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Engineering Department

TEACHING MATERIAL

(THEORY)

Course Code : EETE 3190

Level : Advanced Diploma

Specialization : Electronics & Telecommunications

1

VECTOR ALGEBRA & DIFFERENT CO ORDINATE SYSTEMS

1.1 SCALARS AND VECTORS

The term scalar refers to a quantity whose value may be represented by a single (positive or negative) real

number. Direction is not required in describing a scalar

Examples of scalars:

Temperature, mass, volume, pressure, density, speed, voltage, electric charge etc.

A vector quantity has both a magnitude and a direction in space. In general, vectors may be defined in n-

dimensional space.

Examples of vectors:

Force, velocity, acceleration, electric field intensity etc. Each quantity is characterized by both a magnitude

and a direction.

Vector Notation

Vectors will be indicated by boldface type, for example, A.

Scalars are printed in italic type, for example, A.

When writing longhand, we usually draw a line or an arrow over a vector quantity to show its vector

character.

To describe a vector accurately, some specific lengths, directions, angles etc must be given. We are going to

use three simple methods, and the simplest of these is the cartesian, or rectangular, coordinate system.

Here, three coordinate axes mutually at right angles to each other are set up, and they are called the x, y, and z

axes.

A right-handed coordinate system is chosen, in which a rotation (through the smaller angle) of the x axis into

the y axis would cause a right-handed screw to progress in the direction of the z axis. If the right hand is used,

then the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger may then be identified, respectively, as the x, y, and z axes. Fig.

1.1a shows a right-handed cartesian coordinate system.

A point is located by giving its x, y, and z coordinates. These are, respectively, the distances from the

origin to the intersection of a perpendicular dropped from the point to the x, y, and z axes.

Fig. 1.1b shows the point Q in the cartesian system whose coordinates are (3,-1,2)

Fig 1.1 (a) Right Handed System (b) Representing a point in the cartesian system

2

1.3 VECTOR COMPONENTS AND UNIT VECTORS

An arbitrary vector can be written in component form in the cartesian co ordinate system in terms of unit

vectors. A unit vector has magnitude (or absolute value) equal to 1. It is indicated by the symbol a. The unit

vectors directed along the x, y and z axes are respectively denoted by ax , ay , and az in the cartesian

coordinate system (Fig. 1.2b).

Thus a vector rP pointing from the origin to point P(1,2,3) can be written as rP = ax + 2ay + 3az . Similarly, a

vector rQ corresponding to Q(2,-2,1) is given by rQ= 2ax - 2ay + az . The vector from P to Q may be obtained

by applying the rule of vector addition. Thus

The vectors rP , rQ , and RPQ are shown in Fig. 1.2c

Any vector B may be described by B = Bx ax + By ay + Bz az . The magnitude (absolute value) of B written |B| is

given by

A unit vector in the direction of a given vector, say B, is determined by dividing B by its magnitude. Thus a

unit vector in the direction of the vector B is

Example 1.1

Specify the unit vector extending from the origin toward the point G (2, -2, -1)

Solution: We first construct the vector extending from the origin to point G

G = 2 ax -2ay - az

|G| = () + () + () = 3

3

and finally expressing the desired unit vector as the quotient

G

aG = = 23 ax - 23 ay -13 az = 0.667 ax 0.667ay 0.333az

G

For the unit vector we will use the lower case a symbol with an appropriate subscript.

Problem: Given points M(-1,2,1), N(3,-3,0) and P(-2,-3,-4) , find (a) RMN (b) RMN + RMP (c) rM

(d) aMP (e) 2rP 3rN

Ans : (a) 4ax 5ay az (b) 3ax 10ay 6az (c) 2.45 (d) -0.14ax 0.7ay 0.7az (e) 15.56

Given two vectors A and B, the dot product, or scalar product, is defined as the product of the magnitude of A,

the magnitude of B, and the cosine of the smaller angle ( ) between them

A.B = |A| |B| COS (

The dot, or scalar, product is a scalar, as one of the names implies, and it obeys the commutative law,

A.B = B.A

for the sign of the angle does not affect the cosine term. The expression A . B is read ``A dot B.''

Let A = Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az and B = Bx ax + By ay + Bz az . The dot product also obeys the distributive law, and,

therefore, A.B yields the sum of nine scalar terms, each involving the dot product of two unit vectors. Since

the angle between two different unit vectors of the cartesian coordinate system is 90 deg, we then have

ax . ay = ay . ax = ax . az = az . ax = ay . az = az . ay = 0

The remaining three terms involve the dot product of a unit vector with itself, which is unity, giving finally

and any unit vector dotted with itself is unity, aA . a A = 1

Given two vectors A and B, we shall now define the cross product, or vector product, of A and B, written with

a cross between the two vectors as A x B and read ``A cross B.'' The cross product A x B is a vector; the

magnitude of A x B is equal to the product of the magnitudes of A, B, and the sine of the smaller angle

between A and B; the direction of A x B is perpendicular to the plane containing A and B and is along that one

of the two possible perpendiculars which is in the direction of advance of a right-handed screw as A is turned

into B. This direction is illustrated in Fig. 1.3. Remember that either vector may be moved about at will,

maintaining its direction constant, until the two vectors have a ``common origin.'' This determines the plane

containing both. However, in most of our applications we shall be concerned with vectors defined at the same

point. As an equation we can write

A X B = aN |A| |B| sin (

4

where an additional statement, such as that given above, is still required to explain the direction of the unit

vector aN. The subscript stands for normal. Reversing the order of the vectors A and B results in a unit

vector in the opposite direction.

