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ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT This type of pavement design was primarily
based upon empiricism or experience, with
By: theory playing only a subordinate role in the
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Yusri Aman procedure.
Consideration in any pavement design
The theory used to predict the failure or
distress parameter,
The evaluation of the pertinent material
properties necessary for the theory
selected, and
The determination of the relationship
between the magnitude of the parameter
FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING in question to the failure of performance

Traffic Time of Day Patterns

WHAT IS FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT? Design and construction of flexible asphalt pavements has changed
rather significantly in past several years.
Those which are surfaced
The annualized average 24-hours volume of vehicles at a given point
with bituminous (or asphalt) or section of highway is called a traffic count.
Calculated by determining the volume of vehicles during a given
These types of pavements period and dividing that number by the number of days in that period.
are called "flexible" since
the total pavement structure
"bends" or "deflects" due to SUBGRADE

traffic loads. Pavement behave respect to loading

A flexible pavement structure is generally composed of several

layers of materials which can accommodate this "flexing".

Road Accident Data in Malaysia (1997 2016)

For many years, motorcycle has been the most preferable, convenient Some accident which as took place in Malaysia:
and affordable mode of transport.

(Department of Statistics Malaysia 2017)


Why Need to Analysis a Road Pavement?

Benefits Pavement Design Considerations

Improved reliability for design Pavements shall be designed to accommodate current and
Ability to predict specific types of distress predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost-effective
Ability to extrapolate from limited field and laboratory
results. The regulations do not specify the procedures to be followed
to meet this requirement.
Damaging effects of increased loads, high tire
pressure, multiple axles can be modeled. Instead, each State Highway Agency (SHA) is expected to
use a design procedure that is appropriate for its conditions.
Better utilization of available materials
The SHA may use the design procedures outlined in the
Improved method for premature distress analysis
"AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures," or it
may use other pavement design procedures that, based on
past performance or research, are expected to produce
satisfactory pavement designs.



The FHWA encourages the development of mechanistic pavement Mechanics is the science of
design procedures. motion and the action of
forces on bodies.
To promote consistency in application of mechanistic-related design
procedures, the Office of Pavement Technology will participate with Thus, a mechanistic approach
the Resource Centers and Division Offices in reviewing and seeks to explain phenomena
discussing these procedures with the State during their development. only by reference to physical
Vertical stress
In pavement design, the
phenomena are the stresses,
strains and deflections within
a pavement structure, Foundation stress

and the physical causes are

the loads and material
properties of the pavement


Mechanistic Design Environment

A method that involve numerical capability to calculate the Temperature extremes
stress, strain, or deflection in a multi-layered system, such as a Frost action
pavement, when subjected to external loads, or the effects of Frost heave
temperature or moisture.
Thaw weakening


Mechanistic design procedure are based on the 16
The mechanistic-empirical method of
assumption that a pavement can be modeled as multi- design is based on the of materials
layered elastic or visco-elastic structure on an elastic that relates an input, such as a wheel
or visco-elastic foundation. load, to an output or pavement
response, such as stress as stress
Asphalt Concrete or strain.
Aggregate Base Course
The response values are used to
predict distress from laboratory-test
and field-performance data.

Natural Soil (Subgrade)

Aggregate Subbase Course

Pavement Design Factors. Foundation.

Highway agencies should pay particular attention to the Providing a uniform, stiff, moisture
following items in designing pavements. and frost resistant foundation is the
most important aspect of pavement
Traffic. structural design.

Pavement designers should work closely with the SHA Special attention needs to be given
to subgrade uniformity and stiffness
component responsible for traffic volume, classification, and
and the inclusion of subbase layers
truck weight data required for pavement design. for pavements.
Accurate cumulative load (normally expressed as 18 kip When the subgrade consists of fine
equivalent single axle loads or ESALs) estimates are grain clay or silt materials,
extremely important to pavement structural design. stabilization of the upper 300 mm to
Load estimates should be based on representative current 600 mm should be considered
vehicle classification and truck weight data and anticipated
growth in heavy truck volumes and weights.


Circular load area Circular load area

o In the mechanistic method of design, it o However, in pavement design, the contact pressure is generally
is necessary to know the contact area assumed to be equal to the tire pressure.
between tire and pavement.
o Because heavier axle loads have higher tire pressures and more
o so the axle load can be assumed to be destructive effects on pavements,
uniformly distributed over the contact
area. o The use of tire pressure as the contact pressure is therefore on the
safe side.
o The size of contact area depends on
the contact pressure and indicated by
o The contact pressure is greater than the tire pressure for low-
pressure tires, because the wall of tires is in compression and the
sum of vertical forces due to wall and tire pressure must be equal
to the force due to contact pressure.
o the contact pressure is smaller than the tire pressure for high-
pressure tires, because the wall of tires is in tension.

