl (x)| e ()v (()) =


=L
x=() x=() j l

e ()L
=L e x X, j, l = 1, m ,
e ()z(), X,
j l

vl (x) = Ll y(x), x X, l = 1, m .

X e
h i h i
Lj (x), Ll (x) y(x)| = L e (), L
e () z(), j, l = 1, m . (4)
j l
x=()

()
(1.2).
e j, l = 1, m
, X
h i h i
e (), L
L e () z() = L (x), L (x) y(x) =
j l j l | x=()

m
X m
X
= Ajls (x)Ls (x)y(x)| = e ()L
A e s ()z().
x=() jls
s=1 s=1

44
.. ... . 4, 3, . 1

(2.2) (4)
2.
-
.
3. ()
X
m
X
Lj (x) = jl (x)Ql (x), x X, j = 1, m , (5)
l=1

Q l , l = 1, m,
jl : X R, j, l = 1, m ,
X,
x X,
det jl (x) 6= 0,

X.
.
(5) Q l , l = 1, m , -
(1.1)
m
X
Ql (x) = lj (x)Lj (x), l = 1, m , (6)
j=1

()
m
X
jl (x)Ql (x)y = 0, j = 1, m , (7)
l=1

()

Ql (x)y = 0, l = 1, m . (8)

(6)
X
, det (x) = 0,
(x) = jl (x) , x X, m.
(7)
X (8) ().
45
. 4, 3, . 1 ... ..

(8).
.
   
Lj , Ll = Lj , Ll + Lj Ll Ll Lj

     
K + L, M = K, M + L, M

(6) ,
m X
X m m
X
   
Q , Q = Ajl Lj , Ll + Bs Ls , , = 1, m .
j=1 l=1 s=1

, (1.2) (5), -
,
 
Q , Q , , = 1, m ,

Q l , l = 1, m .
(8).
3
4. () ,

Kj (x)y = 0, j = 1, m , (9)

m
X
Kj (x) = vjl (x)Ll (x), x X, j = 1, m , (10)
l=1

m- v(x) = vjl (x) -
X, -
() x
X, det v(x) 6= 0.
1. ()
X (1.1) -
(
X).
46
.. ... . 4, 3, . 1

. () .


b(x) = uji (x) , x X,
u

m, m (3.1),
X ( -
, X
(3.1) rank u(x) = m).
, -
(1.1), ()
(N), , .
, , -
4.
, , () -
(N), det u b(x)
( -
).
X -
, det u b(x).
X det u b(x)
, X .
1 2.2
2. ()
X (1.1) -

( p -
X).
()
, , -
3 ( 4) -
, 1, -

3. () , -
u b m, m
(3.1), -
X. ()
(N),

47
. 4, 3, . 1 ... ..

x X, det u b(x) 6= 0, -
.
1.3
1. H X -
(),
H () -
.
-

(. 1.3).
, , -
. det u b(x) -
ub m, m (
) (3.1).
1.

L1 (x)y x1 1 y + x2 2 y + x3 3 y + x4 4 y + x5 5 y = 0,
(11)
L2 (x)y x1 1 y + x2 2 y + x3 3 y + x24 4 y + x25 5 y = 0

,
 
L1 (x), L2 (x) = x24 4 + x25 5 L3 (x)

L 1 L2 R5 .
L3 (11) p

L1 (x)y = 0, L2 (x)y = 0, L3 (x)y = 0. (12)

     
L1 , L2 = L3 , L1 , L3 = L3 , L2 , L3 = O R5 ,

(12) .
, R5 (11) -
r = 1.
(12)

x1 1 y + x2 2 y + x3 3 y = 0. (13)

48
.. ... . 5, 3, . 1

(11) ,
x4 4 y + x5 5 y = 0.
(12)

4 y = 0, 5 y = 0.
(13) 1 y, (12)

x2 x3
1 y = 2 y 3 y, 4 y = 0, 5 y = 0,
x1 x1
(11) (12) -
, R 5 -
.
(11) (12),
(13) 2 y 3 y.

5. p p p
,
-
.
. ()
. -
. -
. -
. -
-
.
. -
( ) -

( ).

p p
m
X
dxs = ujs (x) dxj , s = m + 1, n , (1)
j=1

49
. 5, 3, . 1 ... ..

p p p -
p p (N).
(1), (CD), -
pp Xj , j = 1, m , :

Xj (x) = Lj (x) = j Mj (x), j = 1, m , (2)

pp Mj p (3.2).
(2) (2.1.2) (2.1) -
F : X 0 R.
-
-
.
1. F : X 0 R p
p X 0 -
(N),
p p -
p p (1).
-
(), -
p -
p (CD), p ,
.
2. -
(N)
() ,
p p (1)
pp.
p 1.3.2 1 -

.
3. () (N) -
p X p
p pp n m.
1.4 p 3.4
3
-
.

50
.. ... . 5, 3, . 1

1. -
() p
p p -
p pp n m.
Hp p 1.3 (
1.3) 1 -
-
.
2. H
() r
p p
p p pp n m r.
2
1. H (), n 1
p n , p p,
p .
1 2 -
-
.
1.
() r, 0 6 r 6 n m,
p p
p p pp n m r.
p 1 pp -
.
4. -
()
, p
p p p
pp n m.


1. L (x), x X, = 1, r ,
, -

(1.1) (4.3) () -
.
51
. 5, 3, . 1 ... ..

()

Lj (x)y = 0, j = 1, m ,
( )
L (x)y = 0, = 1, r ,

r (), 0 6 r 6 n m.

Lj , j = 1, m , L , = 1, r , -
X.

r = 0, ( ) ().
1 1.3
5.

F : X 0 R, = 1, n m r ,

X 0 -
() r, 0 6 r 6 n m, ,
-

( ).
1.
x2 e F2 : x x3 , x X,
e
F1 : x , x X,
x1 x1

X e R5 \{x : x1 6= 0}
p p (12.4) ( 1,
nm = 53 = 2),
(11.4) r = 1 ( 5).

52
.. ... . 0, 4, . 1

4. p



, -
.

. -
-
. -
( ).
. -
-
.

-
(CD)

m+n
X
j y = X m,j (z) y, j = 1, m , (1)
=m+1

z = (z1 , . . . , zm+n ), G R m+n.


( p 1.1.2 1.1.3),
(CD) (1) G ,
.
2.5.3 (CD)
, (1) .
,
n (. 1.3.2 1.5.3).
, (CD) ,
(1) .
r 0 < r 6 n.
.
, 2.5.3,
1. -
(CD)
53
. 0, 4, . 1 ... ..

-
() -
(1) -
n r, r (1).
(. . 3, 3) , -
(1) r = 0, -
( 1.3.2 1) -
(CD),
.
2. -
(CD) -
-
(1) -
n r, r -
(1), 0 6 r 6 n.
p-
p pp (CD),
p 2 ( p 1 ) p-
p .
1. p p-
(CD) r, 0 6 r 6 n, r -
p p -
p p (1). p
p (1) pp-
(CD).
1. p p-
(CD) r, 0 6 r 6 n, p
pp p -
p pp n r.
(CD) r, 0 6 r < n.
p p p (1), -
p (CD), p
n
X
t y + Xij (t, x)x y = 0, j = 1, m ,
j i
i=1

n (1)
X
X i(t, x)x y = 0, = 1, r ,
i
i=1
54
.. ... . 0, 4, . 1


X i , i = 1, n , = 1, r,
Xij , i = 1, n , j = 1, m , (4.3.3).

(1) p p p -
p p p
m
X n
X
dxk = Gk j (t, x) dtj + Gk k
(t, x) dxk ,

j=1 =nr+1
(2)
= 1, n r , k , k {1, . . . , n}, ki 6= k , i, = 1, n , i 6= .

(2) pp p-

(1) Rm+n .
(2) (CD) -
Ot r
r Ox.
-
-
(CD) -
, (2)
m+r
X
dxi = Hij (t1 , . . . , tm+r , x1 , . . . , xnr ) dtj , i = 1, n r, (3)
j=1

tm+ = xnr+ , = 1, r.

G

Rm+n , G -

(CD) (1) ( 1).
(CD) (3)
, , (CD) (3) -
-
, , .

55
. 0, 4, . 1 ... ..

3. -
(CD) Ot Ox
r, 0 6 r < n, (
) -
Ot 1 . . . tm+r
Ox1 . . . xnr , tm+ = xnr+ , = 1, r (
x1 , . . . , xn ).
(3.1.2),
pp, p p (
).
, (3.1.2) p p, -
p p (4.1.2).
1.
dx1 = x1 dt1 + x2 dt2 , dx2 = 2x2 dt1 + x1 dt2 (4)
,
   
X1 (t, x), X2 (t, x) = t1 + x1 x1 + 2x2 x2 , t2 + x2 x1 + x1 x2 =

= x2 x1 x1 x2 X3 (t, x), (t, x) R4 ,

-
R4 .

Z1 (z)y 1 y + z3 3 y + 2z4 4 y = 0,
(5)
Z2 (z)y 2 y + z4 3 y + z3 4 y = 0,

(4), .
(5)
Z3 (z)y z4 3 y z3 4 y = 0. (6)


 
Z1 (z), Z3 (z) = z4 3 + z3 4 , z R4 ,

Z 1 , Z2 Z3 , -
,
(5) (6), .

56
.. ... . 0, 4, . 1

1.5.3 .
, (5) (
(5) r = 2).
(4) (nr = 22 = 0).
2.

dx1 = x1 dt1 + x21 dt2 , dx2 = x22 dt1 + x32 dt2 (7)

,
   
X1 (t, x), X2 (t, x) = t1 + x1 x1 + x22 x2 , t2 + x21 x1 + x32 x2 =

= x21 x1 + x42 x2 X3 (t, x), (t, x) R4 ,

- -
R4 . (7) .
Xj , j = 1, 4 ,
 
X4 (t, x) = X2 (t, x), X3 (t, x) = x62 x2 , (t, x) R4 ,

R4 .
, (7) -
()

1 y + z3 3 y + z42 4 y = 0, 2 y + z32 3 y + z43 4 y = 0 (8)

r = 2.
:
1) (8) , -
( 2.5.3 n m r =
= 4 2 2 = 0);
2) (7) n r = 2 2 = 0,
( 1).
1. (7) -
, (CD)
(. 2, . 2).
(7)
w1 : (t, x) x1 , (t, x) R4 , w2 : (t, x) x2 , (t, x) R4 .

57
. 0, 4, . 1 ... ..

3.

L1 (z)y 1 y + z3 3 y + (1 + z3 + 2z4 )4 y = 0,
(9)
L2 (z)y 2 y + 3z3 3 y + (z3 + 3z4 )4 y = 0

(3.1.2),
(9) .

 
L1 (z), L2 (z) = (3 z3 )4 L3 (z), z R4 ,

  z3 6
L1 (z), L3 (z) = L3 (z), z {z : z3 6= 3},
3 z3
  9
L2 (z), L3 (z) = L3 (z), z {z : z3 6= 3},
3 z3

(9) r = 1.
1, (3.1.2) -
n r = 2 1 = 1,
(4.1.2).
(9) (3.1.2)
R4 (4.1.2)
(3.1.2)

Z : z z3 exp ( z1 3z2 ), z R4 ,

(9).
4.

t2 1 t1 1
dxi = xi dt1 xi dt2 , i = 1, 3 , (10)
t1 (t2 t1 ) t2 (t2 t1 )


x2 x3
F1 : (t, x) F2 : (t, x) (11)
x1 x1

D0 W = {(t, x) : t1 t2 (t2 t1 )x1 6= 0}.

58
.. ... . 0, 4, . 1

(10) ,

t2 1 t1 1
d ln xi = dt1 dt2
t1 (t2 t1 ) t2 (t2 t1 )

. ,
.
(10)

y3 (y2 1) y4 (y2 1) y5 (y2 1)


1 u + 3 u + 4 u + 5 u = 0,
y1 (y2 y1 ) y1 (y2 y1 ) y1 (y2 y1 )
(12)
y3 (y1 1) y4 (y1 1) y5 (y1 1)
2 u + 3 u + 4 u + 5 u = 0
y2 (y1 y2 ) y2 (y1 y2 ) y2 (y1 y2 )

.

(11.4.3) -
(12) ( (11.4.3) 4 y 5 y ).
1.4.3, ,
(12) r = 1.
(10) nr = 31 = 2, , ,
(11) D 0
W .
(12), ,

y4 y5
1 : y , y Y, 2 : y , y Y,
y3 y3

Y {y : y1 y2 y3 (y2 y1 ) 6= 0} R5 ,
n m r = 5 2 1 = 2 (. 1.5.3).

59
. 1, 5, . 1 ..

5. p
p p
p p p -
p p p
p ( ). pp p
p p ( ). p -
p p pp p
p.

1. pp p
p p
p p p-
p p p
p p ,
, (), p p-
pp (1.1.3) p p -
(2.2.3).
pp .
pp -
p p p p,
().
, pp, p p
p p p ()
L1 (x)y = 0 (1)
p p p

H1 : x H1 (x), x X 0 , = 2, n , (2)

X 0 X Rn .
H , , -
p pp L1 p p u11 -
X R n
( p pp-
p xi , i = 1, n ).
60
.. . 1, 5, . 1

()

x11 = x1 , x1 = H1 (x), = 2, n , x X 0 . (3)

X 0
n
X
xi y | = 1 y xi x 1 + 1 y xi H 1 (x), i = 1, n ,
(3) x1 x

=2

X
n 
Lj (x)y| = uji (x)xi y =
(3)
i=1

(3)

n
X  n
X 
= uji (x) xi x1 1 y + xi H 1 (x) 1 y =
x1 x

i=1 =2

n
X n X
X n
= uji (x)xi x1 1 y + uji (x)xi H 1 (x) 1 y =
x1 x

i=1 =2 i=1

n
X

= Lj x1 1 y + Lj H 1 (x) 1 y, x X 0 , j = 1, m .
x1 x

=2

(2) p p
X 0 p p (1),

L1 H1 (x) = 0, x X 0 , = 2, n .

p p (1) () p (3)

L11 (x1 )y 1 = 0,
pp
L11 (x1 ) = u111 (x1 ) 1 , x1 X1 , (4)
x1

61
. 1, 5, . 1 ..

x1 = (x11 , . . . , x1n ),
p X1 X0 p p-
p (3), p u111 ,

u111 (x1 )| = u11 (x), x1 X1 , x X 0 ,


(3)

p u111 p X 1 .
p

L (x)y = 0, = 2, m ,

() p (3)

L1 (x1 )y 1 = 0, = 2, m ,

p pp
n
X
L1 (x1 ) = u1i (x1 ) 1 , x1 X1 , = 2, m , (5)
xi
i=1

p u1i ,

u1 (x1 )| = L x1 = u1 (x), x1 X1 , x X 0 ,
1 (3)

u1 (x1 )| = L H 1 (x), x1 X1 , x X 0 , = 2, m , = 2, n .
(3)

, (3) () p
p p p
p

L1j (x1 )y 1 = 0, j = 1, m , (6)

p pp (4) (5).
p (6) p -
.
(2) p p p X 0
p p p
62
.. . 1, 5, . 1

p (1). pp (3) p-
X 0 .
() , p p
p ( 2.4.3). , (6) -
X1 .
p , p (3) -
p pp (4) (5), -
, p
X1 .
, pp p-
pp (1.1.3) p , p
p X 0 p-
p X1 p p (3).
(6) pp (4) (5) -

h i
L11 (x1 ), L1 (x1 ) = O, x1 X1 , = 2, m ,

p
h i
L11 (x1 ), L1 (x1 ) =

 n
X 
= u111 (x1 ) 1 u1 (x1 ) u1 (x1 ) 1 u111 (x1 ) 1+
x1 1 i xi x1
i=1

n
X
+ u111 (x1 ) 1 u1 (x1 ) = O, x1 X1 , = 2, m .
x1 x1

=2

, u111 (x1 ) 6 0 X1 , pp
-p p x1 , = 2, n , -

,

1 u1 (x1 ) = 0, x1 X1 , = 2, m , = 2, n .
x1

, p pp
(5) p u1 , = 2, m , = 2, n , x11 .
63
. 1, 5, . 1 ..

u111
p -
1
X , p (4) p
1 y 1 = 0.
x1

p p

x1 = x1
1 , = 2, n , (7)

(6) p
p p

L1 x 1 y 1 = 0, = 2, m , (8)

p p pp
n1
X

1 1
 1 1
L x = u x x 1 , x 1 X 1 , = 2, m . (9)

=1


X 1 p X 1
p pp Ox12 . . . x1n pp

p pp O x11 . . . x1n1 , x1 = x11 , . . . , x1n1 .

p u1 ,


u1 x 1 | = u1 (x1 ), x 1 X 1 , x1 X1 ,
(7) , +1


X 1 Rn1 , X1 Rn , = 2, m , = 1, n 1 .

(6) , pp (5) p

u1 , = 2, m , = 2, n ,

x11 .

64
.. . 1, 5, . 1
h i
L1 (x1 ), L1 (x1 ) = O, x1 X1 , , = 2, m ,

p
h i
L1 (x1 ), L1 (x1 ) =

h 1 1
i
= u1 (x1 ) 1 + L x 1 1
, u (x ) 1 + L x =
1 x1 1 x 1

h i h i
= u1 (x1 ) 1 , u1 (x1 ) + u1 (x1 ) 1 , L x 1 +
1 x1 1 x11 1 x 1

h  i h  i
+ L x 1 , u1 (x1 ) 1 + L x1 , L x 1 =
1 x 1

h  i
= L x 1 , L x 1 = O, x1 X1 , , = 2, m ,

, pp (9) ,
h  i
L x 1 , L x 1 = O, x 1 X 1 , , = 2, m .

, p (8) -

X 1 .
(8) p-
p, p ().
p p , p

L m1
m
x m1 y m1 = 0,

m1  m1
xm1 = xm1m , . . . , xn , x Rnm+1 , p-
p

H m1 : x m1 H m1 x m1 , l = m + 1, n , (10)
l l

X m1 pp Rnm+1 .
65
. 1, 5, . 1 ..

p,
(10) p p p -
(), p pp n m.
pp 1. p p p -
p p [55, c. 73 75]

L1 (x)y x1 1 y x2 2 y + x3 3 y x4 4 y = 0,
(11)
L2 (x)y x3 1 y + x4 2 y x1 3 y x2 4 y = 0.

[L1 (x), L2 (x)] = (x1 1 x3 x2 2 x3 +x3 3 x3 x4 4 x3 x3 1 x1 x4 2 x1 +

+ x1 3 x1 + x2 4 x1 )1 + x1 1 x4 x2 2 x4 + x3 3 x4 x4 4 x4

x3 1 ( x 2 ) x 4 2 ( x 2 ) + x 1 3 ( x 2 ) + x 2 4 ( x 2 ) 2 +

+ x1 1 (x1 )x2 2 (x1 )+x3 3 (x1 )x4 4 (x1 )x3 1 x3 x4 2 x3 +



+ x 1 3 x3 + x 2 4 x3 3 + x1 1 ( x 2 ) x 2 2 ( x 2 ) + x 3 3 ( x 2 )

x4 4 (x2 )x3 1 (x4 )x4 2 (x4 )+x1 3 (x4 )+x2 4 (x4 ) 4 =

= (x3 x3 )1 +(x4 +x4 )2 +(x1 +x1 )3 +(x2 x2 )4 = O, x R4 .

, (11) pp
R4 , p p -
p p.
p p p (11)
L1 (x)y x1 1 y x2 2 y + x3 3 y x4 4 y = 0. (12)

p
dx1 dx2 dx3 dx4
= = =
x1 x2 x3 x4
p p (12).
p p p p
dx1 dx2
+ =0
x1 x2
66
.. . 1, 5, . 1

p p

F11 : x x1 x2 , x R4 ,
p (12).
p p p p

dx2 dx3 dx1 dx4


+ =0 + =0
x2 x3 x1 x4
p p

F21 : x x2 x3 F31 : x x1 x4

R4 p (12).
p p p,
R4 , p pp R 4 -
p p p p (12).
p

x1 = x 1 , u 2 = x 1 x2 , u 3 = x 2 x3 , u 4 = x 1 x4 (13)

R4 :

L1 x1 = x1 ; L1 (x1 x2 ) = L1 (x2 x3 ) = L1 (x1 x4 ) = 0; L2 x1 = x3 ;

L2 (x1 x2 ) = x3 1 (x1 x2 ) + x4 2 (x1 x2 ) x1 3 (x1 x2 ) x2 4 (x1 x2 ) =


= x 2 x3 + x 1 x4 ;

L2 (x2 x3 ) = x3 1 (x2 x3 ) + x4 2 (x2 x3 ) x1 3 (x2 x3 ) x2 4 (x2 x3 ) =


= x 3 x4 x 1 x2 ;

L2 (x1 x4 ) = x3 1 (x1 x4 ) + x4 2 (x1 x4 ) x1 3 (x1 x4 ) x2 4 (x1 x4 ) =


= x 3 x4 x 1 x2 .
,
u3 u4
x2 x3 + x 1 x4 = u 3 + u 4 , x 3 x4 x 1 x2 = u2 ,
u2
p p p

67
. 1, 5, . 1 ..

u3 u4 u22
(u3 + u4 )u2 z + (u3 z + u4 z) = 0 (14)
u2
p p
du2 du3 du4
= 2 = .
u2 (u3 + u4 ) u3 u4 u 2 u3 u4 u22

p
du3 = du4
p p p (14)

F12 : (u2 , u3 , u4 ) u3 u4 , (u2 , u3 , u4 ) U, (15)

U V = R3 \{(u2 , u3 , u4 ) : u2 = 0}.
pp, p-
p

du2 u2 du2 + u4 du3 + u3 du4


= ,
u2 (u3 + u4 ) u3 u4 (u3 + u4 )

p pp

u2 (u4 du3 + u3 du4 ) u3 u4 du2 + u22 du2 = 0,

u2 d(u3 u4 ) u3 u4 du2 + u22 du2 = 0,


,
u u 
3 4
d + u2 = 0.
u2
,
u3 u4
F22 : (u2 , u3 , u4 ) u2 + , (u2 , u3 , u4 ) U, (16)
u2
p p U,
V pp R3 , p p (14).

68
.. . 1, 5, . 1

p p (15) (16), -
U, p p
p p p p-
(14).
p (13), (15) (16)

F1 : x x1 x4 x2 x3 , x R4 , F2 : x x1 x2 + x3 x4 , x R4 ,

p p R 4 -
(11).
pp 2. p p p -
p p p
  
J1 (x)y x1 x1 (x1 +1) 1 y+ x2 (x1 +1) 2 y+ x3 (x1 +1) 3 y = 0,

J2 (x)y x1 x1 (x1 1) 1 y + (17)
 
+ x2 x2 (x1 1) 2 y + x2 x3 (x1 1) 3 y = 0.

(17) ,

[J1 (x), J2 (x)] = O, x R3 ,


p p p p.
p p (17) -
X 0 {x : x1 x3 6= 0} R3 :

x2 1 x2
F11 : x exp , F21 : x , x X 0 ,
x1 x1 x3

p
x2 1 x2
x1 = x 1 , u 2 = exp , u3 = (18)
x1 x1 x3
X 0 :
x 1 x2
2
J1 x1 = x21 ; J1 exp = J1 = 0; J2 x1 = x21 ;
x1 x1 x3
x 1 x2 1 x2 x2  x2 2
2
J2 exp =3 exp ; J2 = .
x1 x1 x1 x1 x3 x3 x3
69
. 2, 5, . 1 ..

,
x2 1 x2  x2  2
3 exp = 3u2 , = u3 u23 ,
x1 x1 x3 x3
p p p

3u2 u2 z + (u3 u23 )u3 z = 0. (19)

u2 (u3 1)3
F12 : (u2 , u3 ) , (u2 , u3 ) U, (20)
u33
p
(19) U R2 \{(u2 , u3 ) : u3 6= 0}.
p (18), (20) -

(x2 x3 )3 1
F: x exp , x X,
x1 x22 x1
p p X -
{x : x1 x2 6= 0} (17).

2. pp p
p p
(p 2.4.3), ()
p X pp (1.1.3) p-
. p-
pp ().
() p
p (N).
(N) ( p 1.4.3,
()), p .
p p p -
X 0 , X 0 X, (N) p
p () X 0 X.
pp 1. p p p -
p p p [55, c. 75 76]
70
.. . 2, 5, . 1

L1 (x)y 1 y + 2 y + 3 y = 0,
(1)
L2 (x)y x1 1 y + x2 2 y + x3 3 y = 0.

[L1 (x), L2 (x)] = (1 x1 + 2 x1 + 3 x1 x1 1 1 x2 2 1 x3 3 1)1 +


+ (1 x2 + 2 x2 + 3 x2 x1 1 1 x2 2 1 x3 3 1)2 + (1 x3 + 2 x3 +

+ 3 x3 x1 1 1 x2 2 1 x3 3 1)3 = 1 + 2 + 3 = L1 (x), x R3 .

, (1) , R 3 .
p p (1) 1 y 2 y,
(1) p p

x3 x 2
M1 (x)y 1 y 3 y = 0,
x2 x 1
(2)
x1 x 3
M2 (x)y 2 y 3 y = 0.
x2 x 1

p (2) X 0
{x : x2 x1 6= 0} p p (1)
.
p p p (2)
x3 x 2
M1 (x)y 1 y 3 y = 0. (3)
x2 x 1
p p
dx1 dx2 dx3
= =
x2 x 1 0 (x3 x2 )
p p
F11 : x x2 , x X 0 .
p p p p
dx1 dx3
= ,
x2 x 1 x2 x 3

71
. 3, 5, . 1 ..

p x2 p , p p-
p, p p

x3 x 2
: (x1 , x3 ) , (x1 , x3 ) X,
x2 x 1

X {(x1 , x3 ) : x1 6= x2 }.
,
x3 x 2
F11 : x x2 , x X 0 , F21 : x , x X 0 ,
x2 x 1

p p p X 0 p-
p p p (3).
X0
x3 x 2 x3 x 2 x1 x 3 x3 x 2
M2 = 2 3 =
x2 x 1 x2 x 1 x2 x 1 x2 x 1
x1 x 3 x1 x 3
= = 0,
(x2 x1 )2 (x2 x1 )2

F21 p p X 0 p
p (2), , (2).
p p X 0
(2) , , p p
(1).

3. p p p
pp p
p
H p p pp-
p p (CD) -
p p p -
p p p (N)
( 1.5.3 2.5.3) , pp
1 (), p-
p p pp (CD).

72
.. . 3, 5, . 1

(CD) p p-
p p p
p p

Xj (t, x)y = 0, j = 1, m . (1)

p (1) D
, (CD) D pp (p-
2.2.3 2.5.3).
( 1) p p -
p D0 D (1), p
p p ( 1.5.3)
pp (CD).
pp 1. p p p p
p

dx = t1 t3 dt1 + t2 t3 dt2 + 0,5(t21 + t22 ) dt3 . (2)

p p p (2)
p p p
p p

X1 (t, x)y t1 y + t1 t3 x y = 0,
X2 (t, x)y t2 y + t2 t3 x y = 0, (3)
X3 (t, x)y t3 y + 0,5(t21 + t22 )x y = 0.

R4

[X1 (t, x), X2 (t, x)] = (X1 0X2 1)t1 +(X1 1X2 0)t2 +(X1 0X2 0)t3 +

+ t1 (t2 t3 ) + t1 t3 x (t2 t3 ) t2 (t1 t3 ) t2 t3 x (t1 t3 ) x = O;

[X1 (t, x), X3 (t, x)] = (X1 0X3 1)t1 +(X1 0X3 0)t2 +(X1 1X3 0)t3 +
 
t2 + t22 t2 + t22 t2 + t22
+ t1 1 + t 1 t3 x 1 t3 (t1 t3 ) 1 x (t1 t3 ) x =
2 2 2

= (t1 t1 )x = O;

73
. 3, 5, . 1 ..

[X2 (t, x), X3 (t, x)] = (X2 0X3 0)t1 +(X2 0X3 1)t2 +(X2 1X3 0)t3 +
 
t21 + t22 t21 + t22 t21 + t22
+ t2 + t 2 t3 x t3 (t2 t3 ) x (t2 t3 ) x =
2 2 2
= (t2 t2 )x = O.

, (3) pp R 4 ,
p (2) pp pp.
p p p
(3) ( p pp p (2)) -
p p.
p p p p (3)
X1 (t, x)y t1 y + t1 t3 x y = 0. (4)

p
dt1 dt2 dt3 dx
= = =
1 0 0 t1 t3
p p (4).

F11 : (t, x) t2 , F21 : (t, x) t3 , (t, x) R4 ,

p p p p (4).
p
dx t1 t3 dt1 = 0,
t3 , p p

t21 t3
F31 : (t, x) x , (t, x) R4 ,
2
p (4).
p -
p p, R 4 ,
p R4 p (4).
p
t21 t3
t 1 = t 1 , t 2 = t 2 , t 3 = t 3 , u4 = x . (5)
2
74
.. . 3, 5, . 1


 t2 t3 
X1 t1 = 1, X1 t2 = X1 t3 = X1 x 1 = 0, (t, x) R4 ,
2
p (4) ,
t1 z = 0.

X2 t1 = 0, X2 t2 = 1, X2 t3 = 0, (t, x) R4 ,
 t2 t3   t2 t3   t2 t3 
X2 x 1 = t2 x 1 + t 2 t3 x x 1 = t2 t3 , (t, x) R4 ,
2 2 2
p p (3) p
t2 z + t2 t3 u4 z = 0. (6)

p p (3), , R 4

X3 t1 = 0, X3 t2 = 0, X3 t3 = 1,
 t2 t3   t2 t3   t2 t3  t22
X3 x 1 = t3 x 1 + 0,5(t21 + t22 )x x 1 = ,
2 2 2 2
p
t22
t3 z + u z = 0.
2 4
p p p -
p p p

M1 (t2 , t3 , u4 )z t2 z + t2 t3 u4 z = 0,
(7)
M2 (t2 , t3 , u4 )z t3 z + 0,5t22 u4 z = 0.

p p
p (6) (p p (7)) -
p
dt2 dt3 du4
= = .
1 0 t2 t3
75
. 3, 5, . 1 ..


F12 : (t2 , t3 , u4 ) t3 , (t2 , t3 , u4 ) R3 ,

p p pp R 3 p (6).
p
t2 t3 dt2 du4 = 0,
t3 , p p p (6)

t22 t3
F22 : (t2 , t3 , u4 ) u4 , (t2 , t3 , u4 ) R3 , (8)
2
p p p p, -
, p p p
R3 p p (6).

 t2 t3   t2 t3   t2 t3 
M 2 u4 2 = t3 u4 2 + 0,5t22 u4 u4 2 0
2 2 2
R3 , (8) p p R3 p p-
(7), , (7).
(7) , p p -
p p. (8) p p -
p p (7) pp R 3 .
(5), (8)

(t21 + t22 )t3


F : (t, x) x , (t, x) R4 ,
2
p p p
(3), , p pp p (2).
p p
(t21 + t22 )t3
x =C
2
x, p

(t21 + t22 )t3


x: t + C, t R3 ,
2
p (2).
76
.. . 1, 6, . 1

6. p p
p

j (x) = 0, j = 1, m , (Pf)


n
X
j (x) = wji (x) dxi , x V, j = 1, m . (1)
i=1

R
C K.
(Pf) , 1-
(1) wji : V K, j = 1, m , i = 1, n ,
V -
Kn .

1.
p p p . p
p , 1-p,
p , 1-p, -
.

1.

F : x F (x), x , (1)

V, -
(Pf),

aj : K, j = 1, m , ,
m
X
dF (x) = aj (x)j (x), x . (2)
j=1
77
. 1, 6, . 1 ..


: -
,
-
, , -
.
(Pf) ,
1- (1.0) -
V [31, c. 105 108, 116; 98, c. 113 114].
-
(Pf).
, 1- (1.0)
V.

w(x) = wji (x) mn , x V, (3)

V
rank w(x) = s(x), 1 6 s(x) < min {m, n}, x V.

s = min s(x)
V

j , jl {1, . . . , m}, l = 1, s , (4)


l

-
V, V
: CV = 0.
1- (4)

j (x) = 0, jl {1, . . . , m}, l = 1, s . (5)


l

1- (4) -
, s = min s(x), 1
V
(Pf) (5)
.
, (Pf) (5) -
. C V ,
(Pf) .
78
.. . 2, 6, . 1

2.
p p . p -
p p p . -
p p. p p p-
p. p p p p
.

1- (1.0) -
V. (3.1)
V rank w(x) = m. m 6 n.
m = n, -
V (1.0)
V
(3.1) n.
V , C V = 0, -
(Pf) -

dxi = 0, i = 1, n .
,

xi = Ci , i = 1, n ,
Ci , i = 1, n , K, -
,
Fi : x xi , x , i = 1, n , (1)
(Pf).
, (Pf)
, m < n, m = n -
.
1. (Pf) m = n n
(1) -
V, CV = 0.
1.

F : x F (x), x , V, = 1, k , (2)
79
. 2, 6, . 1 ..


(Pf),

Fe : x F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x) , x , (3)

k
EFk ,
=1
(Pf).
. 1.1
(2) (Pf) -
,

aj : K, = 1, k , j = 1, m ,

(2)
m
X
dF (x) = aj (x)j (x), x , = 1, k . (4)
j=1

,
k
EF , EF , = 1, k , -
=1
(2).
(4), -
(3):

dFe(x) = d F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x) =
k
X 
= F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x) dF (x) =
=1

k X
X m

= F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x) aj (x)j (x), x .
=1 j=1

80
.. . 2, 6, . 1

1.1 ,
(3) -
(Pf).
1 -
-
.
-
-
[89, c. 262 263], -
( 1.2.2),
[55, c. 16]
( 1.1.3).
1.

1 (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = 0, 2 (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = 0, (5)

1 (x) = x1 (1 + x2 ) dx1 + x2 (1 x2 ) dx2 +

+ (x3 + x2 x4 ) dx3 + (x4 + x2 x3 ) dx4 , x K4 ,

2 (x) = x1 dx1 x2 dx2 + x4 dx3 + x3 dx4 , x K4 .



21 (x) + 2(1 x2 )2 (x) = d 2x21 + (x3 + x4 )2 , x K4 ,


21 (x) 2(1 + x2 )2 (x) = d 2x22 + (x3 x4 )2 , x K4 ,

, 1.1,

F1 : x 2x21 + (x3 + x4 )2 , x K4 ,

F2 : x 2x22 + (x3 x4 )2 , x K4 ,

K 4 (5).

81
. 2, 6, . 1 ..


4x1 0 2(x3 + x4 ) 2(x3 + x4 )

J(F1 , F2 ; x) =
0 4x2 2(x3 x4 ) 2(x3 x4 )

K4 rank J(F1 , F2 ; x) = 2.
, F1 F2 -
K4 .
1 K4 (5) ,
,

F3 : x x21 x22 + 2x3 x4 , x K4 ,


1 
F3 (x) = F1 (x) F2 (x) , x K4 .
2

1. -
(2) (Pf) -
,
: K (Pf) -


(x) = F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x) , x ,

,
k
EF . k -
=1
.
1 1
2. (1) -
(Pf) m = n.
2.

1 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) dx1 + dx2 + 2 dx3 = 0,


2 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) dx1 + 2 dx2 + 2 dx3 = 0, (6)
3 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) dx1 + dx2 + (2 + x2 ) dx3 = 0

82
.. . 3, 6, . 1

(3.1) = {(x1 , x2 , x3 ) : x2 6= 0} K 3

, det w(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x2 -
.
2

F : (x1 , x2 , x3 ) x , (x1 , x2 , x3 ) K3 , = 1, 3 ,

(6).
x2 = 0 (6)

dx1 + 2 dx3 = 0

F : (x1 , x3 ) x1 + 2x3 , (x1 , x3 ) K2 .

3.
p pp,
1-p p . pp p-
p.

(1.0),
(Pf), n m

n
X
(x) = wi (x) dxi , x V, = m + 1, n , (1)
i=1

wi : V K, = m + 1, n , i = 1, n .

(1) ,
1- (1.0)
n
X
(x) = wi (x) dxi , x V, = 1, n , (2)
i=1
83
. 3, 6, . 1 ..

V.
n-

w(x)
e = wi (x) , x V. (3)

1- (2) -
V, w e a -
e e e
, V, CV = 0.
e (3) -


g(x) = gi (x) , x ,
e (4)

e

n.

w(x)g(x)
e e
= E, x , (5)
E .
n -

n
X
Gi (x) = e i = 1, n ,
gi (x) , x , (6)
=1


e (4) .
,
, (5),
(6) 1- (2) -
.

e K, (5), -
F:
(6) 1- (2)
n
X
dF (x) = e
Gi F (x)i (x), x . (7)
i=1

84
.. . 4, 6, . 1

(7) 1.1

.
1. F : e K
e V
(Pf) , -

e = m + 1, n .
G F (x) = 0, x , (8)

4.

p p p,
p . p
p p p -
p p -
p.

(Pf),
1.3, -

.
1.
e = 1, k ,
F : x F (x), x , (1)

e -
V (Pf),
(1)
e -


G (x)y = 0, = m + 1, n , (2)
(6.3).
, (8.1) (
e K
1.1.3), F : e
(2).
85
. 4, 6, . 1 ..

, -
( 1.2)
( 2.1.3), 1.3 -
, 1.
(Pf) (2) .
1, -
(2) -
e (Pf).
1- (1.0) 1- (2.3) -
V
(1.3), , 1--
(2.3) V.
, (Pf)

(2) .
,
,
(Pf) 1.2.
,e -
(Pf) (2) , -
V,
(Pf), (4.3),
(3.3).
1.

1 (x) = 0, 2 (x) = 0, (3)

x1 x2 + x22 2x23 2x3 x4


1 (x) = dx1 dx2 dx3 +
x2 (x3 x4 )

x1 x2 + x22 2x3 x4 2x24


+ dx4 , x ,
x2 (x3 x4 )

x1 x2 x22 + 2x23 + 2x3 x4


2 (x) = dx1 + dx2 dx3 +
x2 (x3 x4 )

86
.. . 4, 6, . 1

x22
x1 x2 + 2x3 x4 + 2x24
+ dx4 , x ,
x2 (x3 x4 )

= {x : x2 (x3 x4 ) 6= 0}, p
p 1 2 1-p
x3 x4
3 (x) = dx3 dx4 , x ,
x2 (x3 x4 ) x2 (x3 x4 )

1 1
4 (x) = dx3 + dx4 , x .
x3 x 4 x3 x 4

(3.3) , -
p p i , i = 1, 4 ,
,
2
det w(x)
e = 6= 0, x .
x2 (x3 x4 )
e -
,
, p p i , i = 1, 4 ,
.
(4.3), (3.3),
1- i , i = 1, 4 , p-
pp
1 1 e
G1 (x) = (1 2 ), G2 (x) = (1 + 2 ), x ,
2 2
e
G3 (x) = 2(x3 + x4 )2 + x2 3 + x2 4 , x ,
e
G4 (x) = x1 1 + x2 2 + x4 3 + x3 4 , x ,

p p (3)
p p p

2(x3 + x4 )2 u + x2 3 u + x2 4 u = 0,
(4)
x1 1 u + x2 2 u + x4 3 u + x3 4 u = 0.


87
. 5, 6, . 1 ..
x1
F1 : x , x {x : x4 6= x3 },
x3 x 4
(5)

F2 : x x21 x22 (x3 + x4 )2 , x K4 ,

e -
[75, . 200; 43]
p p p (4).
1 (5)
p p e p (3).

5.

pp p -
p p. pp
p p p ,
p .

1. (Pf)
k, 1 6 k 6 m,
(2.2), b
, C b = 0, -
1- (1.0)

dF (x) = 0, = 1, k ,
(1)
j (x) = 0, j = {1, . . . , m}, = 1, m k .

. (2.2)
(Pf),
1.1

bj : K, = 1, k , j = 1, m ,


m
X
dF (x) = bj (x)j (x), x , = 1, k . (2)
j=1

88
.. . 5, 6, . 1

p p (2.2)
, 1-p (1.0) p
V,
(2)

b(x) = bj (x) , x ,
km

b
rank b(x) = k, x ,
b , C
b = 0.
,


bb(x) = b (x) , x ,
b
j

b p b -
p k,
mk ,
b (
1- j , j = 1, m ).
b
1-
m
X
l = bj (x)j , = 1, k , l = , = k + 1, m ,
j=1

(Pf) (1).
p (1), p
, p p p
n
X

b (x) = i F (x) dxi , = 1, k ,
i=1

b
j (x), j {1, . . . , m}, = 1, m k , x ,

b
p p .
89
. 6, 6, . 1 ..


2. b ,
b
C = 0, (2.2) k, 1 6 k 6 m, -

b (1).

1 2 -
.
3. (Pf) k,
1 6 k 6 m,
, V, ,
-
1- (1.0) (1).

6.
p p . pp -
p p. pp -
p .

1. p (Pf) -
V, -
p p
p (2.4) .
, 1, p
(3.4) e , -
p p (4.4) -
.
(4.4) 4.5.3,
, p p (5.4) pp-
n m = 4 2 = 2.
1. p (Pf)
H V
, H p -
p pp m.
, 1.5.3, p p
(2.4) p
p H pp m.
p 1.4
(Pf)
90
.. . 6, 6, . 1

(2.4) pp -
, , m.
4.5.3 (Pf) -
H, H -
m.
1
.
, 1, (5.2), (6.2) (3.4)
, -
, -
(5.2), (6.2) (3.4) . ,
(5.2), (6.2) (3.4) 1-,
.
1 H p-
( 1.4.3) (2.4).
p 3.5 p k = m p 1
[78, c. 110 111].
2. p (Pf)
, V, ,
p
pp 1- (1.0) p -

dFj (x) = 0, j = 1, m .

, (5.2) K 4 -
1-

`1 (x) = 21 (x) + 2(1 x2 )2 (x), x K4 ,

`2 (x) = 21 (x) 2(1 + x2 )2 (x), x K4 ,

`1 (x) 4x1 dx1 + 2(x3 + x4 ) dx3 + 2(x3 + x4 ) dx4 = 0,


`2 (x) 4x2 dx2 + 2(x3 x4 ) dx3 2(x3 x4 ) dx4 = 0,


 
d 2x21 + (x3 + x4 )2 = 0, d 2x22 + (x3 x4 )2 = 0.
91
. 7, 6, . 1 ..

2, (5.2) K . 4

K4 -
1-

`1 (x) = 21 (x) + 2(1 x2 )2 (x), `3 (x) = 2 (x), x K4 ,

(5.2)

`1 (x) 4x1 dx1 + 2(x3 + x4 ) dx3 + 2(x3 + x4 ) dx4 = 0,

`3 (x) 2 (x) x1 dx1 x2 dx2 + x4 dx3 + x3 dx4 = 0.

, ,
 
d 2x21 + (x3 + x4 )2 = 0, d x21 x22 + 2x3 x4 = 0.

2, (5.2) K4

F1 : x 2x21 + (x3 + x4 )2 , x K4 ,

F3 : x x21 x22 + 2x3 x4 , x K4 .



4x1 0 2(x3 + x4 ) 2(x3 + x4 )

J(F1 , F3 ; x) =
2x1 2x2 2x4 2x3

K4 rank J(F1 , F3 ; x) = 2, K4 F1
F3 , ,
(5.2).

7.

p p p .