Properties of cross product: From the above, we see that the cross product is

Other properties of cross product are : (2) It is not associative (3) It is distributive.

Exercise : The three vertices of a triangle are located at A( 6, -1, 2), B(-2,3,-4) and C (-3,1,5). Find

(a) RAB X RAC (b) the area of the triangle (c) a unit vector perpendicular to the plane in which the

triangle is located.

Ans : (a) 24ax +78ay +20 az (b) 42 (c) 0.286ax +0.928ay + 0.238 az

5

1.6 OTHER COORDINATE SYSTEMS:

Even though, the cartesian coordinate system is generally the one in which we prefer to work, many problems

possess a type of symmetry which pleads for a more logical treatment. It is now necessary to become familiar

with cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

A point P is described by three coordinates, in Cartesian (x,y,z), in circular cylindrical , , z), and in

spherical (, ) as shown in figure below: The order of specifying the coordinates should be

carefully followed. The angle is the same angle in both the cylindrical and spherical systems. But in the

order of the coordinates, appears in the second position in cylindrical, and the third position in spherical

system. The same symbol is used in both the cylindrical and spherical, for two quite different things. In

cylindrical coordinates, measures the distance from the z-axis in a plane normal to the z axis, while in the

spherical system measures the distance from the origin to the point.

The component forms of a vector in the three coordinate systems are :

A = Axax + Ayay + Azaz ( cartesian)

Figure 1.4 (a) Cylindrical Co-ordinate system (b) Point P(,z) in the cylindrical

coordinate system

1) Plane of constant z which is parallel to the xy plane

2) A cylinder of radius with z axis as the axis of the cylinder.

3) A half plane perpendicular to the xy plane and at an angle with respect to the z plane.

6

Relation between Cartesian and cylindrical systems:

Exercise:

(a) Give the Cartesian co-ordinates of the point C ( = 4.4, = -1150 , z = 2). (b) Give the

cylindrical coordinates of the point D (x = -3.1, y = 2.6, z =-3) (c) Specify the distance

from C to D.

Ans : (a) C( x = -1.86, y = -3.99, z =2) ; (b) D ( = 4.05, = 1400 , z = -3) ; (c) 8.36.

2) A right circular cone with its apex at the origin and its axis as z-axis. Its half angle

. It rotates about the z axis and varies from 0 to 1800.

3) A half plane perpendicular to xy plane containing z axis, making an angle with the xz

plane.

Thus the three coordinates of a point P in the spherical coordinate system are (, , ).

7

Figure 1.5 : Point P in the spherical co-ordinate system

Exercise:

8

COULOMB'S LAW AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY

Electrostatics:

It is a science related to static electric charges , ie., charges that are at rest. An electric charge has its

effect in a region around it. This region is called an electric field of that charge. The electric field

produced due to stationary electric charge do not vary with time. It is called static electric field. The

study of such time invariant electric fields is called electrostatics.

Coulombs Law:

The study of electrostatics begins with the study of the experimental results performed by a colonel in the

French Army Engineers, Colonel Charles Coulomb. His experiments are related to the force exerted between

two point charges which are placed near each other.A Point charge is an electric charge which is spread on a

surface whose dimensions are very very small. Thus a point charge has only a location, but not the

dimensions.

Coulomb stated that the force between two point charges separated in a vacuum or free space by a distance

which is large compared to their size, is proportional to the charge on each and inversely proportional to the

1 2

square of the distance between them. or = 2 where Q1 and Q2 are the positive or negative

quantities of charge, R is the separation, and k is a proportionality constant. If the International System of

Units (SI) is used, Q is measured in coulombs (C), R is in meters (m), and the force should be newtons (N).

This will be achieved if the constant of proportionality k is written as

1

k=

40

The new constant 0 is called the permittivity of free space and has the magnitude, measured in farads per

meter (F/m),

1

0 = 8.854 x 10-12 = 36 x 10-9 F / m.

Coulomb's law is now =

Vector form of Coulombs Law:

The force exerted between the two point charges has a fixed direction which is a straight line

joining the two charges. The force is repulsive if the charges are alike in sign and attractive if they are of

opposite sign. The force exerted between the two charges can be expressed in a vector form:

Let the vector r1 locate Q1 while r2 locates Q2 . Then the vector R12 = r2 - r1 represents the directed line

segment from Q1 to Q2 , as shown in Fig. 2.1. The vector F2 is the force on Q2 and is shown for the case where

Q1 and Q2 have the same sign. The vector form of Coulomb's law is

= a12 where a12 is a unit vector in the direction of R12

12 2 1

or a12 = =

|12| |2 1 |

9

Example 2.1 : (example on vector form of Coulombs Law)

A charge Q1 = 3 x 10 -4 C is located at M(1 , 2, 3) and another charge Q2 = -10-4 C is located at

N(2, 0, 5) in vacuum. Find the vector force exerted on Q2 by Q1.

