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Pavement notes

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You are on page 1of 10

CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION

ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT This type of pavement design was primarily

based upon empiricism or experience, with

By: theory playing only a subordinate role in the

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Yusri Aman procedure.

Consideration in any pavement design

procedure:

The theory used to predict the failure or

distress parameter,

The evaluation of the pertinent material

properties necessary for the theory

selected, and

The determination of the relationship

between the magnitude of the parameter

FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING in question to the failure of performance

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA level desired.

WHAT IS FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT? Design and construction of flexible asphalt pavements has changed

rather significantly in past several years.

3

Those which are surfaced

The annualized average 24-hours volume of vehicles at a given point

with bituminous (or asphalt) or section of highway is called a traffic count.

materials.

Calculated by determining the volume of vehicles during a given

These types of pavements period and dividing that number by the number of days in that period.

are called "flexible" since

the total pavement structure

"bends" or "deflects" due to SUBGRADE

layers of materials which can accommodate this "flexing".

For many years, motorcycle has been the most preferable, convenient Some accident which as took place in Malaysia:

and affordable mode of transport.

1

03/10/2017

Improved reliability for design Pavements shall be designed to accommodate current and

Ability to predict specific types of distress predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost-effective

manner.

Ability to extrapolate from limited field and laboratory

results. The regulations do not specify the procedures to be followed

to meet this requirement.

Damaging effects of increased loads, high tire

pressure, multiple axles can be modeled. Instead, each State Highway Agency (SHA) is expected to

use a design procedure that is appropriate for its conditions.

Better utilization of available materials

The SHA may use the design procedures outlined in the

Improved method for premature distress analysis

"AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures," or it

may use other pavement design procedures that, based on

past performance or research, are expected to produce

satisfactory pavement designs.

10

The FHWA encourages the development of mechanistic pavement Mechanics is the science of

design procedures. motion and the action of

forces on bodies.

To promote consistency in application of mechanistic-related design

procedures, the Office of Pavement Technology will participate with Thus, a mechanistic approach

the Resource Centers and Division Offices in reviewing and seeks to explain phenomena

discussing these procedures with the State during their development. only by reference to physical

causes.

Vertical stress

In pavement design, the

phenomena are the stresses,

strains and deflections within

a pavement structure, Foundation stress

the loads and material

properties of the pavement

structure.

2

03/10/2017

A method that involve numerical capability to calculate the Temperature extremes

stress, strain, or deflection in a multi-layered system, such as a Frost action

pavement, when subjected to external loads, or the effects of Frost heave

temperature or moisture.

Thaw weakening

Mechanistic design procedure are based on the 16

The mechanistic-empirical method of

assumption that a pavement can be modeled as multi- design is based on the of materials

layered elastic or visco-elastic structure on an elastic that relates an input, such as a wheel

or visco-elastic foundation. load, to an output or pavement

response, such as stress as stress

Asphalt Concrete or strain.

Aggregate Base Course

The response values are used to

predict distress from laboratory-test

and field-performance data.

Aggregate Subbase Course

Highway agencies should pay particular attention to the Providing a uniform, stiff, moisture

following items in designing pavements. and frost resistant foundation is the

most important aspect of pavement

Traffic. structural design.

Pavement designers should work closely with the SHA Special attention needs to be given

to subgrade uniformity and stiffness

component responsible for traffic volume, classification, and

and the inclusion of subbase layers

truck weight data required for pavement design. for pavements.

Accurate cumulative load (normally expressed as 18 kip When the subgrade consists of fine

equivalent single axle loads or ESALs) estimates are grain clay or silt materials,

extremely important to pavement structural design. stabilization of the upper 300 mm to

Load estimates should be based on representative current 600 mm should be considered

vehicle classification and truck weight data and anticipated

growth in heavy truck volumes and weights.

3

03/10/2017

o In the mechanistic method of design, it o However, in pavement design, the contact pressure is generally

is necessary to know the contact area assumed to be equal to the tire pressure.

between tire and pavement.

o Because heavier axle loads have higher tire pressures and more

o so the axle load can be assumed to be destructive effects on pavements,

uniformly distributed over the contact

area. o The use of tire pressure as the contact pressure is therefore on the

safe side.

o The size of contact area depends on

the contact pressure and indicated by

Figure.

o The contact pressure is greater than the tire pressure for low-

pressure tires, because the wall of tires is in compression and the

sum of vertical forces due to wall and tire pressure must be equal

to the force due to contact pressure.

o the contact pressure is smaller than the tire pressure for high-

pressure tires, because the wall of tires is in tension.