1. V -
Kn

(x), x V, = 1, s , (1)
92
.. . 7, 6, . 1

d (x) 1 (x) 2 (x) . . . s (x) = 0, x V, = 1, s , (2)

V
1- (1).
.
l , = 1, s , V -
1- (1), , p
s
X
l (x) = (x) (x), x V, = 1, s , (3)
=1

: V K, , = 1, s , V, -
(x) = k (x)k s V.

s  s 
l (x) = det (x) (x) , x V.
=1 =1

,
 s 
d l (x) l (x) = 0, x V, = 1, s , (4)
=1

,
 s 
d l (x) (x) = 0, x V, = 1, s . (5)
=1

(3) -
V
s
X s
X
d l (x) = (x) (x) + d (x) (x), = 1, s .
=1 =1

93
. 7, 6, . 1 ..

d l (x) 1 (x) 2 (x) . . . s (x) =


(6)
s
X  s 
= (x) d (x) (x) , x V, = 1, s .
=1
=1

(2), (6)
(5), , (4).
, (2) -
(3) 1- (1).
1. (Pf)
m , V, -
,
 m 
dj (x) (x) = 0, x , j = 1, m . (7)
=1

. (Pf) m -
V -

Fj : x Fj (x), x , j = 1, m . (8)

1.1,
m
X
dFj (x) = bj (x) (x), x , j = 1, m , (9)
=1

bj : K, j, = 1, m , p
, p p b(x) = kbj (x)k p m p-
b ,
b = 0 (. p 1.5).
C
1-p
m
X
lj (x) = bj (x) (x), x , j = 1, m , (10)
=1

94
.. . 7, 6, . 1

(9) ( 1
) , V
q-

d d(x) = 0, x V,
(8) ,

d2 Fj (x) = 0, x , j = 1, m , (11)
,
 m 
d lj (x) l (x) = 0, x , j = 1, m . (12)
=1

p (10) p b
b
p b , p-
p lj , j = 1, m , p p b
pp b -
j , j = 1, m .
1 (12) -
,
 m 
dj (x) (x) = 0, x , b j = 1, m .
=1

, p 1-p j ,
b = 0, -
j = 1, m , , C
(7).
p 1.6 1
2. p (Pf) -
H V,
 m 
dj (x) (x) = 0, x H, j = 1, m .
=1

3. p -

95
. 7, 6, . 1 ..
 m 
dj (x) (x) = 0, x V, j = 1, m , (13)
=1

p (Pf)
V, p C V = 0.
. p
 m 
dj (x) (x) , x V, j = 1, m ,
=1

p n m = 0 (n + 2)-p n p, p
n m = 1 (n + 1)-p n p.
(13) -
V. , (Pf) p n m = 0
n m = 1 , V, C V = 0,
.
n m = 0, (Pf) n p-
p (1.2) (p 1.2), p p -
(p 2.2).
p 1.6 (Pf) n m = 0
.
nm = 1. (Pf) p (3.1)
pp (n 1) n,
e
rank w(x) = n 1, x ,
e V, CV
e = 0 (. 1).
, p , -
e p C = 0, (Pf) pp -
e
m = n 1 p (, d x 1 , . . . , d xn1 )
, , p p -
(n 1)- p
dx
= p (x1 , . . . , xn ), = 1, n 1 , (14)
dxn

p : K, = 1, n 1 .
(14) n 1 -
p p (p 1.3.2 m = 1).
96
.. . 7, 6, . 1

, (Pf) p nm = 1
, V p CV = 0 ( C e = 0

e = 0), p p pp m = n 1.
CV
p 1.6, (Pf) p n m = 1 .
, (n m = 0)
(n m = 1) 3 .
3 , -
s > 1 (n m = s), -
.
, 3 p nm = s, s > 1,
, -
(13) m = n s, s > 1, -
(Pf) s ,
V CV = 0.
2.6, ,
, -
(13) m = ns, s > 1, -
, V, CV = 0, -
1-, (Pf)
s

dFj (x) = 0, j = 1, m , m = n s, s > 1.

p (Pf) s + 1.
-
(13) p m = n (s + 1), s > 1.
(13) p m = n (s + 1), s > 1, p-
xn , (13) p m = n s, s > 1.
, p -
, V, CV = 0, pp 1-,
p (Pf) p m = n (s + 1), s > 1,
p

lj (x) = 0, j = 1, m , m = n (s + 1), s > 1, (15)

1-

97
. 7, 6, . 1 ..

lj (x) = dFj (x) + gj (x) dxn , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1. (16)

p (11) p m = n (s + 1), s > 1,


p 1- (16):

d lj (x) = dgj (x) dxn , x , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1. (17)

p p, 1-p lj , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1,
p p , V, C V = 0, -
pp 1-p j , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1. -
1 p
 m 
d lj (x) l (x) = 0, x , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1,
=1

, ,
m
X
d lj (x) = Qj (x) l (x), j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1. (18)
=1

(17) (18), ,

m
X 
dgj (x) = hj (x) dF (x) + g (x) dxn =
=1

m
X
= hj (x) dF (x) + hj (x) dxn , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1,
=1

m
X
h(x) = hj (x)g (x), x , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1.
=1

,
98
.. . 7, 6, . 1

gj (x) = gbj F1 (x), . . . , Fm (x), xn , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1,

gbj , j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1, p
m + 1 p F1 , . . . , Fm , xn .
p (15) (16)

dFj + gbj F1 , . . . , Fm , xn dxn = 0, j = 1, n s 1 , s > 1.

p
m- p p p pp m,
m = n (s + 1), s > 1 (p 1.3.2 m = 1). -
p p (Pf) p
n m = s + 1, s > 1.
1.6, (Pf) p n m = s + 1, s > 1, -
.
3
1. (Pf) p m = n 1 -
V,
CV = 0.
2. (Pf) p m = n 1 -
, V, C V = 0,
pp 1- (1.0) p -
p -
p (n 1)- p (14).
2 3
-
[78, c. 110 112; 118, c. 131 136].
4. p (Pf)
, V, CV = 0, -
, -
(13).
(13)
p [76, c. 302] -
p (Pf).
, R 3
(x, y, z) P (x, y, z) dx + Q(x, y, z) dy + R(x, y, z) dz = 0

99
. 8, 6, . 1 ..

(13) [78, c. 112]

d = (P dx + Q dy + R dz) (y R z Q) dy dz +

+ (z P x R) dz dx + (x Q y P ) dx dy =

= P (y Rz Q)+Q(z P x R)+R(x Qy P ) dxdy dz =

= 0, (x, y, z) , R3 .

[76, c. 222;
16, c. 16 18],

A : (x, y, z) P (x, y, z)~ + Q(x, y, z) ~ + R(x, y, z) ~k



rot A(x, y, z) = y R(x, y, z) z Q(x, y, z) ~ +
 
+ z P (x, y, z) x R(x, y, z) ~ + x Q(x, y, z) y P (x, y, z) ~k.

, A
A [54, c. 489 491] -
.
, [16, c. 20 24]

4.

8.
p . H pp-
p p p -
p p
p p. -
p .

(Pf), -
p p p-
e (. 3, 3).
(2.4)
100
.. . 8, 6, . 1

(Pf) -
. e
( (4.3.3)) (2.4)
, , r, 1 < r 6 m.
p
H, H e V ( 1.4.3).
p 1.4
1. H , e e V, -
(Pf) p H, H , e
p p-
p (2.4) p p
pp m r, r (2.4).
,
(2.4) r = 0, p 1.6 1 -
p p p -
(Pf), .
2. p (Pf)
p H, H V, -
p p p (2.4)
p p pp m r, r
(2.4), 0 6 r 6 m.
1. p
1 (x) dx1 + dx2 + dx3 + dx4 = 0,
(1)
2 (x) dx1 + 2 dx2 + x4 dx3 + dx4 = 0.

1 2 -
p

3 (x) = dx3 , x K4 , 4 (x) = dx4 , x K4 ,

, i , i = 1, 4 , p -
K4 .
1- i , i = 1, 4 , -
p pp

G1 (x) = 21 2 , G2 (x) = 1 + 2 ,
G3 (x) = (x4 2)1 + (1 x4 )2 + 3 , G4 (x) = 1 + 4 ,
101
. 9, 6, . 1 ..

K 4 ,
(1)
p p

(x4 2)1 u + (1 x4 )2 u + 3 u = 0, 1 u + 4 u = 0. (2)

[G3 (x), G4 (x)] = 1 + 2 = G2 (x), x K4 ,

(2) ( 1.2.3).
, (1) .
pp G2 p (2)

G (x) u = 0, = 2, 4 ,

p p K4

F : x x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 , x K4 .

p p
K4 (1).

9.

p p p-
p p. p p
p, p p -
p p p -
p p.

p p p -
p (Pf) p -
p p p p-
.
p p (1.0) -
p V. p
(3.1) pp m n, m < n, p
rank w(x) = m, x , V, CV = 0.

102
.. . 9, 6, . 1

p p

w(x)
b = wji (x) , x ,

p m p (p -
p p (Pf)).
p (Pf) p -
p p
n
X
dxj = aj (x) dx , j = 1, m .
b (1)
=m+1

p (Pf) p
p (1) p p-
,
1. (1.1) p p
, V, p (Pf),
p p
p p (1).
2. (2.2) p p -
p , V, p
(Pf) , p p-
p p
p (1).
p 1.0.4 p 1.6 -

3. C p (Pf)
, V, , -
p p (1)
pp.
pp 1. p

2x1 (1 + x2 ) dx1 + 6x2 dx2 + 3x3 (2 + x2 ) dx3 + 3x4 (2 + x2 ) dx4 = 0,


(2)
4x1 (1 + x1 ) dx1 6x2 dx2 + 3x3 (1 + 2x1 ) dx3 + 3x4 (1 + 2x1 ) dx4 = 0

p -
V = {x : 3 + 2x1 + x2 6= 0, x1 x2 6= 0}, x = (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ),
p p
103
. 9, 6, . 1 ..

3x3 3x4
dx1 = dx3 dx4 ,
2x1 2x1
(3)
x3 x4
dx2 = dx3 dx4 .
2x2 2x2


h 3x3 x3 3x4 x4 i
3 1 2 , 4 1 2 = O, x V,
2x1 2x2 2x1 2x2

( 2.2.1) (3) pp .
3, (2) .
(3) -

2x1 dx1 + 3x3 dx3 + 3x4 dx4 = 0,


(4)
2x2 dx2 + x3 dx3 + x4 dx4 = 0.

, ,
 
d 2x21 + 3x23 + 3x24 = 0, d 2x22 + x23 + x24 = 0,

F1 : x 2x21 + 3x23 + 3x24 F2 : x 2x22 + x23 + x24 (5)

K4 (4),
(5) (3).


4x1 0 6x3 6x4

J(F1 , F2 ; x) =
0 4x2 2x3 2x4

K4

rank J(F1 , F2 ; x) = 2,

K4 (5) , ,
(2).

104
.. . 9, 6, . 1

pp 2. p

dx1 + dx2 (1 + 2x1 + 2x2 ) dx3 (4x1 + 3x2 ) dx4 = 0,


(6)
dx1 dx2 + (1 + 2x2 ) dx3 (2x1 3x2 ) dx4 = 0

p K 4
p p

dx1 = x1 dx3 + 3x1 dx4 ,


(7)
dx2 = (1 + x1 + 2x2 ) dx3 + (x1 + 3x2 ) dx4 .

x K4
 
3 + x1 1 + (1 + x1 + 2x2 )2 , 4 + 3x1 1 + (x1 + 3x2 )2 = (3 x1 )2 ,

( 2.2.1), (7) pp
K4 .
3, (6) K 4 .
p p (7) -
p p p p-

3 y + x1 1 y + (1 + x1 + 2x2 )2 y = 0,

4 y + 3x1 1 y + (x1 + 3x2 )2 y = 0,

K4 , -


F : x x1 exp x3 3x4 , x K4 . (8)

1.5.3 (8) K 4 p p-
p
(7).
, 2, (8) K 4
p p p
(6).

105
. 1, 7, . 1 ..

7.

1.

(n k)-p p p ( ). H
p (n k)-p p p. p-
p (n k)-p p p. -
p (n k)-p p -
p.

1. p p F () -
(nk)-p, F -
k, 0 6 k 6 n, p x1 , . . . , xn .
p ()
(n k)-p p p

F : x F (k x), x X 0 , (1)

k x = (x1 , . . . , xk ).
1.1.3 (1) (n k)--
p p p X 0 ()
,
Ljk F (k x) = 0, x X 0 , j = 1, m , (2)


k
X
Ljk (x) = uj (x) , x X, j = 1, m .
=1



Mj = uj1 (x), . . . , ujk (x) , j = 1, m ,

(2) , p p
p xi , i = 1, n , i 6= p,
106
.. . 1, 7, . 1

Mj , j = 1, m , p x p
X. p p -
p = k + 1, n .
p p xp , p = k + 1, n , -
Mj , j = 1, m , p
X, ,

Wxp k uj (x) = 0, x X, j = 1, m , p = k + 1, n , (3)

-
k uj :

x uj1 (x), . . . , ujk (x) , x X, j = 1, m ,

Wxp p xp .
, p
(n k) -p p p ().
1. (3) -
() (n k)-p
p p (1).
p u () p (3).

k k uj (x) = 0, k k uj (x) = 0,
p
(4)
j = 1, m , p = k + 1, n , = 1, k 1 ,

p-
k :

x 1 (k x), . . . , k (k x) , x X 0 .

pp p
k (k x) d k x =0 (5)

pp (n k) --
p p p ().
2. () (nk)--
p p p (1), -
107
. 1, 7, . 1 ..

p- p- k ,
(4), , (1) -
p p (5) -
X e k , p X 0
p pp O k x.
. H. ()
(n k)-p p p (1) X 0 . -
(2):
k
X
uj (x) F (k x) = 0, x X 0 , j = 1, m .
=1

pp k 1 p x k+1 , . . . , xn ,
, p X 0

1 k
e k,
k : k x F (k x), . . . , F (k x) , k x X

p (4).
, (1) p-
e k p (5).
X
. p-
k : x k (k x), x X 0 ,
p (4), p (5), -
e k.
, p (1) X
e k
X
F (k x) (k x) = 0, = 1, k . (6)

, k p
(4), (2).
, (1) (n k)-p
p p ().
1. p p
p p
L1 (x)y = 0, L2 (x)y = 0, (7)
108
.. . 1, 7, . 1

-
R4

L1 (x) = x1 x2 1 y x21 2 y + (x1 + x22 + x23 x24 )3 y + (x23 + x24 )4 y,

L2 (x) = x22 1 y x1 x2 2 y + (x23 + x24 )3 y + (x1 + x22 + x23 + x24 )4 y.

(7) 2-p p p

F : x F (x1 , x2 ), x R4 . (8)

M1 = {x1 x2 , x21 } M2 = {x22 , x1 x2 }

p x3 x4 R4 p:

Wx3 (x1 x2 , x21 ) = 0, Wx3 (x22 , x1 x2 ) = 0,

Wx4 (x1 x2 , x21 ) = 0, Wx4 (x22 , x1 x2 ) = 0.

, ( 1) -
(7) 2-p p p (8).

x1 x2 1 + ( x21 )2 = 0, x22 1 + ( x1 x2 )2 = 0,

3 (x1 x2 ) 1 + 3 ( x21 )2 = 0, 3 x22 1 + 3 ( x1 x2 )2 = 0,

4 (x1 x2 ) 1 + 4 ( x21 )2 = 0, 4 x22 1 + 4 ( x1 x2 )2 = 0.

x1 x2 1 x21 2 = 0, x22 1 x1 x2 2 = 0,

x2 1 x1 2 = 0.

R4 , ,

1 : x x1 , x R4 , 2 : x x2 , x R4 .
p
109
. 1, 7, . 1 ..

x1 dx1 + x2 dx2 = 0
p

F : (x1 , x2 ) x21 + x22 , (x1 , x2 ) R2 .

, (7) R4 2-p p
p
F : x x21 + x22 , x R4 . (9)

[L1 (x), L2 (x)] = x2 (x21 + x22 )1 + x1 (x21 + x22 )2 +

+ (x1 + 2x1 x4 x23 x24 + 2x1 x22 + 2x22 x4 + 4x23 x4 2x3 x24 + 4x34 )3 +

+ (x1 x2 +2x1 x3 2x1 x4 2x23 2x21 x2 +2x22 x3 2x22 x4 +2x33 4x3 x24 )4

R4 L1 L2 , -
(7) ( 1.2.3).
, (7) -
,
.
, 2-p p p (9) (7)
R 4 .
p 2 (nk)--
p p p ()
p p -
(n k)-p p p .
3. (4) q -
X 0 p
k : x k (k x), x X 0 , = 1, q , (10)
p
k (k x) d k x = 0, = 1, q , (11)
p
e k , = 1, q ,
F : k x F (k x), k x X (12)
110
.. . 2, 7, . 1

e k,
p -
X
X p pp O k x.
0

p Xe k.
ek
. (6) X

F (k x) = (k x), = 1, k , = 1, q .

p

e k.
J F (k x); k x = (k x) qk , k x X

p- (10) -
e k p p
X

rank J F (k x); k x = q

e k , , , -
k x X
k -p p .
, p (12) p
(11) X e k.

2. s-

p
s- p p.
(CDs). p p. (ACD).
(ICDs). (IACD). p pp
(IACD). s- p p.
s- p p -
(ICDs). p-
p (IACD).

1. (CD) s--
, - Xij p X
x s, 0 6 s 6 m, p
t1 , . . . , t m .

111
. 2, 7, . 1 ..

H , , s-
(CD) - X ij p X
x p s p, ,
dx = X(s t, x)dt, (CDs)

X(s t, x) = kXij (s t, x)knm , (s t, x) Ds+n ,


st = (t1 , . . . , ts ), Ds+n Rs+n , 0 6 s 6 m.

p s = 0 (CDs)

dx = X(x) dt, (ACD)


.
pp (CDs) (ACD)
(ICDs) (IACD).
, p -
(CDs) (ICDs) X C k (Ds+n ), (ACD)
(IACD) X C k (X), X Rn .
pp
n
X
xj (x) = Xij (x)xi , x X, j = 1, m , (1)
i=1


(ACD).
(1)

Xj (t, x) = tj + xj (x), (t, x) D,


   
Xj (t, x), X (t, x) = xj (x), x (x) , (t, x) D.

p (ACD)

112
.. . 2, 7, . 1
 
xj (x), x (x) = O, x X, j, = 1, m . (2)

2. p p F (CD) -
s-, F x
s, 0 6 s 6 m, p t 1 , . . . , tm .
p s = 0 p p
F : x F (x), x X 0 , X 0 X,
(CD) .
p, p X(s t, x) Mn,m p-
p s , s X, s X Mn,(ms) .
1. (ICDs) X C 1 (Ds+n )
s X(s t, x) Ds+n k,
nk
s- p p

F : Ds+n R, = 1, n k .

.
x : t x(t; C), t T 0 ,
(ICDs).
H p p, ,
p k p p s X p p
p k ( pp -
p).
p k xl , l = 1, k , p
T 0 -
p t , = s + 1, m , x r ,
r = k + 1, n , p T 0
k p t , = s + 1, m .


xr (t) = r s t, k x(t); C , t T 0 ,

k x = (x1 , . . . , xk ), r , r = k + 1, n ,
.
113
. 2, 7, . 1 ..

t s+1 , . . . , tm
T 0

xl = xl (t; C), l = 1, k , xr = r (s t, k x; C), r = k + 1, n ,


p p

C i = (i1 C1 , . . . , in Cn ), i = 1, n ,
ij pp, p C, -
k s- n k
s- D 0
D p p (ICDs).
p p-
t1 , . . . , ts p 1 s-
(ICDs) s- p p, -
.
2. C (IACD) p n k,
k = rank X(x), x X 0 , -
X 0 X p p.
pp 1 (p pp 1.3.2). p X
pp (3.3.2) p

rank X(x) = 2, x X R.

p 2 (3.3.2)

nk =32=1

p p X R

F3 : x g(x1 , x2 ) x3 , x X R.

3. (IACD) p-
p ,

rank X(x) = n

x X , , -
n-p p .

114
.. . 3, 7, . 1

3. s - (n k)-p
p

(n k)-p p p (CD). H-
p s- (nk)-p p-
p. pp s- (n k)--
p p p. p -
s- (n k)-p p p.

1. p p F (CD) -
(n k)-p, F t
k, 0 6 k 6 n, p x 1 , . . . , xn .
(CD) s--
(n k)-p p p

F : (t, x) F (s t, k x), (t, x) D0 , (1)

s t = (t1 , . . . , ts ), k x = (x1 , . . . , xk ).
(1) s- (n k)-p
p p D0 (CD)
, (p 1.1.2)

Xjsk F (s t, k x) = 0, (t, x) D0 , j = 1, m , (2)


k
X k
X
Xsk (t, x) = t + X (t, x)x , Xsk (t, x) = X (t, x)x ,

=1 =1

(t, x) D, = 1, s , = s + 1, m .



M = 1, X1 (t, x), . . . , Xk (t, x) , = 1, s ,

M = X1 (t, x), . . . , Xk (t, x) , = s + 1, m ,

115
. 3, 7, . 1 ..

(2) : p p -
p t , = 1, m , 6= , -
p xi , i = 1, n , -
Mj , j = 1, m , p
t D; p p
p t , = 1, m , p xi , i = 1, n ,
i 6= p, M j , j = 1, m , -
p xp D. p
p = s + 1, m p = k + 1, n .
, p p t ,
= s + 1, m , p x p , p = k + 1, n ,
Mj , j = 1, m , p -
D, , D

Wt 1, kX (t, x) = 0, = 1, s , = s + 1, m ;

kX (t, x)

Wt = 0, = s + 1, m , = s + 1, m ;

 (3)
Wxp 1, kX (t, x) = 0, = 1, s , p = k + 1, n ;

kX (t, x)

W xp = 0, = s + 1, m , p = k + 1, n ,

-
kX j :

(t, x) X1j (t, x), . . . , Xkj (t, x) , (t, x) D, j = 1, m ,

Wt Wxp p t xp .
p p p-
s - (nk) -p p-
p (CD).
1. (3) -
(CD) s-
(n k)-p p p (1).
p X p (3).

116
.. . 3, 7, . 1

+ k kX (t, x) = 0, = 1, s ,
k kX (t, x) = 0, = 1, s , = s + 1, m , = 1, k ,
t

k kX (t, x) = 0, = 1, s , p = k + 1, n , = 1, k ,
xp

k kX (t, x) = 0, = s + 1, m , (4)
k kX (t, x) = 0, = s + 1, m , = s + 1, m , = 1, k 1 ,
t

k kX (t, x) = 0, = s + 1, m , p = k + 1, n , = 1, k 1 ,
xp

: (t, x) (s t, k x), (t, x) D0 , = 1, s ,

p p- s , p-

k : (t, x) (s t, k x), . . . , (s t, k x) , (t, x) D0 .
1 k

pp p
s (s t, k x) d s t + k (s t, k x) d k x = 0 (5)

pp s --
(n k) -p p p
.
2. (CD) s--
(n k)-p p p (1), -
p-
s k , p (4),

, (1) p p-
(5) D e s+k , -
0
p D p p-
p O s t k x.

117
. 3, 7, . 1 ..

. H. (CD)
s- (n k)-p p p (1)
D0 .
(2):
k
X
s k
t F ( t, x) + X (t, x)x F (s t, k x) = 0, = 1, s ,

=1
k
X
X (t, x)x F (s t, k x) = 0, = s + 1, m , (t, x) D0 .
=1

pp s k p t s+1 , . . . , tm
k p xk+1 , . . . , xn , m s k 1 p
ts+1 , . . . , tm k 1 p xk+1 , . . . , xn , , p-
D0
s : (s t, k x) s t F (s t, k x)

k : (s t, k x) k F (s t, k x)
x

D e s+k p -
(4),

s t = (t1 , . . . , ts ), k = (x1 , . . . , xk ).
x

, (1) -
e s+k p (5).
p D
. p-
s : (t, x) s (s t, k x), (t, x) D0 ,
k : (t, x) k (s t, k x), (t, x) D0 ,

p (4), p (5), -
e s+k .
, p (1) D

118
.. . 3, 7, . 1

e s+k
D

s t F (s t, k x) s (s t, k x) = 0,
(6)
k F (s t, k x) k (s t, k x) = 0.
x

, s , k p -
(4), (2), , -
, (1) s- (n k)--
p p p (CD).
p 2 s--
(n k)-p p p (CD)
p p
s- (n k)--
p p p (CD).
3. (4) q -
D0 p
s : (t, x) s (s t, k x), = 1, q ,
(7)
k : (t, x) k (s t, k x), = 1, q ,

p
s (s t, k x) d s t + k (s t, k x) d k x = 0, = 1, q , (8)

e s+k , = 1, q ,
F : (s t, k x) F (s t, k x), (s t, k x) D (9)

D e s+k , p -
D p pp O s t k x.
0
p
D e s+k .
. (6)
e
D s+k ,
119
. 3, 7, . 1 ..

s t F (s t, k x) = s (s t, k x), = 1, q ,

k F (s t, k x) = k (s t, k x), = 1, q .
x

p

e s+k ,
J F (s t, k x); s t, k x = (s t, k x)(s t, k x) , (s t, k x) D

p kk (q s)-p

e s+k ,
(s t, k x) = j (s t, k x) , (s t, k x) D

(q k)-p

e s+k .
(s t, k x) = i (s t, k x) , (s t, k x) D

p- (7) -
e s+k p p
D

rank J F (s t, k x); s t, k x = q

e s+k , , ,
(s t, k x) D
(s + k)-p p .
, p (9) p (8)
D e s+k .

120
.. . 1, 8, . 1

8.
1.

( ). -
.
. -
.

1. : X R
X (),

Lj (x) = (x) div Lj (x), x X, j = 1, m . (1)

-
.
1 ( ). 1 2 -
X (),

1 (x)
J: x , x X20 , X20 X, (2)
2 (x)

X 20 (),
X20 , -
2 (x) 6= 0, x X20 .

():

2 Lj 1 1 Lj 2 2 1 divLj + 1 2 divLj
Lj J = = 0.
22 22

1. 2
X, (4.1.3)
X 0 (),

1 : x 2 (x)(F (x)), x X 0 ,
121
. 1, 8, . 1 ..

F (x) = (F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x)),


,
X 0 .
. 1
1.1.3,

Lj (F (x)) = 0, x X 0 , j = 1, m .

X 0
Lj 1 = (F )Lj 2 + 2 Lj (F ) =

= (F )2 div Lj = 1 div Lj .

1
.
1. 2 -
X (), (4.1.3) -
X 0 ,
1 -
X 00 X 0 () , -

1 (x) = 2 (x)(F (x)), x X 00 ,

F (x) = (F1 (x), . . . , Fk (x)),


.
. . 1 2 -
(), , 1, (2)
X20 X ().
(4.1.3)
X 0 (). 2.1.3
(2) X 00 = X20 X 0

1 (x)
J(x) = (F (x)), x X 00 .
2 (x)

1.5.3

122
.. . 1, 8, . 1

1. 2 -
X () r, 0 6 r 6 n m,
1 -
X 00 X 0 ,

1 (x) = 2 (x)(F (x)), x X 00 ,

F , = 1, n m r , -
F -
X 0 (), -
.
2. -
X () ,

v j (x) = (x)uj (x), x X, j = 1, m ,

uj (x) = (uj1 (x), . . . , ujn (x)), x X, j = 1, m ,


X.
,
X (),

Lj (x) = (x) div uj (x), x X, j = 1, m .

X v j , j = 1, m , -

div v j = div (uj ) = uj grad + div uj =

= Lj + div uj = div uj + div uj 0.

3. -
X (),
,
().
. (4.3.3) -
()
.
123
. 2, 8, . 1 ..

L (x) = (x) div L (x) L (x) = (x) div L (x),

   
L , L (x) = (x) div L (x), L (x) , x X. (3)

, x X
   
L , L = L L L L = L div L + L div L =

= L div L L div L + L div L + L div L =

= div L div L L div L div L divL + L div L =



= L div L L div L .


 
div L (x), L (x) = L div L (x) L div L (x), x X,

(3).

2. (n k)-

(n k)- ( ). -
(n k)- -
. (n k)- -
. (n k)-
.

, 1 -
7, , , u -
-
, .

124
.. . 2, 8, . 1

1. ()
(n k)-,
k, 0 6 k 6 n, p x1 , . . . , xn .
1.1 1 () (n k)--

: x (k x), x X 0 , X 0 X, (1)
, X 0
Ljk (k x) + (k x) div uj (x) = 0, j = 1, m , (2)

-

uj : x uj1 (x), . . . , ujn (x) , x X, j = 1, m .

, 1.1.7,
(n k) --
().
1. () -
X 0 (n k)- (1),
X

Wxp k uj (x), div uj (x) = 0, j = 1, m , p = k + 1, n . (3)

p u p (3).

k k uj (x) = div uj (x),
k k uj (x)
p = p div uj (x), (4)

j = 1, m , p = k + 1, n , = 1, k 1 .

2 (pp (n k) --
). ()
(n k)- (1), -
-

125
. 2, 8, . 1 ..

p (4), -
k ,
p (5.1.7) -
X e k . p -
(1) ()
Z
: x exp k (k x) d k x, x X 0 . (5)

. H. () -
(1), (2):
k
X
uj (x) (k x) + (k x) div uj (x) = 0, x X 0 , j = 1, m .
=1

( k x),
X00 X 0
k
X
uj (x) ln (k x) + div uj (x) = 0, x X00 , j = 1, m .
=1

pp k 1 p x k+1 , . . . , xn ,
, p (4) p
X00 -

e k.
k : k x ln (k x), . . . , ln (k x) , k x X
1 k (6)
0

p (5.1.7), -
(6), Xe k.
0
(6) , (n k)-
() p X 00
p (4) p (5).
X 0 X00 , p-
p 2 .
. k p -
(4), p (5.1.7), -
, Xe k.

126
.. . 2, 8, . 1


Z
k e k , = 1, k .
(k x) d k x = (k x), k x X

, k p -
(4), , (5) -
(2).
, (5) (n k)-
().
1. p p
p p

L1 (x)y x1 x2 1 y + x1 x3 2 y + x1 x4 3 y + x22 4 y = 0,
(7)
L2 (x)y x1 x3 1 y + x1 x4 2 y + x21 3 y + x22 4 y = 0

3-

: x (x1 ), x X 0 , X 0 R4 . (8)

R4
div u1 (x) div L1 (x) = 1 (x1 x2 ) + 2 (x1 x3 ) + 3 (x1 x4 ) + 4 x22 = x2 ,

div u2 (x) div L2 (x) = 1 (x1 x3 ) + 2 (x1 x4 ) + 3 x21 + 4 x22 = x3 .


{x1 x2 , x2 } {x1 x3 , x3 }

x2 , x3 x4 R4 :

x1 x2 x2
Wx2 (x1 x2 , x2 ) = = 0,
x1 1

Wx3 (x1 x2 , x2 ) = Wx4 (x1 x2 , x2 ) = 0;



x1 x3 x3
Wx2 (x1 x3 , x3 ) = 0, Wx3 (x1 x3 , x3 ) = = 0,
x1 1

Wx4 (x1 x3 , x3 ) = 0.
127
. 2, 8, . 1 ..

, ( 1) -
(7) 3- (8).

x1 x2 1 = x2 , x1 x3 1 = x3 , x1 1 = 1,


1
1 : x , x R4 \{x : x1 6= 0}.
x1

Z
dx1 C
exp = , x1 R\{0}, (C > 0),
x1 |x1 |

3- (7) -
2 , ,
1
: x , x X 0 , X 0 {x : x1 6= 0} R4 .
x1

2
p -
().
3. (4) q -
X 0 p (10.1.7), -
p p (11.1.7) -
X e k . (n k)-
()
Z
: x exp k (k x) d k x, x X 0 , = 1, q ,

X 0 .
. , , = 1, q ,
() , p 2.

e k , = 1, k , = 1, q ,
ln (k x) = (k x), k x X

128
.. . 3, 8, . 1

, p

e k.
J ln (k x); k x = (k x) qk , k x X

p (10.1.7) (4) -
X 0 , p p

rank J ln (k x); k x = q

Xe k.
C , (nk)- ,
= 1, q , () X 0 .

3.

(CD).
. -
.
.

1. : D R
D (CD),

Xj (t, x) = (t, x) div Xj (t, x), (t, x) D, j = 1, m . (1)

-
.
1 ( ). 1 2 -
D (CD),

1 (t, x)
J : (t, x) , (t, x) D02 , D02 D, (2)
2 (t, x)

D 02 (CD),
D02 , -
2 (t, x) 6= 0, (t, x) D02 .

129
. 3, 8, . 1 ..

(CD) -
( 1.1) ().
1. 2
D, (1.2.2)
D0 (CD),

1 : (t, x) 2 (t, x)(F (t, x)), (t, x) D0 ,

F (t, x) = (F1 (t, x), . . . , Fk (t, x)), -


, -
D0 .
. 1
1.2.2,

Xj F (t, x) = 0, (t, x) D0 , j = 1, m ,

D0

Xj 1 = (F )Xj 2 + 2 Xj (F ) =

= 2 (F ) div Xj = 1 div Xj .

1 .
1. 2 -
D (CD), (1.2.2) -
D 0 -
, 1 -
D00 D0 (CD) ,


1 (t, x) = 2 (t, x) F (t, x) , (t, x) D00 ,

F (t, x) = (F1 (t, x), . . . , Fk (t, x)), -


.
. . 1 2
(CD), , -
, (2)
D02 D (CD).
130
.. . 3, 8, . 1

(1.2.2) -
D0 (CD).
(2) D 00 = D02 D0 -

J(t, x) = (F (t, x)), (t, x) D00 .

1.3.2
1. 2 -
D (ICD), -
1 D 00
D0 ,

1 (t, x) = 2 (t, x)(F (t, x)), (t, x) D00 ,

- Fi , i = 1, n , -
D 0
(ICD), .
2. -
D (CD) , -

uj (t, x) = (t, x)bj (t, x), (t, x) D, j = 1, m ,

bj (t, x) = (1j , . . . , mj , X1j (t, x), . . . , Xnj (t, x)), (t, x) D,


j = 1, m , (j ), -
D.
, (CD)
,
Xj (t, x) = (t, x) div bj (t, x), (t, x) D, j = 1, m .

D u j , j = 1, m ,

div (bj ) = bj grad + div bj = Xj + div bj =

= div bj + div bj 0.
131
. 4, 8, . 1 ..

4. s - (n k)-

s- (CD). (n k)--
(CD).
s- (n k)- -
. s- (n k)--
. -
s- (n k)- .

, 2 3 -
7, , X

, .
1. (CD)
s-,
x s, 0 6 s 6 m, p
t1 , . . . , tm . p s = 0

: x (x), x X 0 , X 0 X,

(CD) .
2. (CD)
(n k)-,
t k, 0 6 k 6 n, p
x1 , . . . , x n .
(CD) s- (n k)-

: (t, x) (s t, k x), (t, x) D0 , D0 D, (1)

, D0

Xjsk (s t, k x) + (s t, k x) divx X j (t, x) = 0, j = 1, m , (2)

-

X j : (t, x) X1j (t, x), . . . , Xnj (t, x) , (t, x) D, j = 1, m .

132
.. . 4, 8, . 1

, 1.3.7,
s --
(n k) - .
1. (CD) s--
(n k)- (1),
D

Wt 1, kX (t, x), div x X (t, x) = 0, = 1, s , = s + 1, m ,

kX (t, x), div (t, x)



W t xX = 0, = s + 1, m , = s + 1, m ,
 (3)
Wxp 1, kX (t, x), div x X (t, x) = 0, = 1, s , p = k + 1, n ,
kX (t, x), div (t, x)

W xp xX = 0, = s + 1, m, p = k + 1, n .

p X p (3).

+ k kX (t, x) = divx X (t, x),


k kX (t, x) = t divx X (t, x), = 1, k + 1 ,
t

k kX (t, x) = x p divx X (t, x), = 1, k + 1 ,


xp

k kX (t, x) = divx X (t, x), (4)


k kX (t, x) = t divx X (t, x), = 1, k ,
t

k kX (t, x) = x p divx X (t, x), = 1, k ,


xp

= 1, s, = s + 1, m , = s + 1, m , p = k + 1, n .

2 (pp s - (n k) -
).
(CD) s- (n k)--
(1),
133
. 4, 8, . 1 ..

- - s k ,
p (4),
p (5.3.7) -
De s+k . p (1)
(CD)

: (t, x) exp g(s t, k x), (t, x) D0 , (5)

(s t, k x) D e s+k
Z
g( t, x) = s (s t, k x) d s t + k (s t, k x) d k x.
s k
(6)

. H. (CD)
(1),
k
X
t (s t, k x)+ X (t, x)x (s t, k x)+(s t, k x) divx X (t, x) = 0,
=1
k
X 
X (t, x)x (s t, k x + (s t, k x) divx X (t, x) = 0,
=1

(t, x) D0 , = 1, s , = s + 1, m .

( s t, k x),

k
X
t ln (s t, k x) + X (t, x)x ln (s t, k x) + divx X (t, x) = 0,
=1
k
X
X (t, x)x ln (s t, k x) + divx X (t, x) = 0,
=1

(t, x) D00 , D00 D0 , = 1, s , = s + 1, m .

134
.. . 4, 8, . 1

pp s k p t s+1 , . . . , tm
k p xk+1 , . . . , xn , m s k 1 p
ts+1 , . . . , tm k 1 p xk+1 , . . . , xn , , p-
(4) p D 00
s : (s t, k x) e s+k ,
s t ln (s t, k x), (s t, k x) D 0
(7)
k : e s+k .
(s t, k x) k ln (s t, k x), (s t, k x) D
x 0

p (5.3.7), -
(7), De s+k .
0
(7) , s- (n k)--
(CD) p -
D00 p (4)
p (5) p (6).
D0 D00 , p-
p 2 .
. s k p-
(4), p (5.3.7), -
e s+k .
, D
De s+k

s t g(s t, k x) = s (s t, k x), k g(s t, k x) = k (s t, k x).


x

, s k p -
(4), , (5)
p (6) (2).
, (5) p (6) s-
(n k)- (CD).
p -
(CD).
3. (4) q
D0 p (7.3.7), -
p p (8.3.7) -
D e s+k . s-
(n k)- (CD)

135
. 4, 8, . 1 ..
Z
s s
: (t, x) exp ( t, k x) d s t + k (s t, k x) d k x, (t, x) D0 ,

= 1, q , D 0 .
. , , = 1, q ,
(CD) , p 2.

t ln (s t, k x) = (s t, k x), x ln (s t, k x) = (s t, k x),

e s+k ,
= 1, q , = 1, s , = 1, k , (s t, k x) D

, p

J ln (s t, k x); s t, k x = (s t, k x) (s t, k x) q(s+k)

(q s)-p

e s+k ,
(s t, k x) = (s t, k x) , (s t, k x) D

(q k)- p

e s+k .
(s t, k x) = (s t, k x) , (s t, k x) D

p (7.3.7) (4) -
D 0 , p p

rank J ln (s t, k x); s t, k x = q

e s+k .
D
s- (n k)-
, = 1, q , (CD) -
D0 .

136
.. . 1, 9, . 1

9.

1.
()
( ). -

( ).

-
() , -
X Rn .
1. , ()
M
X 0 X,
m
  X
M(x), Lj (x) = Bjs (x)Ls (x), x X 0 , j = 1, m ,
s=1

- Bjs : X 0 R, j, s = 1, m , -
.
() -
p pp p
.
p 1. () n m
p pp
n
X
Mk (x) = vki (x)i , x X 0 , k = 1, n m ,
i=1

p ()
p Lj , j = 1, m , -
X 0 . ()
X 00 X 0

: x det1 M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ), x X 00 , (1)


137
. 1, 9, . 1 ..

p M = u
v nn

u(x) = uji (x) mn , x X, v(x) = vki (x) (nm)n , x X 0 ,

-
Lj , j = 1, m , Mk , k = 1, n m , .
. k -
Rk p
pp B1 , . . . , Bk -
[22]
B1 det M (B1 , . . . , Bk ) = div B1 det M (B1 , . . . , Bk ) +

+ det M (B1 , [B1 , B2 ], B3 , . . . , Bk ) + (2)

+ . . . + det M (B1 , B2 , . . . , Bk1 , [B1 , Bk ]).

, j {1, . . . , m} X 0
Lj det M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ) =

= div Lj det M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ) +


(3)
m
X
+ (1 lj ) det M (L1 , . . . , [Lj , Ll ], . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ) +
l=1
nm
X
+ det M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , [Lj , Mk ], . . . , Mnm ),
k=1

lj .
() X,
(1.2.3).
, X 0 X p

det M (L1 , . . . , [Lj , Ll ], . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ) = 0,


(4)
j, l = 1, m , l 6= j.
138
.. . 1, 9, . 1

1 () -
p pp M k , k = 1, n m , -
X 0
m
  X
Mk (x), Lj (x) = Bkjs (x)Ls (x), k = 1, n m , j = 1, m ,
s=1

Bkjs : X 0 R, k = 1, n m , j, s = 1, m , -
.
, X 0 p
det M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , [Lj , Mk ], . . . , Mnm ) = 0,
(5)
j = 1, m , k = 1, n m .
(3) (4) (5) -
, X 0
Lj det M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ) =

= div Lj det M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ), j = 1, m .

, X 00 X 0

Lj det1 M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ) =

= det1 M (L1 , . . . , Lm , M1 , . . . , Mnm ) div Lj , j = 1, m .

1.1.8 (1)
().
Lj , j = 1, m , Mk , k = 1, n m , -
, , -
1, .
[121, c. 106 107] (-
p p -
p p [46])
p 1. () -
X 0 X p
139
. 1, 9, . 1 ..

pp p p M , = 1, p + 1 , -
M , = 1, p , Lj , j = 1, m , -
X 0 , pp Mp+1
p
p
X m
X
Mp+1 (x) = F (x) M (x) + j (x) Lj (x), x X 0 , (6)
=1 j=1

X 0 --
F , = 1, p , j , j = 1, m . X 0
F const,

F : X 0 R, = 1, p ,

p p ().
p 1 p 1 -
p p p
() , -
() -

.
p 2. () -
p pp M1 , . . . , Mnm , p
p p-
p L1 , . . . , Lm -
X 0 , p -
pp L1 , . . . , Lm M1 , . . . , Mp p 1 6 p 6 n m -
X 0 . -
pp L1 , . . . , Lm M1 , . . . , Mnm
p p p F : X 0 R (6),
(1) ().
, 1 6 p < n m, -

L1 , . . . , Lm M1 , . . . , Mnm p 1 -
p p F , = 1, p , ().
p = n m, , p 1, p -
(1) .

140
.. . 1, 9, . 1

pp 1. p p-

L1 (x)y x1 1 y x2 2 y + x3 3 y = 0,
(7)
L2 (x)y x1 1 y + x2 2 y + x3 3 y = 0

pp R3 ,

[L1 (x), L2 (x)] = O, x R3 .


, (7)
n m = 3 2 = 1 p p.
p p -
(7), p p p
x1 1 y + x3 3 y = 0, 2 y = 0
p p
x3
F: x , x X 0 , (8)
x1
X 0 {x : x1 6= 0} R3 .
(8) p p X 0
c (7).
p p p
(7),
.
p pp

M1 (x) = x1 1 , x R3 , M2 (x) = x3 1 + x1 3 , x R3 ,
,

[M1 (x), L1 (x)] = [M1 (x), L2 (x)] = O, x R3 ,

[M2 (x), L1 (x)] = [M2 (x), L2 (x)] = O, x R3 ,

(7) pp M1 M2 .
p

x1 x 2 x3

det M (L1 , L2 , M1 ) = x1 x2 x3 = 2x1 x2 x3 , x R3 ,
x1 0 0
141
. 2, 9, . 1 ..

x1 x 2 x3

det M (L1 , L2 , M2 ) = x1 x2 x3 = 2x2 (x21 x23 ), x R3 .

x3 0 x1

1
1
1 : x , x X10 , X10 {x : x1 x2 x3 6= 0},
2x1 x2 x3

1
2 : x , x X20 , X20 {x : x2 6= 0, x21 6= x23 },
2x2 (x21 x23 )

(7).
, ( 1.1.8) ,

x23 x21
: x , x X30 , (9)
x1 x3

1- p p X 30
{x : x1 x3 6= 0} (7).
(7), , (9) -
p p X 30 (7).
, (8) (9)
1
(x) = F (x) , x X30 ,
F (x)
.

2.
(ICD)
(ICD). -
-
(ICD).

D
(ICD).
1. , -
(ICD)
142
.. . 2, 9, . 1

M D0 D, D0

m
X
 
M(t, x), Xj (t, x) = Bjk (t, x)Xk (t, x), j = 1, m ,
k=1

Bjk : D0 R, j, k = 1, m , .
Hp pp Xj , j = 1, m , s-
(ICDs) Ds+n Rs+n pp
s- (0 6 s 6 m) pp
n
X
s
Xs ( t, x) = t + Xi (s t, x)xi , = 1, s ,
i=1

n
X
s
Xs ( t, x) = Xi (s t, x)xi , = s + 1, m .
i=1

e s+n Ds+n -
D

s
X n
X
s s
Ms ( t, x) = f ( t, x)t + gi (s t, x)xi , = 1, p ,
=1 i=1

e s+n R gi : D
f : D e s+n R, = 1, s , i = 1, n ,
= 1, p , .
1. (ICDs) n > m s -
p = n m + s Ms , = 1, p ,
m Xjs , j = 1, m ,
n + s p -
D e s+n .
(ICDs) D00 D
s-

: (t, x) det1 M (X1s , . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , Mps ), (1)

143
. 2, 9, . 1 ..