Exercise :

A charge QA = -20C is located at A(-6, 4, 7) and a charge QB = 50C is at B(5, 8, -2) in free

space. If the distances are given in meters, find (a) RAB (b) |RAB|

(c) Determine the vector force exerted on QA by QB if 0 = 10-9 / 36 F / m.

Ans : (a) 11ax + 4ay -9az m; (b) 14.76 m (c) 30.76ax + 11.184 ay -25.16 az mN

10

2.2 ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY

Consider a point charge Q1 as shown in Figure 2.2 below:

Electric field intensity must be measured by the unit newtons per coulomb - the force per unit charge.

However, E is also measured in Volts/metre (V/m). This unit is practically used to express E.

Let us dispense with most of the subscripts in (2), for the present, we get

11

We should remember that R is the magnitude of the vector R, the directed line segment from the point at which

the point charge Q is located to the point at which E is desired, and aR is a unit vector in the R direction.

Let us arbitrarily locate Q1 at the center of a spherical coordinate system. The unit vector aR then becomes

the radial unit vector ar , and R is r. Hence

The field has a single radial component, and its inverse-square-law relationship is

quite obvious.

Electric flux:

An important concept in electrostatics is electric flux. If a unit test charge is placed near a point

charge, it experiences a force. The direction of this force can be represented by lines radially

coming outward from a positive charge. These lines are called flux lines.

In 1837, Michael Faraday performed experiments on electric field. He showed that the electric

field around a charge can be imagined in terms of presence of the lines of force around it.

The total number of lines of force in any particular electric field is called the electric flux. It is

represented by the symbol . Unit of electric flux is also coulomb (C).

1. The flux lines start from positive charge and terminate on negative charge.

4. The lines are independent of the medium in which charges are placed.

5. If the charge on a body is coulombs, then the total number of lines originating or

terminating on it, is also Q. But the total number of lines is nothing but flux. Therefore

electric flux = Q coulombs (numerically)

The flux is a scalar field. Let us now define a vector field associated with the flux, called

electric flux density:

12

ELECTRIC FLUX DENSITY (D)

Consider an inner sphere of radius a and an outer sphere of radius b, with charges of Q and -Q, respectively

(Fig.2.3). The paths of electric flux extending from the inner sphere to the outer sphere are indicated by the

symmetrically distributed streamlines drawn radially from one sphere to the other.

At the surface of the inner sphere, coulombs of electric flux are produced by the charge Q=( )

coulombs distributed uniformly over a surface having an area of 4a2 m2 . The density of the flux at this surface

is /4a2 or Q /4a2 C/m2 .

Electric flux density, measured in coulombs per square meter (sometimes described as lines per

square meter,'' because each line is due to one coulomb), is given the letter D, because it is also called

displacement flux density.

The electric flux density D is a vector field and is a member of the flux density'' class of vector fields, as

opposed to the force fields'' class, which includes the electric field intensity E. The direction of D at a point is

the direction of the flux lines at that point, and the magnitude is given by the number of flux lines crossing a

surface normal to the lines divided by the surface area. Referring again to Fig. 2.3, the electric flux density

is in the radial direction and has a value of

13

14

GAUSS'S LAW

Consider a sphere of radius r and a point charge +Q located at its center. Then the total flux radiated

outwards and passing through the total surface area of the sphere is the same as the charge +Q, which is

enclosed by the sphere.

Now, if we replace the point charge by a line charge, such that the portion of the line charge enclosed by the

sphere consists of the same charge +Q as before, then also, the total flux radiating outwards will be same as +Q

, the charge on the line enclosed by the sphere. Now, instead of a sphere, any irregular closed surface is

considered with the total charge enclosed as +Q in any form ( point, line or surface) then the total flux crossing

the surface of that irregular object remains same as +Q which is the charge enclosed by that object.

From the above discussion, we see that irrespective of the shape of the closed surface and irrespective of the

type of charge distribution, the total flux passing through the closed surface equals the total charge enclosed by

that surface.

These generalizations of Faraday's experiment lead to the following statement, which is known as Gauss's

law:

The electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by

that surface.

15

DIVERGENCE

The divergence of the vector flux density A is the outflow of flux from a small closed

surface per unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero.

It should be noted that the divergence is an operation which is performed on a vector, but that the

result is a scalar. We should recall that, in a somewhat similar way, the dot, or scalar, product

was a multiplication of two vectors which yielded a scalar product.

Example :

Find div D at the origin if D = e-x sin(y) ax e-x cos (y) ay + 2z az

Solution :

div D = + + = -e-xsin(y) + e-xsin(y) + 2 = 2

If the units of D are C/m2, then the units of div (D) are C/m3. This is a volume charge density.