1. Heavier axle loads are always applied on dual tires. Figure Loads
below shows the approximate shape of contact area for each tire,
Wheel loads - 5,000 lb (truck)
which is composed of a rectangle and two semicircles.
to 50,000 lb (Boeing 747)
2. By assuming length L and width 0.6L, the area of contact Tire pressures
Ac = (0.3L)2 + (0.4L)(0.6L) = 0.5227L2 Autos: 200 kPa (30 psi)
Trucks: Range between
Or 690 to 970 kPa (100 to 140
Boeing 747: 1380 kPa
(200 psi)
USAF F15: 2350 kPa (340
Ac = contact area,
Load repetitions
which can be
obtained by dividing Axle and tire configurations
the load on each tire Distribution of loads across a lane or runway/taxiwaytermed
by the tire pressure. wander width.
Speedin generalfaster is better for pavements!

Loads B-36 Bomber Terminology

Wheel diameter was 9 ft.

Each wheel supported about
200,000 lb.

B-36 first flew on August 8, 1946.

Eventually, a dual
tandem gear was adopted. Class 9 truck typically with
5 axles (total) and 18
wheels (2 tandems and
one single axle)


Stress and Strain in Flexible Pavement Stress~Strain

To find the stresses and displacements due to a constant load q
distributed over a circular area of radius a.
Foster and Ahlvin
(1954) presented
charts to determine the
vertical stress ,
tangential stress t,
shear stress Trz,
vertical deflection w.
The load applied over
a circular area with a
radius a, and an
intensity q.
Passion ratio is 0.5

Stress~Strain Linearity


(Strain) Typical Creep Stress and strain relationship

Resilient Modulus Layered System Concepts

Analytical solutions to the state of stress or strain has
several assumptions
1) The material properties of each layer are homogenous,
2) Each layer has finite thickness except for the lower layer
3) All layers are infinite in lateral directions
4) Each layer is isotropic
5) Full friction is developed between layers at each interface
6) Surface shearing forces are not present at the surface
7) The stress solution are characterized by two material
properties for each layer (E &)


Stress and Strain in Flexible Pavement Linear Elastic Model

The assumptions and have made to the state of stress or strain are as
To find the stresses and displacements due to a constant load q
distributed over a circular area of radius a.
Foster and Ahlvin (1954) The stress solutions are
presented charts to characterized by two
determine the vertical material properties for
stress , tangential stress each layer Poissons
ratio , and the elastic
t, shear stress Trz, modulus E.
vertical deflection w.
The load applied over a
circular area with a radius
a, and an intensity q.
Passion ratio is 0.5

Linear Elastic Model Single Elastic Layer System

Each layer acts as continuous isotropic, homogenous, linear elastic
medium. 34
The simple loading condition
Each layer has a finite thickness except for the lower layer, and all applied a single point load, P.
infinite in the horizontal directions. on semi-infinite space.
The stress solutions are characterized by two material properties for
each layer Poissons ratio , and the elastic modulus E. a
The strain components can be calculated from the stress
components through generalized Hooke's law: Where;
a = circular area of radius
q = vertical load
i = inflation/contact

Surface vertical deflection:

Axis of Symmetry Flexible Plate The stress can express as follows:

When the load is applied over a single circular loaded area, the
most critical area are presented as:
p 1

z 3

shear stress Trz, = 0 a2 z2 2

vertical stress r, = t
So: p 2 (1 ) z z3
z = r r (1 2 ) 3

2 (a z ) (a 2 z 2 ) 2
2 2

The load applied from tire to pavement is similar to
flexible plate with a radius, a and a uniform pressure p Where:
determine using equations below. z Vertical normal stress
r Radial normal stress
a = circular area of radius
P = vertical load
= Poisson ratio
z = Depth


If the is z independent of E and v, and r is independent of E, can The vertical deflection, w can be determine as:
express equation as:

1v p 12v
1 v pa a 1 2v


z3 ( a 2 z 2 ) 0 .5 a ( a 2 z 2 ) 0 .5 z
(a2 z2 )0.5


a2 z2 2
3 pa

When v = 0.5
1v p 12v 0 .5
2(1v)z z3 2E a2 z2

(a2 z2 )0.5

r 3

a2 z2 2
On the surface of the half space, Z = 0 w0

2 1 v 2 pa
z Vertical normal stress
r Radial normal stress

Calculation -1
Calculate the radial normal stress,

Compute the stress from a tire inflated to 600 kPa, carrying 30 kN

p 2 (1 ) z z3
resting on a semi-infinite elastic space. The location of interest is at r (1 2 ) 3

depth of 0.1 m and radial offset of 0.0 m. Also, compute the surface 2 (a z ) (a z 2 ) 2
2 2 2

deflection under the same tire. Given E=1400 MPa and = 0.4.
600kPa 2(1 0.4)0.1m (0.1m)3
r (1 2 x0.4) 3

2 (0.126 m ) 2
( 0.1m) 2
[(0.126m) (0.1m) ]
2 2 2
q 30 r = 89.87 kPa
The radius of the tire , a a 0.126 m
i 600
Calculate the vertical normal stress, The surface vertical deflection, w,
2 (1 0 . 4 2 )
( 0 .1m ) 3
p 1
z3 , z 600 kPa 1 w x ( 600 kPa ) x ( 0 . 126 m ) 9 . 07 x10 5 m