R Y
M = : (m s)--
F G
p R rjj = 1 rji = 0, j 6= i; (m n)--
p Y = kXji k; (p s)-p F = kfji k (p n)--
p G = kgji k, p j p , i
p p, D00 p-
(1).
. (2.1) D e s+n
j {1, . . . , m}

Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , Mps ) =

= div Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , Mps ) +


(2)
m
X
+ (1j ) det M (X1s , . . . , [Xjs , Xs ], . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , Mps ) +
=1
p
X
+ det M (X1s , . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , [Xjs , Ms ], . . . , Mps ),
=1

j .
(ICDs) p
 
Xjs (s t, x), Xs (s t, x) = O, (t, x) D, j, = 1, m . (3)

(ICDs) -
Ms , = 1, p , 1
m
  X
Xjs (s t, x), Ms (s t, x) = Bj (s t, x)Xs (s t, x),
=1
(4)
e s+n , j = 1, m , = 1, p ,
(s t, x) D

e s+n R, j, = 1, m , = 1, p , .
Bj : D

144
.. . 2, 9, . 1

, (2) -
e s+n
(3) (4) , D
Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , Mps ) =

= div Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , Mps ).

1.3.8 , (1)
(ICDs).
, Xjs , j = 1, m , Ms , = 1, p ,
, ,
1, .

p 1. (ICD) -
p D0 p -
pp p p M , = 1, p + 1 , p -
(ICD) pp X j , j = 1, m , -
M , = 1, p , p-
D0 , pp Mp+1
p D0
p
X m
X
Mp+1 (t, x) = F (t, x) M (t, x) + j (t, x) Xj (t, x) (5)
=1 j=1

D0 F , = 1, p ,
j , j = 1, m . D 0 F const,

F : D0 R, = 1, p ,

p p (ICD).
1 1
(ICD) -
.
1. (ICDs) n > m s -
p = n m + s Ms , = 1, p ,
m Xjs , j = 1, m , -

145
. 2, 9, . 1 ..

e s+n ,
D
{X1s , . . . , Xms , M1s , . . . , Ms }
1 6 6 p
e s+n . -
D
X1s , . . . , Xms M1s , . . . , Mps -
F : D0 R (5),
(1) (ICDs).
1. p pp
p p p
m
X
dx = Aj x dtj X(x) dt, j = 1, m , m < n, (6)
j=1

Aj , j = 1, m , p p p n R,
p X Mn,m p
rank X(x) = m
Rn .
(6) pp Rm+n , p-
Aj , j = 1, m , p:

Aj A = A Aj , j, = 1, m .

p , p pp

Xj (x) = Aj x x , x Rn , j = 1, m ,

p, ..

[Xj (x), X (x)] = O, x Rn , j, = 1, m .

p A Mn,n , = m + 1, n , ,

Ai A = A Ai , i, = 1, n ,
pp
Xi (x) = Ai x x , i = 1, n ,

p R n .

146
.. . 2, 9, . 1

[Xi (x), X (x)] = O, x Rn , i, = 1, n ,

, (6) X , = m + 1, n .
, 1, (6)


: (t, x) det1 M X1 (x), . . . , Xn (x) , (t, x) Rm X, X Rn .

(ICDs),

rank s X(s t, x) = n < m s

(s t, x) Ds+n , , -
, (s + n)- .
, , , -
Xjs , j = s + 1, s + n , p
Ds+n .
Ds+n
s+n
X
s
Xs ( t, x) = j (s t, x) Xjs (s t, x), = s + n + 1, m .
j=s+1

(3) : -
j (s t, x) 6 const,
Ds+n -

s+n
X
dxi = Xij (s t, x) dtj , i = 1, n ,
j=1

(ICDs). 1.2.7,
s- .
j , j = s + 1, s + n , = s + n + 1, m , -
D s+n .

147
. 2, 9, . 1 ..

, Xs , = s + n + 1, m ,
Xjs , j = s + 1, s + n.
D

d det M (X1s , . . . , Xs+n,s )| =


(ICDs)

s+n
X
= Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xs+n,s ) dtj +
j=1

m
X s+n
X
+ j Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xs+n,s ) dt .
=s+n+1 j=s+1

(2) D s+n

Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xs+n,s ) = div Xjs det M (X1s , . . . , Xs+n,s ) +

s+n
X
+ (1 j ) det M (X1s , . . . , [Xjs , Xs ], . . . , Xs+n,s ), j = 1, s + n .
=1

p, (4) D

d det M (X1s , . . . , Xs+n,s )| =


(ICDs)

m
X
= det M (X1s , . . . , Xs+n,s ) div Xjs dtj ,
j=1

,

: (t, x) det1 M X1s (s t, x), , . . . , Xs+n,s (s t, x) (7)

D0 D s- -
(ICDs).

148
.. . 2, 9, . 1

2. (ICDs), rank s X(s t, x) = n,


n 6 m s, (s t, x) Ds+n , -
, , (s+n)-
, (7).
2
2. (ICDs) ,

Xij : (s t, x) Xij (s t, x), (s t, x) T s Rn , i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,

x -
T s Rs s t, rank s X(s t, x) = n,
n 6 m s (s t, x) T s Rn , -
, , (s + n)-
, s-
x -
s t (7).
2. [1, c. 49]

dx1 = ( x21 + x22 ) dt1 2x1 x2 dt2 ,


(8)
dx2 = 2x1 x2 dt1 + (x21 x22 ) dt2

R2 R2 , R2
 
[x1 (x), x2 (x)] = (x21 +x22 )1 2x1 x2 2 , 2x1 x2 1 +(x21 x22 )2 = O.

(8) a s = 0, n = m = 2.
X (8)

rank X(x) = n = m s = 2, x R2 \{(0, 0)}.



det M x1 (x), x2 (x) = det X(x) = (x21 + x22 )2 , x R2 .

2
(8) p
1
: (t, x) , (t, x) R2 X,
(x21 + x22 )2

X R2 \{(0, 0)}.
149
. 2, 9, . 1 ..

H 1 s = m 2
( 1.3.8) -
,
3. (ICDs) -
2 n p D e s+n
Mm , = 1, n ,
m Xjs , j = 1, m ,
D e s+n ,
n + m
(ICDs).
2 p 1.3.8 ( -
)
4. (IACD) ,
Xij , i = 1, n , j = 1, m , x,
rank X(x) = n 6 m x Rn , ,
, n- ,
,

: (s t, x) K det1 M X1s (s t, x), . . . , Xs+n,s (s t, x) ,
(9)
s e s+n
( t, x) D , D e s+n s+n
D , K = const,



F : (t, x) Y (t, x) det1 M X1s (s t, x), . . . , Xs+n,s (s t, x)

D00 Rm+n , Y D00


.
2.0.4 2 -
( 1.3.8)
.
5. (ICDs)
2 , (9), -
s- s t.
3. (IACD)

F : (t, x) H(x) exp(J t), (t, x) Rm X 0 , (10)

150
.. . 2, 9, . 1

H : X0
R , X 0
Rn , J = (J1 , . . . , Jm ), Jj R, j = 1, m , -
p X 0 p -
p p M0 ,

M0 H(x) 6= 0, x X 0 ,

(IACD)

: x H 1 (x) M0 H(x), x X 00 . (11)

. (10) -
(IACD),

Xj0 H(x) exp(J t) = 0, (t, x) Rm X 0 ,

Xj0 H(x) = Jj H(x), x X 0 , j = 1, m . (12)

(IACD) p-
M0 , (4) ( ,
-
) ,

Xj0 (x) M0 (x) = M0 (x) Xj0 (x), x X 0 , j = 1, m .

(12)

Xj0 M0 H(x) = Jj M0 H(x), x X 0 , j = 1, m ,

p (12) ,

Xj0 H 1 (x) M0 H(x) = 0, x X 00 , X 00 X 0 , j = 1, m .

, (11) p -
(IACD).
.
151
. 3, 9, . 1 ..

4. (IACD)

: (t, x) H(x) exp(J t), (t, x) Rm X 0 ,

H : X 0 R X 0 -
Rn , J = (J1 , . . . , Jm ), Jj R, j = 1, m , -
p X 0 p-
p p M 0 ,
X 0

M0 H(x) 6= 0 M0 div Xj0 (x) 6= 0, j = 1, m ,

(IACD) X 00 X 0
(11).

3.
p (IACD) -
pp, p p pp -
q -pp p . p-
, pp p
.

p (IACD),
pp,
(IACD), , pp -
q-pp p .
(IACD) q-pp p
pp Gq , 1 6 q 6 n, (n k)-p
pp
n
X
Gl (x) = gli (k x)xi , x X, l = 1, q , (1)
i=1

p

I(x) = I1 (x), . . . , Inq (x) , x X. (2)

152
.. . 3, 9, . 1

pp (1) p p-
gli , l = 1, q , i = 1, n , p X,
(2) p I : X R, = 1, n q ,
p X.
H X pp (1) -
p [98, c. 113 114].

 
Gl (x), xj (x) = O, x X, l = 1, q , j = 1, m , (3)

pp xj , j = 1, m , pp -
pp (1.2.7) (ACD).
p , p Gq
q
  X
Gl (x), Gs (x) = clsp Gp (x), x X, l, s = 1, q , (4)
p=1

clsp , l, s, p = 1, q , pp q-pp-
p Gq [98, c. 176].
1. p p-
p p
Gl (x)y = 0, l = 1, q , q < n, (5)

p p -
X pp G l , l = 1, q ,
(n q)-pp p
Genq , p pp p G enq
p pp Gl , l = 1, q , -
p X.
( p p-
p p
[121, c. 109]). (5), , n q
p p ( 1.5.3)

F : x F (x), x X, = 1, n q .

153
. 3, 9, . 1 ..

v = F (x), = 1, n q , v = (x), = n q + 1, n ,

, = n q + 1, n , -
p p
p [55, c. 101]

Gl (x)y = l,n+q , l = 1, q , = n q + 1, n ,

(ls ), (5) p -
p p p

v y = 0, = n q + 1, n .

n q pp v , = 1, n q ,
p, p R nq ,
p (n q)-pp p .
(5) (n q)-pp
p Genq .
pp vi , i = 1, n , p -
p , , p
p p -
pp p pp-
, , pp p G enq p-
pp Gl , l = 1, q , -
p X.
H pp (1), (IACD),
p (n k)-p

Gl (x)y = 0, l = 1, q , q 6 n, (6)

p (4) X, -
y : X R, X Rn .
1 (6) (n q)--
pp p G enq .

154
.. . 3, 9, . 1


n
X
Gl (x) = gli (x)xi , x X, l = q + 1, n ,
i=1

enq .
pp p G
1,

[Gi (x), G (x)] = O, x X, i = 1, n , = q + 1, n , (7)

p pp Gi , i = 1, n , p
X.
pp Gi , i = 1, n , , -
p pp xj , j = 1, m , p -
(IACD), p
n
X
xj (x) = ji (x)Gi (x), x X, j = 1, m , (8)
i=1

ji : X R p X.
p (8), (4) (7)
,
(IACD) p Gq :
n q
q X
  X X
Gl (x), xj (x) = Gl ji (x)Gi (x) + clpi jp (x)Gi (x),
i=1 i=1 p=1

x X, l = 1, q , j = 1, m .

H (3) pp G i , i = 1, n ,
, X
q
X
Gl j (x) + clp jp (x) = 0, l = 1, q , j = 1, m , = 1, q ,
p=1
(9)
Gl j (x) = 0, l = 1, q , j = 1, m , = q + 1, n .
155
. 3, 9, . 1 ..

(9) ,

j , j = 1, m , = q + 1, n ,

p p G q ,

j (x) = j (I(x)), x X, j = 1, m , = q + 1, n ,

j : R, j = 1, m , = q + 1, n , p
Rnq .
(9) ,

j , j = 1, m , = 1, q ,

p -
p p p
q
X
Gl (x)j + clp jp = 0, l = 1, q , j = 1, m , = 1, q . (10)
p=1

(4) (7) (10) X.


jl : x jl (x), x X, j = 1, m , l = 1, q .

X p p
q
X n
X
xj (x) = j (x)G (x) + j (I(x))G (x), j = 1, m ,
l=1 =q+1

p.
p 1. (IACD) q-
pp p Gq (n k)-p
pp (1), p -
p (2) pp p-
(4), ,

156
.. . 3, 9, . 1

m X
X q n
X 
dxi = jl (x)gli (kx) + j (I(x))g i (x) dtj ,
j=1 l=1 =q+1
(11)
i = 1, n ,

jl : X R, j = 1, m , l = 1, q , -
p
p p (10),
g i : X R, = q + 1, n , i = 1, n , p -
pp G , = q + 1, n , (n q)-p-
p p G enq , (n k)-
p p p-
p p (6), -
j : R, j = 1, m , = q + 1, n , p -
pp Rnq ,
pp X (11).
Gq p . p (4)
pp
clsp = 0, l, s, p = 1, q .

p (9) ,

ji , j = 1, m , i = 1, n ,

p p G q ,

ji (x) = ji (I(x)), x X, j = 1, m , i = 1, n ,

ji : R, j = 1, m , i = 1, n , p
pp Rnq .
X p p
q
X n
X
xj (x) = jl (I(x))Gl (x) + j (I(x))G (x), j = 1, m ,
l=1 =q+1

p.
157
. 3, 9, . 1 ..

1. (IACD)
q-pp p G q (n k)--
p pp (1) p-
p (2), , -

m X
X q n
X 
dxi = jl (I(x))gli (k x) + j (I(x))g i (x) dtj ,
j=1 l=1 =q+1
(12)
i = 1, n ,

g i : X R, = q + 1, n , i = 1, n , p-
pp G , = q + 1, n ,
(n q)-pp p G enq , -
(n k)-p p
p p p-
(6), ji : R, j = 1, m , i = 1, n , p-
Rnq , -
pp X (12).
pp 1. p q -pp p G q
pp

xl e l xl , l = 1, q , x x , = q + 1, n , q < n, (13)

(n q)-p pp

Gl (x) = xl xl , l = 1, q ,

p
I(x) = (xq+1 , . . . , xn ).

p pp

G (x) = x x , = q + 1, n ,

pp Gl , l = 1, q , p -
p pp R n .

158
.. . 3, 9, . 1

, 1, (IACD), -
p Gq pp (13),
m
X
dxi = xi ji (xq+1 , . . . , xn ) dtj , i = 1, n ,
j=1

ji , j = 1, m , i = 1, n , p -
Rnq , , p-

n
X 
xs ks (xq+1 , . . . , xn )xs xi ji (xq+1 , . . . , xn ) =
s=1

n
X 
= xs js (xq+1 , . . . , xn )xs xi ki (xq+1 , . . . , xn ) ,
s=1

x X, X Rn , i = 1, n , j, k = 1, m .

2.

G1 : (x, y) (cos a x sin a y, sin a x + cos a y), (x, y) R2 , (a R),

a (cos a x sin a y)| = y, (x, y) R2 ,


a=0

a (sin a x + cos a y)| = x, (x, y) R2 ,


a=0

G1 (x, y) = y x + x y , (x, y) R2 .

G1 -

G1 (x, y) u = 0,

159
. 3, 9, . 1 ..

I : (x, y) x2 + y 2 , (x, y) R2 .

, I G 1 .

, -
G1 ,

dx dy
= X(x, y), = Y (x, y)
dt dt

R2 X Y

 
G1 (x, y), G(x, y) = O, (x, y) R2 ,

, ,

G(x, y) = xx + yy , (x, y) R2 .

G 1 G

dx
= y 1 (x2 + y 2 ) + x 2 (x2 + y 2 ),
dt
dy
= x 1 (x2 + y 2 ) + y 2 (x2 + y 2 ),
dt

1 : R R 2 : R R -
R , -
G1 .

160
2
H

1.
1. pp
pp -
(CD). , -
pp
. pp, p-
.

1. p

(t, x) : w(t, x) = 0 , (1)

-
D0 , D0 D, w : D0 R, -
p pp p -
p (CD), p
(CD) w p p (1),
,

Xj w(t, x) = j (t, x), (t, x) D0 , j = 1, m , (2)

p j : D0 R, j = 1, m , ,

j (t, x)| = 0, j = 1, m . (3)


w(t,x)=0

p (CD) w p
m
X n
X
dw(t, x)| = tj w(t, x) dtj + xi w(t, x) dxi | =
(CD) (CD)
j=1 i=1

161
. 1, 1, . 2 ..

m
X n
X m
X
= tj w(t, x) dtj + xi w(t, x) Xij (t, x) dtj =
j=1 i=1 j=1

m
X
= Xj w(t, x) dtj , (t, x) D0 .
j=1

(2) p (3) p
, p w (CD) -
p (m + n 1)-p p (1):

dw(t, x)| = (t, x) dt, (t, x) D0 , (4)


(CD)



: (t, x) 1 (t, x), . . . , m (t, x) , (t, x) D0 ,

(3).
(
( 1)
( 1.1.2.1) (CD)), -


(t, x) : F (t, x) C = 0 ,
C , F -
(CD), -
.

- .
-
.
, (CD) ,
-
.
, (4.0.4.1) (7.0.4.1) ,
. (7.0.4.1) 
(t1 , t2 , x1 , x2 ) : x1 = 0 (t1 , t2 , x1 , x2 ) : x2 = 0 .

162
.. . 1, 1, . 2

(CD) (-
)
-

.
pp (4) p -
(3) pp , (1) -
(ICD) ( -
1.1.2.1).
1. p (1) p -
pp (ICD), -
w p p-
(ICD).
p p, p -
p p (-
p 1.3.8.1) p p pp
(p 1) (CD).
1. : D 0 R
(CD) p p

(t, x) : (t, x) = 0 ,

p pp -
.
: D0 R
(CD).

1 1 1
Xj = 2 X (t, x) = div Xj (t, x),
(t, x) (t, x) j (t, x)

(t, x) D00 , j = 1, m , D00 D0 .

p 1 , -

2. : D 0 R
(CD) p-
p

163
. 2, 1, . 2 ..
n 1 o
(t, x) : =0 ,
(t, x)

p pp -
(CD).

2. s- (n k)-p

, s- (n k)-p -
pp. H p s--
(n k)-p pp. p-
p s- (n k)-p -
pp. s--
(n k)-p pp.

, 2 3 -
7 I, , -
-
, .
1. p pp (1.1)
(CD)
s-, w x
s, 0 6 s 6 m, p t 1 , . . . , tm .
s = 0 p pp

x : w(x) = 0 ,

w : X 0 R, X 0 X, (CD)
.
w t k, 0 6 k 6 n,
p x1 , . . . , xn , p p-
p (1.1) (CD) (n k)--
p.
(CD) s- (n k)-p
p pp

(t, x) : w(s t, k x) = 0 (1)

164
.. . 2, 1, . 2

Xjsk w(s t, k x) = j (t, x), (t, x) D0 , j = 1, m , D0 D, (2)

j (t, x)| = 0, j = 1, m . (3)


w(s t,k x)=0

1.3.7.1
p s--
(n k) -p p pp -
.
1. (CD) s--
(n k)-p p p-
p (1), D -


Wt (1, kX (t, x)) (t, x), = 1, s , = s + 1, m ,


Wt (kX j (t, x)) j (t, x), j = s + 1, m , = s + 1, m ,

(4)

W xp (1, kX (t, x)) p (t, x), = 1, s , p = k + 1, n ,


Wxp (kX (t, x)) p (t, x), = s + 1, m , p = k + 1, n ,


j : D R

jp : D R ,


j (t, x)| = 0, jp (t, x)| = 0,
w(s t,k x)=0 w(s t,k x)=0

j = 1, m , = s + 1, m , p = k + 1, n .

165
. 2, 1, . 2 ..

p X p (4).

+ k kX (t, x) = H (t, x), = 1, s ,

k kX (t, x) = t H (t, x), = 1, k ,


t

k kX (t, x) = x H (t, x), = 1, k ,


xp p

k kX (t, x) = H (t, x), (5)

k kX (t, x) = t H (t, x), = 1, k 1 ,


t

k kX (t, x) = x H (t, x), = 1, k 1 ,


xp p

= 1, s , = s + 1, m , p = k + 1, n , = s + 1, m ,

Hj : D R, j = 1, m , ,

Hj (t, x)| = 0, j = 1, m . (6)


w(st,kx)=0

(4.4.8.1) (5),

Hj (t, x) divx X j (t, x).

2.4.8.1 3.4.8.1
.
2 (pp s- (nk)-
p pp). -
(CD) s- (nk)-p-
p pp (1), -
p- s k, -
p (5), -

166
.. . 2, 1, . 2

p Hj , j = 1, m , (6), ,
p (5.3.7.1) pp -
, p-
p

w : (st, kx) w(st, kx), (st, kx) Ds+k .

3. h (5)
q D p-
(7.3.7.1), p
(8.3.7.1) p

w : (st, kx) w (st, kx), (st, kx) Ds+k , = 1, q . (7)

p
Ds+k .
p (7) (8.3.7.1) -
p s- (n k)-p p
pp

(t, x) : w (st, kx) = 0 , = 1, q , (8)

(CD).
p 3
D s- (n k)-p-
p pp (8)
(CD).

167
. 1, 2, . 2 ... ..

2.

1.
p p
(PCD).

p p
dx = P (t, x) dt, (PCD)

p P (t, x) = Pij (t, x) nm , (t, x) P, P = T Rn ,
T Rm , Pij : P R, i = 1, n , j = 1, m , -
p x p
T p t ,
.
(PCD) (IPCD).
Pij , i = 1, n , j = 1, m , ,
x P1j , . . . , Pnj p p-
j , deg x Pij (t, x) 6 pj i = 1, n
P1j , . . . , Pnj x p pj :
 
max degx Pij (t, x) = pj , j = 1, m , max pj = p.
i=1,n j=1,m

(PCD) pp
n
X
Pj (t, x) = tj + Pij (t, x)xi , (t, x) P, j = 1, m , (1)
i=1

pp pp .
p -
p p, -
p pp (p p-
), p .
168
.. ... . 2, 2, . 2

2. p
p. p pp-
, p p. p-
p. -
p, p . p p
p p , p-
(PCD) p
pp p.

1.

w : (t, x) w(t, x), (t, x) P, P = T Rn , T Rm , (1)

x p
T t , -
p (PCD), p -
(PCD) w p

Pj w(t, x) = w(t, x)Wj (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m , (2)

Wj x p -
T t .
Hp p p p-
p p
1. -
p (1) (PCD) p p

(t, x) : w(t, x) = 0 , (3)
p pp -
.
1. 1-a
x 
1
dx1 = + t1 x2 dt1 + t1 x2 dt2 ,
t1
 x1 x21   x1 x21 
dx2 = 1 + 2 + x22 dt1 + 1 + 2 + x22 x2 x3 dt2 , (4)
t1 t1 t1 t1

dx3 = x2 x3 dt1 + x2 (x2 + x3 ) dt2


169
. 2, 2, . 2 ... ..

1- p
x21
w : (t, x) 1 + + x22 + x23 , (t, x) T R3 , T {(t1 , t2 ) : t1 6= 0}.
t21
p p

(t, x) : x21 + t21 x22 + t21 x23 t21 = 0

1- p pp (4).
Hp p-
(1), p p 1
P. p p (3), , -
p (1) (PCD) -
p pp.
, -
, -
.
1. (PCD) -
, x p
t , -
p .
2. x
p t , p

1
: (t, x) , (t, x) P0 , P0 P,
k (t, x)
k -
(PCD). -
p .
3. w
(PCD), w
6= 0 -
.
,
, -
.
1
pp 2.
170
.. ... . 2, 2, . 2

4. p w1 w2 w1 w2 x
t -
p (PCD),
- w1 w2 -
p .
5. w -
(PCD), , -
w k , k ,
.
6.
w1 : P R w2 : P R (PCD) ,

Pj w1 (t, x) = 1 Wj (t, x)w1 (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m ,

Pj w2 (t, x) = 2 Wj (t, x)w2 (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m ,

1 , 2 R.
h h
F : (t, x) w1 1 (t, x) w2 2 (t, x), (t, x) P0 , P0 P,

h1 h2
1 h1 + 2 h2 = 0 |h1 | + |h2 | 6= 0,
P0 (PCD).
6 .
7. w 1 w2
p
(PCD), j = 1, m

Pj w1 (t, x) w1 (t, x)Wj (t, x) Pj w2 (t, x) w2 (t, x)Wj (t, x),

w1 w21 p p .
p , p
(PCD) p
pp p:

171
. 2, 2, . 2 ... ..

Pj w1 (t, x) w1 (t, x)
, j = 1, m .
Pj w2 (t, x) w2 (t, x)

8. w 1 w2
p
(PCD), j = 1, m

Pj w1 (t, x) w1 (t, x)Wj (t, x), Pj w2 (t, x) w2 (t, x)Wj (t, x),

w1 w2 p p .
p ,
p (PCD)
p p-
:
Pj w1 (t, x) w1 (t, x)
, j = 1, m .
Pj w2 (t, x) w2 (t, x)

pp 2.

dx1 = 2x2 z 2 (x) (1 + z(x))(2x2 x1 z(x)) (dt1 dt2 ),
 
dx2 = (1 + z(x)) 2x1 + x2 z(x) 2x1 z 2 (x) (dt1 dt2 ), (5)
 
dx3 = z(x) + x23 + (z(x) x23 )2 dt1 + z(x) + x23 (z(x) x23 )2 dt2 ,

z(x) = x21 + x22 , x R3 , , R5


p
w : (t, x) c + z(x),
c = const, p
 
d c + z(x) | = 2 1 + z(x) z 2 (x) (dt1 dt2 ).
(5)

p 1 4

w1 : (t, x) 1 + z(x), (t, x) R5 , w2 : (t, x) z(x), (t, x) R5 ,

172
.. ... . 3, 2, . 2

p
n1 n2 n1 n2
w1 w2 : (t, x) 1 + z(x) z (x), (t, x) R5 ,

n1 , n2 p , 1--
p p (5).
p 1-p
p w1 p p pp (5),
1-p p w 2
p 3-p p {x : x1 = x2 = 0}, p -
1-p p p -
(5).

3. p
p p.

.

1. p
P

(1.2) (PCD) p = 1 + f ,
=1
x p T
t Qh g Rh g j , p

Pj Kh g
(t, x) = Rh g j
(t, x), (t, x) P0 ,

= 1, , h N, g = 1, f , j = 1, m ,

Qh g
(t, x)

Kh g
(t, x) = h
, (t, x) P0 , P0 P,

w (t, x)

w(t, x) 6= 0, (t, x) P0 , p Qh g -

173
. 3, 2, . 2 ... ..

p w, Rh g j , j = 1, m

n o
max degx Rh g j: = 1, , h N, g = 1, f 6 pj 1.

pp 1 (p pp 2.2). p

1
d = 2(1 + x21 + x22 )(dt1 dt2 ), (t, x) P0 ,
x21 + x22
(5.2)

P0 {(t, x) : x21 + x22 6= 0}.


1-p
p
w2 : (t, x) x21 + x22 , (t, x) R5 ,

(5.2) p.

(PCD) -
.
1. (PCD) -
w1 : P R ,

Pj w1 (t, x) = 1 W1j (t, x)w1 (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m , 1 R,

w 2 : P R -
2 ,

Pj K2 h g
(t, x) = R2 h g j
(t, x), (t, x) P0 ,
2 2 2 2
(1)
2 = 1, 2 , h N, g = 1, f , j = 1, m ,
2 2 2

h g
2 2

R2 h g j
(t, x) = 2 W1j (t, x), (t, x) P0 , j = 1, m , 2 R.
2 2

174
.. ... . 3, 2, . 2



 
F : (t, x) w1 1 (t, x) exp 2 K2 h g
(t, x) , (t, x) P0 ,
2 2

1 2

1 1 + 2 2 = 0 (2)

|1 | + |2 | 6= 0,
P0 (PCD).
2. (PCD) -
w 1 : P R -
1 ,

Pj K1 h g
(t, x) = R1 h g j
(t, x), (t, x) P0 ,
1 1 1 1

1 = 1, 1 , h N, g = 1, f , j = 1, m ,
1 1 1

w 2 : P R -
2 , (1)
h g
2 2

R2 h g j
(t, x) = R1 h g j
(t, x),
2 2 1 1

(t, x) P0 , j = 1, m , R,

h g .
1 1

F : (t, x) K1 h g
(t, x) + K2 h g
(t, x), (t, x) P0 ,
1 1 2 2

P 0 -
(PCD).

175
. 4, 2, . 2 ... ..

4. p
p. -
-
. -
.

1.

: (t, x) exp v(t, x), (t, x) P, P = T R n , T Rm ,

v : (t, x) v(t, x), (t, x) P,

x p T t -
, p
(PCD),

Pj v(t, x) = Sj (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m , (1)

Sj x p T t
, deg x Sj (t, x) 6 pj 1, j = 1, m .
pp 1 (p pp 1.2). p
x1
d = x2 (dt1 + dt2 ), (t, x) T R3 ,
t1
(4.2)


x1
: (t, x) exp , (t, x) T R3 ,
t1
1- 2-p p-
T R3 (4.2).

-
(PCD) .

176
.. ... . 4, 2, . 2

1. (PCD) -
w : P R ,

Pj w(t, x) = 1 Wj (t, x)w(t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m , 1 R,

: P R , -
(1)

Sj (t, x) = 2 Wj (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m , 2 R.


1 
F : (t, x) w (t, x) exp 2 v(t, x) , (t, x) P,

1 2
(2.1) |1 | + |2 | 6= 0, -
P (PCD).
2. (PCD) -
w : P R ,

Pj Kh g
(t, x) = 1 Rh g j
(t, x), (t, x) P0 ,

= 1, , h N, g = 1, f , j = 1, m , 1 R,

: P R , -
(1)

Sj (t, x) = 2 Rh g j
(t, x), (t, x) P0 , j = 1, m , 2 R,

h g .

F : (t, x) 1 Kh g
(t, x) + 2 v(t, x), (t, x) P0 ,

1 2
(2.1) |1 | + |2 | 6= 0, -
P0 (PCD).
177
. 5, 2, . 2 ... ..

3. (PCD) -

k : (t, x) exp vk (t, x), (t, x) P, k = 1, k = 2,

Pj vk (t, x) = k Sj (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m , k = 1, k = 2.

F : (t, x) 1 v1 (t, x) + 2 v2 (t, x), (t, x) P,

1 2
(2.1) |1 | + |2 | 6= 0, -
P (PCD).

5.
A (PCD). (PCDA). pp p -
(PCD) A. pp (PCD) -
A p p. p p -
(PCDA), p
p.

p p p p -
p p (PCD)
p
p p.
p p

wk : (t, x) wk (t, x), (t, x) P, k = 1, s + r , (1)

p T t
(PCD) p s > 0 p l , l = 1, s , -
. p , q > 0 p-
(PCD)

: (t, x) exp v (t, x), (t, x) P, = 1, q . (2)

178
.. ... . 5, 2, . 2

pp
s
X
`=r+q+ l .
l=1

(PCD) ` > 1, ,
(PCD) A
(PCD) A. (PCD) (IPCD) A
(PCDA) (IPCDA) .
p 1.2, 1.3 1.4 -
pp p (PCD) A.
1. (PCD) p A,

p ` > 1 P P -

Pj wk wk Wkj , Pj Klh g
Rlh g j
, Pj v Sj ,

l l l l

k = 1, s + r , h N, g = 1, f , l = 1, l , (3)
l l l

l = 1, s , = 1, q , j = 1, m ,

Wkj x p T
t ,

Qlh g
(t, x)

l l
Klh g
(t, x) = h
, (t, x) P,
l l l
w (t, x)
l

x p t
Qlh g , Rlh g j Sj p -

l l l l
p p
p.
H p (1) -
p p (2)
(PCD) p Pe P
179
. 5, 2, . 2 ... ..

s+r
Y
X : (t, x) w k (t, x),
k
k=1

l
f
s X
X X l q
X
Y : (t, x) lh g
Klh g
(t, x) + v (t, x),

l=1 l =1 g =1 l l l l =1
l

k , lh g
, p R.

l l


e
W : (t, x) X(t, x) exp Z(t) + Y (t, x) , (t, x) P, (4)

Z : Te R p , p t -
Te , p Pe -
p pp Ot, (3)
p p P e (PCD),

e j = 1, m ,
tj Z(t) + j (t, x) = 0, (t, x) P, (5)

l
f
s+r
X s X
X X l

j (t, x) = k Wkj (t, x)+ lh g


Rlh g j
(t, x) +

k=1 l=1 l =1 g =1 l l l l
l

q
X
+ e j = 1, m .
Sj (t, x), (t, x) P,
=1

pp (PCD)
A p p (4), p p p
p.

180
.. ... . 5, 2, . 2

1. (PCDA) p-
p (4) Pe P,
p Te ,
p Pe p-
pp Ot, Z : Te R -
k , lh g , , -

l l
(5).
p p p

: (t, x) F w1 (t, x), . . . , ws+r (t, x), K1h 1 (t, x), . . . ,


1

 (6)
Ksh e
(t, x), v1 (t, x), . . . , vq (t, x) Z(t), (t, x) P,
s fs

F Z p p , -
(PCDA), p -
p (1) p
p (2).
p pp , (PCD)
p p (6), p
w1 , . . . , ws+r , Kh 1 , . . . , Ksh f , v1 , . . . , vq .
1 s s
p p (6)

e : (t, x) Fe ln w (t, x), . . . , ln w (t, x), K


1 s+r 1h 1 (t, x), . . . , 1
(7)

Ksh (t, x), v1 (t, x), . . . , vq (t, x) ln Z(t), (t, x) P,
s fs

Fe p p .
(3) (7) p

p P P (PCDA)
,

181
. 5, 2, . 2 ... ..

l f
s+r
X s X
X Xl

Wkj ln w ln Fe + Rlh g j
K ln Fe +
k lh g
k=1 l=1 l =1 g =1 l l
l l
l
(8)
q
X
+ Sj v ln Fe + tj ln Z(t) = 0, (t, x) P, j = 1, m .
=1

yk = ln wk , k = 1, s + r, ys+r+1 = K1h 1 , . . . ,
1
(9)
ys+r+ = Ksh , ys+r++ = v , = 1, q ,
s fs

l
P
s P
= f .
l=1 l =1 l

(8) p-

(PCDA) p (7) P,
p
p
m
X
dx = P (t, x) dt, dyk = Wkj (t, x) dtj , k = 1, s + r ,
j=1

m
X
dys+r+1 = R1h (t, x) dtj , . . . , (10)
1 1j
j=1

m
X
dys+r+ = Rsh (t, x) dtj ,
s fs j
j=1

m
X
dys+r++ = Sj (t, x) dtj , = 1, q ,
j=1

182
.. ... . 5, 2, . 2

m+n+
V pp R n-p
p p

e : (t, x, y) Fe(y) ln Z(t), (t, x, y) V,


y = (y1 , . . . , y ), = s + r + + q.
p (8) -
p (10) V

s+r
X
Wkj (t, x)y ln Fe(y) + R1h (t, x)ys+r+1 ln Fe(y) + . . . +
k 1 1j
k=1

+ Rsh (t, x)y ln Fe(y) + (11)


s fs j s+r+

q
X
+ Sj (t, x)y ln Fe(y) + tj ln Z(t) = 0, j = 1, m ,
s+r++
=1


V = P Y, Y R p
m+n
P R p p (9).
(11) ,

y Fe(y) = k a(y), y Y, k = 1, s + r ,
k

ys+r+ Fe(y) = a(y), y Y, = 1, ,

y Fe(y) = a(y), y Y, = 1, q ,
s+r++

k , , , p Y -
a , Z(t) 6 const

T .

183
. 5, 2, . 2 ... ..

, (8) ,

P

ln w ln Fe k a, K ln Fe lh g
a, v ln Fe a,
k lh g
l l
l l

k = 1, s + r , h N, g = 1, f , (12)
l l l

l = 1, l , l = 1, s , = 1, q ,

k R, lh g
R, R, p -

l l
Y a ,

Z(t) 6 const T .
p, p 1, ,
p.
2. (PCDA) p p
(6) P, e p (4).
pp 1 (p pp 1.2 1.4). 1--
p

x21
w : (t, x) 1 + + x22 + x23 , (t, x) T R3 ,
t21

1- 2-p p
x1
: (t, x) exp , (t, x) T R3 ,
t1
(4.2) p 1- p p
 x2   x1 
F : (t, x) 1 21 x22 x23 exp 2 , (t, x) T R3 .
t1 t1

184
.. ... . 6, 2, . 2

6.
pp (PCDA) -
p. (PCDA),
p -
p.

(3.5) p
e
P P

e
: (t, x) X(t, x) exp Z(t) + Y (t, x) , (t, x) P, (1)

Pe (PCDA), -

e j = 1, m .
tj Z(t) + j (t, x) = div Pj (t, x), (t, x) P, (2)

pp -
(PCDA) (1), p
p.
1. (PCDA) -
p Pe P -
(1), -
p Te , p-
Pe p pp Ot,
Z : Te R k ,
lh g , , (2).

e
p P
P

: (t, x) F w1 (t, x), . . . , ws+r (t, x), K1h 1 (t, x), . . . ,


1

 (3)
Ksh e
(t, x), v1 (t, x), . . . , vq (t, x) Z(t), (t, x) P,
s fs

185
. 6, 2, . 2 ... ..

(PCDA) , (PCDA) -
(3) p p (6.5), p-

wk , k = 1, s + r , K1h 1 , . . . , Ksh , v , = 1, q ,
1 s fs

p p -
p (6.5).
p , (8.5), -
, p

div Pj (t, x),


.
,

(12.5), p Y -
a ,

tj Z(t) 6 div Pj (t, x), (t, x) P, j = 1, m .

p 1 p
.
2. (PCDA) -
(3), p (1).

186
.. ... . 1, 3, . 2

3.



(PCD)
dx = P (x) dt, (APCD)

Pij : x Pij (x), x Rn , i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,



P (x) = Pij (x) nm x1 , . . . , xn -

max deg Pij (x) = pj , j = 1, m , -
i=1,n
.
(APCD)
n
X
pj (x) = Pij (x)xi , x Rn , j = 1, m , (1)
i=1

Pj (tj , x) = tj + pj (x), (tj , x) Rn+1 , j = 1, m . (2)

(2), (1), -
(APCD), -
(1) -
(APCD).

1.
p. -
. -
-
.
. -
, -
187
. 1, 3, . 2 ... ..

.
-
. -
. -
,
. -

. -
. -
.

(APCD), (PCD), -
(1.2.2)
1.2.2 (1.1.2)
(1.0), -
(PCD) (APCD) .
(1.2.2) (APCD) -
.
p 1.

w : Rn R (1)

-
(APCD), -
(APCD) w

pj w(x) = w(x)Wj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , (2)

Wj : Rn R, j = 1, m , .
pp 1 ( 2.2.2). -
2.2.2
(5.2.2)
(1-)

w1 : x 1 + x21 + x22 , x R3 , (3)

w2 : x x21 + x22 , x R3 .

188
.. ... . 1, 3, . 2



p 2.

w : Rn C (4)

-
(APCD), -
(APCD) (4)

pj w(x) = w(x) Wj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , (5)

Wj , j = 1, m , x Rn , ,
.
(5) Rn -
j = 1, m

pj Re w(x) = Re w(x) Re Wj (x) Im w(x) Im Wj (x),


(6)
pj Im w(x) = Re w(x) Im Wj (x) + Im w(x) Re Wj (x).

-

(APCD).
1. (4) -

(APCD) ,
(6).


p-
p.
1. (APCD) -
(4),

w : x Re w(x) i Im w(x), x Rn ,

189
. 1, 3, . 2 ... ..

-
(APCD), -

pj w(x) = w(x) Wj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m ,

Wj , j = 1, m , -
Wj , j = 1, m , (5).
, 1 Rn ,

pj w = pj Re w i Im w = pj Re w i pj Im w =

= Re w Re Wj Im w Im Wj i Re w Im Wj + Im w Re Wj =
 
= Re w i Im w Re Wj i Im Wj = w Wj , j = 1, m .

2. (APCD) -

(4),

p : x Re2 w(x) + Im2 w(x), x Rn , (7)


(APCD) Rn
 
pj Re2 w + Im2 w 2 Re2 w + Im2 w Re Wj , j = 1, m , (8)

Wj , j = 1, m , (5).
, 1 Rn :

pj Re2 w + Im2 w = 2 Re w pj Re w + 2 Im w pj Im w =

= 2 Re w Re w Re Wj Im w Im Wj + 2 Im w Re w Im Wj +
 
+ Im w Re Wj = 2 Re2 w + Im2 w Re Wj , j = 1, m .

190
.. ... . 1, 3, . 2

3. (APCD) -

(4). (APCD) -

: x exp (x), x X,

Im w(x)
: x arctg , x X, (9)
Re w(x)

pj exp (x) = exp (x) Im Wj (x), x X, j = 1, m , (10)

Wj , j = 1, m , (5), -
X Rn ,
Rn Re w.
, 1 :

Im w(x)
pj exp (x) = exp (x) pj (x) = exp (x) pj arctg =
Re w(x)

exp (x) Re w(x) pj Im w(x) Im w(x) pj Re w(x)


= 2 =
Im w(x) Re2 w(x)
1+
Re2 w(x)

exp (x)
= Re w(x) Re w(x) Im Wj (x) +
Re w(x) + Im2 w(x)
2


+ Im w(x) Re Wj (x) Im w(x) Re w(x) Re Wj (x)

Im w(x) Im Wj (x) = exp (x) Im Wj (x), x X, j = 1, m .

191
. 1, 3, . 2 ... ..

(9) -
(4). (10)

pj (x) = Im Wj (x), x X, j = 1, m . (11)


(APCD)
(4).
p 1 2 ,
4.2.2,
4. u1 u2 u1 : Rn K
u2 : Rn K, K R -
C , -
( )
(APCD) , -
u1 u2
(APCD).
1
5. (7) -

(APCD), (APCD) -
-
(4) ( ).
pp 2 (p pp 2.2.2 1). p p-
p 2.2.2 (5.2.2) -
p

w2 : x x21 + x22 , x R3 .

x21 + x22 = (x1 + i x2 )(x1 i x2 ), x R3 ,

5 (5.2.2) -
p

w1 : x x1 + i x2 , w2 : x x1 i x2 , x R3 .
p (3) (5.2.2), 4 -
,

192
.. ... . 1, 3, . 2

n1 m1 m2
u: x w1 (x) w1 (x) w2 (x), x R3 ,
p p n1 , m1 , m2 -
p ( -
) (5.2.2).
,
p (3) p p p
{x : w1 (x) = 0}

pp R3 . -
p w1 w2 p -
p p pp R 3 p
{x : x1 = x2 = 0}.

p 1.3.2, p -
p (PCD),
(APCD) p
p ( ).
p 3.
p (1) (APCD) , -
Qh g : Rn R Rh g j : Rn R, -

pj Kh g
(x) = Rh g j
(x), x X,

(12)
= 1, , h N, g = 1, f , j = 1, m ,

Qh g
(x)

Kh g
(x) = h
, x X, = 1, , h N, g = 1, f ,

w (x)

X Rn , w(x) 6= 0, x X, p:
1) Qh g , = 1, , h N, g = 1, f ,

p p (1);
193
. 1, 3, . 2 ... ..

2) Rh g j, j = 1, m , ,

n o
max deg Rh g j (x) : = 1, , h N, g = 1, f 6 pj 1.

P

= 1 + f p -
=1
p (1).
pp 1.3.2 p p
p (5.2.2).
3.

dx1 = x1 (1 + x1 + x2 ) dt1 + 2x1 (1 + x1 + x2 ) dt2 ,


(13)
dx2 = (2x2 + x21 + x1 x2 + x22 ) dt1 + (4x2 + x21 + 2x1 x2 + 2x22 ) dt2

w : x x1 , x R2 , (14)
p (2)

W1 : x 1 + x1 + x2 , x R2 , W2 : x 2(1 + x1 + x2 ), x R2 .

p (13)

x2 (2 + 2x1 + x2 )
d =
x21
(13)

1  2 
= 4 x1 d(2x2 + 2x1 x2 + x22 )| (2x2 + 2x1 x2 + x22 ) dx21 | =
x1 (13) (13)

2 
= 3 x2 (2 + x1 + x2 ) dx1 x1 (1 + x1 + x2 ) dx2 | =
x1 (13)

2(1 + x1 + x2 )
= x2 (2 + x1 + x2 )(dt1 + 2dt2 )
x21

194
.. ... . 1, 3, . 2

(2x2 + x21 + x 1 x2 + x22 ) dt1 (4x2 + x21 + 2x1 x2 + 2x22 ) dt2 =

= 2(1 + x1 + x2 )(dt1 + dt2 ), (t, x) R2 X, X = {x : x1 6= 0}.