Problem:

Find a numerical value for div D at the point specified :

D = (2 xyz y2) ax + (x2z 2 xy) ay + x2 y az C / m2 at PA (2,3, -1)

Ans : - 10

16

MAXWELL'S FIRST EQUATION (ELECTROSTATICS)

first of Maxwell's four equations as they apply to electrostatics and steady magnetic

fields

it states that the electric flux per unit volume leaving a vanishingly small volume unit

is exactly equal to the volume charge density there.

This equation is called the point form of Gauss's law. Gauss's law relates the flux

leaving any closed surface to the charge enclosed, and Maxwell's first equation

makes an identical statement on a per-unit-volume basis for a vanishingly small

volume, or at a point.

Remembering that the divergence may be expressed as the sum of three partial

derviatves, Maxwell's first equation is also described as the differential-equation form

of Gauss's law, and conversely, Gauss's law is recognized as the integral form of

Maxwell's first equation.

17

Divergence theorem:

. This theorem applies to any vector field for which the appropriate partial derivatives

exist, although it is easiest for us to develop it for the electric flux density.

Starting from Gauss's law,

The integral of the normal component of any vector field over a closed surface is

equal to the integral of the divergence of this vector field throughout the volume

enclosed by the closed surface.

ELECTRIC FIELD

The electric field intensity was defined as the force on a unit test charge at that point at which

we wish to find the value of this vector field. If we attempt to move the test charge against the

electric field, we have to exert a force equal and opposite to that exerted by the field, and

this requires us to expend energy, or do work. If we wish to move the charge in the direction of

the field, our energy expenditure turns out to be negative; and the work is done by the field.

Suppose we wish to move a charge Q a distance dL in an electric field E.

The force on Q due to the electric field is

(1)

where the subscript E means that this force is due to the field. The component

of this force in the direction dL which we must overcome is

18

The work required to move the charge by a finite distance is found by integrating

The charge is assumed to be at rest at both its initial and final positions.

In vector analysis notation, it always takes the form of an integral (along some prescribed

path) of the dot product of a vector field and a differential vector path length dL .

It may be noted that the work done is independent of the path selected from the initial point

to the final point, and depends only on the end points.

19

Problem :

1

Given the electric field E= ( 8xyz ax + 4x2 z ay -4x2y az ) V/m , find the differential amount of

2

work done in moving a 6-nC charge a distance of 2m starting at P(2,-2,3) and proceeding in the

direction (a) aL = - 67 ax + 37 ay + 27 az (b) aL = 37 ax + 67 ay

EXAMPLE:

from B (1, 0 ,1) to A (0.8, 0.6, 1) along a straight line path from B to A.

Solution: First find the equations of the straight line: Any two of the following 3 equations are

sufficient to define the line:

; ;

Note : In the above problem, we can also verify that even if we follow a circular path (instead of the

straight line path) between the same two points, the work done will be same ,

ie., -0.96J.

Conclusion : Work done is independent of the path taken in any electrostatic field.

20

DEFINITION OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE AND POTENTIAL

Potential difference V is the work done (by an external source) in moving a unit positive charge

VAB is the potential difference between points A and B : It is the work done in moving the unit

charge from B (last point) to A (first point); So to find VAB , B is taken as the initial point and A

the final point.

Potential difference is work done per unit charge, measured in joules per coulomb (J/C)

Practically volt is the more common unit , abbreviated as V. So, the potential difference

between points A and B is

VAB is positive if work is done by the external source in carrying the positive charge from B to

A, against the direction of E.

Consider a point charge located at the origin of a spherical co-ordinate system producing a field E

radially in all directions . Assuming free space, the field E due to a point charge Q at a point having radial

21

Now, (The differential path length has

andcomponents and the electric field has only a radial component, so when taking the dot

product, ar .dL , only dr remains). Hence,

When rB >rA, VAB is positive. And work is done by external source in moving unit charge from B

to A.

Rather than potential difference between two points, it is convenient to speak of absolute

potential. Such absolute potentials are measured with respect to a specified reference

position. Such a reference position is assumed to be at zero potential. The most universal zero

reference point in experimental measurements is ground, by which we mean the potential of

the surface region of earth itself.

Another widely used reference point is infinity. Here the potential at infinity is considered to

be zero, and all the potentials at various points in the field are referenced with respect to

infinity.

Consider the potential difference VAB due to the movement of unit charge from B to A. in the

field of a point charge Q. It was given by

The above quantity is called the potential of A (also called the absolute potential of A)

denoted as VA.

22

(work done in moving unit charge from infinity to B)

Hence the potential difference can be expressed as the difference between the absolute potentials of

The operation on V by which E is obtained is known as the Gradient. Using this new term, we

may write the relationship between V and E as

E = - grad V where

The vector operator (del) may be used an operator on a scalar . So a compact expression

relating E and V is

Example

23

Ex :

Find E at the point P( 0,1,1) if V = E0 e-x sin( )

4

24

CONDUCTORS, DIELECTRIC AND CAPACITANCE

Current :

Electric charges in motion constitute a current (I). Unit of current is Ampere (A). It is defined as

the rate of movement of charge passing a given reference point of one coulomb per second .