1. Heavier axle loads are always applied on dual tires. Figure Loads

below shows the approximate shape of contact area for each tire,

Wheel loads - 5,000 lb (truck)

which is composed of a rectangle and two semicircles.

to 50,000 lb (Boeing 747)

2. By assuming length L and width 0.6L, the area of contact Tire pressures

Ac = (0.3L)2 + (0.4L)(0.6L) = 0.5227L2 Autos: 200 kPa (30 psi)

Trucks: Range between

Or 690 to 970 kPa (100 to 140

psi)

Boeing 747: 1380 kPa

(200 psi)

USAF F15: 2350 kPa (340

Which:

psi)

Ac = contact area,

Load repetitions

which can be

obtained by dividing Axle and tire configurations

the load on each tire Distribution of loads across a lane or runway/taxiwaytermed

by the tire pressure. wander width.

Speedin generalfaster is better for pavements!

Each wheel supported about

200,000 lb.

Eventually, a dual

tandem gear was adopted. Class 9 truck typically with

5 axles (total) and 18

wheels (2 tandems and

one single axle)

4

03/10/2017

To find the stresses and displacements due to a constant load q

distributed over a circular area of radius a.

Foster and Ahlvin

(1954) presented

charts to determine the

vertical stress ,

tangential stress t,

shear stress Trz,

vertical deflection w.

The load applied over

a circular area with a

radius a, and an

intensity q.

Passion ratio is 0.5

Stress~Strain Linearity

(Linear)

(Non-Linear)

Analytical solutions to the state of stress or strain has

several assumptions

1) The material properties of each layer are homogenous,

2) Each layer has finite thickness except for the lower layer

3) All layers are infinite in lateral directions

4) Each layer is isotropic

5) Full friction is developed between layers at each interface

6) Surface shearing forces are not present at the surface

7) The stress solution are characterized by two material

properties for each layer (E &)

5

03/10/2017

The assumptions and have made to the state of stress or strain are as

To find the stresses and displacements due to a constant load q

follows:

distributed over a circular area of radius a.

Foster and Ahlvin (1954) The stress solutions are

presented charts to characterized by two

determine the vertical material properties for

stress , tangential stress each layer Poissons

ratio , and the elastic

t, shear stress Trz, modulus E.

vertical deflection w.

The load applied over a

circular area with a radius

a, and an intensity q.

Passion ratio is 0.5

Each layer acts as continuous isotropic, homogenous, linear elastic

medium. 34

The simple loading condition

Each layer has a finite thickness except for the lower layer, and all applied a single point load, P.

infinite in the horizontal directions. on semi-infinite space.

The stress solutions are characterized by two material properties for

q

each layer Poissons ratio , and the elastic modulus E. a

i

The strain components can be calculated from the stress

components through generalized Hooke's law: Where;

a = circular area of radius

q = vertical load

i = inflation/contact

pressure

When the load is applied over a single circular loaded area, the

36

z3

most critical area are presented as:

p 1

z 3

vertical stress r, = t

So: p 2 (1 ) z z3

z = r r (1 2 ) 3

2 (a z ) (a 2 z 2 ) 2

2 2

The load applied from tire to pavement is similar to

flexible plate with a radius, a and a uniform pressure p Where:

determine using equations below. z Vertical normal stress

r Radial normal stress

a = circular area of radius

P = vertical load

= Poisson ratio

z = Depth

6

03/10/2017

If the is z independent of E and v, and r is independent of E, can The vertical deflection, w can be determine as:

express equation as:

1v p 12v

w

1 v pa a 1 2v

z

2vz

z3 ( a 2 z 2 ) 0 .5 a ( a 2 z 2 ) 0 .5 z

E

E

(a2 z2 )0.5

3

a2 z2 2

2

3 pa

w

When v = 0.5

1v p 12v 0 .5

2(1v)z z3 2E a2 z2

2E

(a2 z2 )0.5

r 3

a2 z2 2

On the surface of the half space, Z = 0 w0

2 1 v 2 pa

Where:

E

z Vertical normal stress

r Radial normal stress

Calculation -1

Calculate the radial normal stress,

p 2 (1 ) z z3

resting on a semi-infinite elastic space. The location of interest is at r (1 2 ) 3

depth of 0.1 m and radial offset of 0.0 m. Also, compute the surface 2 (a z ) (a z 2 ) 2

2 2 2

deflection under the same tire. Given E=1400 MPa and = 0.4.

600kPa 2(1 0.4)0.1m (0.1m)3

r (1 2 x0.4) 3

2 (0.126 m ) 2

( 0.1m) 2

[(0.126m) (0.1m) ]

2 2 2

Answer:

q 30 r = 89.87 kPa

The radius of the tire , a a 0.126 m

i 600

Calculate the vertical normal stress, The surface vertical deflection, w,

2 (1 0 . 4 2 )

( 0 .1m ) 3

p 1

z3 , z 600 kPa 1 w x ( 600 kPa ) x ( 0 . 126 m ) 9 . 07 x10 5 m

3

1400 x1000 kPa

z 3

a z2

2 ( 0 .126 m ) 2 (0 .1m ) 2 2

0 . 0907 mm

2

455 .9 kPa

Answer:

Calculation -2

3

z

p 1

a

z 3

2

z 2 2

Given: (10 in ) 3

a = 5 in 50 psi 1 14 . 2 psi

q = 50 psi

z

( 5 in ) 2 (10 in ) 2

1 .5

z = 10 in

With v = 0.3

q 2 (1 ) z z3

r (1 2 ) 3

2 a 2

z 2

(a z )

2 2 2

50 psi 2(1 0.3)10in 10in3

r (1 2 x0.3) 3

0.25 psi

2 5in 10in (5in2 10in2 ) 2

2 2

(tension)

7

03/10/2017

43

z

1 v p 1 2v 2vz z 3

44 The vertical deflection, w can be determine as:

E

(a 2 z 2 )0.5

3

a2 z 2 1 v pa

2

w

a

1 2v 2

(a 2 z 2 ) 0.5 a (a z ) z

2 0.5

10in3

0.00144

E

10000psi

(5in2 10in2 )0.5

z 3

w

5in

1 2(0.3)

(5in 2 10in2 )0.5 5in2 (5in 10in ) 10in

2 2 0.5

10000 psi

r

1 v p 1 2v 2(1 v) z z 3

0.0176 in @ 0.447 mm

2E

(a 2 z 2 )0.5

3

a2 z 2 2

r

1 0.350 psi 1 2(0.3) 2(0.3)(10in) 10in3 0.00044

2(10000psi) (5in2 10in2 )0.5

5in2 10in2 2

3

Calculation -3

Axis of Symmetry Rigid Plate

All the above analyses are based on the assumption that the load is A plate loading test using a plate of 12-in. (305-mm) diameter was

applied on a flexible plate, such as a rubber tire. performed on the surface of the subgrade, as shown in below. Total load of

8000 Ib (35.6 kN) was applied to the plate, and a deflection of 0.1in. (2.54

If the load is applied on a rigid plate, such as that used in a plate mm) was measured.

loading test, the deflection is the same at all points on the plate, but Assuming that the subgrade has Poisson ratio 0.4, determine the elastic

the pressure distribution under the plate is not uniform. modulus of the subgrade.

The pressure distribution under a rigid plate can be expressed as:

q(r)

qa 1 v 2 pa

Deflection on plate: w0

2(a2 r2 )0.5 2E

1 v 2 pa

Deflection on plate: w0

1 v 2 pa

2E

E

2 ( 0 . 1in )

E 3.14(1 - 0.16) x 70.74 x 6/(2 x 0.1) = 5600 psi (38.6 MPa).

The exact case a two

layer is the full-depth

construction in which a

thick layer of hot mix

asphalt (HMA).

If a pavement is

composed of three layers

(surface, base course,

subgrade) combine the

base course and

subgrade into a single

layer for computing

stress and strain.

8

03/10/2017

Vertical surface has been

used as a criterion of

pavement design.

The deflection is expressed

in terms as deflection factor,

F2: (Flexible design)

1 . 5 qa

w0 F 2

E2

The deflection factor (F2)

is function of E1/E2 and

Figure 2.15: Vertical interface for two-layer systems h1/a.

Figure 2.17: Vertical surface deflection for

For homogenous half-space two layer systems (After Burmister, 1943)

with h1/a = 0, F2 = 1, When

v = 0.5: (Regid design) 1.18 qa

w0 F2

E2

Calculation - 5

For homogenous

half-space with

h1/a = 0, F2 = 1,

When v = 0.5:

1.18 qa

w0 F2

E2

F2 = Deflection factor

The average pressure on the plate is q: space with h1/a = 0,

F2 = 1, When v = 0.5:

p 20,000

q , , 176 .8 psi (1.22 Mpa )

36 36 ( )

w0

1.18 qa

E2

F2

THANK YOU FOR

w0

1.18 qa

E2

F2 YOUR KIND

ATTENTION

9

03/10/2017

Question - 1 A uniformly distributed load of intensity q

is applied through a circular area of

A 10,000 lb wheel load exerting radius a on the surface of an

contact pressure of 80 psi is applied incompressible (v = 0.5) homogeneous

on an elastic two-layer system, as half-space with an elastic modulus E,as

shown in Figure. shown in Figure.

Layer one has elastic modulus Interms of q,a,and E,determine the

200,000 psi and thickness 8 in. vertical displacement. three principal

stresses, and three principal strains

Layer two has elastic modulus

at a point 2a below the surface under

10,000 psi. Both layers are

the edge (r = a) of the loaded area.

incompressible, with Poisson ratio

0.5.

Answer: w = 0.58 qa/E,

Assuming that the loaded area is a 1 = 0.221q,

single circle, 2 = 0.011q,

Determine the maximum surface 3 = 0.004q,

deflection, [Answer:0.025in.]. 1= 0.241q/E, 2= -0.102q/E,

3= -0.112q/E

10

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