(12) p

= = 1, h1 = 2, g1 = f1 = 1,
Q21 (x) = x2 (2 + 2x1 + x2 ), x R2 ,

R211 (x) = R212 (x) = 2(1 + x1 + x2 ), x R2 ,

p Q21 p
p (14), R211 R212 p
1 p p1 1 = p2 1 = 1.
p 3
p (14) (13) p = 1 + f 1 = 2.
Q11 , p
(14), , (12) p h 1 = 1,
, R2 X p (13)

Q11 (x)
d = (1 + 1 x1 + 1 x2 ) dt1 + (2 + 2 x1 + 2 x2 ) dt2 .
x1
(13)

, R2 X

Q11 (x) 1 
d = 2 x1 dQ11 (x) Q11 (x) dx1 | =
x1 x1 (13)
(13)

1  
= x1 x1 Q11 (x) Q11 (x) dx1 + x1 x2 Q11 (x) dx2 | =
x21 (13)

1 
= (1 + x1 + x2 ) x1 x1 Q11 (x) Q11 (x) + (2x2 + x21 + x1 x2 +
x1

 1 
+ x22 )x2 Q11 (x) dt1 + 2(1 + x1 + x2 ) x1 x1 Q11 (x) Q11 (x) +
x1

+ (4x2 + x21 + 2x1 x2 + 2x22 )x2 Q11 (x) dt2 ,

195
. 1, 3, . 2 ... ..

x1 (1 + x1 + x2 ) x1 Q11 (x) + (2x2 + x21 + x1 x2 + x22 ) x2 Q11 (x) =

= (1 + x1 + x2 )Q11 (x) + x1 (1 + 1 x1 + 1 x2 ), x R2 .


N
X
Q11 (x) = aij xi1 xj2 , x R2 ,
i+j=1

p a0j = 0, j = 0, N .
, Q11 p (14).
, p pp 3, p , p
p -
p (1) (12) p h
p -
.
p p-

p.
p 4.
p (4) (APCD)
,
Qh g : Rn C Rh g j : Rn C, p -

pj Kh g
(x) = Rh g j
(x), x X,

(15)
= 1, e , h N, g = 1, f , j = 1, m ,

Qh g
(x)

Kh g
(x) = h
, x X, = 1, e , h N, g = 1, f ,

w (x)

196
.. ... . 1, 3, . 2

X Rn , w(x) 6= 0, x X, p:
1) Qh g , = 1, e , h N, g = 1, f ,

p -
p (4);
2) Rh g j , j = 1, m , ,

n o
max deg Rh g j (x) : = 1, e , h N, g = 1, f 6 pj 1.

P
e
z = 1 + f p -
=1
p (4).
(15)

pj Re Kh g
(x) = Re Rh g j
(x), pj Im Kh g
(x) = Im Rh g j
(x),

(16)
x X, = 1, e , h N, g = 1, f , j = 1, m .

H 1, p 4 p -
(15) (16),
6. (APCD) -
-
p (4) p z. p
p
(APCD) p z.
pp 4.

dx1 = x2 (2x1 + x21 x22 ) dt1 + x1 (4x2 + x21 x22 ) dt2 ,


(17)
dx2 = ( x21 + x22 + 2x1 x22 ) dt1 + 2( x21 + x22 + x21 x2 ) dt2

,
w : x x1 + i x2 , x R2 ,

197
. 1, 3, . 2 ... ..

W1 : x x2 (1 + x1 ) i(x1 x22 ), x R2 ,

W2 : x 2x2 + x21 i x1 (2 x2 ), x R2 ,

(5).

Q11 : x x1 i (1 x2 ), x R2 .

X = R2 \{(0, 0)} p (17)

Q11 (x)  i  i
pj = pj 1 = p (x1 + i x2 ) =
w(x) x1 + i x 2 (x1 + i x2 )2 j

i i
= w(x) Wj (x) = Wj (x), j = 1, 2,
(x1 + i x2 )2 x1 + i x 2

R111 (x) = 1 + i x2 , x X, R112 (x) = 2 + i x1 , x X. (18)

p 4, -
p w p.
5.

dx1 = x2 ( x21 + x22 ) dt1 + x1 (2x2 + x21 x22 ) dt2 ,


(19)
dx2 = 2x1 x22 dt1 + ( x21 + x22 + 2x21 x2 ) dt2

,
w : x x1 + i x2 , x R2 ,

p, (5)

W1 : x x2 (x1 + i x2 ), x R2 ,

W2 : x x2 + x21 i x1 (1 x2 ), x R2 .

198
.. ... . 1, 3, . 2


Q11 : x 1 + x1 + i x2 , x R2 .

X = R2 \{(0, 0)} p (19)

Q11 (x)  1  1
pj = pj 1 + = p (x1 + i x2 ) =
w(x) x1 + ix2 (x1 + i x2 )2 j

1 1
= w(x) Wj (x) = Wj (x), j = 1, 2,
(x1 + i x2 )2 x1 + i x 2

R111 (x) = x2 , x X, R112 (x) = x1 + i, x X. (20)

p 4, -
p w p.
(APCD)
p (p 1.4.2).
p 5.
: x exp v(x), x Rn ,
v : Rn R , -
p (APCD), p-
(APCD) p

pj v(x) = Sj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , (21)

Sj deg Sj (x) 6 pj 1, j = 1, m .
p pp
p , p p p-
{x : (x) = 0} (APCD) pp,
, p p
pp.
pp 6.

dx1 = (1 + x1 + x22 ) dt1 + (2 + x2 + x1 x2 + x22 ) dt2 ,


(22)
dx2 = (x1 + x22 ) dt1 + x2 (1 + x1 + x2 ) dt2
199
. 2, 3, . 2 ... ..

: x exp(x1 x2 ), x R2 , (23)

p (21)

S1 : x 1, x R2 , S2 : x 2, x R2 . (24)

2. p
A (APCD). pp p
(APCD) A. pp (APCD)
A p p p. pp
(APCD) A p. -
p p (APCDA), p -
p.
(APCDA), p
p.

(APCD) s + r -
p

wk : Rn R, k = 1, s + r , (1)

p p p s > 0 p
l , l = 1, s , s + r -
p

wk : Rn C, k = 1, s + r , (2)

p p p s > 0 p
zl , l = 1, s .
, q > 0

: x exp v (x), x Rn , = 1, q , (3)

v : Rn R, = 1, q , .

200
.. ... . 2, 3, . 2

s
X s
X
`=r+r+ l + zl + q.
l=1 l=1

(APCD) ` > 1, ,
(APCD) A
(APCDA).
1.1 5.1 2.1
3.1
(APCD) A.
p 1. (APCD) A, -

pj wk (x) = wk (x)Wkj (x), pj Klh g


(x) = Rlh g j
(x),

l l l l

 
pj Re2 wk (x) + Im2 wk (x) = 2 Re2 wk (x) + Im2 wk (x) Re Wkj (x),

Im wk (x)
pj arctg = Im Wkj (x), pj Re Klh g (x) = Re Rlh g j (x),
Re wk (x)
l l

l l

(4)
pj Im Klh g
(x) = Im Rlh g j
(x), pj v (x) = Sj (x), x X,

l l l l

j = 1, m , k = 1, s + r , l = 1, s , l = 1, l , h N, g = 1, f ,
l l l

k = 1, s + r , l = 1, s , l = 1, el , h N, g = 1, f , = 1, q ,
l l l

Wkj : Rn R, Wkj : Rn C ;

Qlh g
(x) Qlh g
(x)

l l l l
Klh g
(x) = h
, Klh g
(x) = h
, x X;

l
l l
w (x) l l
w l
(x)

201
. 2, 3, . 2 ... ..

Rlh g j
: Rn R, Rlh g j
: Rn C,

l l l l

Qlh g
: Rn R, Qlh g
: Rn C Sj : Rn R

l l l l

-
-
,
l el
X X
l = 1 + f , zl = 1 + f .
l l
l =1 l =1

-
(1) (2) -
(3) (APCDA)

s+r
Y s+r
Y
k 
X: x wk (x) Re2 wk (x) + Im2 wk (x) k
, x X 0 ,
k=1 k=1

f
l
s X l q
X X X
Y:x lh g
Klh g
(x) + v (x) +

l=1 l =1 g =1 l l l l =1
l

el
f
s+r
X s X
X X l
Im wk (x)
+ k arctg + lh g Re Klh g (x) +
Re wk (x)
l l

l l
k=1 l=1 l =1 g =1
l

el
f
s X
X X l

+ lh g
Im Klh g
(x), x X 0 , X 0 X,

l=1 l =1 g =1 l l l l
l

202
.. ... . 2, 3, . 2

k , k , lh g
, , k , lh g
, lh g
R.

l l l l l l



W : (t, x) X(x) exp It + Y (x) , (t, x) Rm X 0 , (5)

I = (I1 , . . . , Im ), Ij R, j = 1, m , -
(4) R m X 0
(APCDA),

Ij + j (x) = 0, x Rn , j = 1, m , (6)

l
f
s+r
X s X
X X l

j : x k Wkj (x) + lh g
Rlh g j
(x) +

k=1 l=1 l =1 g =1 l l l l
l

el
f
s+r
X s X
X X l

+2 k Re Wkj (x) + lh g
Re Rlh g j
(x) +

k=1 l=1 l =1 g =1 l l l l
l

q
X s+r
X
+ Sj (x) + k Im Wkj (x) +
=1 k=1

f
el
s X l
X X
+ lh g
Im Rlh g j
(x), x Rn .

l=1 l =1 g =1 l l l l
l


p 2. (APCDA) -
(5),
k , k , k , lh g , lh g , lh g , , Ij ,

l l l l l l

(6).
203
. 2, 3, . 2 ... ..

(4) -
,

: (t, x) X(x) exp It + Y (x) , (t, x) Rm X 0 , (7)

R m X 0
(APCDA),

Ij + j (x) = div pj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , (8)


p 3. (APCDA) -
(7), -
k , k , k , lh g , lh g , lh g ,

l l l l l l

Ij , (8).

(APCD) A -
.
p 4. (APCDA)


: (t, x) F w1 (x), . . . , ws+r (x), K1h 1 (x), . . . , Ksh f (x),
1 s s

Re2 w1 (x) + Im2 w1 (x), . . . , Re2 ws+r (x) + Im2 ws+r (x),

Im w1 (x) Im ws+r (x)


arctg , . . . , arctg , (9)
Re w1 (x) Re ws+r (x)

Re K1h 1 (x), . . . , Re Ksh (x), Im K1h 1 (x), . . . , Im Ksh (x),


1 e s fe s 1 e s fe s


e
v1 (x), . . . , vq (x) Z(t), (t, x) P,

F Z , -

204
.. ... . 2, 3, . 2

(1) (2)
(3)1 , -
(5).
p p, -
p 2.5.2.


: (t, x) F w1 (x), . . . , ws+r (x), K1h 1 (x), . . . , Ksh f (x),
1 s s

Re2 w1 (x) + Im2 w1 (x), . . . , Re2 ws+r (x) + Im2 ws+r (x),

Im w1 (x) Im ws+r (x)


arctg , . . . , arctg , (10)
Re w1 (x) Re ws+r (x)

Re K1h 1 (x), . . . , Re Ksh (x), Im K1h 1 (x), . . . , Im Ksh (x),


1 e s fe s 1 e s fe s

v1 (x), . . . , vq (x) Z(t), (t, x) P,

(APCDA) , (APCDA)
(9) (10),
-
(. 1) .
p 5. (APCDA) -
(10), F Z -
, -
(1) (2)
(3), -
(7).
4 5 (APCD) A
.
1
, (APCDA)
(9), w k ,
Im wk
k = 1, s + r , K1h 1 , . . . , Ksh f , Re2 wk + Im2 wk , arctg , k = 1, s+k ,
1 s s Re wk
Re K1h , . . . , Re Ksh , Im K1h , . . . , Im Ksh , v , = 1, q .
11 es f es 11 es f es

205
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

3.

3.1. (APCD) A
p p -
p . p -
p p .


(1.2) (2.2) -
(3.2)
-
(APCDA).
n, m, p1 , . . . , pm ,
m
X  
n + pj 1
c= cj , c j = , j = 1, m .
n
j=1

p 1. (APCDA) ` = c m
(5.2) Rm X 0 ,
(7.2).
. 2.2 (5.2)
R m X 0 (AP CDA)
, (6.2).
3.2 (7.2) -
(APCDA) ,
(8.2).
(8.2) ` = c m -
, c , , -
, c k , k , k , lh g , lh g ,

l l l l

lh g , , Ij ; (6.2) ` = c m -

l l
c c
.
. -
.
6= 0. ,
(8.2), ; (7.2), -
206
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

, -
(APCDA).
= 0, , (6.2),
; (5.2), -
, R m X 0
(APCDA).
1, , -
.
1. (APCDA) ` = c m,
= 0, (5.2).
2. (APCDA) ` = c m,
6= 0, (7.2).
-
(APCDA) 1 -

p 2. (APCDA) ` = c -

F : x X(x) exp Y (x), x X 0 , (1)

X 0 ,

: x X(x) exp Y (x), x X 0 , X 0 Rn . (2)

-
(1) -
(2), 1 2
3. (APCDA) ` = c, -
= 0, (1).
4. (APCDA) ` = c, -
6= 0, (2).
1 2
.
5. (APCDA) ` = c m + 1 -
(5.2) R m X 0 ,
= 0 (1) X 0 .
6. (APCDA) ` = c + 1 -
(1) X 0 .

207
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

3.2. (IAPCD) A
. -
.

(APCDA) ,
, -
, -
.
(APCD) m -
n- p

dx = P j (x) dtj , (APDj)



- P j (x) = colon P1j (x), . . . , Pnj (x) , x Rn ,
j - (n m)- P, j = 1, m .
,
,
(APCD) (APDj), j = 1, m .
p 1. (APCD) :
) F X 0
Rn ;
)
w : Rn R ;
)
w : Rn C z;
) ,

(APDj), j = 1, m , :
) F X 0 ;
)
w : Rn R c ;
)
w : Rn C z;
) .
(IAPCD)
-
(1.2) (3.2).
208
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

p 3. (IAPCDA) ` = c k ,
k {1, . . . , m}, (APDk) -

j : x j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , j 6= k, (3)

pp Rn . (5.2)
Rm X 0 (IAPCDA).
. ` = ck , 5
m = 1 ,

Fk : (tk , x) X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) , (tk , x) R X 0 , (4)
(APDk)

Pk (tk , x) X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) = 0, (tk , x) R X 0 . (5)

Rm X 0

Pj (tj , x) X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) =
 (6)
= X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) j (x), j = 1, m , j 6= k.

(IAPCDA),
P k , k 6= j,
(6) -
(5), ,

pk j (x) = 0, x Rn , j = 1, m , j 6= k. (7)

(APDk) (3),
(7) ,

j (x) = Ij , x Rn , j = 1, m , j 6= k. (8)

, (8)

Pj (tj , x) X(x) exp It+Y (x) = 0, (t, x) Rm X 0 , j = 1, m ,
209
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

, (5.2)
Rm X 0 (IAPCDA).
p 4. (IAPCDA) ` = c k 1,
k {1, . . . , m}, (APDk) pp
Rn (3)

j : x j (x) + div pj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , j 6= k, (9)

(IAPCDA)
(5.2) Rm X 0 , (7.2).
. , R n

 
pj (x), pk (x) = 0 = pj div pk (x) = pk div pj (x). (10)


(APDk) , ` = ck 1.
1 m = 1
(4)

: (tk , x) X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) , (tk , x) R X 0 , (11)
(APDk) -
, (5)

Pk (tk , x) X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) =
(12)

= X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) div pk (x), (tk , x) R X 0 ,

. -
ck . k .
k 6= 0.
2 m = 1
(APDk) (11), ,
(12).
,
(APDk) (9).

210
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

(IAPCDA),
P k , k 6= j,
(6) -
, (12) (10) ,

pk j (x) + div pj (x) = 0, x Rn , j = 1, m , j 6= k.

j (x) + div pj (x) = Ij , x Rn , j = 1, m , j 6= k, Ij = const,

(APDk) (9).
Rm X 0

Pj (t, x) X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) =
 
= Ij + div pj (x) X(x) exp Ik tk + Y (x) , j = 1, m , j 6= k,

(7.2) (IAPCDA).
k = 0 ,
(5.2) R m X 0 -
(IAPCDA).
7. 4
k 6= 0, (7.2)
(IAPCDA).
8. 4
k = 0, (5.2) -
Rm X 0 (IAPCDA).
1.

dx1 = 2x1 x2 dt1 + ( x21 + x22 ) dt2 ,


(13)
dx2 = ( x21 + x22 ) dt1 2x1 x2 dt2
-

w1 : x x1 + i x2 , w2 : x x1 i x2 , x R2 ,

211
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

W11 : x x2 i x1 , W12 : x x1 i x2 , x R2 ,

W21 : x x2 + i x1 , W22 : x x1 + i x2 , x R2 .

` = 2.
p (APD1)
dx1 dx2
= 2x1 x2 , = x21 + x22
dt1 dt1
2+21

c1 = 2 = 3, , ` = c1 1.

F : x 21 x1 + 1 x2 4x1 , x R2 ,

(9),

2 0
1 = = 2.
0 1

7
1
: x , x R2 \{(0, 0)},
(x21 + x22 )2

(13).

3.3.
p p p -
p. p
p p
p.

-
( )
-
(APCDA) .

212
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

p 5. (APCDA):
1) -
w : Rn R

pj w(x) = w(x)Wj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m ,

Wj , j = 1, m , ;
2) -
w : Rn C

pj w(x) = w(x)Wj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , (14)

Re Wj , j = 1, m , -
;
3) -
w : Rn C (14)
Im Wj , j = 1, m , -
;
4) -
w : Rn R

pj Kh g (x) = Rh g j (x), x X,

j = 1, m , = 1, , h N, g = 1, f ,

h g Rh g j , j = 1, m , -

;
5) -
w : Rn C c z

pj Kh g (x) = Rh g j (x), x X,

(15)
j = 1, m , = 1, e , h N, g = 1, f ,

h g Re Rh g j , j = 1, m ,

;
213
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

6) -
w : Rn C z
(15) h g
Im Rh g j , j = 1, m , ;

7) : x exp v(x)

pj v(x) = Sj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m ,

Sj , j = 1, m , .
I = (I 1 , . . . , Im ),
Ij R, j = 1, m , , :

1) F : (t, x) w(x) exp It, (t, x) Rm+n ;



2) F : (t, x) Re2 w(x) + Im2 w(x) exp It, (t, x) Rm+n ;
Im w(x)
3) F : (t, x) arctg + It, (t, x) Rm X 0 ;
Re w(x)

4) F : (t, x) Kh g
(x) + It, (t, x) Rm X 0 ;

5) F : (t, x) Re Kh g
(x) + It, (t, x) Rm X 0 ;

6) F : (t, x) Im Kh g
(x) + It, (t, x) Rm X 0 ;

7) F : (t, x) v(x) + It, (t, x) Rm X 0 , X 0 X Rn ,

(APCDA) -
.

1.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1.
pp 2 (p pp 1.1.2.1). -
p p (3.1.2.1) -
1-p p

w : x x1 , x R2 ,
214
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

dx1 = x1 (dt1 + 3dt2 ), (t, x) R4 .


|(3.1.2.1)

p 1) p 5
(3.1.2.1) pp R4 p p (4.1.2.1), p
p p p (3.1.2.1)
pp (. 4, . 1).
3. p p

dx1 = (x1 x32 ) dt1 + x1 (2 + x22 ) dt2 ,


(16)
dx2 = x2 (1 + x1 x2 ) dt1 + x2 (2 x21 ) dt2

w : x x1 + i x2 , x R2 , (17)

, (16) R 4

d(x1 + i x2 )| = (x1 + i x2 ) (1 + i x22 ) dt1 + (2 i x1 x2 ) dt2 .
(16)

2) 5 (16)


F : (t, x) (x21 + x22 ) exp 2(t1 + 2t2 ) , (t, x) R4 .

[p1 (x), p2 (x)] = x2 (2x1 + 4x2 x21 x2 x32 )(x2 x1 x1 x2 ), x R2 ,

, , (16) -
, 1.0.4.1
R 4 (16).
4. p p

dx1 = x2 (x1 1) dt1 + x2 (x1 2) dt2 ,


(18)
dx2 = (x1 + x22 ) dt1 + (2x1 + x22 ) dt2

-
(17)
215
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

W1 : x x2 + i, x R2 , W2 : x x2 + 2i, x R2 .

3) 5
x2
F : (t, x) t1 + 2t2 arctg , (t, x) D,
x1
(18) D -
R4 \{(t, x) : x1 = 0}.
(18) ,

[p1 (x), p2 (x)] = x21 x1 x1 x2 x2 , x R2 ,

-pp R 2 .

D R4 \{(t, x) : x1 = 0} (18)
( 1.0.4.1).
5. p p

dx1 = (x1 x2 + x21 ) dt1 + (x1 2x2 + 2x21 ) dt2 ,


(19)
dx2 = x2 (1 + x1 ) dt1 + x2 (1 + 2x1 ) dt2

1-p

w : x x2 , x R2 ,
= 2 ,

dx2 = x2 (1 + x1 ) dt1 + (1 + 2x1 ) dt2 , (t, x) R4 ,
|(19)

x1
d = (dt1 + 2dt2 ), (t, x) R2 X 0 , X 0 = {(x1 , x2 ) : x2 6= 0}.
x2 |(19)

4) 5 (19)

x1
F : (t, x) + t1 + 2t2 , (t, x) D,
x2

216
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

D,
R2 X 0 ( 1.0.4.1, ,

[p1 (x), p2 (x)] = x1 (4 3x1 )x1 + x1 x2 x2 , x R2 ,

- R2 ).
6 (p pp 4.1). p -
p (17.1) -
(17) z = 2 ,
p (18.1).
5) 5 (17.1)

x2
F : (t, x) + t1 + 2t2 , (t, x) D,
x21 + x22
D
R2 {x : x21 + x22 6= 0} ( 1.0.4.1,

[p1 (x), p2 (x)] = (2x41 x41 x2 + 2x31 x2 4x21 x22 2x1 x32 + 2x42 + x52 )x1 +

+ 2x1 x2 (2x21 x21 x2 + 2x1 x2 2x22 x32 )x2 , x R2 ,

- R 2 ).
7 (p pp 5.1). p -
p (19.1) -
(17) z = 2 ,
p (20.1).
6) 5
(19.1) 1-
x2
F : (t, x) + t2 , (t, x) D,
x21 + x22
D
R2 {x : x21 + x22 6= 0} ( 1.0.4.1, ,
(19.1) :

[p1 (x), p2 (x)] = ( x41 + 2x21 x22 + x41 x2 x42 x52 ) x1 +

+ 2x1 x2 ( x21 + x21 x2 + x22 + x32 ) x2 , x R2 ).


217
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

8 (p pp 6.1). p
p (22.1)
(23.1) p (24.1).
7) 5 (22.1)
R4

F : (t, x) x1 x2 t1 2t2 , (t, x) R4 ,

R 4 (
1.0.4.1, ,

[p1 (x), p2 (x)] =

= ( 2 + x1 + x21 + 2x1 x2 2x22 x1 x22 + x32 )(x2 + x2 ), x R2 ,

- R 2 ).
H 7.2.2
1.
p w1 : Rn R w2 : Rn R (APCD) -
, p (APCD)

pj w1 (x) w1 (x)
= , x X2 , j = 1, m ,
pj w2 (x) w2 (x)


w1 (x)
F:x , x X2 ,
w2 (x)

p p X 2
(APCD).
-
p p.
2. -
p w1 : Rn C w2 : Rn C
(APCD) ,

pj w1 (x) = w1 (x)W1j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , (20)

218
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

pj w2 (x) = w2 (x)W2j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , (21)

W1j (x) = W2j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m . (22)

Re w1 (x) Re w2 (x) + Im w1 (x) Im w2 (x)


F1 : x (23)
Re2 w2 (x) + Im2 w2 (x)

Re w1 (x) Im w2 (x) Im w1 (x) Re w2 (x)


F2 : x (24)
Re2 w2 (x) + Im2 w2 (x)

p p
X2 , X2 Rn , (APCD).
. p 7.2.2
, w 1 w2 ( (22)
(20) (21))

w1 (x)
pj = 0, x X2 , j = 1, m ,
w2 (x)

w1 (x) w1 (x)
pj Re = 0, pj Im = 0, x X2 , j = 1, m .
w2 (x) w2 (x)

(23) (24) p
p X2 (APCD).
3. -
p w1 : Rn C w2 : Rn C
(APCD) , (20) (21) -
W1j : Rn C W2j : Rn C, j = 1, m ,

219
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

Re W1j (x) = Re W2j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m . (25)

Re2 w1 (x) + Im2 w1 (x)


F: x , x X2 , (26)
Re2 w2 (x) + Im2 w2 (x)

p p X 2
Rn (APCD).
. 2.1
p : x Re2 w (x) + Im2 w (x), x Rn , = 1, 2,

p-
(APCD), p
(8.1) p p = p , = 1, 2.
(25), ,
pj p1 (x) p1 (x)
= , x X2 , j = 1, m .
pj p2 (x) p2 (x)

, 1, , (26)
p p X 2 .
4. -
p w1 : Rn C w2 : Rn C
(APCD) , (20) (21)
W1j : Rn C W2j : Rn C, j = 1, m ,

Im W1j (x) = Im W2j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m . (27)

p p X 2
Rn (APCD)

Re w1 (x) Im w2 (x) Im w1 (x) Re w2 (x)


F: x . (28)
Re w1 (x) Re w2 (x) + Im w1 (x) Im w2 (x)

220
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

. 3.1 -
(11.1) p -
w1 w2 X ,

pj 1 (x) 2 (x) = Im W1j (x) Im W2j (x) = 0, j = 1, m .


Im w1 (x) Im w2 (x)
F : x arctg arctg , x X,
Re w1 (x) Re w2 (x)

p p X -
(APCD). pp pp,
p (28).
, p p (23) (24) p
2 p p -
p (26) (28) 3 4.
H 8.2.2
5.
p w1 : Rn R w2 : Rn R (APCD) -
,
pj w1 (x) w (x)
= 1 , x X2 , X2 Rn , j = 1, m ,
pj w2 (x) w2 (x)


F : x w1 (x)w2 (x), x Rn ,

p p pp-
Rn (APCD).
-
p p.
6. -
p w1 : Rn C w2 : Rn C
(APCD) , (20) (21)

W1j (x) = W2j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m .


221
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

F1 : x Re w1 (x) Re w2 (x) Im w1 (x) Im w2 (x), x Rn ,

F2 : x Re w1 (x) Im w2 (x) + Im w1 (x) Re w2 (x), x Rn ,

p p p-
p Rn (APCD).
. p 8.2.2
,

pj w1 (x) w2 (x) = 0, x Rn , j = 1, m ,


pj Re w1 (x) w2 (x) = 0, x Rn , j = 1, m ,

pj Im w1 (x) w2 (x) = 0, x Rn , j = 1, m .

, F1 F2 -
p p Rn (APCD).
7. -
p w1 : Rn C w2 : Rn C
(APCD) , (20) (21) -
W1j : Rn C W2j : Rn C, j = 1, m ,

Re W1j (x) = Re W2j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m .


 
P : x Re2 w1 (x) + Im2 w1 (x) Re2 w2 (x) + Im2 w2 (x)

p p pp-
Rn (APCD).
. 2.1

222
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

2 2

pj Re w1 (x) + Im w1 (x)
=
pj Re2 w2 (x) + Im2 w2 (x)

Re2 w1 (x) + Im2 w1 (x)


= , x X2 , j = 1, m .
Re2 w2 (x) + Im2 w2 (x)

5 , 7.
8. -
p w1 : Rn C w2 : Rn C
(APCD) , (20) (21) -
W1j : Rn C W2j : Rn C, j = 1, m ,

Im W1j (x) = Im W2j (x), x Rn , j = 1, m .

Re w1 (x) Im w2 (x) + Im w1 (x) Re w2 (x)


F: x , x X,
Re w1 (x) Re w2 (x) Im w1 (x) Im w2 (x)

p p X
Rn (APCD).
4
p,

pj 1 (x) + 2 (x) = 0, x X, j = 1, m ,

, , p p X
(APCD)

Im w1 (x) Im w2 (x)
F : x arctg + arctg .
Re w1 (x) Re w2 (x)

9. (APCD)

E : x exp v(x), x Rn ,
223
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

u : x u(x), x X, -
(APCD)

pj u(x) = u(x)Sj (x), x X, j = 1, m ,

Sj , j = 1, m ,
(21.1).

F : x u(x) exp v(x), x X,

X
(APCD).
,

pj F (x) = exp v(x) pj u(x) + u(x) exp v(x) pj v(x) =



= exp v(x) u(x)Sj (x) + u(x)Sj (x) = 0, x X, j = 1, m .

,
10. (APCD)

E : x exp v(x), x Rn ,

w : Rn R
,

pj v(x) = Sj (x), pj w(x) = w(x)Sj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m ,


F : x w(x) exp v(x), x Rn ,

Rn (APCD).
6. -
(APD)

F : (t , x) w (x) exp t , (t , x) R X, (29)
224
.. ... . 3, 3, . 2

R X

Fj : (t , x) Pj w (x) exp t , j = 1, m , j 6= . (30)

(IAPCD)

m
X
F : (t, x) w (x) exp aj tj , (t, x) Rm X, (31)
j=1

X R n ,
aj R, j = 1, m , a = 1.
. (29)
(APD),

P w (x) exp t = 0, (t , x) R X. (32)

,

w (x) exp t = C ,

w (x) = C exp t . (33)


 
Pj (t, x), P (t, x) = O, (t, x) Rn+m , j = 1, m ,

(32) :
 
P Pj w (x) exp t = Pj P w (x) exp t = 0,

(t, x) Rm X, j = 1, m , j 6= .

(APD)
(30), Rm X

Pj w (x) exp t = Cj , Cj R, j = 1, m , j 6= .
225
. 3, 3, . 2 ... ..

, (33), :

Cj Cj
Pj w (x) = Cj exp t = C exp t = w (x) = aj w (x),
C C

Cj
(t, x) Rm X, aj = , j = 1, m , j 6= .
C

, Rm X

Pj w (x) = aj w (x), aj R, j = 1, m , j 6= . (34)

(34)
 m
X 
Pj w (x) exp a t =
=1

m
X m
X
= Pj w (x) exp a t + w (x)Pj exp a t =
=1 =1

m
X m
X
= aj w (x) exp a t + aj w (x) exp a t = 0,
=1 =1

(t, x) Rm X, j = 1, m , j 6= .

(32) , (IAPCD)
(31).

226
.. ... . 4, 3, . 2

4.
. .
.
.

.
.

4.1. (APCD) B
p 1. (APCDA) A (x )
Cn -
= {1 , . . . , }, 1 6 6 m

Wk (x ) = 0, Rlh g j
(x ) = 0, Re Wk (x ) = 0,
j j
l l

Im Wk (x ) = 0, Re Rlh g j
(x ) = 0,
j
l l

Im Rlh g j
(x ) = 0, S (x ) = 0, (1)
j
l l

k = 1, s + r , l = 1, s , l = 1, l , h N, g = 1, fl , k = 1, s + r ,
l l

l = 1, s , l = 1, el , h N, g = 1, fl , = 1, q , j = 1, .
l l

(APCDA) N
A (x ) > 1

= 1 , . . . , , = 1, N .

A (x )
P :

P (x) = P1 (x), . . . , Pn (x) , x Rn .

227
. 4, 3, . 2 ... ..

U -
P, -
A (x ) > 1; u
U ; I(U ) = (I1 , . . . , Im ), Ij C,
, j U, Ij = 0.
P j , j U,
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) A (x ), -
, : -

 pj 1 
1, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , x2 , x1 x2 , . . . , x2 , x3 , . . . , x ,
1 n 1 n

cj , sj , sj
A , P j .
aj . sj cj rank aj = rj .
aj bj , -
rj cj rank bj = rj .
A , = 1, N ,
X
b= rj .
j U

(APCDA)
A (x ), = 1, N , b > 0, -
, (APCDA) B
(APCDB).
4.2. (APCDB)
p 1. (APCDB) ` + b u = c m + 1
Rm X 0

W : (t, x) X(x) exp I(U ) t + Y (x) . (2)

. (2) (4.2) -
(APCDB) ,
228
.. ... . 4, 3, . 2

(x) + I(U ) = 0, x R . n
(3)

cj rj -
, , (r j cj )- bj

cj rj , j U. W k , R l , W k,
h g
l l

Rhl g
, S -,

l l
-

W k (x) = Wk1 (x), . . . , Wkm (x) ,
 
Rl (x) = Rlh g 1 (x), . . . , Rh g m (x) ,
h g
l

l

l

l
l l


Wk (x) = Wk1 (x), . . . , Wkm (x) ,
 
Rlh g
(x) = Rlh g 1 (x), . . . , Rlh g m (x) ,

l l l l l l


S (x) = S1 (x), . . . , Sm (x) ,

k = 1, s + r , l = 1, s , l = 1, l , h N, g = 1, f ,
l l l

k = 1, s + r , l = 1, s , l = 1, el , h N, g = 1, f , = 1, q ,
l l l

.
j 6 U, j - --
, j U, j -
- ,
x, x
(rj rj )- cj , ,
x .


(x) + I(U ) = 0, x Rn , (4)
229
. 4, 3, . 2 ... ..

l
f
s+r
X s X
X X l

: x k W k (x) + lh g Rh
l
g
(x) +

k=1 l=1 =1 g =1 l l l l
l l

s+r
X s+r
X q
X

+2 k Re W (x) + k
k Im W (x) + k
S (x) +
k=1 k=1 =1

el
f
s X
X X l

+ lh g
Re Rhl g
(x) +

l=1 =1 g =1 l l l l
l l

el
f
s X
X X l

+ lh g
Im Rhl g
(x), x Rn ,

l=1 =1 g =1 l l l l
l l

, ` + b u = c m + 1
c b c b + 1 .


Ij = I j , k = k , lh g
= lh g
, k = k ,

l l l l
(5)

k = k , lh g
= lh g
, lh g
= lh g
, = .

l l l l l l l l



(x) = (x) (x), x Rn ,

(5). , (1) (4), ,



(x ) = 0, = 1, N . (6)

230
.. ... . 4, 3, . 2

(6) b -
b , -
x (rj rj )- cj , j U.
 
det diag cj .
jU



(x) = 0, x Rn . (7)

(4) (7) (3), , (2) (5) -


(APCDB).

.
p 2. (APCDB) ` + b = c + 1
(1.3) X 0 .
p 3. (APCDB) ,

div P j (x ) = Ij , = 1, N , j U. (8)

` + b u = c m (APCDB)
(5.2) Rm X 0 , -
(7.2).
. (7.2) (4.2)
(APCDB) ,
(8.2).
(2) (4.2)
Rm X 0 (APCDB), -
(3).
, (r j rj )- cj ,

- W k , Rl , Wk , Rl , S ,
h g h g
l l l l

- div P, -

div P (x) = div P 1 (x), . . . , div P m (x) , x Rn ,

.
231
. 4, 3, . 2 ... ..



(x) + I(U ) = div P (x), x Rn , (9)

, ` + b u = c m
c b , , , c b
; (4)
c b c b .
; -
e
.
e 6= 0. ,
(9),

Ij = I j , k = k , lh g
= lh g
, k = k ,

l l l l (10)

k = k , lh g
= lh g
, lh g
= lh g
, = .

l l l l l l l l



e : x (x) (x) + div P (x) divP (x) + I I(U ) , x Rn ,

(10).
(1), (8) (9), ,
e ) = 0, = 1, N .
(x
, 1,
e
(x) = 0, x Rn . (11)

(9) (11) (10), , (10) -


(APCDB).
e = 0 (4), -
(2).
Rm X 0 (APCDB), -
, 1.
232
.. ... . 4, 3, . 2

3, , -
.
1. (APCDB) , -
(8). ` + b u = c m,
e 6= 0, (APCDB)
(7.2).
2. (APCDB) , -
(8). ` + b u = c m,
e = 0, (APCDB) -
(2) Rm X 0 .
(2.3)
(1.3) (APCDB) 3
1 2 4 3 4
. 3 4 e , -
e
.
p 4. (APCDB) ,

div P j (x ) = 0, = 1, N , j U. (12)

` + b = c (APCDB) -
(2.3), -
(1.3) Rm X 0 .
3. (APCDB) , -
(12). ` + b = c, -
e 6= 0, (APCDB) -

(2.3).
4. (APCDB) , -
(12). ` + b = c, -
e = 0, (APCDB)
(1.3) Rm X 0 .

4.3. (IAPCDB)
1 -
( m = 1) -
3.3 4.3, 1, 2 3, 3.2
(IAPCDB).
233
. 4, 3, . 2 ... ..

p 5. (IAPCDB) , -
(APDk)
B X 0
(3.3). (IAPCDB) ` + b k = ck + 1
(2) Rm X 0 .
p 6. (IAPCDB) , -
k {1, . . . , m} , -
(APDk) B,
X 0 (3.3)

: x j (x) + div pj (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , j 6= k, (13)

(9.3),

div P k (x ) = Ik , = 1, N , Ik R.

` + bk = ck (IAPCDB) -
(7.2), (2) -
Rm X 0 .
6 .
5. (IAPCDB) , -
k {1, . . . , m} , (APDk) -
B, X 0 -
(3.3), e k = 0. ` + b = c
k k
(2) -
Rm X 0 (IAPCDB).
6. (IAPCDB) , -
k {1, . . . , m} , (APDk) -
B, pp R n
(13), e k 6= 0,

div P k (x ) = Ik , = 1, N , Ik R.

` + bk = ck (IAPCDB) -
(7.2).

234
.. ... . 4, 3, . 2

1. p p

dx1 = ( x21 + x22 + x23 ) dt1 2x1 x2 dt2 ,

dx2 = 2x1 x2 dt1 + (x21 x22 + x23 ) dt2 , (14)

dx3 = 2x3 (x1 dt1 + x2 dt2 )

2.2.7.1
, n rank P (x) = 3 2 = 1.

w1 : x x3 , x R3 , w2 : x x21 + x22 + x23 , x R3 ,
-
(14), (4.2)

W11 (x) = 2x1 , W12 (x) = 2x2 , x R3 ,

W21 (x) = 2x1 , W22 (x) = 2x2 , x R3 .

` = 2, c = 8.
(14)
( ):
A1 (0, 1, 0) A2 (0, 2, 0) 1 = 2 = 1
1 = 2 = {1};
A3 (1, 0, 0) A4 (2, 0, 0) 3 = 4 = 1
3 = 4 = {2};
A5 (0, 0, 1) 5 = 2 5 = {1; 2},
U = {1; 2}, u = 2.
a1 = b1 a2 = b2 3 4 , 3.
A1 , . . . , A5 b = 6.
, ` + b = 2 + 6 = 8 = c, e = 0,
2 (14)

x21 + x22 + x23


F: x , x X,
x3

X R3 \{x : x3 = 0}.

235
. 4, 3, . 2 ... ..

2.
 
dx1 = 1+(x1 x2 )(1+3x1 x2 ) dt1 + 1+(x1 x2 )(1+2x1 ) dt2 ,
  (15)
dx2 = 1+(x1 x2 )(1+2x1 ) dt1 + 1+(x1 x2 )(1+x1 +x2 ) dt2


w1 : x x1 x2 , x R2 ,
= 2, (4.2)

W11 (x) = W12 (x) = x1 x2 , x R2 ,

Q11 (x) = R111 (x) = R112 (x) = 1, x R2 .

2) 5.3
1
F : (t, x) + t1 + t2 , (t, x) R2 X,
x1 x 2

R2 X, X -
{x : x2 6= x1 } (15).
w 1 -
(15) .
` = 1 (
) A1 (1, 1) A2 (2, 2) , (APD1) -
1 = 2 = 1.
c1 = 3.
a1 = b1 2 3 , 2.
, A1 A2 b = 2.
,

div P 1 (1, 1) = div P 1 (2, 2) = 0,


e 1 6= 0.

, ` + b = 1 + 2 = 3 = c1 .
(APD1) -

: x x1 x2 , x R2 ,
(13).

236
.. ... . 4, 3, . 2

6 , (15)

1
: x , x X.
(x1 x2 )4

3. [1, . 49]

dx1 = ( x21 + x22 ) dt1 2x1 x2 dt2 ,


(16)
dx2 = 2x1 x2 dt1 + (x21 x22 ) dt2

w1 : x x1 + i x2 , x R2 , w2 : x x1 i x2 , x R2 ,

(4.2)

W11 (x) = x1 i x2 , W12 (x) = x2 + i x1 , x R2 ,

W21 (x) = x1 + i x2 , W22 (x) = x2 i x1 , x R2 .

` = 2.
(APD1) c1 = 3.
( ) A1 (0, 0) (APD1)
1 = 1.
a1 = b1 1 3 , 1, ,
A1 b = 1.
div P 1 (0, 0) = 0, e 1 6= 0.
, ` + b = 1 + 2 = 3 = c1 , , ,
(APD1)

: x (1 + 2 + 4)x1 + i(1 2 )x2 , x R2 ,

(13).
(16) 6
1
: x , x R2 X, (17)
(x21 + x22 )2

X R2 \{(0, 0)}.

237
. 4, 3, . 2 ... ..

4. p p

dx1 = ( x2 + x21 2x1 x2 x22 ) dt1 + ( x2 x21 + 2x1 x2 + x22 ) dt2 ,


(18)
dx2 = (x1 + x21 + 2x1 x2 x22 ) dt1 + (x1 x21 2x1 x2 + x22 ) dt2

w1 : x x1 + i x2 w2 : x x1 i x2 , x R2 ,

W11 (x) = x1 x2 + i (1 + x1 + x2 ), x R2 ,

W12 (x) = x1 + x2 + i (1 x1 x2 ), x R2 ,

W21 (x) = x1 x2 i (1 + x1 + x2 ), x R2 ,

W22 (x) = x1 + x2 i (1 x1 x2 ), x R2 .

(18) : A 1 ( 0,5, 0,5)


1 = 1 1 = {1} A2 (0,5, 0,5) 2 = 1
2 = {2}.
b = r1 + r2 = 2 + 2 = 4.
,
   
2+21 2+21
` = 2, c = + = 6,
2 2

, ` + b = 2 + 4 = 6 = c.

div P 1 ( 0,5, 0,5) = div P 2 (0,5, 0,5) = 0,


4, (17)
(18).

238
.. . 1, 4, . 2

4.

1.
. -
.

dx = A(x) dt, (1)

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) t = (t1 , . . . , tm ) Rn Rm
, - dx = colon(dx 1 , . . . , dxn )
dt = colon(dt1 , . . . , dtm ), A(x) = kaij (x)k
(n , m )
n
X
aij : x aij x , x Rn ,
=1

aij R, = 1, n , j = 1, m , i = 1, n .
(1) -

n
X
pj (x) = aij (x)i , x Rn , j = 1, m ,
i=1

R n .
m < n.

Xn
p: x bi xi , x Rn , (bi C, i = 1, n )
i=1

239
. 1, 4, . 2 ..

(1),

pj p(x) = p(x)j , x Rn , j C, j = 1, m . (2)

(2) ,

(Aj j E) b = 0, j = 1, m , (3)
b = colon(b1 , . . . , bn ), E ,
n- Aj = kaji k, j = 1, m , ( -
, i ).

det(Aj j E) = 0, j = 1, m, (4)

,

(1).

 
pj (x), p (x) = O, x Rn , j, = 1, m ,

(1) -
:
Aj A = A Aj , j, = 1, m .

1. ( Cn )
Aj , j = 1, m .
(1)

p : x x, x Rn . (5)

, -
Aj , j = 1, m , [21,
. 191 194] (3), j -
A j , j = 1, m ,
.
240
.. . 2, 4, . 2

(2) -
(5):

pj (x) = j x, x Rn , j = 1, m .