I= .

However, in field theory, we will find the concept of current density to be more useful. Current

density is a vector represented by J.

It is defined as the current passing through a unit surface area , when the surface is held normal

to the direction of the current. Its unit is amperes per square meter. (A/m2).

vector J and the incremental surface dS.)

The set of charged particles give rise to a charge density. Let v = charge density in a volume v.

The current density can be related to the velocity with which charged particles in a volume v

(volume charge density) crosses the surface S at a point.

where v is the velocity factor. Such a current is called convection current and the current

density is called convection current density.

The convection current density is directly proportional to the charge density and the velocity

with which the charge is transferred.

The principle of conservation of charge states that charges can be neither created nor

destroyed.

25

Consider a closed surface S with current density J, then the total current I through the closed

decrease of positive charge within the closed surface. If the charge inside the closed surface is

denoted by Qi, then the rate of decrease is - . and the principle of conservation of charge

requires that

The above equation is the integral form of the continuity equation. The differential or point form is

obtained by using the divergence theorem to change the surface integral into a volume integral.

Now replace the enclosed charge Qi by the volume integral of the charge density, ie.,

This equation indicates that the current or charge per second, diverging from a small volume per unit

volume is equal to the time rate of decrease of charge per unit volume at every point.

Steady current: For steady currents, which are not functions of time,

Problem: Find the total current in outward direction from a cube of 1m, with one corner at the

origin and edges parallel to the coordinate axes if J = 2x2ax + 2xy3ay+ 2xyaz A/m2.

[ Ans : 3 A ]

26

Conductors:

In a conductor, under the influence of an applied electric field E , a free electron having a charge Q = -e

will experience a force F = -eE. The free electrons will move and in a crystalline material, they will

collide with other atoms , and soon a constant average velocity is attained. This velocity v d is called the

drift velocity. It is linearly related to the Electric field intensity by the mobility of the electron (e) in the

given material. It is a positive quantity.

Vd = -e E where the negative sign indicates that the velocity of electrons is against the direction of the

electric field.

Mobility = velocity/ field = (m/sec) / (V/m) = m2 /V-s . Thus mobility is measured in square metres per

volt-sec. Typical values are 0.0012 for aluminium, 0.0032 for copper, and 0.0056 for silver.

The relation between J and E for a metallic c onductor is also specified by the conductivity of the

material ( sigma()) as J = E . This relation is called the point form of Ohms law.

The conductivity is measured in Siemens per meter. (S/m) . One Seimens is the basic unit of

conductance in SI system. 1 S is defined as 1 A per volt. Formerly, the unit of conductance was called

mho . Metallic conductors obey Ohms law faithfully . It is a linear relationship. Conductivity is constant

over a wide range of current density and electric field intensity. Metallic conductors have same

properties in every direction and hence described as isotropic. A material which is not isotropic is

described as anisotropic.

Comparing the equations for J , we get an expression for conductivity in terms of the charge density and

the electron mobility : - ee

Resistivity is the reciprocal of conductivity. Conductivity is a function of temperature. As temperature

increases, drift velocity decreases, hence mobility decreases, so conductivity decreases. So, as

temperature increases, conductivity decreases and resistivity increases.

Resistance of a conductor:

Consider a voltage V applied to a conductor of length L having uniform cross section S (See

figure). The direction of E is same as the direction of conventional current. The electric field

applied is uniform and its magnitude is given by E = . The conductor has uniform cross

27

section S and hence we can write I = . = J.S . The current direction is normal to the

I V

surface. Thus J = = E . Substitute for E, we get J = ;

S L

JL IL L

So V = = =( )I ;

S S

The ratio of the potential difference between the two ends of the cylinder to the current

entering the more positive end , is the resistance (R) of the cylinder.

V L

And R = = ----- allows us to compute the resistance R measured in ohms ( )

I S

conducting objects which possess uniform fields .

c L

The resistance R can also be expressed in terms of the resistivity of the conductor (c) as R =

S

where c = 1/

Example :

Find the resistance of a 1 mile length of copper wire which has a diameter of 0.0508 inches.

Assume conductivity of copper = 5.8 X 107 S/m

Solution : diameter of the wire = .0508 X .0254 meters. = 1.291 X 10 -3 m So its radius r =

1.291 X 10-3 /2 m The area of cross section S = r2 = 1.308 X 10-4 m2 . Length L = 1 mile

L

= 1609 m . So R = is obtained as 21.2

S

Properties of Conductor:

Assume that the charge distribution is suddenly unbalanced within a conductor. Suppose that

there suddenly appear a number of electrons in the interior of a conductor. All the electrons

are negatively charged and so they repel each other. Such electrons accelerate away from each

other till all the electrons causing the interior imbalance reach the surface of the conductor.

The outward progress of the electrons is stopped since the material surrounding the conductor

28

is an insulator. Hence the electrons driven from the interior of the conductor reside over the

surface, as a surface charge density. Within the conductor, the charge density is zero. This is

one of the two characteristics of a good conductor.