1400 x1000 kPa

z 3
a z2
2 ( 0 .126 m ) 2 (0 .1m ) 2 2
0 . 0907 mm

455 .9 kPa

Calculation -2

Determine the stresses, strains and deflection at point A

p 1

z 3

z 2 2

Given: (10 in ) 3
a = 5 in 50 psi 1 14 . 2 psi
q = 50 psi

( 5 in ) 2 (10 in ) 2
1 .5

z = 10 in
With v = 0.3

q 2 (1 ) z z3
r (1 2 ) 3

2 a 2
z 2
(a z )
2 2 2

50 psi 2(1 0.3)10in 10in3
r (1 2 x0.3) 3
0.25 psi
2 5in 10in (5in2 10in2 ) 2
2 2


When v = 0.3: the strain determine as: When v = 0.3:

1 v p 1 2v 2vz z 3
44 The vertical deflection, w can be determine as:
(a 2 z 2 )0.5


a2 z 2 1 v pa


1 2v 2
(a 2 z 2 ) 0.5 a (a z ) z
2 0.5

1 0.350 psi 1 2(0.3) 2(0.3)(10in)


(5in2 10in2 )0.5

z 3

5in2 10in2 2 1 0.350 psi(5in)


1 2(0.3)
(5in 2 10in2 )0.5 5in2 (5in 10in ) 10in
2 2 0.5

10000 psi
1 v p 1 2v 2(1 v) z z 3
0.0176 in @ 0.447 mm
(a 2 z 2 )0.5


a2 z 2 2

1 0.350 psi 1 2(0.3) 2(0.3)(10in) 10in3 0.00044
2(10000psi) (5in2 10in2 )0.5
5in2 10in2 2

Calculation -3
Axis of Symmetry Rigid Plate
All the above analyses are based on the assumption that the load is A plate loading test using a plate of 12-in. (305-mm) diameter was
applied on a flexible plate, such as a rubber tire. performed on the surface of the subgrade, as shown in below. Total load of
8000 Ib (35.6 kN) was applied to the plate, and a deflection of 0.1in. (2.54
If the load is applied on a rigid plate, such as that used in a plate mm) was measured.
loading test, the deflection is the same at all points on the plate, but Assuming that the subgrade has Poisson ratio 0.4, determine the elastic
the pressure distribution under the plate is not uniform. modulus of the subgrade.
The pressure distribution under a rigid plate can be expressed as:

qa 1 v 2 pa
Deflection on plate: w0
2(a2 r2 )0.5 2E

1 v 2 pa
Deflection on plate: w0
1 v 2 pa
2 ( 0 . 1in )
E 3.14(1 - 0.16) x 70.74 x 6/(2 x 0.1) = 5600 psi (38.6 MPa).

Two Elastic Layer System Calculation -4

The exact case a two
layer is the full-depth
construction in which a
thick layer of hot mix
asphalt (HMA).
If a pavement is
composed of three layers
(surface, base course,
subgrade) combine the
base course and
subgrade into a single
layer for computing
stress and strain.


Vertical Surface Deflection

Vertical surface has been
used as a criterion of
pavement design.
The deflection is expressed
in terms as deflection factor,
F2: (Flexible design)
1 . 5 qa
w0 F 2
The deflection factor (F2)
is function of E1/E2 and
Figure 2.15: Vertical interface for two-layer systems h1/a.
Figure 2.17: Vertical surface deflection for
For homogenous half-space two layer systems (After Burmister, 1943)
with h1/a = 0, F2 = 1, When
v = 0.5: (Regid design) 1.18 qa
w0 F2

Calculation - 5
For homogenous
half-space with
h1/a = 0, F2 = 1,
When v = 0.5:

1.18 qa
w0 F2
F2 = Deflection factor

Figure 2.17: Vertical surface deflection for two-layer systems

For homogenous half-

The average pressure on the plate is q: space with h1/a = 0,
F2 = 1, When v = 0.5:
p 20,000
q , , 176 .8 psi (1.22 Mpa )
36 36 ( )

1.18 qa
1.18 qa


Group Discussion Question - 2

Question - 1 A uniformly distributed load of intensity q
is applied through a circular area of
A 10,000 lb wheel load exerting radius a on the surface of an
contact pressure of 80 psi is applied incompressible (v = 0.5) homogeneous
on an elastic two-layer system, as half-space with an elastic modulus E,as
shown in Figure. shown in Figure.
Layer one has elastic modulus Interms of q,a,and E,determine the
200,000 psi and thickness 8 in. vertical displacement. three principal
stresses, and three principal strains
Layer two has elastic modulus
at a point 2a below the surface under
10,000 psi. Both layers are
the edge (r = a) of the loaded area.
incompressible, with Poisson ratio
Answer: w = 0.58 qa/E,
Assuming that the loaded area is a 1 = 0.221q,
single circle, 2 = 0.011q,
Determine the maximum surface 3 = 0.004q,
deflection, [Answer:0.025in.]. 1= 0.241q/E, 2= -0.102q/E,
3= -0.112q/E