, (5) -
(1).

2.
-
.

2.1.

1. k , k = 1, m + 1 , -
Aj , j = 1, m . -

m+1
Y k hk
W: x x , (1)
k=1

hk , k = 1, m + 1 , -

m+1
X
j hk = 0, j = 1, m , (2)
k
k=1

-
jk Aj , -
k , k = 1, m + 1 , j = 1, m , -
DW
(1.1).
. k , k = 1, m + 1 , -
A 1 , . . . , Am .

241
. 2, 4, . 2 ..


jk , j = 1, m ,
k , k = 1, m + 1 .
1.1

pk : x k x, x Rn , k = 1, m + 1 ,
(1.1), -

pj pk (x) = j pk (x), x Rn , j = 1, m , k = 1, m + 1 . (3)


k


m+1
Y
W: x p (x) hk , x X, X Rn ,
k
k=1

hk , k = 1, m + 1 , ,
.
(1.1):

m+1
Y m+1
X m+1
Y

pj W (x) = p (x) hk 1 sgn p (x) h p (x) p p (x),
k k k l j k
k=1 k=1 l=1,l6=k

x X, j = 1, m .

(3) ,
m+1
X
pj W (x) = jk hk W (x), x X, j = 1, m .
k=1

hk , k = 1, m + 1 , -
(2),
(1) -
(1.1).

242
.. . 2, 4, . 2

1. k,
k = 1, m + 1 , -
A j , j = 1, m .
-
(1.1)
m
Y k 4k m+1 4
W12...m(m+1) : x x x , x X,
k=1

4 = jk , 4k , k = 1, m,
k- 4 -
j
colon (1m+1 , . . . , m
m+1 ), k
Aj ,
k , k = 1, m + 1, j = 1, m.
1.

dx1 = x1 dt2 , dx2 = 2(x3 + x4 ) dt1 + x2 dt2 ,


(4)
dx3 = x2 dt1 + x4 dt2 , dx4 = x2 dt1 + x3 dt2 .



0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
A1 = 0 2 0 0 A2 = 0 0 0 1

0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0

, , (4) .
A1 A2

11 = 2, 12 = 13 = 0, 14 = 2

21 = 1, 22 = 23 = 1, 24 = 1,

det (A1 1 E) = 0 (1 + 2)(1 )2 (1 2) = 0

det (A2 2 E) = 0 (1 + 1)2 (1 1)2 = 0.


243
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

A1 A2

J1 = diag { 2, 0, 0, 2} J2 = diag {1, 1, 1, 1}

, A1 = B1 J1 B11 A2 = B2 J2 B21 -
B1 B2 , :

0 1 0 0

1 0 0 1
B1 = B 2 = 1 0 1 1 .

1 0 1 1

-
A1 A2

1 = (0, 1, 1, 1), 2 = (1, 0, 0, 0), 3 = (0, 0, 1, 1), 4 = (0, 1, 1, 1).

:

2 0 0 0 2 0

4 = 1 1 = 2, 411 = 1 1 = 0, 421 = 1 1 = 2,


2 0 2 2
412 = 1 1 = 2, 422 = 1 1 = 4.

(x3 x4 )2
W123 : x , x X, (5)
x21

2
W124 : x x41 x22 (x3 + x4 )2 , x R4 , (6)

, -
(4) X {x : x 1 6= 0}.

2.2.

, p
(1.1), (2.1) -

244
.. . 2, 4, . 2


ej ,
pj Re p(x) = Re p(x)j Im p(x)

ej + Im p(x)j ,
pj Im p(x) = Re p(x) (7)

ej i, j = 1, m .
x Rn , j = j +

-
.
1. p -
(1.1) -
, (7).
-

(1.1).
1. (1.1) -
p,
p
(1.1). (2.1) -

pj p(x) = p(x) j , x Rn , j = 1, m ,

j j , j = 1, m .
2. (1.1) -
p,

P : x Re2 p(x) + Im2 p(x), x Rn , (8)

(1.1) -
Rn
 
pj Re2 p(x) + Im2 p(x) = 2 Re2 p(x) + Im2 p(x) j , j = 1, m ,

j , j = 1, m , (2.1).
3. (1.1) -
p. -
(1.1)

245
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

: x exp (x), x X,

Im p(x)
: x arctg , x X, (9)
Re p(x)

ej , x X, j = 1, m ,
pj exp (x) = exp (x) (10)

j , j = 1, m , (2.1), -
X Rn ,
Rn Re p.
(10)
(1.1) (9) -
p :
ej , x X, j = 1, m .
pj (x) =

4. u1 u2 u1 : Rn K
u2 : Rn K, K R -
C , (-
) (1.1)
, u1 u2
(1.1).
5. (8) -
(1.1),
(1.1) p (
).
:
2 2 e k x
Pk (x) = k x + e k x , k (x) = arctg .
kx

2. k = k + e k i, k = 1, s , s 6 (m + 1)/2,

, = s + 1, m + 1 s , -
( )
A j , j = 1, m .
246
.. . 2, 4, . 2

X R n
(1.1)

s
Y  hk  m+1s
Y h
W: x Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x) x , (11)
k=1 =s+1

X DW, -

hk , e
hk , k = 1, s , h , = s + 1, m + 1 s ,

s
X  m+1s
X
2 j e j e
hk hk + j h = 0, j = 1, m , (12)
k k
k=1 =s+1


ej i, k = 1, s , j , = s + 1, m + 1 s ,
jk = jk + k

Aj , j = 1, m , -
k , k = 1, s , , = s + 1, m + 1 s .

. k = k +e k i, k = 1, s, s 6 (m+1)/2,
, = s + 1, m + 1 s , -
A j , j = 1, m .
jk , k = 1, s ,
j , = s + 1, m + 1 s , j = 1, m ,
k , k = 1, s ,
, = s + 1, m + 1 s .
1.1

pk : x k x, k = 1, s ,

p : x x, = s + 1, m + 1 s ,

R n (1.1).
2 ,
Rn
247
. 2, 4, . 2 ..


pj Pk (x) = 2Pk (x) j , pj x = j x,
k
(13)
j = 1, m , k = 1, s , = s + 1, m + 1 s .

(11), hk , e
hk , k = 1, s ,
h , = s + 1, m + 1 s , ,
.
(1.1)

Y
s
hk 1 
pj W (x) = Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x)
k=1

s
X s
Y
hk Pl (x) pj Pk (x) +
k=1 l=1,l6=k

s
Y

s 
 hk X 
+ Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x) pj 2 e
hk k (x)
k=1 k=1


m+1s s
Y h Y  hk  m+1s
Y h 1
x + Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x) x
=s+1 k=1 =s+1

m+1s
X m+1s
Y
 l 

sgn x h x p x , x X, j = 1, m .
j
=s+1 l=s+1,l6=

(13), 2 3 -
,
X
s 
 m+1s
X
pj W (x) 2 j e j e
h k hk + j
h W (x), j = 1, m .
k k
k=1 =s+1

248
.. . 2, 4, . 2


hk , ehk , k = 1, s , h , = s + 1, m + 1 s , -

(12), (11) (1.1).
2.

dx1 = x1 dt1 + x2 dt2 , dx2 = x2 dt1 x1 dt2 ,


(14)
dx3 = x3 dt1 x3 dt2

11 = 12 = 13 = 1; 21 = i, 22 = i, 23 = 1

1 = (1, i, 0), 2 = (1, i, 0), 3 = (0, 0, 1)

( 2)

x21 + x22  x2 
W: x 2 exp 2 arctg , x X, (15)
x3 x1

X {x : x1 6= 0, x3 6= 0}.

3. = + e i, s+ = e i, = 1, s ,

s 6 m/2, 2s+1 = 2s+1 +e
2s+1 i, , = 2s + 2, m + 1 , -
-
Aj , j = 1, m . -
(1.1)

s
Y hk +hs+k  
W1 : x Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk e
hs+k k (x)
k=1
(16)

h2s+1  m+1
Y  2 h
P2s+1 (x) exp 2 e
h2s+1 2s+1 (x) x , x X,
=2s+2

249
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

s
Y ehk +ehs+k  
W2 : x Pk (x) exp 2 hk hs+k k (x)
k=1
(17)
m+1
eh2s+1  Y 2eh
P2s+1 (x) exp 2 h2s+1 2s+1 (x) x , x X,
=2s+2

X DW1 DW2 , -

hk = hk + e
hk i, k = 1, m + 1 , -
(2), -

j = j + ej i, j = j
ej i, = 1, s ,
s+

j2s+1
= +ej j2s+1 j
2s+1 i , = 2s + 2, m + 1 ,
Aj , j = 1, m , -
k , k = 1, m + 1 .
.
2s
Y m+1
Y

k
hk 2s+1
h2s+1 h
W: x x x x , x X,
k=1 =2s+2

2s
Y m+1
Y
lk l2s+1 l
W: x kx 2s+1 x x , x X,
k=1 =2s+2

hk , lk , k = 1, m + 1 , .

W W -
.
1.1 1 X
m+1
X

pj W (x) = j hk W (x), j = 1, m ,
k
k=1

250
.. . 2, 4, . 2

X
2s m+1
X 

pj W (x) = j lk +j2s+1 l2s+1 + j l W (x), j = 1, m ,
k
k=1 =2s+2


(2), W -
(1.1).

hk = hk + ehk i, k = 1, m + 1 , (2).

2s
X m+1
X
jk lk + j2s+1 l2s+1 + j l = 0 j = 1, m ,
k=1 =2s+2



lk = hs+k e
hs+k i, ls+k = hk e
hk i, k = 1, s ,


l2s+1 = h2s+1 e
h2s+1 i, l = h e
h i, = 2s + 2, m + 1 .


W -
(1.1).
X
i i
W1 (x) = W (x) W (x) W2 (x) = W (x) W (x),

(16) (17).
3.

dx1 = x1 dt1 + x3 dt2 , dx2 = x2 dt1 + x4 dt2 ,


(18)
dx3 = x3 dt1 x1 dt2 , dx4 = x4 dt1 x2 dt2


11 = 12 = 1, 13 = 14 = 1; 21 = 23 = i, 22 = 24 = i

251
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

1 = (0, i, 0, 1), 2 = (0, i, 0, 1), 3 = ( i, 0, 1, 0), 4 = (i, 0, 1, 0)

( 3) -
R4 ,

W 1 : x x 1 x2 + x 3 x4 W 2 : x x 1 x4 x 2 x3 . (19)

2.3.

(1.1) -

dx = A (x) dt , (1. )

A (x) = colon(a1 (x), . . . , an (x)), x Rn , :


A
A j , j = 1, m .
-
(1. ) -
(4.1), (4. ).
1. l -
A ,
s 0l . kl , -

  
A l E colon 1kl , . . . , nkl = k colon 1k1, l , . . . , nk1, l ,
(20)
k = 1, s 1 ,

k - A , -
l .
4. 0l l , = 1, sl 1, l = 1, r, -
A j , j = 1, m,
A , -
l , l = 1, r , -

252
.. . 2, 4, . 2

P
r
sl sl > m+1.
l=1
(1.1) -

k
Y h0 X
0
W: x x exp hq vq (x), x X, (21)
=1 q=1

X DW, -
vq : X R, q = 1, , = 1, k , ,

i
X
i1

i x = q1 vq (x) iq, x, x X, i = 1, , = 1, k , (22)
q=1

P
k
= m k + 1, 6 s 1, = 1, k , k 6 r.
=1
- vq , X

pj vq (x) = jq , jq = const, q = 1, , = 1, k , j = 1, m ,

hq , q = 0, , = 1, k ,

k  
X X
j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m , (23)
q
=1 q=1

j , = 1, k , j = 1, m , -
Aj , j = 1, m , -
0 , = 1, k .
. (20) -
1.1 , R n

253
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

p 0l x = l 0l x, l = 1, r ,
(24)

p l x = l l x + 1, l x, = 1, sl 1 , l = 1, r .

(22) , = 1, k , -
v q ,

0 x , x Rn ,
X.
, vql
"
1, x X, q = 1;
p vql (x) = (25)
0, x X, q = 2, sl 1 , l = 1, r .

(25) q = 1 q = 2 -
(24).
q > 3 -
.
, (25)
q = 1, 1 .
(1. )
p : x l x, x Rn , (22), (24) (25)
q = 1, 1 X :

X
 1
p x =l
l q1 vql (x)
q, l
x+
q=1

1
X
2
+ ( 1) q1 vql (x)
q1, l
x + 1, l x + 0l x p vl (x).
q=1

(22) i = 1 i = ,
(24) = , 0l x 6= 0, x Rn ,

p vl (x) = 0, x X.
254
.. . 2, 4, . 2



v0l (x) = ln 0l x , x X, l = 1, r . (26)

(24) (25) ,

p v0l (x) = l , x X, l = 1, r , (27)

p v1l (x) = 1, x X, l = 1, r , (28)

p vql (x) = 0, x X, q = 2, sl 1 , l = 1, r . (29)

Aj , j = 1, m , r
,

pj v0l (x) = jl , x X, l = 1, r , j = 1, m . (30)

,
pj , j = 1, m , , -
(28) (29) X

pj vql (x) = jql , q = 1, sl 1 , l = 1, r , j = 1, m , j 6= . (31)

P
r
, sl
l=1

vql : X R, q = 0, sl 1 , l = 1, r ,

(22) (26), -
(25), (27) (31) ,
, .


k X
X
W: x hq vq (x), x X,
=1 q=0

255
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

:
k
X X 
pj W (x) = j h0 + jq hq , x X, j = 1, m .
=1 q=1

hq , q = 0, , = 1, k , -

(23), W
X (1.1).


W (x) = exp W (x), x X,

(21) (1.1).
4.

dx1 = x2 dt1 + (2x1 x3 ) dt2 ,


dx2 = (2x2 x3 x4 ) dt1 + ( x1 + 2x2 + x4 ) dt2 ,
(32)
dx3 = (x1 x4 ) dt1 + ( x1 + 3x3 + x4 ) dt2 ,
dx4 = ( x1 + 2x3 + 2x4 ) dt1 + (x2 3x3 + x4 ) dt2

11 = 1,
(1 1)4 , 0 = (1, 1, 1, 0)
1 = (1, 0, 1, 1), 2 = (1, 1, 3, 0), 3 = ( 3, 0, 9, 9)
X

v1 : x (x1 x3 x4 )( x1 + x2 x3 )1 ,

v2 : x (x1 +x2 x3 )(x1 x2 +3x3 )(x1 x3 x4 )2 (x1 +x2 x3 )2 ,

v3 : x (3x1 + 9x3 + 9x4 )(x1 + x2 x3 )2

3(x1 + x2 x3 )(x1 x3 x4 )(x1 x2 + 3x3 ) +



+ 2(x1 x3 x4 )3 ( x1 + x2 x3 )3 ,

X {x : x1 x2 + x3 6= 0}.

256
.. . 2, 4, . 2



W1 : x v2 (x), W2 : x (x1 + x2 x3 )2 exp 2v1 (x) v3 (x) , (33)

(32) X.
:

2 2 e 0 x
P0 (x) = 0 x + e 0 x , 0 (x) = arctg .
0 x
4 ,
Aj , j = 1, m , -
0 l , -
l s l .

m + 1 vql , l = 1, r , q = 0, sl 1 , -
.
1. m + 1 -
-
.
2. m + 1 -
, -
.
(1.1)
.


k1
Y h0 
W: x P0 (x) exp 2 e
h0 0 (x) +
=1


X  Y
k2
0 h0
X
+ 2 hq v q (x) e
hq veq (x) x exp hq vq (x)
q=1 =1 q=1

X DW,

hq , e
hq hq , q = 0, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 ,
257
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

= 1, k2 , -


k1
X  X 
ej e
2 j h0 h0 + ej e
j hq hq +
q q
=1 q=1

k2 
X
X 
+ j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m ,
q
=1 q=1


ej i, = 1, k1 , j , = 1, k2 ,
j = j +
A j , j = 1, m ,

0 = 0 + e 0 i, = 1, k1 ,
0 , = 1, k2 .

jq = Re pj vq (x), j = Im p v (x), j = p v (x), x X,
eq j q q j q


vq = v q + veq i vq ,

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 , = 1, k2 , j = 1, m ,

(22), , -

k1
X k2
X
2 + = m 2k1 k2 + 1 2k1 + k2 6 r,
=1 =1

6 s 1, = 1, k1 , 6 s 1, = 1, k2 , k1
,
k2
Aj , j = 1, m .

258
.. . 2, 4, . 2

5.

dx1 = (3, 4, 4, 1, 0, 2)x dt1 + (0, 4, 2, 1, 1, 1)x dt2 +


+ ( 3, 2, 4, 3, 0, 2)x dt3 ,

dx2 = ( 1, 3, 3, 0, 2, 3)x dt1 + (1, 3, 0, 0, 1, 1)x dt2 +


+ (2, 3, 3, 3, 1, 2)x dt3 ,

dx3 = (3, 5, 5, 1, 2, 4)x dt1 (0, 6, 2, 1, 2, 1)x dt2 +


+ (3, 3, 5, 4, 0, 2)x dt3, (34)

dx4 = (3, 6, 4, 4, 1, 5)x dt1 + (2, 6, 2, 3, 4, 2)x dt2


(3, 2, 6, 4, 1, 1)x dt3,

dx5 = (5, 5, 8, 3, 3, 6)x dt1 + (1, 6, 3, 2, 2, 2)x dt2


(3, 3, 6, 4, 1, 2)x dt3,

dx6 = (2, 5, 4, 3, 1, 2)x dt1 (2, 4, 3, 3, 2, 2)x dt2 +


+ (2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 0)x dt3

.
11 = 1 + 2i
(1 1 2i)3 , -
0 = (1, 0, 1 + i, 1, i, 1) ,
1 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i) 2 = (2 + 2i, 0, 2 + 2i, 0, 2i, 2i) .
X

v 1 : x (x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 ) + (x3 + x5 )(x2 + x5 + x6 ) P 1 (x),

ve1 : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 )(x2 + x5 + x6 ) (x1 + x2 )(x3 + x5 ) P 1 (x),

2
v2 : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 )(x2 + x5 + x6 ) (x1 + x2 )(x3 + x5 ) +

+ 2P (x) (x1 + x3 )(x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 ) + (x3 + x5 )(x1 + x3 + x5 + x6 )
2 
(x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 ) + (x3 + x5 )(x2 + x5 + x6 ) P 2 (x),
259
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

ve2 : x 2 P (x) (x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 )(x1 + x3 + x5 + x6 )



(x1 + x3 )(x3 + x5 ) + (x3 + x5 )(x1 + x2 )

(x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 )(x2 + x5 + x6 )

(x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 ) + (x3 + x5 )(x2 + x5 + x6 ) P 2 (x),


P : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 )2 + (x3 + x5 )2 , x R6 .



W1 : x P (x) exp 4 (x) + 6 v1 (x) + 2 ve1 (x) , x X, (35)

W2 : x P 2 (x) exp 2 (x) + v 2 (x) ve2 (x) , x X , (36)


W3 : x 2 ve1 (x) 2 v 2 (x) ve2 (x), x X, (37)


x3 + x 5
: x arctg , x X,
x1 + x 3 + x 4 + x 6

(34) X,
{x : x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 6= 0}.
.
. A j , j = 1, m ,
.
(1.1)

k1


Y h0 +h0,(k1 +) 
W1 : x P0 (x) exp 2 e
h0 e
h0,(k 0 (x) +
1 +)
=1


X    
+ 2 hq + hq,(k +)
v q (x) + e
hq,(k e
hq veq (x)
1 1 +)
q=1

260
.. . 2, 4, . 2

h0,(2k1 +1) 
P0,2k +1
(x) exp 2 e
h0,(2k
+1) 0,2k +1
(x)
1 1 1


k2
Y 2h0  X

0
x exp 2 hq vq (x) , x X,
=1 q=1

k1
Y e e 
h0 +h0,(k1 +) 
W2 : x P0 (x) exp 2 h0 h0,(k 0 (x) +
1 +)
=1


X    
+ 2 ehq + e
hq,(k +)
v q
(x) + h q
h veq (x)
1 q,(k 1 +)
q=1

e
h0,(2k1 +1) 
P0,2k +1
(x) exp 2 h0,(2k 0,2k (x)
1 1 +1) 1 +1

k2
Y 2eh0  X 
0
x exp 2 e
hq vq (x) , x X, X DW1 DW2 ,
=1 q=1


hq = hq + e
hq i, hq = hq + e
hq i, q = 0, k , k =
k = , = 1, 2k1 + 1 , = 1, k2 ,

2k1  
X X
j h0 + j hq + j h0,(2k +
q 2k1 +1 1 +1)
=1 q=1

k2 
X
X 
+ j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m ,
q
=1 q=1

261
. 2, 4, . 2 ..


ej i, j
j = j + j ej j j ej
k1 + = i, 2k1 +1 = 2k1 +1 + 2k1 +1 i,

= 1, k1 , j , = 1, k2 , -
A j , j = 1, m ,

0 = 0 + e 0 i, 0,(k1 +) = 0 ,

= 1, k1 , 0,(2k1 +1) = 0,(2k1 +1) +e
0,(2k1 +1) i 0 ,
= 1, k2 , , x X

j = pj vq (x), j = Re j ,
e j = Im j , j = pj vq (x),
q q q q q q

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, 2k1 , = 1, k2 , j = 1, m .


vq = v q + veq i vq ,

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 , = 1, k2 ,

(22), , -

k1
X k2
X
2 + = m 2k1 k2 2k1 + 1 + k2 6 r,
=1 =1

6 s 1, = 1, k1 , 6 s 1, = 1, k2 , k1
, k 2 -
A j , j = 1, m .
6.

dx1 = (1, 2, 2, 0, 1, 1)x dt1 + (0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 1)x dt2 +


+ (3, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1)x dt3 + (1, 2, 4, 0, 2, 2)x dt4,

dx2 = (0, 2, 2, 0, 2, 2)x dt1 (1, 3, 0, 0, 1, 1)x dt2 +


+ (1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 1)x dt3 (2, 1, 4, 0, 4, 4)x dt4,

262
.. . 2, 4, . 2

dx3 = (0, 3, 2, 0, 2, 2)x dt1 (1, 3, 1, 0, 2, 2)x dt2 +


+ (2, 1, 2, 0, 1, 1)x dt3 (3, 2, 7, 0, 5, 5)x dt4,

dx4 = (0, 4, 0, 2, 2, 2)x dt1 + (2, 2, 0, 1, 0, 4)x dt2 + (38)


+ (1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1)x dt3 + (3, 4, 10, 2, 7, 7)x dt4,

dx5 = (2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 4)x dt1 + (3, 3, 2, 2, 1, 4)x dt2 +


+ (2, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1)x dt3 + (3, 2, 9, 0, 7, 5)x dt4,

dx6 = (1, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1)x dt1 (2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 4)x dt2 +


+ (1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 2)x dt3 + (1, 4, 5, 0, 4, 2)x dt4

.
12 = 11 = 1 + i, 15 = 2i, -
(1 1 i)2 1 2i,
01 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i), 02 = (1, 0, 1 + i, 1, i, 1) -
11 = (1 + i, 0, 1 + i, 0, i, i) X


v 1 : x (x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 ) + (x2 + x5 + x6 )(x1 + x3 + x5 + x6 ) P11 (x),

ve1 : x (x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 + x5 + x6 ) (x1 + x3 )(x2 + x5 + x6 ) P11 (x),

P1 : x (x1 + x2 )2 + (x2 + x5 + x6 )2 , x R6 .
X (38) -


W1 : x P1 (x)P22 (x) exp 10 1 (x) + 8 v 1 (x) + 6 ve1 (x) , (39)


W2 : x P13 (x) exp 10 1 (x) 4 2 (x) + 12 v1 (x) + 14 ve1 (x) , (40)

X x : x1 + x2 6= 0, x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 6= 0 ,

P2 : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 )2 + (x3 + x5 )2 , x R6 ,


263
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

x2 + x 5 + x 6 x3 + x 5
1 : x arctg , 2 : x arctg , x X.
x1 + x 2 x1 + x 3 + x 4 + x 6

. vl , {1, . . . , k1 }, l {1, . . . , },
.
(1.1)

k1
Y h0 +h0,(k1 +)  
W1 : x P0 (x) exp 2 e
h0e
h0,(k 0 (x) +
1 +)
=1

 
X  
+ 2(1ql ) hq + hq,(k v (x) + e
+) q
hq,(k +)
e
h ve
q q
(x) +
1 1
q=1


 Y
k2
2h0  X

+ 2 hl v l (x) e
hl vel (x) 0
x exp 2 hq vq (x)
=1 q=1

k1
Y eh0 +eh0,(k1 +)  
W2 : x P0 (x) exp 2 h0 h0,(k 0 (x) +
1 +)
=1

 
X  
+ 2(1ql ) ehq + e
hq,(k v
+) q
(x) + h q
h q,(k
ve
+) q
(x) +
1 1
q=1

 Y
k2
2eh0  X 
+ 2 hl vel (x) e
hl v l (x) 0
x exp 2 e
hq vq (x)
=1 q=1

X X DW1 DW2 ,

hq = hq + e
hq i, hq = hq + e
hq i, q = 0, k , k =
k = , = 1, 2k1 , = 1, k2 ,

264
.. . 2, 4, . 2

2k1  
X X
j h0 + jq hq j hl,(k +
l,(k1 +) 1 +)
=1 q=1

k2 
X
X 
+ j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m ,
q
=1 q=1


ej i, j
j = j + j j
k1 + = , = 1, k1 , , = 1, k2 ,
-
Aj , j = 1, m ,

0 = 0 + e 0 i, 0,(k1 +) = 0 , = 1, k1 ,
0 , = 1, k2 , ,

j = pj vq (x), j = Re j ,
e j = Im j , j = pj vq (x)
q q q q q q

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, 2k1 , = 1, k2 , j = 1, m .


vq = v q + veq i vq ,

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 , = 1, k2 ,

(22), , -

k1
X k2
X
2 + = m 2k1 k2 + 2 2k1 + k2 6 r,
=1 =1

6 s 1, = 1, k1 , 6 s 1, = 1, k2 , k1
,
k2
Aj , j = 1, m .

265
. 2, 4, . 2 ..

7.

dx1 = (3, 4, 4, 1, 0, 2)x dt1 + (0, 4, 2, 1, 1, 1)x dt2,

dx2 = ( 1, 3, 3, 0, 2, 3)x dt1 + (1, 3, 0, 0, 1, 1)x dt2,

dx3 = ( 3, 5, 5, 1, 2, 4)x dt1 + (0, 6, 2, 1, 2, 1)x dt2, (41)

dx4 = (3, 6, 4, 4, 1, 5, )x dt1 + (2, 6, 2, 3, 4, 2)x dt2,

dx5 = (5, 5, 8, 3, 3, 6)x dt1 + (1, 6, 3, 2, 2, 2)x dt2,

dx6 = ( 2, 5, 4, 3, 1, 2)x dt1 + ( 2, 4, 3, 3, 2, 2)x dt2

.
11 = 1 + 2i, -
(1 1 2i)3 , -
0 = (1, 0, 1 + i, 1, i, 1)
1 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i), 2 = (2 + 2i, 0, 2 + 2i, 0, 2i, 2i)


W1 : x P (x) exp (x) ve1 (x) , x X, (42)

W2 : x P (x) exp 2 (x) + 2 v 1 (x) , x X, (43)

W3 : x P 2 (x) exp 2 (x) ve2 (x) , x X, (44)


W4 : x v 2 (x), x X, (45)


P, , ve1 , v 1 , ve2 v 2 ,
, -
(34).
, , -
(41)
X {x : x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 6= 0}.

266
.. . 3, 4, . 2

3.
-
.

(1.1) -

Pj (t, x) = tj + pj (x), (t, x) Rn+m , j = 1, m ,

-
(1.1), (1.1).
-
(1.1) ( n) -
( n m)
m -
(1.1) , n -

D Rm+n .

.
1. -
Aj , j = 1, m .
(1.1)
 Xm 
W : (t, x) (x) exp j tj , (t, x) Rn+m , (1)
j=1

j , j = 1, m , -
Aj , .
. , 1.1 -
(1.1) (1) R n+m

Pj W (t, x) = tj W (t, x) + pj W (t, x) =



= j + j W (t, x) = 0, j = 1, m .

267
. 3, 4, . 2 ..

1 ( 1.2).

11 = 2, 21 = 1 12 = 0, 22 = 1

1 = (0, 1, 1, 1) 2 = (1, 0, 0, 0),


( 1)

W1 : (t, x) ( x2 + x3 + x4 ) exp(2t1 t2 ), (t, x) R6 ,

W2 : (t, x) x1 exp t2 , (t, x) R6 ,


(4.2).
(5.2), (6.2), W1 W2 ,
,
(4.2) R2 X, X
{x : x1 6= 0} R4 .

1. = + e i
Aj , j = 1, m .
-
(1.1)

2 2   Xm 
W1 : (t, x) x + e x exp 2 j tj , (t, x) Rn+m ,
j=1

m
X
ex e j tj , (t, x) D, D Rn+m ,
W2 : (t, x) arctg
x j=1


ej i Aj , j = 1, m ,
j = j +
.
2 ( 2.2).
11 = 1 21 = i -
1 = (1, i, 0)
(14.2):
268
.. . 3, 4, . 2

W1 : (t, x) (x21 + x22 ) exp( 2t1 ), (t, x) R5 ,

x2
W2 : (t, x) arctg + t2 , (t, x) R2 X.
x1

(15.2), W1 W2 , ,
(14.2) R 2 X,
X {x : x1 6= 0, x3 6= 0}.
3 ( 3.2).
11 = 1 21 = i -
1 = (0, i, 0, 1) ( 1)
(18.2):

W3 : (t, x) (x22 + x24 ) exp(2t1 ), (t, x) R6 ,

x2
W4 : (t, x) arctg t2 , (t, x) R2 X.
x4

(19.2), W3 W4 , ,
(18.2)
R2 X, X {x : x4 6= 0}.
2. 0 , = 1, s 1 , -
A j , j = 1, m ,
A , -
,
s > 2.
(1.1)
m
X
Wq : (t, x) vq (x) jq tj , (t, x) D, q = 1, s 1 , (2)
j=1

vq : X R (22.2),

jq = pj vq (x), x X, q = 1, s 1 , j = 1, m .

269
. 3, 4, . 2 ..

. (2) -
(1.1)

Pj Wq (t, x) = tj Wq (t, x) + pj Wq (t, x) = j + pj vq (x),


q

(t, x) Rm X, X Rn , j = 1, m , q = 1, s 1 .

pj vq (x) = jq , x X, j = 1, m , q = 1, s 1 ,

, (2)
(1.1).
4 ( 4.2). 2, ,

p1 v1 (x) 1, p1 v3 (x) 0, p2 v1 (x) 1, p2 v3 (x) 6,

(32.2):

W3 : (t, x) v1 (x) t1 + t2 , (t, x) R2 X,

W4 : (t, x) v3 (x) 6t2 , (t, x) R2 X,

v1 v2 ,
, -
(32.2), X {x : x1 x2 + x3 6= 0}
R4 .
(33.2), W3 W4 , -
, -
(32.2) R2 X.
2. 0 , = 1, s 1 ,
A j , j = 1, m ,
A , -
,
s > 2.
(1.1) -

270
.. . 3, 4, . 2

m
X

W1q : (t, x) v q (x) j tj , (t, x) D, q = 1, s 1 ,
q
j=1

m
X
j
W2q : (t, x) veq (x)
eq tj , (t, x) D, q = 1, s 1 ,
j=1


vq : x v q (x) + veq (x) i, x X, X Rn , -
(22.2),

j = pj v q (x),
e j = pj veq (x), x X, j = 1, m , q = 1, s 1 .
q q

5 ( 5.2).
(34.2) 2
R3 X

W11 : (t, x) v 1 (x) t1 t2 , W21 : (t, x) ve1 (x) + t2 t3


W12 : (t, x) v 2 (x) 2t3 ,

v 1 , ve1 v 2 ,
, -
(34.2), X
{x : x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 6= 0} R6 .
(35.2) (37.2), W11 , W21 W12 ,
, (34.2) -
R3 X.
6 ( 6.2).
(38.2)
01 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i), -
11 = 1 + i, 21 = 1, 31 = 2 41 = 1 + 2i, c
( 1)

W3 : (t, x) (x1 + x2 )2 + (x2 + x5 + x6 )2 exp(2t1 + 2t2 4t3 + 2t4 ),

271
. 3, 4, . 2 ..

x2 + x 5 + x 6
W4 : (t, x) arctg t1 2t4
x1 + x 2

R4 X 0 , X 0
{x : x1 + x2 6= 0} R6 .
2

W5 : (t, x) v 1 (x) t1 + t3 t4 , (t, x) R4 X,

W6 : (t, x) ve1 (x) t2 t4 , (t, x) R4 X,



v 1 ve1 ,
, -
(38.2), X
{x : x1 + x2 6= 0, x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 6= 0} R6 .
(39.2), (40.2), W3 W6 , -
, (38.2)
R4 X.
7 ( 7.2). -
(41.2) 2

W5 : (t, x) v 1 (x) t1 t2 , (t, x) R2 X,

W6 : (t, x) ve1 (x) + t2 , (t, x) R2 X,



v 1 ve1 , -
, -
(34.2), X {x : x1 + x3 + x4 + x6 6= 0}
R6 .
(42.2) (45.2), W5 W6 , -
,
(41.2) R2 X.

272
.. . 1, 5, . 2

5.

1.
. -
. -
.

dx = J(x) dt, (1)

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) t = (t1 , . . . , tm ) Rn Rm
, - dx = colon (dx 1 , . . . , dxn )
dt = colon (dt1 , . . . , dtm ), J(x) = kJij (x)k
(n , m )

Jij : x aji (x) xi aj,n+1 (x), x Rn , i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,


n
X
aj : x aj i xi + aj,n+1 , x Rn , j = 1, m , = 1, n + 1 ,
i=1

aj , j = 1, m , = 1, n + 1 ,
= 1, n + 1 ,
n
X
a 6= 0, j = 1, m . (2)
j,n+1,i
i=1

C (1) -
.
(1) -

273
. 1, 5, . 2 ..

n
X
pj (x) = Jij (x)xi , x Rn , j = 1, m ,
i=1

R n .
m < n.

n
X
p: x i xi + n+1 , x Rn , ( K, = 1, n + 1 ), (3)
i=1

K R C , -
(1) Rn
n+1
X
pj p(x) = aj,n+1 (x)p(x) + aj (x), j = 1, m . (4)
=1

, = 1.n + 1 , ,
n+1
X
aj (x) = j p(x), x Rn , j = 1, m . (5)
=1

(4) (5), ,


pj p(x) = p(x) aj,n+1 (x) + j , j K, j = 1, m , (6)

( 1.1.3), p -
(1).
(5)

(Aj j E) = 0, j = 1, m , (7)

= colon (1 , . . . , n+1 ), E , p-

Aj = aj pp n + 1, -

aj , j = 1, m , = 1, n + 1 .
274
.. . 1, 5, . 2


det (Aj j E) = 0, j = 1, m , (8)
,

(1).
(1) -
.

 
pj (x), p (x) = O, x Rn , j, = 1, m ,

(1) -
:
Aj A = A Aj , j, = 1, m .

1. = (1 , . . . , n+1 )
Aj , j = 1, m . (3)
-
(1).
pp , p A j , j = 1, m ,
aj,n+1,i , i = 1, n , j = 1, m , op p
, , p Aj , j = 1, m , p
(0, . . . , 0, n+1 ) p n+1 6= 0.
,
1 = . . . = n = 0, n+1 6= 0,

p (7), j
Aj , j = 1, m , ,

aj,n+1,i n+1 = 0, i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,
..
aj,n+1,i = 0, i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,

pp (2).
275
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

2.

.

2.1.

:
n
X
k

= 1k , . . . , n+1
k
, pk (x) = ik xi + n+1
k
.
i=1

1. k , k = 1, m + 2 , -

Aj , j = 1, m .
m+2
Y h
W: x p (x) k , x X, (1)
k
k=1

hk , k = 1, m + 2 , p-
p p
m+2
X m+2
X
hk = 0, jk hk = 0, j = 1, m , (2)
k=1 k=1

-
jk Aj , j = 1, m , -
k , k = 1, m + 2 , -
X DW
(1.1).
. k , k = 1, m + 2 , -
A 1 , . . . , Am .
jk R, j = 1, m , -
k , k = 1, m + 2 .

276
.. . 2, 5, . 2

1.1

pk : x pk (x), x Rn , k = 1, m + 2 ,

(1.1),

pj pk (x) = pk (x) aj,n+1 (x) + jk , x Rn
(3)
j = 1, m k = 1, m + 2 .

(1)
(1.1):

m+2
Y h 1 m+2
X m+2
Y
pj W (x) = p (x) k sgn pk (x)hk p (x) p p (x),
k l j k
k=1 k=1 l=1, l6=k

x X, j = 1, m .

(3) , X
 m+2
X m+2
X 
pj W (x) = aj,n+1 (x) hk + j hk W (x), j = 1, m .
k
k=1 k=1

hk , k = 1, m + 2 , p p-
p (2), (1)
X (1.1).
1. k , k = 1, m + 2 , -
-
Aj , j = 1, m . X
(1.1)
m+1
Y 4 4
W12...(m+1)(m+2) : x p (x) l p , x X,
l m+2 (x)
l=1


277
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

1 1 ... 1

11 12 ... 1m+1
4 = ,
... ... ... . . .
m m ... m
1 2 m+1

4l , l = 1, m + 1, -
4 l- colon (1, 1m+2 , . . . , m
m+2 ),
j
k R Aj , -
k, k = 1, m + 2, j = 1, m.
1. p p


dx1 = x1 2x2 + x3 3 x1 ( 5x1 2x2 5x3 + 1) dt1 +

+ 2x1 4x2 + x3 5 x1 ( 7x1 2x2 7x3 + 2) dt2 ,

dx2 = 4x1 + 2x2 + 4x3 x2 ( 5x1 2x2 5x3 + 1) dt1 +
 (4)
+ 6x1 + 3x2 + 6x3 x2 ( 7x1 2x2 7x3 + 2) dt2 ,

dx3 = x1 + 2x2 3x3 + 3 x3 ( 5x1 2x2 5x3 + 1) dt1 +

+ x1 + 4x2 4x3 + 5 x3 ( 7x1 2x2 7x3 + 2) dt2 .



1 4 1 5 2 6 1 7

2 2 2 2 4 3 4 2
A1 = A2 = 1
1 4 3 5 6 4 7
3 0 3 1 5 0 5 2

, , (4) .
A1 A2

11 = 2, 12 = 2, 13 = 1, 14 = 2

21 = 3, 22 = 3, 23 = 2, 24 = 3,

278
.. . 2, 5, . 2

det (A1 1 E) = 0 (1 + 2)2 (1 1)(1 2) = 0,

det (A2 2 E) = 0 (2 + 3)2 (2 2)(2 3) = 0.

A1 A2

J1 = diag { 2, 2, 1, 2} J2 = diag { 3, 3, 2, 3}

, A1 = B1 J1 B11 A2 = B2 J2 B21 -
B1 B2 , :

1 2 1 1

1 1 2 1
B1 = B 2 = 0 1 1 1 .

1 1 1 0

, -
A1 A2

1 = (1, 1, 0, 1), 2 = (2, 1, 1, 1), 3 = (1, 2, 1, 1) 4 = (1, 1, 1, 0).

p

h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 = 0,

h + h2 + h3 + h4 = 0,
1
1 1 1 1
1 h1 + 2 h2 + 3 h3 + 4 h4 = 0, 2h1 2h2 + h3 + 2h4 = 0,



2
1 h1 + 22 h2 + 23 h3 + 24 h4 = 0 3h1 3h2 + 2h3 + 3h4 = 0

, pp,

h1 = 1, h2 = 1, h3 = 0, h4 = 0.


x1 + x 2 + 1
W: x , x X, (5)
2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1

X {x : 2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1 6= 0} -
R3 p p (4).

279
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

2.2.

, (3.1) -
(1.1),
(6.1)

ej ,
pj Re p(x) = Re p(x) aj,n+1 (x) + j Im p(x)

ej + Im p(x) a
pj Im p(x) = Re p(x) (x) + j , (6)
j,n+1

ej i, j = 1, m .
x Rn , j = j +

-
(1.1).
1. (3.1) -
(1.1),
(6).
-

(1.1).
1. (1.1)
(3.1),
p -
(1.1).
(6.1)

pj p(x) = p(x) aj,n+1 (x) + j , x Rn , j = 1, m ,

j , j = 1, m ,
j , j = 1, m , (6.1).
2. (1.1) -
(3.1),

P : x Re2 p(x) + Im2 p(x), x Rn , (7)


(1.1)
280
.. . 2, 5, . 2



pj P (x) = 2P (x) aj,n+1 (x) + j , x Rn , j = 1, m ,

ej i, j = 1, m , (6.1).
j = j +
3. (1.1) -
(3.1).
(1.1)

: x exp (x), x X,

Im p(x)
: x arctg , x X, (8)
Re p(x)

ej , x X, j = 1, m ,
pj exp (x) = exp (x) (9)

ej i, j = 1, m , (6.1),
j = j +
X Rn ,
Rn Re p.
(9)
(1.1) (8) -
(3.1) :
ej , x X, j = 1, m .
pj (x) =

4. u1 u2 u1 : Rn K
u2 : Rn K, K R -
C , (-
) (1.1)
, u 1 u2
(1.1).
5. (7) -
(1.1),
(1.1) (3.1) (
).
281
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

:
n
X n
X
k
pk (x) = ik xi + n+1 , pek (x) = eik xi + en+1
k
,
i=1 i=1

2 2 pek (x)
Pk (x) = pk (x) + pek (x) , k (x) = arctg .
pk (x)

2. k , k = k + ek i, = 1, n + 1 , k =
= 1, s , s 6 (m + 2)/2, , = s + 1, m + 2 s , -
(-
)
Aj , j = 1, m .
X (1.1)


s
Y hk  m+2s
Y h
W: x Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x) p (x) , (10)

k=1 =s+1

X DW, -

hk , e
hk , k = 1, s , h , = s + 1, m + 2 s ,

s
X m+2s
X
2 hk + h = 0,
k=1 =s+1
(11)
s
X m+2s
X

2 ej e
j hk hk + j h = 0, j = 1, m ,
k k
k=1 =s+1


ej i, k = 1, s , j , = s + 1, m + 2 s ,
jk = jk + k

Aj , j = 1, m , -
k , k = 1, s , , = s + 1, m + 2 s .
282
.. . 2, 5, . 2

.
Aj jk j , j = 1, m ,
,
k , k = 1, s , , = s + 1, m + 2 s .
1.1 1

pk : x pk (x) + pek (x) i, pk : x pk (x) pek (x) i, p : x p (x),

x Rn , k = 1, s , = s + 1, m + 2 s ,

(1.1).
, Rn

ej ,
pj pk (x) = pk (x) aj,n+1 (x) + jk pek (x) k


ej + pe (x) a
pj pek (x) = p (x) (x) + j ,
k kk j,n+1 k
 (12)
pj pk (x) = aj,n+1 (x) + pk (x), j
k

j = 1, m , k = 1, s , = s + 1, m + 2 s .

(10)
(1.1)
Y
s
hk 1 
pj W (x) = Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x)
k=1

s
X s
Y
hk Pl (x) pj Pk (x) +
k=1 l=1, l6=k

s
Y

s 
 hk X 
+ Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x) pj 2e
hk k (x)
k=1 k=1

283
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

m+2s
Y s
Y m+2s
Y
h hk  h 1
p (x) + Pk (x) exp 2 e
hk k (x) p (x)

=s+1 k=1 =s+1

m+2s
X m+2s
Y
sgn p (x)h p (x) p p (x), x X.
l j
=s+1 l=s+1, l6=

(12) 2, 3 ,
X
  Xs m+2s
X 
pj W (x) = aj,n+1 (x) 2 hk + h +
k=1 =s+1

s 
X  m+2s
X
+2 jk e j e
h k k hk + j
h W (x), j = 1, m .
k=1 =s+1


hk , e
hk , k = 1, s , h , = s + 1, m + 2 s , -
(11), (10)
X (1.1).
2.

dx1 = x1 2x2 x3 x1 (3x2 + 2x3 + 1) dt1 +

+ x1 4x2 2x3 x1 (6x2 + 4x3 1) dt2 ,

dx2 = 2x1 + x2 + 1 x2 (3x2 + 2x3 + 1) dt1 +
 (13)
+ 4x1 x2 + 2 x2 (6x2 + 4x3 1) dt2 ,

dx3 = 3x1 + x3 2 x3 (3x2 + 2x3 + 1) dt1 +

+ 6x1 x3 4 x3 (6x2 + 4x3 1) dt2 .