The other characteristic is that , under static conditions, no electric field can exist within the

conductor. Thus the electric field intensity (E) and the flux density (D) inside a conductor is

zero.

Boundary conditions: When an electric field passes from one medium to another medium, the

conditions existing at the boundary of the two media are called boundary conditions.

E, D and v within the conductor are zero. s is the surface charge density on the surface of

the conductor.

The electric field intensity E at the boundary can be resolved into two components : a

component tangential to the surface and a component normal to the surface.

It can be shown that the tangential component of the electric field intensity is zero at the

boundary between conductor and free space.

Thus E at the boundary between the conductor and free space is always normal (perpendicular)

to the boundary.

Now D = 0E for free space. Thus the tangential component of the electric flux density (D tan)is

zero at the boundary between conductor and free space. So D is also normal to the boundary.

The flux leaves the surface normally and it can be shown that the normal component of the

flux density is equal to the surface charge density, ie., D N = s .

Thus the desired boundary conditions at the boundary between the conductor and free space

in electrostatics is

Equipotential surface:

A consequence of zero tangential electric field intensity is that the conductor surface is an

equipotential surface. As the tangential component of E is zero, the potential difference along

any path on the surface of the conductor is zero. Thus all the points on the surface of the

conductor are at the same potential.

29

DIELECTRIC MATERIALS

Conductors have a large number of free electrons while insulators and dielectric materials do not have

free charges. The charges in dielectrics are bound in place by atomic and molecular forces. They are

called bound charges. Since they are not free, they cannot contribute to the conduction process. But if

an electric field E is applied, the charges shift their relative positions. This shift in the relative positions

of bound positive and negative charges against the normal molecular and atomic forces, allows the

dielectric to store energy.

The ability to store energy is the characteristic which all dielectric materials (solid, liquid, gas,

crystalline or non-crystalline) have in common.

Concept of Capacitance :

in a dielectric medium having permittivity .

M2 carries a total positive charge Q and

M1 carries an equal negative charge Q.

There are no other charges present and

the total charge of the system is zero.

We know that the charge is carried on the

surface as a surface charge density and

that the electric field is normal to the

conductor surface. Also, each conductor is

an equipotential surface. Since M2 carries

the positive charge, the electric flux is

directed from M2 to M1. M2 is at the more

positive potential. In other words, work

must be done to carry a positive charge

from M1 to M2.

We can define the capacitance of the two-conductor system as the ratio of the magnitude of

the total charge on either conductor to the magnitude of the potential difference between

conductors.

Capacitance is measured in farads. (F). Farad is defined as one coulomb per volt.

CAPACITORS IN SERIES:

If the capacitors are connected in series, the charge on all of them is same, but the voltage

across them is different. If there are n capacitors connected in series, then the equivalent

capacitance C eq is given by

= + + +

CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL :

30

If the capacitors are connected in parallel, the same voltage exists across them, but the charges

are different.

If there are n capacitors connected in parallel, then the equivalent capacitance Ceq is given by

Ceq = C1 + C2 ++ Cn

two parallel metallic plates separated

by a distance d The space between

the plates is filled with a dielectric of

permittivity . It can be shown that

the capacitance of the parallel plate

capacitor is given by

C = = Farads, where

A = area of cross section of the

plates in m2 .

2) COAXIAL CABLE

Consider a coaxial cable of inner

radius a, outer radius b and length

L. The two concentric conductors

are separated by a dielectric of

permittivity . It can be shown that

the capacitance of the coaxial

capacitor (cable) is given by

C = Farads.

()

3) SPHERICAL CAPACITOR

31

Consider a spherical capacitor formed of two

concentric spherical conducting shells of

radius a and b , b >a. . It can be shown

that its capacitance is given by

C= Farads.

( )

In (3), if we allow the outer sphere to become infinitely large, we obtain the capacitance of an

isolated spherical conductor

C = 4 Farads.

Examples:

1) Calculate the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor having mica dielectric R =6. Plate

area = 10 inch2 and a separation of 0-01 inch.

(1 inch = 0.0254 m) Ans : C = 1.349 nF

2) Find the capacitance of a sphere of diameter = 1 cm in free space (Ans : 0.556 pF)

(a) a 1 ft length of coaxial cable, which has an inner conductor 0.1045 inches in diameter, a

polyethylene dielectric (R = 2.26) , and an outer conductor which has an inner diameter of 0.68

inches

(b) a conducting sphere of radius 2.5 mm, covered with a polyethylene layer 2mm thick,

surrounded by a conducting sphere of radius 4.5mm;

(c) two rectangular conducting plates, 1cm by 4cm, with negligible thickness, between which

are three sheets of dielectric, each 1cm by 4 cm, and 0.1mm thick, having dielectric constants

of 1.5, 2.5 and 6.

32

POISSONS AND LAPLACES EQUATIONS

Poissons equation:

33

Laplaces equation:

If v = 0, indicating zero volume charge density, then

EXERCISE:

Exercise : Determine whether the following fields satisfy the Laplaces equation:

V = x2 y2 + z2.

34

MAGNETOSTATIC FIELD

In the previous sections, we discussed static electric fields characterized by E or D. We now

focus our attention on static magnetic fields, which are characterized by H or B. There are

similarities and dissimilarities between electric and magnetic fields. As E and D are related

according to D = E for linear material space, H and B are related according to B = H.

It can be seen that most of the equations which are derived for the electric fields may be

readily used to obtain corresponding equations for magnetic fields if the equivalent analogous

quantities are substituted.

produced by a constant current flow (or direct current). This current flow may be due to

magnetization currents as in permanent magnets, electron-beam currents as in vacuum tubes,

or conduction currents as in current-carrying wires. In this section, we consider magnetic fields

in free space due to direct current. Study of magnetostatics is an indispensable necessity. The

development of motors, transformers, microphones, compasses, telephone bell ringers,

television focusing controls, advertising displays, magnetically levitated high speed vehicles,

memory stores, magnetic separators, and so on, involve magnetic phenomena and play an

important role in our everyday life.

Like Coulombs law, Biot Savarts law is the general law of magnetostatics. Just as Gausss law

is a special case of Coulombs law, Amperes law is a special case of Biot Savarts law.

(a) magnetic field dH at P due to current element I dl (b) direction of dH using right hand rule.

Biot Savarts law states that the magnetic field intensity dH produced at a point P, by the differential

current element Idl is proportional to the product Idl and the sine of the angle between the element

35

and the line joining P to the element and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance R

between P and the element.

ie., dH 2

or dH = 2

1

where k is a constant of proportionality given by k = 4 in SI units

Therefore dH = 4 2

X

The above equation can be put in vector form using cross product as dH =

4 2

X

Now aR = R / |R| = R / R ; hence dH =

4 3

The direction of dH can be determined by the right hand rule with the right-hand thumb pointing in the

direction of the current, the right-hand fingers encircling the wire in the direction of dH as shown in

figure.

It is customary to represent the direction of the magnetic field intensity H (or current I) by a small circle

with a dot or cross sign depending on whether H (or I) is out of, or into, the page.

Just as we can have different charge configurations, we can have different current distributions: line

current, surface current, and volume current as shown in figure.

If we define K as the surface current density (in amperes/meter) and J as the volume current density (in

36

Application of Biot Savarts law:

As an illustration of application of Biot Savarts law , consider an infinitely long straight conductor:

We get H= a A / m

2

The magnitude of the field is not a function of or z, and it varies inversely as the distance

from the conductor. The direction of the magnetic field intensity vector is circumferential

(tangential). The magnetic flux lines are in the form of concentric circles around the conductor.

(2) H due to a straight conductor of finite length:

37

AMPERES CIRCUITAL LAW:

Amperes circuital law states that the line intgral of H about any closed path is exactly equal to

the direct current enclosed by that path.

Figure:

A conductor has a total current I. The

line integral of H about the closed paths

a and b equals I. But the intrgral around

path c is less than I, because the entire

current is not enclosed by the path.

Ampere's law is similar to Gauss's law and it is easily applied to determine H when the current

distribution is symmetrical. Ampere's law is a special case of Biot-Savart's law; the former may

be derived from the latter.

CURL of a vector A

The curl of A is an axial (or rotational) vector whose magnitude is the maximum circulation of A

per unit area as the area lends to zero and whose direction is the normal direction of the area

when the area is oriented so as to make the circulation maximum.'

where the area S is bounded by the curve L and an is the unit vector normal to the surface S

and is determined using the right-hand rule.

In Cartesian coordinates, the curl of A is found using

or

38

Stokes Theorem:

Stokes theorem relates a surface integral to a closed line integral. This is similar to the

divergence theorem which relates a volume integral to a closed surface integral.

By applying Stoke's theorem to the left-hand side of Amperes circuital law, we obtain

Thus we get . This is the third Maxwells equation. This is Amperes law in

differential (point) form.

From the above equation, we observe that That is , magnetostatic field is not

conservative.

The magnetic flux density B is similar to the electric flux density D. As D =0E in free space,

the magnetic flux density B is related to the magnetic field intensity H according to

B = 0 H

where o is a constant known as the permeability of free space. The constant is in

henrys/meter (H/m) and has the value of 0= 4 X 10-7 H/m.

B is measured in webers per square meter. (Wb/m2) or in a newer unit adopted in the

International System of Units , tesla (T). The magnetic flux through a surface S is given by

where the magnetic flux is in Webers.(Wb) and the magnetic flux density B is

in Wb/m2.

In an electrostatic field, the flux passiong through a closed surface is same as the charge

enclosed. ie., Thus it is possible to have an isolated electric charge as shown

in Figure(a) which also reveals that electric flux lines are not necessarily closed. Unlike electric

flux lines, magnetic flux lines always close upon themselves as in Figure (b). This is due to the

fact that it is not possible to have isolated magnetic poles (or magnetic charges). For example, if

we desire to have an isolated magnetic pole by dividing a magnetic bar successively into two,

we end up with pieces each having north and south poles. We find it impossible to separate

the north pole from the south pole.