284
.. . 2, 5, . 2

1 2 3 4
= (2, i, 0, 1), = ( i, 2, 1, 0), = (2, i, 0, 1), = (i, 2, 1, 0)

12 = 11 = 1+i, 14 = 13 = 1i; 22 = 21 = 1+2i, 24 = 23 = 12i

( 2) p p
  x1 
(2x1 + 1)2 + x22 exp 2 arctg
2x2 + x3
W: x   x2 , x X, (14)
2
(2x2 + x3 )2 + x1 exp 2 arctg
2x1 + 1

X {x : 2x1 + 1 6= 0, 2x2 + x3 6= 0}.



3. 2k1 , 2k , 2s+1 , 2k1 = k + ek i,

2k = k ek i, k = 1, s , s 6 (m + 1)/2, 2s+1 = 2s+1 + e2s+1 i,
= 1, n + 1 , , = 2s + 2, m + 2 ,

Aj , j = 1, m . -
X (1.1)

s
Y h2k1 + h2k  
W1 : x Pk (x) exp 2 e
h2k1 e
h2k k (x)
k=1
(15)

 m+2
Y
h2s+1 2h
P2s+1 (x) exp 2 e
h2s+1 2s+1 (x) p (x)
=2s+2

s
Y eh2k1 + eh2k  
W2 : x Pk (x) exp 2 h2k1 h2k k (x)
k=1
(16)
m+2
eh2s+1  Y 2e
h
P2s+1 (x) exp 2 h2s+1 2s+1 (x) p (x),
=2s+2

285
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

X DW1 DW2 , hk = hk + e hk i, k = 1, m + 2 ,
(2)

j ej i, j = j
= j + ej i, k = 1, s ,
2k1 k k 2k k k

j2s+1
= + ej j2s+1 j
2s+1 i , = 2s + 2, m + 2 , -
-
Aj , j = 1, m ,
k , k = 1, m + 2 .
. X :
s
Y m+2
Y
h2k1 h2k h2s+1 h
W: x p (x) pk (x) p2s+1 (x) p (x) ,
k
k=1 =2s+2

s
Y m+2
Y
h2k h2k1 h2s+1 h
W: x p (x) pk (x) p2s+1 (x) p (x) ,
k
k=1 =2s+2


hk = hk + e
hk i, k = 1, m + 2 , -
, .
p (1.1)
 m+2
X s 
X 

j
pj W (x) = aj,n+1 (x) hk + j2k1 h2k1 +2k1 h2k +
k=1 k=1

m+2
X 

+ j2s+1 h2s+1 + j h W (x), x X, j = 1, m ;

=2s+2

 m+2
X s 
X 

j
pj W (x) = aj,n+1 (x) hk + j h2k + h2k1 +
2k1 2k1
k=1 k=1

m+2
X 

j
+ 2s+1 h2s+1 + j h W (x), x X, j = 1, m .
=2s+2
286
.. . 2, 5, . 2

hk , k = 1, m + 2 , -
(2),

pj W (x) = pj W (x) = 0, x X, j = 1, m .


, W W -
(1.1).
X
i i
W1 (x) = W (x) W (x) W2 (x) = W (x) W (x),

(15) (16) .
3.
1  
dx1 = x1 + x2 x1 a14 (x) dt1 + 2x1 + 2x2 x1 a24 (x) dt2 ,
2
 5 1   5 
dx2 = x1 x2 x2 a14 (x) dt1 + x1 x2 a24 (x) dt2 ,
4 2 2
(17)
53 1  5 
dx3 = x1 + x2 +x3 + x3 a14 (x) dt1 + x1 +1x3 a24 (x) dt2 ,
8 4 2 4

dx4 = x4 a14 (x) dt1 + x4 x4 a24 (x) dt2 ,

a14 : x x2 2x3 + 1, a24 : x 2x2 4x3 , x R4 .


11 = i, 12 = i, 13 = 1 + i, 14 = 1 i, 15 = 0

21 = 1 + 2i, 22 = 1 2i, 23 = 2i, 24 = 2i, 15 = 1

1 = (1 + 2i, 2, 0, 0, 0), 2 = (1 2i, 2, 0, 0, 0), 3 = (0, i, 2i, 0, 1),

4 = (0, i, 2i, 0, 1) 5 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0)

287
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

( 2 3) -
X {x : x4 6= 0, x1 + 2x2 6= 0} R4 :

2x1
W1 : x arctg arctg(x2 + 2x3 ), x X, (18)
x1 + 2x2

(x1 + 2x2 )2 + (2x1 )2


W2 : x , x X. (19)
x24

2.3.

(1.1) -

dxi
= Ji (x), i = 1, n , (1. )
dt

: A -

Aj , j = 1, m .
-
(1. ) - -
(8.1), (8. ).
1. l -
A , 
s 0l = 0l , . . . , 0l .
 1 n+1
kl = 1kl , . . . , n+1
kl , -

  
A E colon 1kl , . . . , n+1
kl = k colon 1k1, l , . . . , n+1
k1, l ,
l

k = 1, s 1 , (20)

k- A , -
l .

288
.. . 2, 5, . 2

:
n
X

kl = 1kl , . . . , n+1
kl
, pkl (x) = ikl xi + n+1
kl
.
i=1

4. 0l l , = 1, sl 1 , l = 1, r , -
-
Aj , j = 1, m, -
A ,
l , l = 1, r ,
Pr
sl sl > m + 2. p p -
l=1
(1.1)
k
Y h0 X
W: x p0 (x) exp hq vq (x), x X, (21)
=1 q=1

X DW, -
vq : X R, q = 1, , = 1, k , , X
i
X
i1 
pi (x) = q1 vq (x)piq, (x), i = 1, , = 1, k , (22)
q=1

P
k
( + 1) = m + 2, 6 s 1, = 1, k , k 6 r .
=1

pj vq (x) jq , jq = const, q = 1, , = 1, k , j = 1, m ,

hq , q = 0, , = 1, k ,

k
X k 
X X


h0 = 0, j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m , (23)
q
=1 =1 q=1

289
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

j ,
= 1, k , j = 1, m ,
Aj , j = 1, m , -
0 , = 1, k .
. (20) 1.1
, Rn

p pl (x) = pl (x) a,n+1 (x) + + p1,l (x),
l
(24)
= 0, sl 1 , l = 1, r .

(22) v q ,

p p p (x) -
0
X.
, vql X

"
1 q = 1,
p vql (x) = (25)
0 q = 2, sl 1 , l = 1, r .

(25) q = 1 q = 2 -
(24).
q > 3 -
.
, (25)
q = 3, 1 .
(1. )
pl (22), (24) (25) q = 1, 1
X :

X 1
p pl (x) = a,n+1 (x) + l q1 vql (x)pq,l (x) +
q=1

1
X
2
+ ( 1) q1 vql (x)pq1,l (x) + p1,l (x) + p0l (x) p vl (x).
q=1

290
.. . 2, 5, . 2

(22) i = 1 i = , -
(24) = , p 0l (x) 6= 0, x Rn ,
:
p vl (x) = 0, x X.



v0l : x ln p0l (x) , x X, l = 1, r. (26)

(24) (25) ,

p v0l (x) = a,n+1 (x) + , x X, l = 1, r , (27)


l

p v1l (x) = 1, x X, l = 1, r , (28)

p vql (x) = 0, x X, q = 2, sl 1 , l = 1, r . (29)

, p Aj , j = 1, m , r
0l , l = 1, r ,

pj v0l (x) = aj,n+1 (x) + jl , x X, l = 1, r , j = 1, m , (30)

, p-
p pj , j = 1, m , , (28)
(29) , X

pj vql (x) = j , q = 1, sl 1 , l = 1, r , j = 1, m , j 6= . (31)


ql

P
r
, sl
l=1

vql : X R, q = 0, sl 1 , l = 1, r ,

(22) (26), -
(25), (27) (31)
, .
291
. 2, 5, . 2 ..



k X
X
W: x hq vq (x), x X, X Rn ,
=1 q=0

X :
k 
X
X 

pj W (x) = aj,n+1 (x)h0 + j h0 + j hq , j = 1, m .
q
=1 q=1

hq , q = 0, , = 1, k , -

(23), W
X -
(1.1).


W (x) = exp W (x), x X,

(21) (1.1).
4.
 
dx1 = x2 x1 ( x1 + 2x3 + 2) dt1 + 2x1 x3 x1 (x2 3x3 + 1) dt2 ,

dx2 = 2x2 x3 1 x2 ( x1 + 2x3 + 2) dt1 +
 (32)
+ x1 + 2x2 + 1 x2 (x2 3x3 + 1) dt2 ,
 
dx3 = x1 1x3(x1 +2x3 +2) dt1 + x1 +3x3 +1x3 (x2 3x3 +1) dt2

11 = 1 -
(1 1)4 , 0 = (1, 1, 1, 0) -
1 = (1, 0, 1, 1), 2 = (1, 1, 3, 0), 3 = ( 3, 0, 9, 9)
X V = {x : x1 + x2 x3 6= 0}

x1 x 3 1
v1 : x ,
x1 + x2 x3
292
.. . 2, 5, . 2

(x1 x2 + 3x3 )( x1 + x2 x3 ) (x1 x3 1)2


v2 : x ,
( x 1 + x 2 x 3 )2

1
v3 : x ( 3x1 + 9x3 + 9)( x1 + x2 x3 )2
( x 1 + x 2 x 3 )3

3( x1 + x2 x3 )(x1 x3 1)(x1 x2 + 3x3 ) + 2(x1 x3 1)3 .

4 X, X V,

(x1 x2 + 3x3 )( x1 + x2 x3 ) (x1 x3 1)2


W: x (33)
( x 1 + x 2 x 3 )2

(32).
:
n
X n
X

pq (x) = iq xi + n+1
q
, peq (x) = eiq xi + en+1
q
,
i=1 i=1

2 2 pe0 (x)
P0 (x) = p0 (x) + pe0 (x) , 0 (x) = arctg .
p0 (x)

4 ,
Aj , j = 1, m , -
0l (p
(21) (26) -
p0l ), l
s l .
m + 2
vql , q = 0, l 1 , l = 1, r ,
.
1. m + 2 -

.
2. m + 2 -
,
.

293
. 2, 5, . 2 ..


(1.1) .

k1
Y

h0
W: x P0 (x) exp 2 e
h0 0 (x) +
=1


X  k2
 Y h X
+ 2 hq vq (x) e
hq veq (x) p (x) 0 exp hq vq (x)
0
q=1 =1 q=1

X DW,

hq , e
hq , hq , q = 0, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 ,
= 1, k2 ,
k1
X k2
X
2 h0 + h0 = 0,
=1 =1

k1 
X 
 X 
ej e
2 j h0 h0 + ej e
2 j hq hq +
q q
=1 q=1

k2 
X
X 
+ j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m ,
q
=1 q=1


ej i, = 1, k1 , j , = 1, k2 , j = 1, m ,
j = j +

Aj , j = 1, m ,

0 0 = 0 + e0 i, = 1, n + 1 , = 1, k1
0 , = 1, k2 .

j = Re pj vq (x),
e j = Im pj vq (x), j = pj vq (x), j = 1, m ,
q q q

294
.. . 2, 5, . 2

x X,

vq : x vq (x) + veq (x) i, x X, vq : x vq (x), x X,

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 , = 1, k2 ,

(22), ,

k1
X k2
 X 
2 + 1 + + 1 = m + 2 2k1 + k2 6 r,
=1 =1

6 s 1, = 1, k1 , k1 -
p A j ; 6 s 1,
= 1, k2 , k2
p Aj , j = 1, m .
5.

dx1 = 3x1 4x2 + 4x3 + x4 + 2 x1 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ 4x2 + 2x3 + x4 x5 + 1 x1 a26 (x) dt2 ,

dx2 = x1 + 3x2 3x3 2x5 3 x2 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ x1 + 3x2 + x5 1 x2 a26 (x) dt2 ,

dx3 = 3x1 + 5x2 5x3 x4 2x5 4 x3 a16 (x) dt1 +
 (34)
+ 6x2 2x3 x4 + 2x5 1 x3 a26 (x) dt2 ,

dx4 = 3x1 6x2 + 4x3 + 4x4 x5 + 5 x4 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ 2x1 6x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 4x5 + 2 x4 a26 (x) dt2 ,

dx5 = 5x1 5x2 + 8x3 + 3x4 + 3x5 + 6 x5 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ x1 6x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 2x5 + 2 x5 a26 (x) dt2 ,

295
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

a16 : x 2x1 + 5x2 4x3 3x4 + x5 2, x R5 ,


a26 : x 2x1 + 4x2 3x3 3x4 + 2x5 2, x R5 ,

.
11 = 1 + 2i
(1 1 2i)3 ,
0 = (1, 0, 1 + i, 1, i, 1), 1 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i)
2 = (2 + 2i, 0, 2 + 2i, 0, 2i, 2i) .

2
p1 (x) p0 (x)p2 (x) p1 (x)
v1 : x , x X, v2 : x 2 , x X,
p0 (x) p0 (x)

p0 : x x1 + (1 + i)x3 + x4 + ix5 + 1, p1 : x x1 + (1 + i)x2 + ix5 + i,

p2 : x (2 + 2i)x1 + (2 + 2i)x3 + 2ix5 + 2i, x R5 ,

X {x : x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0}
R5 .
v1 v2 ,
X :

v 1 : x (x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 + x4 + 1) + (x3 + x5 )(x2 + x5 + 1) P 1 (x),

ve1 : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + 1)(x2 + x5 + 1) (x1 + x2 )(x3 + x5 ) P 1 (x)

2
v2 : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + 1)(x2 + x5 + 1) (x1 + x2 )(x3 + x5 )
+

+ 2P (x) (x1 + x3 )(x1 + x3 + x4 + 1) + (x3 + x5 )(x1 + x3 + x5 + 1)
2 
(x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 + x4 + 1) + (x3 + x5 )(x2 + x5 + 1) P 2 (x),

296
.. . 2, 5, . 2

ve2 : x 2 P (x) (x1 + x3 + x4 + 1)(x1 + x3 + x5 + 1)


 
(x1 +x3 )(x3 +x5 ) + (x1 +x2 )(x1 +x3 +x4 +1)+(x3 +x5 )(x2 +x5 +1)

(x3 + x5 )(x1 + x2 ) (x1 + x3 + x4 + 1)(x2 + x5 + 1) P 2 (x),

P : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + 1)2 + (x3 + x5 )2 , x R5 .


( 1)
x3 + x 5
W1 : x 2 arctg + 4 v 1 (x) + 2 ve1 (x), (35)
x1 + x 3 + x 4 + 1

W2 : x v 2 (x), (36)


W3 : x 4 ve1 (x) + 2 v 2 (x) 2 ve2 (x), (37)

, -
(34) X, X {x : x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0}.
.
. A j , j = 1, m ,
.
(1.1)

k1
Y

h0,21 + h0,2 
W1 : x P0 (x) exp 2 e
h0,21 e
h0,2 0 (x) +
=1


X    
+ v e e
2 hq,21 + hq,2 q (x) + hq,2 hq,21 veq (x)
q=1


h0,2k1 +1 
P0,2k (x) exp 2 e
h0,2k 0,2k (x)
1 +1 1 +1 1 +1

k2
Y
 X 
2 h0
p0 (x) exp 2 hq vq (x) , x X,
=1 q=1

297
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

k1 
Y eh0,21 + eh0,2 
W2 : x P0 (x) exp 2 h0,21 h0,2 0 (x) +
=1


X    
+ e e
2 hq,21 + hq,2 vq (x) + hq,21 hq,2 veq (x)
q=1

eh0,2k1 +1 
P0,2k +1
(x) exp 2 h0,2k
+1 0,2k +1
(x)
1 1 1

k2
Y  X 
2 eh0
p0 (x) exp 2 e
hq vq (x) , x X,
=1 q=1

X DW1 DW2 , -

hq = hq + ehq i, hq = hq + e
hq i, q = 0, k , k =
k = , = 1, 2k1 + 1 , = 1, k2 , -

2k1
X k2
X
h0 + h0,2k + h0 = 0,
1 +1
=1 =1

2k1 
X
X 
j h0 + j hq + j h0,2k +
q 2k1 +1 1 +1
=1 q=1

k2 
X
X 
+ j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m ,
q
=1 q=1


ej i, j = j
j21 = j + ej i, = 1, k1 , j
2 2k1 +1 =

= j2k1 +1 +
ej j
2k1 +1 i , = 1, k2 , j = 1, m ,

298
.. . 2, 5, . 2


Aj , j = 1, m , 0,21 , 0,2

0,21 = 0 + e0 i, 0,2 = 0,21 , = 1, n + 1 , = 1, k1 ,

0,2k1 +1 0,2k1 +1 = 0,2k1 +1 + e0,2k1 +1 i, = 1, n + 1 0 ,
= 1, k2 .

j = pj vq (x), j = pj vq (x) , j = pj vq (x), j = 1, m ,


q,21 q,2 q

x X,

vq : x vq (x) + veq (x) i, x X, vq : x vq (x), x X,

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 , = 1, k2 ,

(22), , -

k1
X k2
X
 
2 + 1 + 1 + + 1 = m + 2 2k1 + 1 + k2 6 r,
=1 =1

6 s 1, = 1, k1 , k1 -
p A j ; 6 s 1,
= 1, k2 , k2 -
p Aj , j = 1, m .
6.

dx1 = x1 2x2 + 2x3 + x5 + 1 x1 a16 (x) dt1 +
 
+ 2x2 + x5 + 1 x1 a26 (x) dt2 + 3x1 x5 1 x1 a36 (x) dt3 ,

dx2 = 2x2 2x3 2x5 2 x2 a16 (x) dt1 +
 
+ x1 3x2 x5 1x2 a26 (x) dt2 + x1 +2x2 +x5 +1x2 a36 (x) dt3 ,

299
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

dx3 = 3x2 2x3 2x5 2 x3 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ x1 3x2 x3 2x5 2 x3 a26 (x) dt2 +

+ 2x1 x2 + 2x3 + x5 + 1 x3 a36 (x) dt3 , (38)

dx4 = 4x2 + 2x4 2x5 + 2 x4 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ 2x1 + 2x2 + x4 + 4 x4 a26 (x) dt2 +

+ x1 + 2x2 2x3 + x4 x5 1 x4 a36 (x) dt3 ,

dx5 = 2x1 3x2 + 4x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 + 4 x5 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ 3x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + x5 + 4 x5 a26 (x) dt2 +

+ 2x1 + x2 x3 1 x5 a36 (x) dt3 ,

a16 : x x1 + 3x2 2x3 2x4 + x5 1, x R5 ,


a26 : x 2x1 x2 2x3 2x4 x5 4, x R5 ,
a36 : x x1 x2 + x3 + x5 + 2, x R5 ,

.
12 = 11 = 1 + i, 15 = 2i, -
(1 1 i)2 , 1 2i, -
01 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i), 02 = (1, 0, 1 + i, 1, i, 1)
11 = (1 + i, 0, 1 + i, 0, i, i) X

(x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 ) + (x2 + x5 + 1)(x1 + x3 + x5 + 1)


v1 : x
P1 (x)

(x1 + x2 )(x1 + x3 + x5 + 1) (x1 + x3 )(x2 + x5 + 1)


ve1 : x ,
P1 (x)

P1 : x (x1 + x2 )2 + (x2 + x5 + 1)2 , x R5 .


300
.. . 2, 5, . 2

( 2)
 2  
P2 (x) x2 + x 5 + 1
W1 : x exp 8 arctg 4 v 1 (x) (39)
P1 (x) x1 + x 2

x2 + x 5 + 1 x3 + x 5
W2 : x 2 arctg + arctg 2 ve1 (x), (40)
x1 + x 2 x1 + x 3 + x 4 + 1

P2 : x (x1 + x3 + x4 + 1)2 + (x3 + x5 )2 , x R5 , -


(38) X
{x : x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0, x1 + x2 6= 0} R5 .
. vl , {1, . . . , k1 }, l {1, . . . , },
.
(1.1)

k1
Y

h0,21 + h0,2 
W1 : x P0 (x) exp 2 e
h0,21 e
h0,2 0 (x) +
=1


X  
+ 2 1 ql hq,21 + hq,2 vq (x) +
q=1

   
+ e
hq,2 e
hq,21 veq (x) exp 2 hl vl (x) e
hl vel (x)

k2
Y
 X 
2 h0
p0 (x) exp 2 hq vq (x) , x X,
=1 q=1

k1 
Y eh0,21 + eh0,2 
W2 : x P (x) exp 2 h0,21 h0,2 0 (x) +
=1
301
. 2, 5, . 2 ..


X  
+ 2 1 ql hq,21 + e
e hq,2 vq (x) +
q=1

   
+ hq,21 hq,2 veq (x) exp 2 hl vel (x) + e
hl vl (x)

k2
Y  X 
2 eh0
p0 (x) exp 2 e
hq vq (x) , x X,
=1 q=1

X DW1 DW2 , -

hq = hq + e
hq i, hq = hq + e
hq i, q = 0, , k = k
k = , = 1, 2k1 , 6= + 1, = 1, k2 , -

2k1
X k2
X
h0 + h0 = 0,
=1 =1

2k1 
X
X 
j h0 + j hq j hl,+1 +
q l,+1
=1 q=1

k2 
X
X 
+ j h0 + j hq = 0, j = 1, m ,
q
=1 q=1


ej i, j = j
j21 = j + ej i, = 1, k1 , j = 1, m ,
2
j , = 1, k2 , j = 1, m , -
A j , j = 1, m ,

0,21 , 0,2 0,21 = 0 + e0 i,

0,2 = 0,21 , = 1, n + 1 , = 1, k1 0 , = 1, k2 .
302
.. . 2, 5, . 2

j = pj vq (x), j = pj vq (x), j = pj vq (x), j = 1, m ,


q,21 q,2 q

x X,

vq : x vq (x) + veq (x) i, x X, vq : x vq (x), x X,

q = 1, k , k = k = , = 1, k1 , = 1, k2 ,

(22), , -

k1
X k2
X
 
2 + 1 1 + + 1 = m + 2 2k1 + k2 6 r,
=1 =1

6 s 1, = 1, k1 , k1 -
p A j ; 6 s 1,
= 1, k2 , k2 -
p Aj , j = 1, m .
7.

dx1 = 3x1 4x2 + 4x3 + x4 + 2 x1 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ 4x2 + 2x3 + x4 x5 + 1 x1 a26 (x) dt2 +

+ 3x1 + 2x2 4x3 3x4 2 x1 a36 (x) dt3 ,

dx2 = x1 + 3x2 3x3 2x5 3 x2 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ x1 + 3x2 + x5 1 x2 a26 (x) dt2 +

+ 2x1 3x2 + 3x3 + 3x4 x5 + 2 x2 a36 (x) dt3 ,

dx3 = 3x1 + 5x2 5x3 x4 2x5 4 x3 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ 6x2 2x3 x4 + 2x5 1 x3 a26 (x) dt2 + (41)

+ 3x1 3x2 + 5x3 + 4x4 + 2 x3 a36 (x) dt3 ,

303
. 2, 5, . 2 ..

dx4 = 3x1 6x2 + 4x3 + 4x4 x5 + 5 x4 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ 2x1 6x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 4x5 + 2 x4 a26 (x) dt2 +

+ 3x1 + 2x2 6x3 4x4 x5 1 x4 a36 (x) dt3 ,

dx5 = 5x1 5x2 + 8x3 + 3x4 + 3x5 + 6 x5 a16 (x) dt1 +

+ x1 6x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 2x5 + 2 x5 a26 (x) dt2 +

+ 3x1 + 3x2 6x3 4x4 x5 2 x5 a36 (x) dt3 ,

a16 : x 2x1 + 5x2 4x3 3x4 + x5 2, x R5 ,


a26 : x 2x1 + 4x2 3x3 3x4 + 2x5 2, x R5 ,
a36 : x 2x1 x2 + 4x3 + 2x4 + x5 , x R5 ,

.
11 = 1 + 2i, -
(1 1 2i)3 ,
0 = (1, 0, 1 + i, 1, i, 1), 1 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i)
2 = (2 + 2i, 0, 2 + 2i, 0, 2i, 2i) ,
( 2)

x3 + x 5
W1 : x 2 arctg 4 v 1 (x) 2 ve1 (x) + v 2 (x) (42)
x1 + x 3 + x 4 + 1

x3 + x 5
W2 : x 4 arctg + 8 v 1 (x) + 2 ve1 (x) + ve2 (x) (43)
x1 + x 3 + x 4 + 1

X {x : x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0},

v 1 , ve1 , v 2 , ve2 , -
, -
(34).
(42) (43), , -
(41) X
{x : x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0} R5 .

304
.. . 3, 5, . 2

3.
-
.

(1.1) -

Pj (t, x) = tj + pj (x), (t, x) Rn+m , j = 1, m ,

-
(1.1) ( n) -
( n m) m
D -
Rn+m .

.
1. 1 2 -
A j , j = 1, m ,

j1 j2 .
D (1.1)
X
m 
p1 (x) j j
W : (t, x) exp (2 1 )tj , (t, x) D. (1)
p2 (x)
j=1

, c 1.1
(1.1) (1) D

Pj W (t, x) = tj W (t, x) + pj W (t, x) =



= j2 j1 + j1 j2 W (t, x) = 0, j = 1, m .

1 ( 1.2).

1 = (1, 1, 0, 1), 3 = (1, 2, 1, 1); 1 = (1, 1, 0, 1), 4 = (1, 1, 1, 0)

305
. 3, 5, . 2 ..

11 = 2, 13 = 1, 21 = 3, 23 = 2;

11 = 2, 14 = 2, 21 = 3, 24 = 3

x1 + x 2 + 1
W1 : (t, x) exp(3t1 + 5t2 ), (t, x) D,
x1 + 2x2 + x3 + 1

x1 + x 2 + 1
W2 : (t, x) exp(4t1 + 6t2 ), (t, x) D,
x1 + x 2 + x 3

(4.2).
(5.2), W1 W2 , -
, -
(4.2) D R2 X, X -

{x : 2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1 6= 0, x1 + 2x2 + x3 + 1 6= 0, x1 + x2 + x3 6= 0}.



1. 1 1 = 1 + e1 i, = 1, n + 1
-
Aj , j = 1, m . -
(1.1) D

Xm
pe1 (x) ej t , (t, x) D, D DW,
W : (t, x) arctg j
p1 (x) j=1


ej i Aj , j = 1, m ,
j = j +
1 .
2 ( 2.2).

1 = (2, i, 0, 1) 2 = ( i, 2, 1, 0)

306
.. . 3, 5, . 2

11 = 1 + i 21 = 1 + 2i
1 (13.2):
x2
W1 : (t, x) arctg (t1 + 2t2 ), (t, x) D, D R2 X,
2x1 + 1

x1
W2 : (t, x) arctg (t1 + 2t2 ), (t, x) D.
2x2 + x3

(14.2), W1 W2 , -
, -
(13.2) D R2 X, X -
{x : 2x1 + 1 6= 0, 2x2 + x3 6= 0}.

2. 1 1 = 1 + e1 i, = 1, n + 1 2
-
Aj , j = 1, m . -
D (1.1)

X
m 
p22 (x) 
W : (t, x) exp 2 j1 j2 tj ,
P1 (x)
j=1


D DW, j1 = j1 + ej i j -
1 2
Aj , j = 1, m ,
1 2 .

3. 1 2 k = k + ek i, = 1, n + 1 ,

k = 1, k = 2 ( -
)
Aj , j = 1, m .
D (1.1)
X
m 
P1 (x) 
j j
W : (t, x) exp 2 2 1 tj ,
P2 (x)
j=1

307
. 3, 5, . 2 ..

ej i, j = 1, m , -
D DW, jk = jk + k
Aj , j = 1, m , -
k , k = 1, k = 2.
3 ( 3.2).

3 = (0, i, 2i, 0, 1), 5 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0) ( 2)

1 = (1 + 2i, 2, 0, 0, 0), 3 = (0, i, 2i, 0, 1) ( 3)

11 = i, 21 = 1 + i, 13 = 1 + i, 23 = 2i, 15 = 0, 25 = 1

x24 
W3 : (t, x) 2
exp 2(t1 t2 ) , (t, x) D,
1 + (x2 + 2x3 )

(x1 + 2x2 )2 + 4x21 


W4 : (t, x) 2
exp 2(t1 t2 ) , (t, x) D,
1 + (x2 + 2x3 )

(17.2).
(18.2), (19.2), W3 W4 , -
, -
(17.2) D R2 X, X
{x : x4 6= 0, x1 + 2x2 6= 0}.
2. 01 1 , = 1, s 1 , -
A j , j = 1, m ,
A , -
1 ,
s > 2.
D (1.1)

m
X
Wq : (t, x) vq (x) jq tj , q = 1, s 1 , (2)
j=1

308
.. . 3, 5, . 2

vq : X R (22.2),

jq = pj vq (x), x X, q = 1, s 1 , j = 1, m .

. (2) -
(1.1)

Pj Wq (t, x) = tj Wq (t, x) + pj Wq (t, x) = j + pj vq (x),


q

(t, x) D, D = Rm X, X Rn , j = 1, m , q = 1, s 1 .

pj vq (x) = jq , x X, j = 1, m , q = 1, s 1 ,

(2) D -
Rn+m (1.1).
4 ( 4.2). 2, ,
p1 v1 (x) = 1, p1 v3 (x) = 0, p2 v1 (x) = 1, p2 v3 (x) = 6, x X,
(32.2):

W1 : (t, x) v1 (x) t1 + t2 , (t, x) R2 X,

W3 : (t, x) v3 (x) 6t2 , (t, x) R2 X,

v1 v3 , -
, -
(32.2), X {x : x1 + x2 x3 6= 0}
R3 .
(33.2), W1 W3 , -
, -
(32.2) R2 X.
4. 01 1 , = 1, s 1 ,
A j , j = 1, m ,
A , -
1 ,

309
. 3, 5, . 2 ..

s > 2.
D -
(1.1)
m
X

W1q : (t, x) vq (x) j t , (t, x) D, q = 1, s 1 ,
j
q
j=1

m
X
j
W2q : (t, x) veq (x)
eq tj , (t, x) D, q = 1, s 1 ,
j=1


vq : x v q (x) + veq (x) i, x X, q = 1, s 1 ,
(22.2),

j = p v (x), j =p v
eq e (x), x X, j = 1, m , q = 1, s 1 .
q j q j q

5 ( 5.2). -
(34.2), ,

p1 v 1 (x) = 1, p1 ve1 (x) = 0, p2 v 1 (x) = 1, p2 ve1 (x) = 1, x X,

4 R2 X

W11 : (t, x) v 1 (x) t1 t2 W21 : (t, x) ve1 (x) + t2 ,

v 1 , ve1 , -
,
(34.2), X
{x : x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0}.
(35.2) (37.2), W11 W21 , -
,
(34.2) R2 X.
6 ( 6.2). (38.2) -
01 = (1, 1 + i, 0, 0, i, i),
11 = 1 + i, 21 = 1 31 = 2,
1 c

310
.. . 3, 5, . 2

x2 + x 5 + 1
W3 : (t, x) arctg t1 , (t, x) R3 X,
x1 + x 2

X {x : x1 + x2 6= 0, x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0}
R5 .
4 R 3 X
R8

W4 : (t, x) v 1 (x) t1 + t3 W5 : (t, x) ve1 (x) t2 ,

v 1 ve1 ,
, -
(38.2).
(39.2), (40.2), W3 , W4 , W5 , -
, -
(38.2) R3 X.
7 ( 7.2). -
(41.2) 4

W11 : (t, x) v 1 (x) t1 t2 , (t, x) R3 X,

W21 : (t, x) ve1 (x) + t2 t3 , (t, x) R3 X,


W12 : (t, x) v 2 (x) 2t3 , (t, x) R3 X,


v 1 , ve1 v 2 ,
, -
(34.2), X
{x : x1 + x3 + x4 + 1 6= 0} -
R5 .
(42.2), (43.2), W11 , W21 W12 , -
,
(41.2) R3 X.

311
3
HH H


p .
f : X R ,
f (x) > 0, x X, f (x) 6 0, x X,
p p
f (x) = 0
-p p , -
f - X, p-
- -p-
X.
p = n p , -
p X p-
p Rn .
f : X R ,
f (x) > 0, x X,
p X,
f (x) < 0, x X,
pp X.
p pp-
p p-
.
X p (X)
p pp Rn , 6 n 1,
, X = -
p p S p, p -
X, p pp p
p.
312
.. . 1, 1, . 3

1. p
pp p p
p p
(ACD) pp, X ij p X -
pp pp
X pp Rn .
p -
p n- p
dx
= f (x), (AD)
dt
f (x) = colon (f1 (x), . . . , fn (x)), p
p p f : X Rn pp -
dx  dx dxn 
1
pp X, = colon ,..., .
dt dt dt
(ACD) (AD) p
p, p X pp-
Rn , pp.
1. p
p (ACD) ( -
p (AD)) p
p pp, p-
p p (
p) p .

1. p

-
.

t0 -p p 3 6 6 n p,
p ( 1)-p p kt , k = 1, s ,
0

pp Rn . p p t0 , kt , k = 1, s ,
0
313
. 1, 1, . 3 ..

x0 = (x01 , . . . , x0n ),
p
x : t x(t), t J0 , p-
(AD) ,
x(t0 ) = x0 , t0 J0 , x0 X,
p n > 3.
p t , k , k = 1, s ,
0 +h t0 +h
xh = (xh1 , . . . , xhn ), xh X, p
p x : t x(t), t J0 , p t = t0 + h, ,

xh = x(t0 + h), xh X.

: t (t), k : t k (t), k = 1, s , t U(t0 ),

U(t0 ) p p t0 , ,

(t0 ) = t0 , k (t0 ) = kt , k = 1, s .
0

p R pp p-
1 ...
pp Rn , p p x ,
j
...
j = 1, , p p p-
t01
t0 pp R .
1 ...
, p -p pp R ,
p p x i , i = 1, n ,
...
, p p t01
pp
...
dim t 1 = .
0

p , pp-
R .
1 ...
314
.. . 1, 1, . 3

...
p Vt01 -p p
...
t01 .
p, p p
1 ... 1 ... 1 ... 1 ...
:t (t), V :tV (t), t U(t0 ),
,
1 ... ... 1 ... ...
(t0 ) = t01 , V (t0 ) = Vt01 .

p p p p
Z
...
V 1 :t dx ... , t U (t0 ), x ... R ,
1 1 1 ...
...
Vt 1

p -p .
p p p
1 ... 1 ...
V :tV (t), t J(t0 ),
p p
1 ... 1 ...
DV : t DV (t), t U (t0 ),
pp p U(t 0 ) -p
...
V 1 (t).
p t pp t
p t p p
o(t) p
1 ... 1 ...
V : t + t V (t + t), (t + t) U(t0 ).


x
ei = xi (t + t), i = 1, n .
315
. 1, 1, . 3 ..

t + t U(t 0 )
Z
1 ...
V (t + t) = e ... , x
dx e ... R .
1 1 1 ...
1 ...
V
t+t

p p, t + t U(t 0 )
Z  
1 ...
V (t + t) = J xe ; x dx ,
1 ... 1 ... 1 ...
...
Vt 1


J x
e ; x .
1 ... 1 ...

x
ei = xi + fi (x)t + o(t), i = 1, n ,


 
J xe ; x =
1 ... 1 ...

1 + x f (x)t + o(t) x f (x)t + o(t) ...


1 1 2 1

. . . x f (x)t + o(t)
1

x f (x)t + o(t) 1 + x f (x)t + o(t) . . .


1 2 2 2

= . . . x f (x)t + o(t) =
2


x f (x)t + o(t) x f (x)t + o(t) ...
1 2

. . . 1 + x f (x)t + o(t)

316
.. . 1, 1, . 3
 
= 1 + div f (x) t + o(t),
1 ...


X
div ... f (x) = x f (x), x X.
1 j j
j=1

p p p
1 ... 1 ...
V :tV (t), t U(t0 ),
p
Z
...
DV 1 (t) = div f (x) dx , t U(t0 ). (1)
1 ... 1 ...
...
Vt 1

p p X
pp
p p pp 1 (AD).
pp p p -
X pp p
p pp 1 p -
p X.
1. -p
X n-p pp Rn p 3 6 6

p 1 (X) p d 1 (X) = r
pp pp
X p

B :XR (2)
1 ...

, p

M : x B (x)f (x), x X, (3)


1 ... 1 ...

317
. 1, 1, . 3 ..

p
div M (4)
1 ... 1 ...

- X. -
X, e Xe X -

p 1 (X) e p d 1 (X)
e = k, k 6 r,
pp p -
p pp 1 -
(AD) : ( 1)-
p pp p p-
1 , . . . , k p p ,
( 1)-p pp p -
p k+1 p p k .
. .
(AD) -
X pp p p-
pp 1, p-
, p X p

M (x) = B (x)f (x),


1 ... 1 ...

p ( 1)-p p-
X.
p: ( 1)-p -
pp p p 1 , . . . , k
(AD) p p , ( 1)-p -
pp p p k+1 p
p k .
p X e
p pp dim = , p
p 1 , . . . , k , k+1 .
R ... pp pp
1
1 ...
Rn , p p p
pp

318
.. . 1, 1, . 3

1 ...
dim = .

p :
1) p div ... M ... X e --
1 1
;
2) p div M e --
X
1 ... 1 ...
p.
p p (1) p-
...
, -p p 1 p
t + p.
p pp p
j , , pp dim j = 1, j = 1, k + 1 ,
> 3, p pp.
pp
pp R , p p-
1 ...
1 ... ...
p pp dim 1 =
> 3, p p p
.
p pp
t t.
p 1 (p p p-
p p p
p ). -p -
X pp Rn p 3 6 6

p 1 (X) p d 1 (X) = r -
pp pp
X p (2), 1 , . . . , -
n , ,
p (3) p-
(4) - X.
X (AD) r
pp p p p-
p 1.
. p r = 1 p p 1
1.
319
. 1, 1, . 3 ..

p, p p 1 p p r = k,
, -p R n
p 1 p d(1 ) = k.
-p  X
p 1 (X) p d 1 (X) = k + 1
:
1) p p
pp p p pp 1;
2) p p -
pp p p,
pp 1.
p X p -p
, p p p -
, p p p -
.
p ( 1)-p pp-
p p (AD), p
k 1 ( ).
, p X p
k 1 pp p p
pp 1.
p p .
p, X p p p
k + 1 pp p p p-
p 1.
p :
) pp p p
pp 1, p p ;
) pp p -
p pp 1, p p .
. > 1 p p p-
( 1)-p pp p -
p i ( 1)-p p-
p p p j , p, p
, p p k
.
X p -p , p
p ( 1)-p -
320
.. . 1, 1, . 3

pp p p i i
.
1 p, p i
p ( 1)-p pp
p p, p p
.
p p 1 , -
, p p
pp p p pp
1, p k .
, X p -
k pp p p p-
p 1.
, ) p.
. 1 p
p pp p p
pp 1.
p -
pp p p pp 1
, p, p -
, p p pp -
p p pp 1.
1), , p
( 1)-p pp p -
p, -p p , p
( 1)-p pp p -
p p k 1 pp -
p p pp 1.
, X p -
k pp p p p-
p 1.
) p.
pp , 2) -
X k pp -
p p pp 1 (AD).
p p 1
1. p p 1 -
p (AD)
321
. 1, 1, . 3 ..

X p ( 1)-p -
pp p p.
p ( 1)-p pp p-
p p
(AD) ( p -
p (ACD)) p, p
-p p pp p-
p pp 1 .
pp 1. p p

dx1
= x1 x2 + x1 g(x) f1 (x),
dt
dx2
= x1 x2 + x2 g(x) f2 (x),
dt
dx3
= x3 x4 + x3 g(x) f3 (x), (5)
dt
dx4
= x3 x4 + x4 g(x) f4 (x),
dt
dx5
= 5x5 g(x) f5 (x),
dt

g : x x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 , x R5 ,

pp pp p p
{x : g(x) = 1, x5 = 0},

(5)
 
Dt g(x) 1 | = 2 g(x) 1 g(x), x R5 .
(5)

p
p 1 ( pp pp p
p).

x1 = x 2 = x 3 = x 4 = 0

322
.. . 1, 1, . 3

p p (5).
X R5 \{x : x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = 0} -

p 3 (X) p d 3 (X) = 1.
X
4 4 4 4 4
B1234 (x) = g 3 (x), B2345 (x) = B1345 (x) = B1245 (x) = B1235 (x) = 1.

-
4 4

M1234 (x) = B1234 (x) f1 (x), . . . , f4 (x), 0 , x X,

4

M1235 (x) = f1 (x), f2 (x), f3 (x), 0, f5 (x) , x X,

4

M1245 (x) = f1 (x), f2 (x), 0, f4 (x), f5 (x) , x X,

4

M1345 (x) = f1 (x), 0, f3 (x), f4 (x), f5 (x) , x X,

4

M2345 (x) = 0, f2 (x), f3 (x), f4 (x), f5 (x) , x X,

p 4-p X :

2
div41234 M1234
4
(x) = > 0;
(x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 )3

div41235 M1235
4
(x) = (3 + 2x24 ) < 0;

div41245 M1245
4
(x) = (3 + 2x23 ) < 0;

div41345 M1345
4
(x) = (3 + 2x22 ) < 0;

div42345 M2345
4
(x) = (3 + 2x21 ) < 0.

, p 1,
pp pp p p.

323
. 2, 1, . 3 ..

2. p
p
-
.
.

2.1.


(ACD) p m p-
n-

dx = X j (x) dtj , j = 1, m , (ADj)



X j (x) = colon X1j (x), . . . , Xnj (x) , x X.
, p X j , j = 1, m , pp-
pp X Rn .
p m 1 p t j
p .
1. (ACD) pp -
p p. (ADj),
j = 1, m , pp p -
p. p pp p-
p p.
, p 1.1, -
, p p p p -
pp p p-
(ACD).
p 1 (p p
pp p p
p p). -p -
X Rn p 3 6 6
p 1 (X) p d 1 (X) = r
pp pp
X p p p

B :XR
1 ... j

324
.. . 2, 1, . 3

, p p
p

M : x B (x)X j (x), x X,
1 ... j 1 ... j

p
div M
1 ... 1 ... j

- X, j {1, . . . , m}.
X (ACD)
r pp p p-
pp 1.
p 1, p-
(AD1), (AD2), . . . , (ADm) -
pp p p.
p pp -
p p (ACD)
p 1.1 p.
1. j {1, . . . , m} ,
p
(ADj) p p 1, X
p p
(ACD) p pp
p pp 1.
pp 1.
 
dx1 = x1 x2 + x1 g(x) dt1 + x1 + x4 + x1 g(x) dt2 ,
 
dx2 = x1 x2 + x2 g(x) dt1 + x2 + x3 + x2 g(x) dt2 ,
  (1)
dx3 = x3 x4 + x3 g(x) dt1 + x2 x3 + x3 g(x) dt2 ,
 
dx4 = x3 x4 + x4 g(x) dt1 + x1 x4 + x4 g(x) dt2 ,


g : x x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 , x R4 ,

325
. 2, 1, . 3 ..

p
S 3 = {x : g(x) = 1}
pp pp p -
p:
 
d g(x) 1 | = 2 g(x) 1 g(x)(dt1 + dt2 ), (t, x) R6 .
(1)

p (AD1), p (1).

4 1
B1234 :x , x X, X R4 \{(0, 0, 0, 0)}.
g 3 (x)

(AD1) p- M1234
4
p
4- X :

4 2
div M1234 (x) = > 0, x X.
g 3 (x)

, p d(3 (X)) = 1, p 1.1 ,


p S 3 pp -
pp p p -
p (AD1).
p 1 p pp-
pp p p (1).

2.2. p pp p
-
(ACD) , , ..
Xij : x Xij (x), i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,
X pp Rn .
2. pp p
(IACD) -
X p
F : X R,

xj F (x) = Hj (x), x X, j = 1, m , (2)

326
.. . 2, 1, . 3

k {1, . . . , m}

Hk : X R

X. -
(IACD) ,
X.
. , X
p
(IACD),
x : t x(t), t T ,

T = (T1 , . . . , Tm )

x0 = x(t0 ), t0 = (t01 , . . . , t0m ), t0 T , x0 X.


Tj 6= 0, j = 1, m ,

, 5.4 [16, c. 31],


Rm .
, Hk : X R -
() X, -
(2) ,

tj = t0j , j = 1, m , j 6= k, t0k 6 tk 6 t0k + Tk

v : tk F (x(t))

( ).


v(t0k ) < v(t0k + Tk ) v(t0k ) > v(t0k + Tk ) ,

, F, -
x : t x(t), t T .
.
327
. 2, 1, . 3 ..

, X , -
F : X R -
X.
p, pp p 2, -
p p [112, c. 112 136] p-
[115], -
[120] pp
p
p.
p -
(1.1.4.2) -
1.1 [8, c. 30] ( 7.5.1 [10, c. 249])
2 .
3. A k -
k1 , . . . , kn ,

ki + k 6= 0, i, = 1, n , k {1, . . . , m},

p-
p (1.1.4.2) -
.
1-
n
X
(x) = wi (x) dxi , x X, (3)
i=1

X -
- w i : X R, i = 1, n .
(. 2 )

F: XR

dF (x) = (x), x X.

328
.. . 2, 1, . 3

,

n
X
xj F (x) = wi (x)Xij (x), x X, j = 1, m , (4)
i=1

, 2, ,
4. pp p
p p
(IACD) X -
(3) , k
{1, . . . , m}
n
X
wi (x)Xik (x)
i=1

X, (IACD) -
,
X.
, 4 ( 2)
F. -
X (4) -
(ADk), -
p X -
(IACD).

329
. 0, 2, . 3 ..

2. p
p p
Hp p -
(AD), p -
p (ACD) pp p
p p

xj (x)y = 0, j = 1, m , (ACD)

p (Pf) p-
p

j (x) = 0, j = 1, m . (ED)

p (AD), (ACD), (ACD),


(Pf), (ED) p X R n , .. p -
p p f : X Rn , p X : X Mn,m ,
p pp p p
n
X
xj (x) = Xij (x)xi , x X,
i=1

p p p p
n
X
j (x) = wji (x) dxi , x X,
i=1

p X pp-
Rn p p p

fi : X R, Xij : X R, wij : X R, i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,

pj -p j , 1 6 pj 6 n 1, j = 1, m , -
p X.
330
.. . 1, 2, . 3

1.
-
.
.

1 ( -
-
). X Rn -
n1 (X) d n1 (X) = r
(n 2)- (n pj 1)- j , j = 1, m ,
X -
(n 2)- -
X (n p j 1)-
j , j = 1, m , , X -

 m
X 
d d(x)| + j (x) j (x) = b(x) dx1 . . . dxn , (1)
(ED)
j=1

b : X R X.
X p -
(ED) r -
.
1.1.1
= n .
1. 1. -
 X
n1 () d n1 () = s s 6 r -
-
(ED) -
: s

1 , . . . , s ,
s+1 s , -

331
. 1, 2, . 3 ..

1 , . . . , s ,
-
s+1 .
p p, , -
.
p , p pp-
S
s+1
= .
=1
p pp p p-
(1) ,
Z  m
X 
d(x)| + j (x) j (x) =
(ED)
j=1 (2)

Z  m
X  Z
n n
= (1) d d(x)| + j (x)j (x) = (1) b(x) d.
(ED)
j=1

( 1.2.0.0), -
(ED)
Z  m
X 
d(x)| + j (x) j (x) =
(ED) |(ED)
j=1 (3)

Z   Z X
m

= ( 1)n d d(x)| + j (x) j (x) | = 0.
(ED) (ED)
j=1

(2) (3) ,
p, p p
p (2), p -
X, X.
pp p 1.

332
.. . 1, 2, . 3

1. p p

1 (x) (x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 ) x22 dx1 + (x3 + x24 ) dx2 +

+ (x1 + x2 x3 + x4 + x21 2x1 x2 + 3x24 ) dx3 +

+ (2x2 x3 + 5x4 + 3x21 x22 + 2x23 5x24 ) dx4 = 0,

2 (x) dx1 + x1 ( 2x2 + x21 ) dx2 + (x21 + x23 ) dx3 + (x22 + x24 ) dx4 = 0,

3 (x) 1 + 2x1 + (x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 )(1 x22 ) dx1 + (4)

+ 5 + 2x2 (x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 )(5 + x3 + x24 ) dx2 +

+ ( x1 x2 + 3x3 x4 x21 + 2x1 x2 3x24 ) dx3 +

+ ( 2x2 + x3 3x4 3x21 + x22 2x23 + 5x24 ) dx4 = 0,

4 (x) x21 dx1 dx4 + x22 dx2 dx3 = 0

, p 2-p
1
(x) = x1 dx3 dx4 , 1 (x) = dx3 dx4 ,
x21 + x22 + x23 + x24

2 (x) = 3 (x) = 0,
1-
4 (x) = 0

p R4 \{(0, 0, 0, 0)} :

d(x)| = x1 (2x2 x21 ) dx2 dx3 dx4 ,


(4)

1 (x) 1 (x) = x22 dx1 dx3 dx4 + (x3 + x24 ) dx2 dx3 dx4 ,

2 (x) 2 (x) = 3 (x) 3 (x) = 4 (x) 4 (x) = 0,

 4
X 
d d(x)| + j (x) j (x) = 3x21 dx1 dx2 dx3 dx4 .
(4)
j=1

333
. 1, 2, . 3 ..

( p 1), R \{(0, 0, 0, 0)}


4

p 3 p d = 1 (4) -
p pp.
p ,

dw(x) = 1 (x) + 3 (x) | ,
w(x)=0

w : x x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 1, x R4 ,


p
S 3 = {x : w(x) = 0}

p pp
(4).
,
X
-
(ED), -
X
(ED).
(n 2)- -
X -
(ED),
(n2)- , ,

d(x)| = 0, x X,
(ED)

, , (n pj 1)- j , j = 1, m ,
X -
, ,
m
X
d(x) = j (x) j (x), x X.
j=1

X pp R n -
p (n 1)-p -
334
.. . 1, 2, . 3

X
Z
ind = ,
S

S p, p pp, p-
X, p pp p
p.
2. X p-
n
p R  n1 (X)
d n1 (X) = r (n 2)- , -
(n pj 1)- j , j = 1, m , -
X
(n 2)-
X (npj 1)- j , j = 1, m ,
, (n 2)-p p
X p
p p (ED) X -

 m
X 
d d(x)| + d(x) + j (x) j (x) =
(ED)
j=1
(5)
= b(x) dx1 . . . dxn ,

b : X R X. :
1) X (ED) r
p pp;
2) X, p-
p p pp -
(ED),
p (n1)-p d.
. p p p-
p 1 , X
p

335
. 1, 2, . 3 ..

 m
X 
d d(x)| + d(x) + j (x) j (x) =
(ED)
j=1

 m
X 
= d d(x)| + j (x) j (x) ,
(ED)
j=1

, , (5) (1).
p p p.
1 , . . . , s p -
(n 1)-p d X :
s
X
indd 6= 0.
=1

pp
X, p p , = 1, s , ,
p
Z
d(x) 6= 0.

, pp
p p-
p (ED); . p
Z
d(x) 6= 0.

p p, (n 2)-p p
X (ED), , p
Z
d(x) = 0.

pp .
336
.. . 2, 2, . 3

2. p

.
.
.
-
.

Hp p 1.1 2.1
p p.
p 1 (p p p -
p pp p -
). X n-p p
n
pp R  n1 (X)
d n1 (X) = r (n 2)- `j ,
j = 1, m , -
X (n 2)- -
X
(n 2)- `j , j = 1, m , , -
X
 m
X 
d d(x)| + j (x) `j (x) = b(x) dx1 . . . dxn ,
(Pf)
j=1

b : X R X. -
X p p
(Pf) r p -
pp.
2. X n-p p-
pp R n

n1 (X) d n1 (X) = r (n 2)-
, `j , j = 1, m , -
X (n 2)-
X -
(n 2)- `j , j = 1, m , ,
(n 2)-p p X -
337
. 2, 2, . 3 ..

p p (Pf),
X
 m
X 
d d(x)| + d(x) + j (x) `j (x) = b(x) dx1 . . . dxn ,
(Pf)
j=1

b : X R X. :
1) X (Pf)
r p pp-
;
2) X, p-
p p pp -
p (Pf), p
(n 1)-p d.
pp 1. p

1 (x) x1 dx1 + x2 dx2 + (x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 )(x4 dx3 x3 dx4 ) = 0,
(1)
2 (x) x1 dx1 + x2 dx2 + (2x3 x4 ) dx3 + (x3 + 2x4 ) dx4 = 0

, R4 \{(0, 0, 0, 0)} p 2-p

1
(x) = 0, `1 (x) = dx1 dx2 , `2 (x) = dx3 dx4
x21 + x22 + x23 + x24
p :
1 (x) `1 (x) = x4 dx1 dx2 dx3 x3 dx1 dx2 dx4 ,

2 (x) `2 (x) = x1 dx1 dx3 dx4 + x2 dx2 dx3 dx4 ,



d 1 (x) `1 (x) + 2 (x) `2 (x) = 2 dx1 dx2 dx3 dx4 .

( p 1), R4 \{(0, 0, 0, 0)} -


p 3 p d = 1 p (1)
p pp.
,

dw(x) = 1 (x) + 2 (x) | ,
w(x)=0

338
.. . 2, 2, . 3


w : x x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 1, x R4 ,
p
S 3 = {x : w(x) = 0}
p pp.
2. p
1 (x) = 0, 2 (x) = 0, (2)
1-
 
1 (x) = x3 (x1 2)2 +x22 +x23 dx1 +x3 dx2 +x2 (x1 2)2 +x22 +x23 dx3 ,
 p 2 p p 
2 (x) = x21 + x22 2 +x23 1+x1 x21 + x22 x21 + x22 2 dx1 +
 p 2 p p 
+ x21 + x22 2 + x23 1 + x2 x21 + x22 x21 + x22 2 dx2 +

+ x3 (x21 + x22 ) dx3 ,

, R3 \{(2, 0, 0)} p 1-p

1
(x) = 0, `1 (x) = dx2 , `2 (x) = 0
(x1 2)2 + x22 + x23
p :

1 (x) `1 (x) = x3 dx1 dx2 x2 dx2 dx3 , 2 (x) `2 (x) = 0,



d 1 (x) `1 (x) + 2 (x) `2 (x) = dx1 dx2 dx3 .

( p 1), R3 \{(2, 0, 0)} -


p 2 p d = 1 p (2)
p pp.
,
2
dw(x) = 2 (x)| ,
x21 + x22 w(x)=0


339
. 2, 2, . 3 ..

p 2
w: x x21 + x22 2 + x23 1, x R3 ,

p p
{x : w(x) = 0}

p pp.
p p .
p 3 (p p p -
p pp p -
). X pp Rn -
p n1 (X) d n1 (X) = r -
V -
B : X Rn ,

Wj (x) = wj1 (x), . . . , wjn (x) , x X, j = 1, m ,

, p div B -
X. X p p
(Pf) r -
p pp.
p 1.1.1 p
= n p.
1. p 3. -
 X p
n1 () d n1 () = s p s 6 r
p pp p-
p (Pf) ,
1.1.
1.1, p
[95, . 111]
Z Z
B(x) ~n(x) dS = ( 1)n div B(x) d,

~n -
S
s+1
= p (Pf),
=1
340
.. . 2, 2, . 3

A j , j = 1, m , -
X
div B : X R.
pp 3. p
 
1 (x) x1 x2 + x2 g(x) dx1 + x1 + x2 x1 g(x) dx2 +
 
+ x3 x4 + x4 g(x) dx3 + x3 + x4 x3 g(x) dx4 = 0,
  (3)
2 (x) x3 x4 + x4 g(x) dx1 + x3 + x4 x3 g(x) dx2 +
 
+ x1 x2 + x2 g(x) dx3 + x1 + x2 x1 g(x) dx4 = 0,

g : x x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 , x R4 ,

, pp pp R 4 \{(0, 0, 0, 0)} p-

B : x g 3 (x) x1 x2 + x1 g(x), x1 x2 + x2 g(x),

x3 x4 + x3 g(x), x3 x4 + x4 g(x) , x R4 \{(0, 0, 0, 0)},

p (3) p W 1
W2 , p
div B(x) = 2g 3 (x)
.
( p 3), R4 \{(0, 0, 0, 0)} -
p 3 p d = 1 p (3)
p pp.
,
dw(x) = 21 (x)| ,
w(x)=0

w(x) = g(x) 1, x R4 , p

S 3 = {x : w(x) = 0}

p pp.

341
. 2, 2, . 3 ..

1.
-
.
.
1- j , j = 1, m ,
.
:
1) k {1, . . . , m} ,
dk (x) 6= 0;

2) Rn

dj (x) = 0, j = 1, m .


X
dk (x) = ci k dxi dx
16i< 6n

ci k R, -
.
ck 6= 0, < . (n 2)-

`(x) = dx1 . . . dx1 dx+1 dx+2 . . . dx1

dx+1 dx+2 . . . dxn , x Rn .



d k (x) `(x) = ck dx1 . . . dxn , x Rn .

( 1) , -
,
.
1- j , j = 1, m , -
Rn , , ,

342
.. . 3, 2, . 3

Fj : Rn R, j = 1, m ,

.

-
.
p 1 -
p p p-
p .
2.
j (x) = 0, j = 1, m ,

p k, 1 6 k 6 m, p
dk (x) 6= 0,
p p-
.
3. Hp p-
pp p -
p pp p-
p.

3. p

-
.

p (AD)
p n(n1)
2 p

qh (x) = 0, 1 6 q < h 6 n, (1)

1-

qh (x) = fq (x) dxh fh (x) dxq , x X, 1 6 q < h 6 n,

X.
343
. 3, 2, . 3 ..

(AD) -
p p (1) p.
p p 1.2 2.2
(AD), p p 1.2D (p
p p p p-
p p -
) 2.2D.
pp 1. p p p -
p pp (p 1.2D),
, p
p p

dx1 dx2 dx3


= x3 g(x), = x2 + x3 + x2 g(x), = x2 x1 g(x), (2)
dt dt dt

g : x x21 + x22 + x23 , x R3 ,


p p
X0 = R3 \{(0, 0, 0)}.
pp , p

S 2 = {x : w(x) = 0},

w : x g(x) 1, x R3 , p -
p (2):

dw
= 2x22 w(x), x R3 .
dt (2)

H (2) -
p
12 (x) = 0,


12 (x) = x3 g(x) dx2 x2 + x3 + x2 g(x) dx1 , x R3 .

Hpp pp X0 1-p
1
(x) = dx1 , x X0 ,
g(x)
344
.. . 3, 2, . 3

, p p

d 12 (x) (x) = dx1 dx2 dx3 , x X0 .

p 1.2D X 0 -
p 2 (X0 ) p d(2 (X0 )) = 1 (2)
p p.
p p S 2 .
H p p p -
p pp -
p (p 1.2D) -
p, p -
p pp -
(AD), p p-
p (1).
1. X Rn  -
p n1 (X) p d n1 (X) = r -
pp pp X
: X R , p

Z : x (x)f (x), x X,

p div Z X.
X p -
p (AD) r -
p pp.
. p 1.2D, 1-p i ,
i = 1, n , X

(x) = f (x) dx+1 f+1 (x) dx , = 1, n 1 ,

n (x) = fn (x) dx1 f1 (x) dxn ,

(n 2)-p `i , i = 1, n , X

1
` (x) = (x) dx1 . . . dx1 dx+2 dx+3 . . . dxn ,
2

345
. 3, 2, . 3 ..

1
n (x) = (1)n+1 (x) dx2 . . . dxn1 ,
2

= 1, n 1 , C 1 (X).
X p
n
X
i (x) `i (x) =
i=1
n
X
= ( 1)i+1 fi (x) dx1 . . . dxi1 dxi+1 dxi+2 . . . dxn
i=1

p
 n
X 
d (x) i (x) `i (x) = div Z(x) dx1 . . . dxn , x X.
i=1

p 1.2D p p 1.
, p 1 p 3.2
p p-
(AD).
, p
B : x (x)f (x), x X,
p X p

0, . . . , 0, fh (x), 0, . . . , 0, fq (x), 0, . . . , 0 , x X, 1 6 q < h 6 n,

p p p qh .
p 1 p p p-
p pp-
p .
p n = 2 X p 1 (X)
p d(1 (X)) = 0 d(1 (X)) = 1 p 1
p ( d( 1 (X)) = 0) -
( d( 1 (X)) = 1) p-
346
.. . 3, 2, . 3

, pp (AD) p n = 2 [9, . 120;


79, . 226 229].
p p p
dx dy
= P (x, y), = Q(x, y) (3)
dt dt
p X R 2 p
P : X R Q : X R p 1.2D
2. X (r + 1)--
pp pp -
X ` : X R, pp p-
p X : X R ,

P (x, y)  Q(x, y) 
p1 : (x, y) x (x, y) p2 : (x, y) y (x, y)
Q(x, y) P (x, y)

X pp pp,

q1 : (x, y) x p1 (x, y) + y (x, y) + div A(x, y) (4)
  
q2 : (x, y) y x (x, y) + p2 (x, y) + div A(x, y) (5)

c Dq1 = X (Dq2 = X) X,
X

A(x, y) = `(x, y) P (x, y), Q(x, y) .

X p r
p p, pp
(3).
,
 P (x, y) 
d(x, y)| = x (x, y) + y (x, y) dy, (x, y) X,
(3) Q(x, y)

347
. 3, 2, . 3 ..

 Q(x, y) 
d(x, y)| = x (x, y) + y (x, y) dx, (x, y) X.
(3) P (x, y)

, , p

d d(x, y)| + (x, y) P (x, y) dy Q(x, y) dx =
(3)

  P (x, y)  
= x x (x, y) + y (x, y) + x (x, y)P (x, y) +
Q(x, y)

+ y (x, y)Q(x, y) dx dy, (x, y) X,


d d(x, y)| + (x, y) P (x, y) dy Q(x, y) dx =
(3)

  Q(x, y)  
= y x (x, y) + y (x, y) + x (x, y)P (x, y) +
P (x, y)

+ y (x, y)Q(x, y) dx dy, (x, y) X.

p 1.2D p 2.
H p, p -
(3), 2 p (3)
pp pp X p -
P Q, , p (
) pp p p
p (3) (p. [120]).

(AD) p p p
pp p pp, , -
p pp, p -
p (AD).

348
.. . 3, 2, . 3

p 3 (p p p
pp p pp -
p ). X  R n
n1 (X) d n1 (X) = r
p X
g : X R,

h : x g(x)f (x), x X, (6)

X. X -
p p -
(AD) r p -
pp p pp.
p
p 1.1.1 p = n
1. p 3. -
 X
p n1 () d n1 () = s p s 6 r -
p pp p-
pp p (AD) -
, 1.1.
. .
p g -
X, : -
(AD) X -
, p-
, (6),
.
: 1.1 -
p pp p -
pp 1 , . . . , s+1 (AD) .
s+1 p pp -
p pp (AD),
p p t + pp (AD) p
s+1 ( s+1 ) -
, s+1 ,
( ), -
s+1 .

349
. 4, 2, . 3 ..

Z s
X Z
g(x)f (x) ~n(x) dS + g(x)f (x) ~n(x) dS 6= 0,
=1

~n .
, , X
p (6) :
Z s
X Z
g(x)f (x) ~n(x) dS + g(x)f (x) ~n(x) dS =
=1

Z

= div g(x)f (x) d = 0,

 S
s 
.
=1
1.
p 1 (p (x) = 1, x X) 3
1. -
p p -
pp p pp.

4.

-
.


(ACD) p m p-
n- p (ADj), j = 1, m .
Hpp pp X
w : X R
(ACD) ,

xj (x)w(x) = j (x), x X, j = 1, m , (1)

350
.. . 4, 2, . 3

j : X R, j = 1, m , ,

j (x)| = 0, j = 1, m . (2)
w(x)=0

k- (1) p (2), -
j = k,
w : X R (ADk).
.
p 1 (p p p -
p pp p -
p). j {1, . . . , m}
, p-
(ADj) 1.2D. -
X p p-
p (ACD)
r p pp.
2. j {1, . . . , m} -
, p
(ADj) 2.2D. :
1) X p p-
p (ACD) -
r p pp;
2) X, p-
p p pp -
(ACD), p
(n 1)-p d .
p 3 (p p p -
p pp p
p). X Rn
p n1 (X) p d n1 (X) = r, -
j {1, . . . , m},
p (ADj)
pp pp X : X R
, p

Zj : x (x)X j (x), x X,

351
. 4, 2, . 3 ..

p div Zj X.
X p p
p (ACD) r
p pp.
pp 1. p p
n
Y
dx1 = x3 (g(x) 2k) dt1 + x2 dt2 ,
k=0

 n
Y 
dx2 = x3 + x2 (g(x) 2k)(g(x) 2k 1) dt1 + ( x1 + x3 ) dt2 ,
k=0
(3)
 n
Y 
dx3 = x2 x1 (g(x) 2k) dt1 +
k=0

 n
Y 
+ x2 + x3 (g(x) 2k)(g(x) 2k 1) dt2 ,
k=0

g : x x21 + x22 + x23 , x R3 , ,

n
Y

d g(x) m | = (g(x) 2k)(g(x) 2k 1)(x22 dt1 + x23 dt2 ),
(3)
k=0

(t, x) R5 , m = 1, 2n + 1 ,
p
2
Sm = {x : g(x) = m}, m = 1, 2n + 1 ,

p pp.
-
(AD1), p -
(3), p p
12 (x) = 0,
1-

352
.. . 4, 2, . 3

 n
Y 
12 (x) = x3 + x2 (g(x) 2k)(g(x) 2k 1) dx1 +
k=0

n
Y
+ x3 (g(x) 2k) dx2 , x R3 .
k=0

p p
n
Y n
[
1
`(x) = dx1 , x Xk ,
g(x) 2k
k=0 k=0

X = {x : 2 < g(x) < 2( + 1)}, Xn = {x : x21 + x22 + x23 > 2n},

= 0, n 1 , , p
n
[

d 12 (x) `(x) = dx1 dx2 dx3 , x Xk .
k=0

, p 1,  X k , k = 0, n ,
p 2 (Xk ) p d 2 (Xk ) = 1, k = 0, n ,
(3)
p pp.
,
(3) 2n + 1 p pp, -
p p Sm 2
, m = 1, 2n + 1 .
pp (IACD) -
-
, .. , p .
p 4 (p p p
pp p pp
pp p p).
X Rn  -
p n1 (X) p d n1 (X) = r, -
p p X -
gj : X R, j = 1, m , , p

353
. 5, 2, . 3 ..

Yj : x gj (x)X j (x), x X, j = 1, m ,

X. X
pp p p
p (IACD) r
p -
pp.
p p 3.3
: p
p pp
p (ADj), j = 1, m , -
, pp p
p (ACD).
H (1) p (2), -
1.3, p 1 4 p.
1. pp
p p
p pp p
pp.

5. p

-
.

p p
p (ACD) p m
p n- p (ADj), j = 1, m , -
p pp (ACD).
pp pp X -
p p p w : X R -
p ( p) (ACD)
, (1.4) p -
(2.4).
k- (1.4) p (2.4),
j = k, p -
p w : X R p
(ADk).
354
.. . 5, 2, . 3

.
p 1 (p p p -
p pp p -
p p).
j {1, . . . , m}, -
p (ADj)
1.2D. X p -
p p p
p (ACD) r -
p pp.
2. j {1, . . . , m} -
, p
(ADj) 2.2D. :
1) X p p -
p p p
(ACD) r p-
pp;
2) X, p-
p p pp -
(ACD), p -
(n 1)-p d.
p 3 (p p p -
p pp p -
p p). X
p pp Rn  -
p n1 (X) p d n1 (X) = r, -
j {1, . . . , m}, -
p (ADj) -
pp pp X
: X R, p

Zj : x (x)X j (x), x X,

p div Zj X. -
X p p -
p p p
(ACD) r p-
pp.

355
. 5, 2, . 3 ..

pp 1. p p p-
p p
 
x2 g(x)x1 y + x3 x1 g(x) x2 y + x1 x2 + x1 g(x) x3 y = 0,
  
x2 +x3 +x2 g(x) x1 y+ x1 x1 g(x) x2 y+ x1 x2 +x2 g(x) x3 y = 0,

g : x x21 + x22 + x23 , x R3 ,


p
S 2 = {x : g(x) = 1}

p p.
p p -
(AD1), p .
H p
13 (x) = 0,


13 (x) = x2 g(x) dx3 x1 x2 + x1 g(x) dx1 , x R3 .

Hpp pp X0 = R3 \{(0, 0, 0)}


p
1
`(x) = dx1 , x X0 ,
g(x)

, p p

d 13 (x) `(x) = dx1 dx2 dx3 , x X0 .

p 1 X0 -
p 2 (X0 ) p d(2 (X0 )) = 1 p -
p p p
p p.
p p S 2 .
2. p p p-
p p

356
.. . 5, 2, . 3

 
x1 + x2 + x1 g(x) x1 y + x1 x2 + x2 g(x) x2 y +

+ x3 + x3 g(x) x3 y = 0,
 
x2 + x3 + x2 g(x) x1 y + x1 x1 g(x) x2 y +

+ x1 x2 + x2 g(x) x3 y = 0,

g : x x21 + x22 + x23 , x R3 ,


p
S 2 = {x : g(x) = 1}

p p.
p p -
(AD1), p .

1
: x 5 , x R3 \{(0, 0, 0)}.
2
g (x)

Z1 : x (x)X 1 (x), x R3 \{(0, 0, 0)},

p div Z1 R3 \{(0, 0, 0)}.


, p

d(2 (R3 \{(0, 0, 0)})) = 1,

p 3 , p S 2 -
p p p-
p p p, p-
R3 \{(0, 0, 0)}.

357
. 1, 3, . 3 ..

3. p
p p
[93] .. p pp -
p , -
-
-
.
.
,
-
-
, .
, p -
p , pp
p . p -
p p , p-
pp p
p p.

1. p
p pp, p
p p.
p p p p. q -p-
p- q -p p
p. p p, p p-
p p p -
p.

p pp p-
p

dx = R(x) dt, (1)



p R(x) = Rij (x) , x X, X Rn ,
pp n m p R ij : X R,
i = 1, n , j = 1, m , x R, m < n.
358
.. . 1, 3, . 3

H (1) p
(0) (1)
Si0...0 : x xi , Si10...0 : x Ri1 (x),

(1) (1)
Si010...0 : x Ri2 (x), . . . , Si0...01 : x Rim (x), (2)

n
X
(2)
Si20...0 : x R 1 (x)x Ri1 (x), . . . , x X, i = 1, n .
=1


x : t x(t), t T ,
p T R m (1).

ilk (ilk )
x(t) = Si (x(t)), t T , i = 1, n , (3)
ilk

ilk 1ilk 2ilk milk


= t t . . . t
1 2 m

pp pp p  t j -
p jilk , ilk = 1ilk , . . . , milk , ilk
jilk p, j = 1, m , i = 1, n , l = 1, r k ,
k = 0, s , = 1, q .
p pp
s r
X

Y
k
Y ilk ilk
L (t) = ak , t Rm , = 1, q , (4)
k=0 l=1 i I

ak R, ilk -
p , i I, I = {i 1 , . . . , iq } {1, . . . , n},
l = 1, rk , k = 0, s , = 1, q .
359
. 1, 3, . 3 ..

p, p pp L , = 1, q,
p T (1),

Y 
s r
X

Y
k
(ilk ) ilk
L : x ak Si (x) , x X, = 1, q , (5)
ilk
k=0 l=1 i I

p 1 X.
1. pp -
(1) p:
1) x : t (t), t T , , p
p p

u : t i (t), . . . , i (t) , t T , (6)
1 q

p p x i : t i (t),
t T , i I, p x : t (t), t T ,
p p
p
L (t)u = 0, = 1, q , (7)

p p
T (1) p p-
p (4);
2) x : t (t), t T , , p
p p

1
p X pp Rn -

f : X R, = 1, p ,
P : R, Rp , -
R,

P f1 (x), . . . , fp (x) = 0, x X.

p f , = 1, p , p
X.
360
.. . 1, 3, . 3

u : t i (t), . . . , iq (t) , t T , (8)
1

p p x i : t i (t),
t T , i I, p x : t (t), t T ,
p (7).
p (1), p
x : t (t), t T , p p -
(2) (5) p p

x : L (x) = 0, = 1, q . (9)

. p x : t x(t), t T ,
pp (1) (2) p -
p (3).
p x : t (t), t T , (1), -
p 1) p,

L ((t)) = 0, t T , = 1, q . (10)

p 2) (10) -
p x : t x(t), t T , (1).
p (1), -
p x : t (t), t T , p p-
p (9).
, p

L (x) = 0, x X, = 1, q , (11)
pp p x : t (t), t T , -
(1) , pp 2).
pp 1. pp [1, c. 48]

dx1 = ( x21 + x22 + x23 ) dt1 2x1 x2 dt2 ,


dx2 = 2x1 x2 dt1 + (x21 x22 + x23 )dt2 , (12)
dx3 = 2x1 x3 dt1 2x2 x3 dt2

, p
361
. 1, 3, . 3 ..

t1 t2
x1 : (t1 , t2 ) 2 2 , x2 : (t1 , t2 ) 2 ,
t1 + t 2 + C 2 t1 + t22 + C 2

C
x3 : (t1 , t2 ) , (t1 , t2 ) T ,
t21 + t22 + C 2

T {(t1 , t2 ) : t21 + t22 + C 2 6= 0}, x3 p


p p p
2 3
uut t 2u2t + u = 0.
1 1 1 C
p 1 p
p C 6= 0 p (12) p
p p
n  x3  o
(x1 , x2 , x3 ) : x23 x21 + x22 + x23 =0 ,
C
,

u = x3 , ut = 2x1 x3 , ut t = 2x3 (3x21 x22 x23 ).


1 1 1

, p (1) p-
p p,
p .
p 1. pp -
p p (1)
q-p , q 6 n,
p x : t x(t), t T ,
p p
p (7), p -
p T (1)
p pp (4),
p p p p

u : t xi (t), . . . , xiq (t) , t T ,
1

p xi , i I, -
p x.
362
.. . 1, 3, . 3

p 2. pp -
p p (1) p--
q-p , 0 6 p 6 q 6 n,
q-p p
x : t x(t), t T , p -
p p p

L (t)u = 0, = 1, p , (1 6 6 q, = 1, p ),

p p
p p

u : t xi (t), . . . , xiq (t) , t T ,
1

p xi , i I, -
p x.
2. pp -
p p (1) p- q--
p , 0 6 p 6 q 1, p p-
p p.
, p 1
p x : t x(t), t T , (1)

ak R jilk N {0}, ilk N {0},

k = 0, s , = 1, q , j = 1, m , i I, l = 1, rk ,

,
L (x(t)) = 0, t T , = 1, q . (13)

(13)
p x : t x(t), t T , -
(1), p (1) p
p p

x : L (x) = 0, {1, . . . , q} . (14)

363
. 1, 3, . 3 ..

, p p
L (x) = 0, = 1, q , X p (11),
q- q-p -
(1).
p 2 -
p.
3. :
1) (1) p- q-p (0 6 p 6 q 1)
xi , i I;
2) p x : t (t), t T , -
(1), - (6), p
xi : t i (t), t T , i I, p
x : t (t), t T ,
p p (7);
3) p x : t (t), t T , -
(1), - (8), p
xi : t i (t), t T , i I, p
x : t (t), t T , -
p p (7).
p x : t (t), t T ,
p (1) p p -
p (14), p (2) (5).
, p
p 1, 2 3, p- q-p
(1) .
4. pp -
p p (1)
p- q-p , 0 6 p 6 q, -
xi , i I, p x : t x(t),
t T , (1) , -

u : t xi1 (t), . . . , xiq (t) , t T ,

p p x i , i I, p-
x, (7). p-
(1), p x, p-
p p (14), p -
(2) (5).
364
.. . 2, 3, . 3

2. pp p
p
p , p -
pp p. p
p p p p, p
p pp p
p.

1. (1.1) -
0- (n m)-p ,
p pp p.
. p, p p
p (1.1) p p-
p p.
p p , p
m-p pp p p. -
p p p p
m-p p p.
p p p, p -
pp p p -
pp p, m-p
p p p , -
p p p p p p.
, p 2.1, p (1.1) -
p, .
1. (1.1) p m = 1,
0- (n 1)-p , p-
.
2. (1.1) p m = 1, n = 3
p p -
pp-
p, p 0- 2-p-
, p
p.
. p p
p-
p p (1.1) p m = 1 n = 3
p.
365
. 2, 3, . 3 ..

p , p -
p p, pp, p
p p, p p p
p p p, p -
p p p p -
p.
, p 2.1, pp 0- 2--
p (1.1) p m = 1, n = 2
p, .
3. (1.1) p m = 1, n = 2
0- 1-p p
p pp-
p, p p-
p.
, p 2.1 p-
p 0- 1-p (1.1) p
m = 1, n = 2 p, p
.
p , (1.1)
p- (n m)-p p > 0, p-
p 1 3 1 .
p pp.
pp 1. p

dx1 dx2
= x1 + x2 x31 , = x1 ,
dt dt
(1)
dx3
= x3 (1 + x21 + 2x22 + 2x23 )
dt
2- 2-p x 1 x2 -
p p

d 2 x1 dx1 dx1 d2 x2  dx2 2 dx2


+ 3x21 + x1 = 0, + + x2 = 0.
dt2 dt dt dt2 dt dt

p (1)

F : (x1 , x2 , x3 ) x3 , (x1 , x2 , x3 ) R3 ,

[115] , pp, -
366
.. . 2, 3, . 3

p p p (1),
p p x 3 = 0.
p x3 = 0 (1)
dx1 dx2
= x1 + x2 x31 , = x1 .
dt dt
p [122, c. 174 179].
(1) p .
2. p
dx1 dx2
= x2 , = x1 x32 (2)
dt dt
1- 1-p x 2 p
p p

d 2 x2
+ 3x22 + x2 = 0.
dt2
p O(0, 0) p (2)
pp p 1 = i 2 = i.
p (2)

F : (x1 , x2 ) x21 + x22 , (x1 , x2 ) R2 ,

p 7.5.3 [10, . 247] p , -


p O p (2) -
.
3. p
dx1 dx2 dx3
= x2 , = x1 x32 , = x3 (1 + x21 + 2x22 + 3x23 ) (3)
dt dt dt
2- 2-p x 1 x2 -
p p

d2 x1  dx1 3 d 2 x2 dx2
x1 = 0, + 3x22 + x2 = 0.
dt2 dt dt2 dt
p O(0, 0, 0) (3) p-
1 = 1 p 2 = i, 3 = i pp-
p.
367
. 3, 3, . 3 ..

p (3)

F : (x1 , x2 , x3 ) x3 , (x1 , x2 , x3 ) R3 ,
[115] , pp, -
p p p (3),
p p x 3 = 0.
p x3 = 0 p (3) p (2).
p pp , (2) p-
p, p x 1 = x2 = 0 -
pp p .
, p O(0, 0, 0) -
(3) .

3. p p
p p .

H pp p -
p (1.1) m p-

dx = Rj (x) dtj , (1j)

- Rj (x) = colon R1j (x), . . . , Rnj (x) , x X,
X Rn , p p-
pp

Rj (x) = Rj (x), x X, j = 1, m , = x1 , . . . , xn .

(1j) q- q-p
p , pp -
p p,
rj  rj 1 
d xi dx1 d xq
r = Qij x1 , . . . , x q , ,..., r 1 , j = 1, q , (2j)
dtjj dtj dt j j

Qij (i = 1, n , j = 1, q ) p -
.
368
.. . 3, 3, . 3

(2j) p
p pp pp qrj .
pp p-
p p p p
qrj
U: R , p p
(2j) p
rj
d
r U (y)| = (1, . . . , 1), y .
dtj j (1j)

(2.1), p :

Rj (x)(x) = (1, . . . , 1), x ,

: Rn , p
qrj
(2.1) U : R , pp p
p.
(. p 16.1 [16, c. 139])
1. p -
(1j) q- q-p
p p (2j), (2j) p-
qrj
R . p-
(1j) p X.
2. p 1 -
(2j) p p

F : x R (x)(x), = 1, m , 6= j,

R (x)(x) 6= 0, x , = 1, m , 6= j.

(1.1) p .
, (1.1) p-
p:
 
Rk (x), Rl (x) = O, x X, k, l = 1, m .

369
. 4, 3, . 3 ..

,
Rj (x)R (x)(x) = 0, x , j, = 1, m , j 6= .

(2j) p -
p ,

R (x)(x) = s , x , s = const, = 1, m , j 6= .

p s 6= 0, = 1, m , j 6= , p-
(1.1) .

4. p p
p p p p
p p p , -
p p .

1. :
1) p (1j.3)
q- q-p -
p (2j.3);
2)

L : (tj , x) F (x) exp(sj tj ), (tj , x) R ,

p p (2j.3).
pp (1.1)
p p

M : (t, x) (x) exp(sj tj ), (t, x) Rm ,

: R, X,
qrj
(2.1) F : R, R .
. , L p
p (2j.3),
rj
d qrj
rj F (x)| = sj , x , R , sj = const.
dtj (2j.3)

370
.. . 4, 3, . 3

(2.1), ,
Rj (x)(x) = sj , x , X,
: R , F : R p-
(2.1), pp p p-
.
, M
p p (1.1).
2. :
1) p (1j.3)
q- q-p -
p (2j.3);
2)

L : (tj , x) F (x) exp(sj tj ), (tj , x) R ,

p p (2j.3);
3)

N : x R (x)(x), = 1, m , 6= j,

: R, X, -
F : R (2.1), p
p p (1j.3).
(1.1)
p p
m
X
M : (t, x) (x) exp sj tj , (t, x) Rm ,
j=1

sj = Rj (x)(x), x , j = 1, m .
. p
 
Rk (x), Rl (x) = O, x X, k, l = 1, m .
,

Rj (x)R (x)(x) = 0, x , X, = 1, m , 6= j.
371
. 5, 3, . 3 ..

(1j.3) p -
p ,

R (x)(x) = s , x , s = const, = 1, m .

, M p p -
(1.1).

5. pp
H p pp-
, p p p p
p p.

p p p p p -
[92].
-
p pp

y = x , = 1, q , y = y (xq+1 , . . . , xn ), = q + 1, n , (1)

p (1.1)

dy = T (y) dt, (2)

p Tij p T = kTij k, i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,
p y.
p, pp (1) .

Dy(x)
R(x) = T (y(x)), x X, (3)
Dx
p q p p p y.
pp (1), p-
(1.1) (2), p -
q p (3).
pp 1. pp

y1 = x1 , y2 = y2 (x1 , x2 ), (x1 , x2 ) X, X R2 ,
372
.. . 5, 3, . 3

p p

dx1
= 1 x21 x22 3x1 x22 2x42 ,
dt
dx2 1 1 1
= x2 + x1 x2 + x32
dt 2 2 2

dy1
= 1 y2 y12 3y1 y2 2y22 ,
dt
dy2
= y2 + y1 y2 + y22 ,
dt

,
1 x21 x22 3x1 x22 2x42 =

= 1 y2 (x1 , x2 ) x21 3x1 y2 (x1 , x2 ) 2y22 (x1 , x2 ), (x1 , x2 ) X.

y2 (x1 , x2 ) = x22 , (x1 , x2 ) X,

pp

D(x1 , x22 )
= 2x2
D(x1 , x2 )

X = {(x1 , x2 ) : x1 R, x2 ( ; 0) (0; + )}.

Hp , pp-
p p.

373
. 1, 4, . 3 ... ..

4. pp
pp
p
p
1. p pp p
(IAPCD) pp,
n,n1
m = n 1 p P M p

rank P (x) = n 1
Rn .
(IAPCD) A B -

s+r
Y s+r
Y 
X: x wk (x) Re2 wr (x) + Im2 wr (x) , x Rn .
k=1 =1

H p 2.2.3.2, 1.3.2 3.3.2


p 1. p p

X(x) = 0 (1)

pp Rn
X p
n1 (X ) p d(X ) = r , = 1, , .
p 2.2.3.2 (IAPCDA)
P
r p
=1
pp p, p p (1).
H 4.3.3.2 p 3.3.2
p 2. p p (1) -
pp Rn -
374
.. ... . 1, 4, . 3

X p
n1 (X ) p d(X ) = r , = 1, , .
p 4.3.3.2 (IAPCDA)
P
r p
=1
pp p, p p (1).
H 7.3.3.2, p 1.3.2 3.3.2
p 3. p p (1) -
pp Rn -
X p
n1 (X ) p d(X ) = r , = 1, , .
p 7.3.3.2 (IAPCDA)
P
r p
=1
pp p, p p (1).
H 1.4.3.2, p 1.3.2 3.3.2
p 4. p p (1) -
pp Rn -
X p
n1 (X ) p d(X ) = r , = 1, , .
p 1.4.3.2 (IAPCDA)
P
r p
=1
pp p, p p (1).
H 3.4.3.2 p 3.3.2
p 5. p p (1) -
pp Rn -
X p
n1 (X ) p d(X ) = r , = 1, , .
p 3.4.3.2 (IAPCDA)
P
r p
=1
pp p, p p (1).
375
. 1, 4, . 3 ... ..

H 6.4.3.2, p 1.3.2 3.3.2


p 6. p p (1) -
pp Rn -
X p
n1 (X ) p d(X ) = r , = 1, , .
p 6.4.3.2 (IAPCDA)
P
r p
=1
pp p, p p (1).
p (IAPCD) n = 2, m = 1,
, -
p (APD) p p.
p pp p
p .
H p 1, 2 4
p 7. p p (1) -
R2
X r + 1, = 1, , .
p(p + 1)
p c = 1, p 6= 0, -
2

P
(APD) p p r
=1
p , p p (1).
p 8. p p (1) -
R2
X r + 1, = 1, , .
p(p + 1)
p c = , p 6= 0,
2

P
(APD) p p r p-
=1
, p p (1).
p 9. p p (1) -
R2
X r + 1, = 1, , .

376
.. ... . 2, 4, . 3

p(p + 1) e 6= 0 -
p c + e = , p
2
(8.4.3.2), (APD) p p-

P
r p , p-
=1
p (1).

2. p p
(IAPCD) pp,
n,n1
n = 2k, k N, p P M p

rank P (x) = n 1
Rn .
p 1. p A -
(IAPCD) pp p, p,
p p -
-p A, pp,
p p S n1 A.
, n = 2
p p -
p .
(IAPCD) A, (APDk)
p p-
,
 n + p 1  p + 1
`= k k ,
n 2

[ ] , k {1, . . . , n 1}.
H

F : x X(x) exp Y (x), x , X Rn ,

377
. 2, 4, . 3 ... ..

hp 1
i
2
k !
X 2j
pk F (x) = j x div pk (x) F (x), x , (1)
l
j=0

hp 1
i
k
2
!
X 2j
pk F (x) = j x F (x), x , (2)
l
j=0

j , j = 0, [(pk 1)/2] , p ,
xl , l {1, . . . , n}, l- p x R n .
(1) (2) p
hp 1
i
k
2
X 2j
k (x) = j x div pk (x), x , (3)
l
j=0

hp 1
i
k
2
X 2j
k (x) = j xl , x . (4)
j=0

(3) ( (4)) p -
p
k , k , k , lh g
, lh g
, lh g
, j ,

l l l l l l

p .
p pp -
p p -
(3) ( (4)), p -
2j
xl , j = 0, [(pk 1)/2] .

378
.. ... . 2, 4, . 3

p p, p -
p p p
2j
xl , j = 0, [(pk 1)/2] , p (3)
( (4)).
p p p
k , k , k , lh g
, lh g
, lh g
, ;

l l l l l l

p j , p j -
p p p p p-
p j .
j , j = 0, [(pk 1)/2] , p
p .
, , p
(3) ( (4)),
, p .
p p (3) (4) -
p
 n + p 1  p + 1
k k .
n 2

p .
6= 0, p , p
(3), p = 0 p ,
p (4), p-
p.

hp 1
i
k
2
X
6= 0 |j | 6= 0,
j=0

(1) p 1.3.2 A p-
p p (IAPCDA).

379
. 2, 4, . 3 ... ..


hp 1
i
k
2
X
=0 |j | 6= 0,
j=0

(2) p 2.2.1 A
pp p (IAPCDA).

j = 0, j = 0, [(pk 1)/2] ,

p 6= 0 (1) (APDk) -
(2.3.3.2), p = 0 p p (1.3.3.2).
p,
p 1. (IAPCD)
A,
 n + p 1  p + 1
`= k k ,
n 2

A pp p
, (APDk) p p
(1.3.3.2) (2.3.3.2).

p 1. (IAPCDA)
A p
 n + p 1  p + 1
`= k k
n 2

pp p, -
(APDk) p p (1.3.3.2), -
(2.3.3.2).
p 1
p 2. (IAPCDA) p
 n + p 1  p + 1
`= k k
n 2
380
.. ... . 2, 4, . 3

p p (3.3.3.2) (9.3.3.2), -
A pp p,
(IAPCDA) p p (5.2.3.2), -
(7.2.3.2).
p (IAPCD) n = 2, m = 1,
, -
p (APD) p p.
H p 1
p 3. (APD)
p p
 
p(p + 1) p+1
`= .
2 2

p p -
p , p pp -
p p (1.3.3.2) pp
(2.3.3.2).
p 5.2 [96, c. 30] p 6= 0, p
= 0 p 21.1 [96, c. 164], p .
p 4. (APD)
p p
 
p(p + 1) p+1
`= .
2 2

p p, p-
p (1.1), p -
, p pp p -
p (1.3.3.2) pp (2.3.3.2).
, p p (APD)
p p pp p-
p p 3 p p
(1.1), p p
p p p (. -
4.2 [96, c. 28]).
H p 3 ,

381
. 2, 4, . 3 ... ..

p 5. (APD) p p -

 
p(p + 1) p+1
`=
2 2

p. p
pp p p (1.3.3.2),
pp (2.3.3.2).
pp 1. pp

dx1 = ( x2 + 2x1 x2 2x32 ) dt1 + ( x3 2x2 x4 + x34 ) dt2 +

+ ( x4 + 2x2 x3 2x2 x34 ) dt3 ,

dx2 = (x1 x22 ) dt1 x4 dt2 + (x3 x34 ) dt3 ,


(5)
dx3 = ( x4 + 3x3 x24 3x54 ) dt1 + (x1 x22 + 3x2 x24 ) dt2 +

+ ( x2 + 3x1 x24 3x22 x24 ) dt3 ,

dx4 = (x3 x34 ) dt1 + x2 dt2 + (x1 x22 ) dt3

R4 p

wl : x x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 2x1 x22 + x42 2x3 x34 + x64 l, l = 1, 13 .

O(0, 0, 0, 0) (5) -
pp p, p 2 p k = 2
p p

F : x x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 2x1 x22 + x42 2x3 x34 + x64 , x R4 .

382
.. . 1, 5, . 3

5.

A B -
dim A = n dim B = m.
1. L m
A B, A {b}
b B, , -
p : A B B
B.
-
A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , , A1
A2
dim A1 = dim A2 = n,

dim B1 = dim B2 = m.

Lj
Aj Bj , Ljcj Lj , -
cj Aj Bj .
B j Aj -

pj : A j B j B j qj : Aj Bj Aj , j = 1, 2 .

1.
1.1.
1. L 1
p L2 ,

h : A1 B1 , A2 B2 ,

383
. 1, 5, . 3 ..


q2 h(A1 B1 ) = A2 h L1c1 , L2h(c1 ) , c1 A1 B1 .

p
H1 (B1 ) p H1 (B2 ), -

g : B1 , B2 .

Hom(H 1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )) .


j = 1 j = 2

j : Aj H1 (Bj ) Aj

p H1 (Bj ), -
Lj , Aj
[j ]
j (aj ) = qj rj sj (1), aj Aj , [j ] H1 (Bj ),

rj ( )

sj ( ) Bj , [0; 1],

[ j ] p -
H1 (Bj ), Lj(aj ,sj (0)) Lj (aj , sj (0)).
1. L 1
L2 -
p Hom(H 1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 ))
f : A1 A2 ,
[] ([])
f 1 = 2 f, [] H1 (B1 ). (1)

. .
h : A1 B1 , A2 B2

L1 L2 .
384
.. . 1, 5, . 3

a01
A1 -
0
b1 B1 .
a1
 A1 -
s( ), [0; 1], A1 b01 A1 B1 ,
 
a1 , b01 a01 , b01
 
s(0) = a1 , b01 , s(1) = a01 , b01 .

s3 ( ) = p2 h s( ), a2 = q2 h(a1 , b01 ), f (a1 ) = q2 r3 (1),

r3 ( ) s3 ( ), [0; 1], L2
(a2 , s3 (0)).
-
(1).
. 1 2 -
(1).
s4 : [0; 1] B1 , s4 (0) = b1 , s4 (1) = b01 ,


G(a1 , b1 ) = g s1
6 f s5 (a1 ), g (b1 ) , (2)

s5 (a1 ) = q1 r4 (1),

r4 ( ) s4 L1 (a1 , b1 ),

g s1 1
6 (a2 ) = q2 g r5 (1),

g r51 ( ) g s1
4
2 1
L , s4 , s4 .
, (2)
L1 , L2 .
.
pp

jk : k (Aj ) H1 (Bj ) k (Aj )


385
. 1, 5, . 3 ..

p H1 (Bj ), p p-
Lj , k (Aj ) -

jk : Hk (Aj ) H1 (Bj ) Hk (Aj )

p H1 (Bj ), p p-
Lj , k-p Hk (Aj ),
k = 1, n 1, j = 1, j = 2.
p p:
[j ]
: k (Aj ) k (Aj ), [j ] H1 (Bj ), (3)
jk

[j ]
: Hk (Aj ) Hk (Aj ), [j ] H1 (Bj ), (4)
jk

[j ] [j ]
jk (k (Aj )) jk (Hk (Aj )), k = 1, n 1 , -
,
[j ]
j : Aj Aj ,

j = 1, j = 2.
p A1 A2 -
(pp, A1 = A2 = Cn ), p
k (A1 ) k (A2 ), k-p p H k (A1 )
Hk (A2 ) p.
, p A1 A2
, p, -
p p 1 -
p p
.
2. (3) p p -
L1
L2 , ,
[] ([])
= , [] H1 (B1 ), k = 1, n 1 ,
1k 2k
386
.. . 1, 5, . 3

p ,

Hom(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 ))

: k (A1 ) k (A2 ), k = 1, n 1 .

3. (4) p p -
L1
L2 , ,
[] ([])
1k = 2k , [] H1 (B1 ), k = 1, n 1 ,

p Hom(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )),

: Hk (A1 ) Hk (A2 ), k = 1, n 1 .

1.2.
p p

dw
= a2 (z)w2 + a1 (z)w + a0 (z) (5)
dz

dw
= b2 (z)w2 + b1 (z)w + b0 (z), (6)
dz
ai p m 1
1

m1 z11 , . . . zm1 1 , bi
p m 2
2
m2
z12 , . . . zm2 2 , i = 0, 2 .
p (5) p p L 3 -
Cm 1 , p (6) p p -
1

L C m
4
2 , C .
2

, (5) -
(6), L 3 -
L4 .
387
. 1, 5, . 3 ..


m1 m2 
H1 1 H1 2 ,
L3 L4 , C (. . )
p p

dv1 dv2
= a1 (z)v1 + a0 (z)v2 , = a2 (z)v1 (7)
dz dz

dv1 dv2
= b1 (z)v1 + b0 (z)v2 , = b2 (z)v1 . (8)
dz dz

,
v1
w=
v2
(7) (5), -
(8) (6), :
(5), -
z11 , . . . zm1 1 ,
p11k w + p12k
Pk (w) = , k = 1, m1 ;
p21k w + p22k

(6), -
z12 , . . . zm2 2 ,
q11k w + q12k
Qk (w) = , k = 1, m2 .
q21k w + q22k

- Pk : w Pk (w)


Pk = pijk GL(2, C), k = 1, m1 ,

- Qk : w Qk (w)

Qk = qijk GL(2, C), k = 1, m2 .
388
.. . 1, 5, . 3

Pk
(5), Qk -
(6).
[gkj ], k = 1, mj ,
m 
H1 j j , j = 1, j = 2.
 
Hom H1 m 1
1
, H 1 m
2
2
-


[g11 ], . . . , [gm1 1 ] 1 ,

p
 1 m 1 , p -
[g12 ], . . . , [gm2 2 ], [e2 ] , [e2 ] p-

H1 m 2
2
, p [g12 ], . . . , [gm2 2 ]
p;

Aut H1 m 2
2
: [gk2 ] [gk2 ]1 , k = 1, m2 .

b 1 p p , p-
p 1 p:
p 1 [gk2 ] k,
[e2 ] m2 + 1.
Qm2 +1 = I .
4. (5)
(6) ,
p
b 1,
: (1, . . . , m1 )

p p p p P k Q(k) -
p, k = 1, m 1 .
. (5)
(6). , 1,

f Pk (w) = Q(k) f (w), w C. (9)

p Pk p

Pk = Sk Jk Sk1 ,
389
. 1, 5, . 3 ..

Jk p p p p P k .
Hp ,

Pk (w) = Sk Jk Sk1 (w), w C, (10)

Sk : w Sk (w) p- p, -
p p p S k ,
Jk : w Jk (w) p Jk , Sk1
p Sk .
(10) (9) :

h Jk (w) = Q(k) h(w), w C, (11)

h(w) = f Sk (w).

p h : C C p 0 w 1 C,
w2 C.
p- p u : C C,

u : w1 0, u : w2 .

p
v = u h,
(11) :

v Jk (w) = u Q(k) u1 v(w), w C, (12)

aw + b
u Q(k) u1 (w) = , ad bc 6= 0,
cw + d

p v : C C ,
v(0) = 0, v() = . (13)

p p p J k p Pk -
390
.. . 1, 5, . 3

p, ,

1 0
Jk = .
0 2

p
1
Jk (w) = w.
2

(12) (13) , b = c = 0,
,
a
u Q(k) u1 (w) = w.
d
, p- p
a
w w
d
p p p Q (k) , -
.
k 4 .
1. k k -
, k I, I .
:
) H : C C,

H(k t) = k H(t) (14)


k I;
) Re > 1,

k = k |k | (15)

k I,
k = k |k | (16)
k I.
391
. 1, 5, . 3 ..

[1, c. 91 93; 85]. -


), ,
(15).
H : t t |t| .

H : C C (15) :

H(k t) = k t |k t| = k |k | t |t| = k H(t).

) = ) .
) = ).
H : C C . -
, (15). ( -
H , -
(16).)
k I , |k | = 1,
k = k .

, (15) . (-
, 0 6 , < 2,
, = .)
|k | 6= 1 |l | 6= 1 k l I,

sgn ln |k | = sgn ln |k |. (17)

{p n } {qn } -
,
lim pkn ql n = 1, (18)
n

lim |pn | = lim |qn | = .


n n

(14) ,

H pkn ql n t = pkn ql n H(t).

392
.. . 1, 5, . 3

(18)
lim pkn ql n = 1. (19)
n

(18), (19)

ln |k | qn
= lim (20)
ln |l | n pn

pn ln k + qn ln l = pn ln k + qn ln l . (21)

(21)
pn n , (20)

ln k ln k ln l ln l
= . (22)
ln |k | ln |l |

ln k ln k
k = ,
ln |k |

(15), = k .
(22) , k = l = k l
I , |k | 6= 1 |l | 6= 1.
Re > 1
ln |k |
Re = Re k = 1
ln |k |
(17).
5. {p1k , p2k } -
p Pk
(5), k = 1, m1 , {q1k , q2k } -
p Qk -
(6), k = 1, m2 .
393
. 1, 5, . 3 ..

Pk , k = 1, m1 , Qk , k = 1, m2 , -
.
(5) -
(6), p
b 1 C Re 6= 1,
: (1, . . . , m1 )

q1(k) p p1k
= 1k
q2(k) p2k p , k = 1, m1 ,
2k


p1k p1k
q1(k) /q2(k) =
p2k p , k = 1, m1 .
2k

5 -
4 1 [21,
c. 194], -
.
5
6. {p1k , p2k } -
p Pk
(5), k = 1, m1 , {q1k , q2k } -
p Qk -
(6), k = 1, m2 . -
(5) (6) ,
p : (1, . . . , m 1 ) b1
k C Re k 6= 1 ,

q1(k) p1k p1k k
= , k = 1, m1 ,
q2(k) p2k p2k


p p1k k
q1(k) /q2(k) = 1k
p2k p , k = 1, m1 .
2k

394
.. . 2, 5, . 3

2.
2.1.
B 1 B2 -
.
1. L 1 L2 -
, -
h : A1 B1 A2 B2 ,

q2 h(A1 B1 ) = A2

h(L1c1 ) = L2h(c1 ) , c1 A1 B1 .

-
H1 (B1 ) H1 (B1 ),
g : B 1 B 2 .
I(H 1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )).
1.1
1. -
L1 L2 -
p I(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )) -
f : A1 A2 , -
(1.1).
2.1 3.1
2. (3.1) p p

L1 L2 , ,
[] ([])
= , [] H1 (B1 ), k = 1, n 1 ,
1k 2k

p ,

I(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )) : k (A1 ) k (A2 ), k = 1, n 1 .

395
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

3. (4.1) p p

L1 L2 , ,
[] ([])
= , [] H1 (B1 ), k = 1, n 1 ,
1k 2k

p ,

I(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )) : Hk (A1 ) Hk (A2 ), k = 1, n 1 .

2.2.

dw
= A(z)w (1)
dz

dw
= B(z)w, (2)
dz

A(z) = kaik (z)k B(z) = kbik (z)k -


n > 2 aik : m 1 C, -
m 1 ( m -
z11 , . . . , zm1 ), bik : m 2 C,
m 2 ( m z12 , . . . , zm2 ), i, k = 1, n ,
w = colon (w1 , . . . , wn ).
(1) ( (2))
L5 ( L6 ) Cn m 1 (
Cn m 2 ).
, (1) -
(2), L 5 -
L 6 .
C n (1),
zj1 ,

Pj w, w Cn , Pj GL(n, C), j = 1, m ,

396
.. . 2, 5, . 3

(2), z j2 ,

Qj w, w Cn , Qj GL(n, C), j = 1, m .

Pj Qj -
(1) (2).
Pj Qj , -
ln Pj ln Qj , .. [3, c. 84] -

.
4. {p1j , . . . , pnj } -
Pj
(1), {q1j , . . . , qnj } -
Qj
(2), ln Pj ln Qj -
, j = 1, m . :
1) -
(1) (2) , -

: (1, . . . , m) (1, . . . , m),

j : (1, . . . , n) (1, . . . , n), j = 1, m ,

ij Re ij 6= 1, i = 1, n , j = 1, m ,

qj (i)(j) = pij pij ij , j = 1, m ,


q j (i)(j) = pij pij ij , j = 1, m ,

i = 1, n ;
2)
(1) (2) -
,

: (1, . . . , m) (1, . . . , m), : (1, . . . , n) (1, . . . , n),


397
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

i Re i 6= 1, i = 1, n ,

q = p p i , j = 1, m ,
(i)(j) ij ij


q (i)(j) = pij pij i , j = 1, m ,

i = 1, n .

1. {p1 , . . . , pn }
P GL(n, C), {q1 , . . . , qn }
Q GL(n, C), ln P
ln Q , n > 2.
: Cn Cn

(P w) = Q(w), w Cn , (w) = colon 1 (w), . . . , n (w) , (3)

Re > 1
: (1, . . . , n) (1, . . . , n) ,

q( ) = p |p | q ( ) = p |p | , = 1, n .

. P Q

P = R diag (p1 , . . . , pn )R1 , Q = S diag (q1 , . . . , qn )S 1 ,

p q , = 1, n , P Q
.

: w S 1 (Rw), w Cn ,
(3)

diag (p1 , . . . , pn )w = diag (q1 , . . . , qn )(w), w Cn .

P Q C n -

398
.. . 2, 5, . 3

u : w P w, w C , v : w Qw, w C .
n n

u C n -
.
v.
U, -
u, -

n
w wn , = 1, n 1 ,

, , = 1, n ,
ln P.
, V, -
v, -

n
w wn , = 1, n 1 ,

, , = 1, n ,
ln Q.
C

w = 0, = 1, n , 6= ,

C C -
, = 1, n .
ln P ln Q ,
1  1 
Im n 6= 0 Im n 6= 0, = 1, n 1 .

,
n n
w wn = C w wn = C

C 6= 0 w = 0, = 1, n 1 .

U u = C , = 1, n ,
.
399
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

V v = C , = 1, n , -
-
.
, -
, u U v( )
V, = 1, n ,
.
: Cn C ,
e : C C( )


e (p w
e ) = q( )
e (w
e ), w
e = (0, . . . , 0, w , 0, . . . , 0) C ,

= 1, n .
1.1 , -
Re > 1 ,

q( ) = p |p | q ( ) = p |p | , = 1, n .



H : Cn Cn , H(w) = colon H1 (w), . . . , Hn (w) ,

,

H( ) (w) = w |w | , q( ) = p |p | , = 1, n ,


H( ) (w) = w |w | , q ( ) = p |p | , = 1, n .

, H
.
4.
1 1.
-

-
.

400
.. . 2, 5, . 3

(1) (2) ,
A B n > 2

aik : C C, bik : C C, i, k = 1, n ,
1- C.
(1) (2)
L7 L8 Cn Z, Z
S 1 R.
(1) (2)
,
L 7 L8 .
, -
Cn (1) (2)

P w, w Cn , Qw, w Cn .

P Q -
(1) (2) .
5. {p1 , . . . , pn } ({q1 , . . . , qn }) -
P ( -
Q) (1) ( (2))
, ln P (-
ln Q) . (1) (2) -

,
: (1, . . . , n) (1, . . . , n) k Re k 6= 1, k = 1, n ,
,
q(k) = pk |pk |k q (k) = pk |pk |k , k = 1, n .

-
1 4.

2.3.
p p (5.1) (6.1) 1--
C a i bi , i = 0, 2 , -
1- p .
401
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

1- p (5.1) p p-
L9 C Z, Z ,
1- p (6.1) p L 10
.
, 1-
(5.1) 1- -
(6.1), L 9
L 10 .
1.2 , -
1- (5.1), -
H1 (Z),
p11 w + p12
P (w) = ,
p21 w + p22

1- (6.1),
,
q11 w + q12
Q(w) = .
q21 w + q22

- P : w P (w)


P = pij GL(2, C),

- Q : w Q(w)

Q = qij GL(2, C).

P 1--
(5.1), Q -
1- (6.1).
1, 4.1, 5.1 1.1
6. 1--
(5.1) (6.1) ,

P Q .

402
.. . 2, 5, . 3

7. P
p1 p2 1--
(5.1), Q
q 1 q2 1--
(6.1). -
1- -
(5.1) (6.1) , -
c Re 6= 1,
q1 p1 p1 p1 p1
= q1 /q2 = .
q2 p2 p2 p2 p2

8. 1-
(5.1) (6.1)


1 1 2 2

0 1 0 2 ,

1 2 6= 0. 1- -
(5.1) (6.1) .
. 6.
. , -
4.1, ,
1-
(5.1) (6.1) -
: C C,
 1  2
w+ = (w) + , w C,
1 2

1 2
(w) = w, w C.
2 1

403
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

2.4.
p p
m
X 
dw = a2j (z)w2 + a1j (z)w + a0j (z) dzj , (4)
j=1

m
X 
dw = b2j (z)w2 + b1j (z)w + b0j (z) dzj , (5)
j=1

z = (z1 , . . . , zm ), aij bij 1--


z j Cm
, i = 0, 2 , j = 1, m , m > 1.
(4) (5)
L11 L12 C Z m , Z m -
m Z.
, (4) (5) -
, -
L11 L12 .
-
C, L 11 L12 ,


m
X 
dv1 = a1j (z)v1 + a0j (z)v2 dzj ,
j=1
m
(6)
X
dv2 = a2j (z)v1 dzj
j=1

m
X 
dv1 = b1j (z)v1 + b0j (z)v2 dzj ,
j=1
m
(7)
X
dv2 = b2j (z)v1 dzj .
j=1
404
.. . 2, 5, . 3

1.2, ,
v1
w=
v2
(6) (4), (7) -
(5), :
(4),
[j ] H1 (Z m ),
p11j w + p12j
Pj (w) = , j = 1, m ; (8)
p21j w + p22j

(5), -
[j ] H1 (Z m ),
q11j w + q12j
Qj (w) = , j = 1, m . (9)
q21j w + q22j

- Pj : w Pj (w)


Pj = pikj GL(2, C), j = 1, m , (10)

- Qj : w Qj (w)

Qj = qikj GL(2, C), j = 1, m . (11)

(8), (9) , , (10), (11)


, - -

H1 (Z m ) - -
.
Pj
(4), Qj -
(5).
2. -
P (w) Q(w) .

405
. 2, 5, . 3 ..


P GL(2, C) Q GL(2, C)
.
, -
P ( Q)
P (w) ( Q(w)),
P 2 (w) ( Q2 (w)),
.
1 2 6,
5.1 7 .
9. Pj -
(4), Qj -
(5), j = 1, m . -
(4) (5) , -
Pj Qj ,
- ,
j = 1, m .
10. (4)
(5)
 
diag 1j , 2j } diag 1j , 2j , j = 1, m .


(4) (5) , -
||a ik || m
c Re 6= 1,
m 
Y aik 1i
1k 1i
= , i = 1, m ,
2k 2i 2i
k=1

m 
Y aik
1k 1i
= 1i /2i , i = 1, m .
2k 2i
k=1

406
.. . 2, 5, . 3

2.5.

-

m
X
dw = A w dz A(w) dz, (12)
=1

w Cn , z Cm , n > 3, 2 6 m 6 n 1.
(12)
( A , = 1, m , ) A
rank A(w) = m Cn .
(12) W -
Cn Cm Cn -

Xm 
W : (w, z) exp A z w, w Cn , z C, = 1, m ,
=1


m
X
exp A z .
=1

2.2.7.1
m- V -
(12) (. . w, rank A(w) = m).
A , = 1, m , -
i , i = 1, n , = 1, m .
[21, c. 194] -
, -
(12)
m
X
dwi = i wi dz , i = 1, n . (13)
=1
407
. 2, 5, . 3 ..



= i nm

, m-
.
1.5.2.3 (13)

m
Y
(13) lk
Fk : z wm+k (z) w (z), k = 1, n m , (14)
l
l=1

lk C, l = 1, m , k = 1, n m .
(13) , -

k = (1k , . . . , mk , 1), k = 1, n m ,
(14).
H.
(13) (m 1)-

wi = 0, . . . , winm+1 = 0, i {1, . . . , n}, = 1, n m + 1 ,


1

[16, c. 115].

(13), -
V = Cn \.
(14)
(13) (13)
Fk (z) = Ck , k = 1, n m , (15)
(13)
Ck 6= 0, k = 1, n m , ,
, (15), .
(13) H -
k , k = 1, n m .
(13) H .
408
.. . 2, 5, . 3

-
(13) H. (13) H

m
X
dwi = i wi dz , i = 1, n , (16)
=1


m
Y
(16) lk
Fk : z wm+k (z) w (z), k = 1, n m ,
l
l=1

lk C, l = 1, m , k = 1, n m .
pp (13) (16)
(13)
, F k
(16)
Fk , k = 1, n m , V pp
p M 1 M 2 .
p p h : V V, -
M 1 M 2 , p
p (13) (16) H -
M 1 p M 2 ,
.
, p p-
h p

{wm+k (z) = 0}\, k = 1, n m ,


, p (
pp p -
(13) (16)).
M 1 M 2 p

{w (z) = 0}\, = 1, m ,

, - L 13
L14 , p
409
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

 m
[ 
Cnm Cm \ {w (z) = 0} .
=1


(13) (13) (16) (16)
Fk = Ck Fk = Ck , k = 1, n m ,

pp wm+k , k = 1, n m .
p
m
[
B = Cm \ {w (z) = 0}
=1

p p I(H1 (B), H1 (B)) p p-


p pp p
wi = 0, i = 1, n , i 6= , pp Cn p [g ] -
p p H1 (B) p

Aut H1 (B) : [g ] [g ]1 , = 1, m .

L13

[g ] : wm+k wm+k exp 2i,m+k , k = 1, n m ,

L14

[g ] : wm+k wm+k exp 2i,m+k , k = 1, n m ,

,

Aut H1 (B) : wm+k wm+k exp 2i,m+k , k = 1, n m ,

= 1, m .
, 1 p 1, pp -
, p (13)
(16) H.
410
.. . 2, 5, . 3

11. (13) (16) H -


,
m+k Re m+k > 1, k = 1, n m , p-
: (1, . . . , m) (1, . . . , m), k = 1, n m
()
= ,m+k ,m+k m+k , = 1, m ,
(),m+k

Im ,m+k Im (),m+k () > 0, = 1, m ,

()
= ,m+k ,m+k m+k , = 1, m ,
(),m+k

Im ,m+k Im (),m+k () < 0, = 1, m ,


2() = 1, ,m+k = exp 2i,m+k ,

,m+k = exp 2i,m+k , = 1, m .

p p 11
pp p
p
m
X 
dw = A w + f (w) dz F (w) dz, (17)
=1

f (w) = colon (f1 (w), . . . , fn (w)), = 1, m ,


fi : w fi (w), i = 1, n , = 1, m , p
p U0 O(0, . . . , 0) Cn p -
p, p -
, p F p rank F (w) = m p

411
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

U0 , p A , = 1, m , , p
(13) p H.
, (17)
p A , = 1, m , p p pp-
p [83] p -
(13) H. , p -
p p,
p 11 p -
, p (17) p U 0 .

2.6.
C -
n + m.
2. L m
C dim C = n + m
, -
A B , A B = C, -
L, L -
,
A B.

Cj = Aj Bj , j = 1, j = 2,
Aj Bj .
Lj -
Cj , Ljcj Lj , -
cj , j = 1, j = 2.
L1 L2 -
,
h : C1 C2 ,

h L1c1 = L2h(c1 ) , c1 C1 .

L j -
Aj Bj Lj , j = 1, j = 2,
- L1 L2 ,
412
.. . 2, 5, . 3

L1 L2
.

h : A 1 B1 A2 B2 ,
-
L1 L2 ,
h : A 1 B1 A2 B2
A1 B1 , -
-
- L1 L2 .

.
1 -
.
,
- L1 L2 L1 L2
-
L1 L2 .
h : A1 B1 A2 B2 -
-
L1 L2 .
h h
A1 B1 = C1

h : C 1 C 2 , C 2 A2 B2 .

h -
h -
.
12. -
L1 L2 , -
,
h : A1 B1 A2 B2 ,
L 1 L2 , -

413
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

, h A 1 B1 = C1 -
h : C1 C2 , C2 = A2 B2 , .. h = h.
M 1 M 2 2.5 -
.
(13) (16) H -
,
M 1 M 2 .
11
13. (13)
(16) H ,
, -
m+k Re m+k > 1, k = 1, n m , p
: (1, . . . , m) (1, . . . , m), k = 1, n m
()
= ,m+k ,m+k m+k , = 1, m ,
(),m+k

()
= ,m+k ,m+k m+k , = 1, m .
(),m+k

2.7.

p p

dx
= a2 (t)x2 + a1 (t)x + a0 (t) (18)
dt

dx
= b2 (t)x2 + b1 (t)x + b0 (t), (19)
dt

ai bi , i = 0, 2 , 1-
R .
1-
p .

414
.. . 2, 5, . 3

1- p (18) p-
p L13 R S 1 ,
R ,
, S 1 ; 1-
p (19) p L 14 -
.
, 1- -
(18) (19) , -
L13 L14 .
1.2, , -
1- (18), -
H1 (S 1 ),
p11 x + p12
P (x) = ,
p21 x + p22

1-
(19), ,
q11 x + q12
Q(x) = .
q21 x + q22

- P : x P (x)


P = pij GL(2, R),

- Q : x Q(x)

Q = qij GL(2, R).

P -
(18), Q -
(19).
3. p q .
:
a) H : R R,

H(pt) = qH(t); (20)


415
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

) > 1,

q = p |p| . (21)

. (20).
(20) -
, pq > 0. , (20)

H(pk t) = q k H(t), k Z,

|p| 6= 1

ln |p| ln |q| > 0,


|p| = 1
q = p.
, (21).
) = ) .
) = ).
(21). -

H : t t |t| .

4. f : R R
,
f (P (x)) = Q(f (x)). (22)


P Q .
, -
--
-
.
5. f : R R,
(22), -
, :

416
.. . 2, 5, . 3

1) , P Q
p 1 , p2
q1 , q2 , > 1 ,
q1 p1 p1
= ;
q2 p2 p2

2) , P Q
+i +i , =
6 0, ,


= , = arctg , = arctg ;

3) , P Q -


1 1 2 2

0 1 0 2 ,

1 2 6= 0, (22) .
-
4.1 3 P
Q ( -
f ).
P Q -
(
f ), -

x + x +
P = Q=
x + x +

x + tg x + tg
P = Q=
x tg + 1 x tg + 1

.
417
. 2, 5, . 3 ..


R S 1
h i
p : x 2 arctg x, x R , arctg x ; ,
2 2
,

p P p1 : x x + 2, p Q p1 : x x + 2.

, (22) -
f : S 1 S 1 ,
f (t + 2) = f (t) + 2), t S 1 .

2 2 -
,
= .
=
, = f : t t.

, (22)
g : R R,
 1  2
g x+ = g(x) + .
1 2


1 2
g: x x.
2 1

1 3 5
.
14. -
(18) (19) ,
P Q
.
418
.. . 2, 5, . 3

15. P
p 1
p2 1-
(18), Q -
q1 q2
1- (19). -
(18)
(19) ,
6= 1,
q1 p1 p1
= .
q2 p2 p2

16. P -
i , 6= 0, -
1- (18), Q

i , 6= 0, 1-
(19).
(18) (19) ,

= , = arctg , = arctg .

17.
P Q 1-
(18) (19)
. 1-
(18) (19) .

2.8.

p p
m
X 
dx = a2j (t)x2 + a1j (t)x + a0j (t) dtj , (23)
j=1

419
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

m
X 
dx = b2j (t)x2 + b1j (t)x + b0j (t) dtj , (24)
j=1

t = (t1 , . . . , tm ), aij bij 1--


t j Rm
, i = 0, 2 , j = 1, m , m > 1.
(23) (24) -
L15 L16 R T m , T m
m- .
, (23) (24) -
, -
L15 L16 .
2.4, :
(23),
[j ] H1 (T m ),
p11j x + p12j
Pj (x) = , j = 1, m ; (25)
p21j x + p22j

(24), -
[j ] H1 (T m ),
q11j x + q12j
Qj (x) = , j = 1, m . (26)
q21j x + q22j

- Pj : w Pj (w)


Pj = pikj GL(2, R), j = 1, m , (27)

- Qj : w Qj (w)

Qj = qikj GL(2, R), j = 1, m . (28)

, ,

det2 Pj = 1, det2 Qj = 1, j = 1, m .
420
.. . 2, 5, . 3

(25), (26) , , (27),


(28) , - -

H1 (T m ) - -
R .
Pj
(23), Qj -
(24).
6. Pj
(23), Qj -
(24), j = 1, m . -
, -
P j
Qj j = 1, m .
4 1.
7. : R R
,

(pj x) = qj (x), x R, pj qj 6= 0, j = 1, m , (29)

,

qj = pj pj , > 1, j = 1, m . (30)

. . 5

qj = pj pj j , j > 1, j = 1, m ,

|pj | = 1 , |qj |, j = 1, m .
I1 j,

p = q .
j j

,
CI I1 I1 I = {1, . . . , m} :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
421
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

CI I1 = , .. I = I1 , ,

p = q , j = 1, m ,
j j

(30) .
CI I1 = {j }, (30) = j .


p 6= 1, p 6= 1, j , j C I1 , j 6= j .
j j1 1 2 I 2 1 2

(29) ,
 
pjl pjn x = qjl qjn (x), x R, l, n Z.
1 2 1 2

,
, :
{ls } {ns } ,

lim pj2ls pj2ns = 1, lim |ls | = lim |ns | = + .


s+ 1 2 s+ s+


2ls (j1 j2 )
(x) = lim pj (x), x R.
s+ 1

,
j = j = > 1.
1 2

(30) .

: x |x| , x R, > 1.

8. {1j , 2j }
p P j GL(2, R)

422
.. . 2, 5, . 3

, {1j , 2j } -
p
Qj GL(2, R) , j = 1, m . -
f : R R ,

f Pj (x) = Qj f (x), x R , j = 1, m , (31)

,
> 1,

1j 1j 1j
= , j = 1, m .
2j 2j 2j

5.1.
9. Pj -


cos j sin j
, ( ; ], j = 1, m ,
sin cos j j
j

Qj


cos j sin j
, ( ; ], j = 1, m .
sin cos j
j j

(31) -
,

j = j , j = 1, m , j = j , j = 1, m .

-
8 5 ,
.
10. : R R
,
(x + pj ) = (x) + qj , x R, pj qj 6= 0, j = 1, m , (32)
423
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

,
q1 qj
= , j = 2, m . (33)
p1 pj

. . j = 2.
,
p2 l
= Q, l, n Z.
p1 n

(32) j = 1
(x + lp1 ) = (x) + lq1 , x R,

j = 2 ,
(x + lp1 ) = (x + np2 ) = (x) + nq2 , x R.

,
(33) j = 2.

p2
=r
/ Q.
p1

-
, : -
{ls } {ns } ,
ls
|ls | + , |ns | + , r s + .
ns

(32) j = 1 ,
(x + ls p1 ) (x) = ls q1 , x R,

j = 2
(x + ns rp1 ) (x) = ns q2 , x R.

424
.. . 2, 5, . 3

(x + ls p1 ) (x) ls q1 q1
1 = lim = lim =r .
s+ (x + ns rp1 ) (x) s+ ns q2 q2

(33) j = 2.
, (33)
j = 3, m .

q1
: x x, x R.
p1

8 10 -
.
11. Pj GL(2, R) -


j pj

0 j , j = 1, m ,

Qj GL(2, R)


j qj

0 , j = 1, m .
j

(31) -
,

qj = pj , j = 1, m .

1 6 11 ,

18. Pj -
(23), Qj
(24), j = 1, m . -
(23) (24)
425
. 2, 5, . 3 ..

,
||aij || m, :
1) , Pj Qj -

 
diag 1j , 2j } diag 1j , 2j , j = 1, m ,

6= 1,
m 
Y 1j aij 1i
1i
= , i = 1, m ;
2j 2i 2i
j=1

2) , Pj Qj -


cos j sin j cos j sin j
,
sin cos j sin cos j
j j

j , j ( ; ], j = 1, m ,
m
X
j = aij j , j = 1, m ;
j=1

3) , Pj Qj -


j pj q
j j , j = 1, m ,
0 j 0
j


m
X
aij qj = pj , j = 1, m .
j=1

426
.. . 2, 5, . 3

(23)
(24) , a ij bij -
1n ( Rm n
t11 , . . . , tn1 ) 2n ( Rm n
t12 , . . . , tn2 ).

(23n) (24n).
(23n) (24n) -
L17 L18 R 1n R 2n .
, (23n) (24n) -
, -
L17 L18 .
(23) (24), (23n)
(25) 
(27) [j ] H1 R 1n , -
(24n) (26) 
(28) [j ] H1 R 2 . n

18 1 6 11

19. P j ( -
Qj ) (23n) ( -
(24n) ) , j = 1, n . -
(23) (24) -
,
: (1, . . . , n) (1, . . . , n) , :
1) , Pj Qj -

 
diag 1j , 2j } diag 1j , 2j , j = 1, n ,

6= 1,
1(j) 1i 1i
= , i = 1, n ;
2(j) 2i 2i

2) , Pj Qj -

427
. 3, 5, . 3 ..


cos j sin j cos j sin j
,
sin cos j sin cos j
j j

j , j ( ; ], j = 1, m ,

(j) = j , j = 1, n , (j) = j , j = 1, n ;

3) , Pj Qj -


j pj q
j j , j = 1, n ,
0 j 0
j


q(j) = pj , j = 1, n .

3.
3.1.
1. L 1
L2 ,

h : A 1 B1 A2 B2
,
q2 h(A1 B1 ) = A2

h(L1c1 ) = L2h(c1 ) , c1 A1 B1 .


H1 (B1 ) H1 (B1 ), g : B1 B2 .
Mon(H 1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )).

428
.. . 3, 5, . 3

1. L 1
L2 , -
, p , -
Mon(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 )), f : A1 A2 -
, (1.1).
1.1
, h , -
.
, 1 -
L2 L1
1 (B1 ) 1 (B2 ).
Lj -

j : Aj 1 (Bj ) Aj
1 (Bj ) Aj

j j (aj ) = (qj rj sj (1))(aj ), aj Aj , bj 1 (Bj ),

rj
sj ( ) Bj , [0; 1],
j
1 (Bj ) Lj(aj ,sj (0)) Lj
(aj , sj (0)), j = 1, j = 2.
1. B1 -
, L1
L2 , B 1
B2 .
, C n C,
-
,
L7 [49].
2.1 3.1
2. (3.1) p p -
L2
429
. 3, 5, . 3 ..

L1 , ,
[] ([])
1k = 2k , [] H1 (B1 ), k = 1, n 1 ,

p ,

Mon(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 ))

: k (A1 ) k (A2 ), k = 1, n 1 .

3. (4.1) p p -
L2
L1 , ,
[] ([])
1k = 2k , [] H1 (B1 ), k = 1, n 1 ,

p ,

Mon(H1 (B1 ), H1 (B2 ))

: Hk (A1 ) Hk (A2 ), k = 1, n 1.

3.2.
(5.1) (6.1), a k
bk 1- C.
bk ,

bk (t + i) = bk (t), t [0; 1], i = 1 , k = 0, 2 .

C Z 1-
(5.1) L 15 , 1-
(6.1) L 16 -
C T 2 , T 2 ,

K = {z = x + iy C : x [0; 1], y [0; 1]}.

430
.. . 3, 5, . 3

, 1- (5.1)
1- (6.1), -
L15 L16 .
H1 (Z) Z, H1 (T 2 ) Z2 .
[] H 1 (Z),
[1 ] [2 ] H1 (T 2 ).
P : w P (w) -
1- (5.1), -
[], Q j : w Qj (w) -
1- (6.1),
[j ], j = 1, j = 2.
-
P (w) Q1 (w), Q2 (w) P Q1 , Q2 -
1.2.
P Q1 , Q2 -
1- (5.1) (6.1).
Z T 2 , -
0 6 Re z 6 1 K.
1 5.1 -

4. {p1 , p2 }, {q11 , q21 }, {q12 , q22 } -


p -
P, Q1 , Q2 . 1-
(5.1) 1- -
(6.1) , j = 1
j = 2
q1j p1 p1 j p1 p1 j
= q1j /q2j = ,
q2j p2 p2 p2 p2

Re j 6= 1.

431

1. .. -
. : , 1985.
142 .
2. .., ..
. I; II// . . -. . 1.
. . . 1999. 2. . 42 46; 2000. 1.
. 38 42.
3. .., .. -
. I // .
. . 1 ( . -
). .: , 1985. . 7 149 .
4. .., .. -
//
. . . 1984. . 28, 7. . 581 584.
5. .., ..
-
// . . .
1986. . 30, 9. C. 791 792.
6. .. .
.: , 1989. 221 .
7. p .. p -
. : H , 1979. 120 .
8. .. . .: , 1970.
240 .
9. .., .. -
. .:
, 1976. 496 .
10. ..
. .: , 1991. 303 .
11. H.H., p .. p -
. .: , 1957. 444 .
12. .., ..
// i . . -. . 2.
2000. 1(3). C. 4 11.
13. .. -
// . -
. 1999. T. 35, 3. . 418 419.
432
..

14. .. -
: . ...
. .-. . 01.01.02 / . . -. , 2000.
95 .
15. .. pp p-
. : - . . , 1981. 38 .
16. .. -
. : , 1983. 272 .
17. .. .
.: , 1989. 254 .
18. .. p pp-
p // . . . 1981. . 25, 5.
C. 389 391.
19. .. . .:
, 1989. 263 .
20. .. -
// . . 1984. . 20, 8.
C. 1318 1325.
21. .. . .: , 1988. 552 .
22. .. -
// . . 1990. . 26, 3.
C. 531 532.
23. .. -
// -
p. p. 1994. . 30, 6. . 939 946.
24. ..
// . . 1998. T. 34, 2.
. 149 156.
25. .. -
// . . 1995.
. 31, 9. . 1579 1580.
26. .., .. -
- // . . -.
. 1. 2005. 3. C. 70 74.
27. ..
: . : , 2005. 273 .

433
..

28. ..
// . . . 1997.
. 41, 3. . 36 38.
29. .. -
// . . . 1981. . 25, 7. C. 584 585.
30. .. -
// . . . 1997. . 41, 4.
. 40 43.
31. .. : .
: , 2000. 627 .
32. .. -
// . -
. 1994. . 30, 9. . 1487 1497.
33. .. p
p // p. p. 1981. . 17, 9.
. 1685 1687.
34. .., ..
-
// . . -. . 1. . . . 1997.
3. . 37 39.
35. .., .. -

// . . -. . 1. .
. . 1995. 1. . 38 42.
36. .., .. ,
p p n- p // .
(http://www.neva.ru). 2002.
2. . 26 46.
37. ..
// i . . -. . 2. 2005. 2.
. 10 29 .
38. .. -
-
// . . 1998. T. 34,
4. . 562 564.

434
..

39. .. -
, -
// . . 1999. T. 35,
1. . 30 37.
40. .. -
-
// . . 1999. T. 35,
10. . 1325 1329.
41. .., .. R-
// . .
2004. . 48, 1. . 49 52.
42. .., ..
// i . .
-. . 2. 2003. 2(22). . 50 60.
43. .., p .. p -
p p
p // .
(http://www.neva.ru). 2001. 3. . 17 45.
44. .., ..
. : , 1985. 94 .
45. .., ..
. : , 1986. 101 .
46. .. -
// i .
. -. . 2. 1999. 1. . 26 37.
47. p .H. -
: . ... . .-. .
01.01.02 / . . -. , 1981. 154 .
48. .. p p -
pp p p // . .
2000. . 36, 11. . 1563 1565.
49. .., .. , -
// i .
. -. . 2. 2002. 1(9). C. 14 19.
50. .., .. -
// . .
1992. . 183, 3. C. 76 94.
435
..

51. .., ..
// . . 1991.
. 27, 10. . 1819 1822.
52. .. -
-
// .
(http://www.neva.ru). 2000. 2. . 1 36.
53. p .. pp p
p // i .
. p. i.-. . 1982. 2. . 11 15.
54. . . . II. .; .:
, 1936. 564 .
55. ..
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65. ..
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67. .., .. -

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442

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1. . . . . . . 15
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4. -
. . . . 53
5. . . . . . . 60
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 60
443
..

2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3. -
. . 72
6. . . . . . . . . . . 77
1. . . . . . . . . . 77
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3. . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.
. . . . . . . . . . 85
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7. . . . . 106
1. -
. . . 106
2. s- -
. . . . . 111
3. s- (n k)- -
. . 115
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . 121
2. (n k)-
. . . . . . . . . 124
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4. s- (n k)-
. . . . . . . 132
9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
1.
() . . 137

444
..

2. -
(ICD) . . . . . 142
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2. s- (n k)-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
3. . . . . . . . . 173
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . 187
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
3.1. (APCD) A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
3.2. (IAPCD) A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.1. (APCD) B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.2. (APCDB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
4.3. (IAPCDB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
2.3. . . 252
445
..

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
280
2.3. . . 288
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
2.2. . . . . . . . 326
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
1. . . . . . 331
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
4. . . . . . . 350
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
2. pp p p
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
3. p p . . . 368
4. p . . . . . . . . . 370
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
446
..

4. pp pp
p
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
1. p pp p . . . . . . 374
2. p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
5. p . 383
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
1.2. . . . . . 387
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
2.2. . . . . . . 396
2.3. . . . . . 401
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
2.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
2.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
2.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
2.2. . . . . . 430
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

447

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12.01.2006. 15.03.2006.
60x84/16. .
RISO. .
. . . 25,98. .-. . 24,64. 150 . 091



02330/0133257 30.04.2004. . , 39, 230012, .




02330/0056882 30.04.2004. . , 39, 230012, .