So an isolated magnetic charge does not exist.

Thus the total flux through a closed surface in a magnetic field must be zero; that is,

39

This equation is called the law of conservation of magnetic flux or Gausss law for magnetostatic

fields, just as . d = Q is Gausss law for electrostatic fields.

This is the fourth Maxwells equation.

Maxwells four equations for static EM fields are summarized in the following table:

It is seen from the table that a vector field is completely defined by specifying its curl and

divergence. A field can only be electric or magnetic if it satisfies the corresponding Maxwells

40

equations. It may be noted that the Maxwells equations given in the table are only for static

EM fields. For time varying EM fields, the divergence equations will remain the same, but the

curl equations will be modified.

So far, we restricted our discussions to static, or time invariant, EM fields. Henceforth, we shall

examine situations where electric and magnetic fields are dynamic, or time varying. It should be

mentioned first that in static EM fields, electric and magnetic fields are independent of each

other whereas in dynamic EM fields, the two fields are interdependent. In other words, a time-

varying electric field necessarily involves a corresponding time-varying magnetic field. Second,

time-varying EM fields, represented by E(x, y, z, t) and H(x, y, z, t), are of more practical value

than static EM fields. Third, recall that electrostatic fields are usually produced by static electric

charges whereas magnetostatic fields are due to motion of electric charges with uniform

velocity (direct current) or static magnetic charges (magnetic poles); time-varying fields or

waves are usually due to accelerated charges or time-varying currents. Any pulsating current

will produce radiation (time-varying fields).

In summary:

stationary charges electrostatic fields

To obtain Maxwells equations for time varying fields, first two major concepts are introduced:

(1) electromotive force based on Faraday's experiments, and (2) displacement current, which

resulted from Maxwell's hypothesis.

Faradays Law : According to Faradays experiments, a time varying field produces an induced

voltage (electromotive force (emf)) in a closed circuit which causes a flow of current. Faraday

discovered that the induced emf in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of

magnetic flux linkage by the circuit. This is called faradays law and it can be expressed as

Vemf = - =-N where N is the number of turns in the circuit and is the flux through

each turn. The negative sign shows that the induced voltage acts in such a way as to oppose

the flux producing it. This is known as Lenz's law, and it emphasizes the fact that the direction

of current flow in the circuit is such that the induced magnetic field produced by the induced

current will oppose the original magnetic field.

Assuming N =1, we get Vemf = -

In terms of E and B , the above equation can be written as

41

where X has been replaced by . where

S is the surface area of the circuit bounded by the closed path L. It is clear that in a time varying

situation, both electric and magnetic fields are present and are interrelated.

Assume a stationary conducting loop in a time varying magnetic B field, The above equation

becomes

This is one of the Maxwells equations for time varying fields. It shows that the time varying E

field is not conservative, ie., X E 0.

NB : In this section, we reconsidered Maxwell's curl equation for electrostatic fields and

modified it for time-varying situations to satisfy Faraday's law.

DISPLACEMENT CURRENT :

We shall now reconsider Maxwell's curl equation for magnetic fields (Ampere's circuit law) for

time-varying conditions.

For static EM fields, we recall that X = ---------(a)

But the divergence of the curl of any vector field is zero.

Taking on both sides , we get . ( X ) = . = 0 -----(b)

However, the continuity equation of current requires that . = / 0 ----(c)

Equations (b) and (c) are incombatible for time varying conditions.

So equation (a) must be modified , so we add a term to (a) so that it becomes

X = + where Jd is to be found.

Taking on both sides of the modified equation, we get . ( X ) = 0 = . +.

Therefore . = - . = / = (. ) = . ; So =

Thus X=+ -------------(d)

This is Maxwells equation (based on Amperes circuit law) for a time varying field.

The term = is called the displacement current density and J is the conduction

current density. ( J = E)

42

The insertion of into eqn(a) was one of the major contributions of Maxwell. Without the

term Jd, electromagnetic wave propagation (radio or TV waves, for example) would be

impossible. At low frequencies, Jd is usually neglected compared with J. However, at radio

frequencies, the two terms are comparable. It was years later that Hertz succeeded in

generating and detecting radio waves thereby verifying eqn (d).

Based on the displacement current density, the displacement current can be defined as

Id = dS = dS . We must bear in mind that the displacement current is a result of time

varying electric field.

MAXWELLS EQUATIONS FOR TIME VARYING FIELDS IN FINAL FORM:

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) is regarded as the founder of electromagnetic theory in its

present form. Maxwell's celebrated work led to the discovery of electromagnetic

waves. Through his theoretical efforts over about 5 years (when he was between 35 and

40), Maxwell published the first unified theory of electricity and magnetism. The theory

comprised all previously known results, both experimental and theoretical, on electricity

and magnetism. It further introduced displacement current and predicted the existence of

electromagnetic waves. Maxwells equations were later confirmed by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz

(1857-1894), a German physics Professor. Hertz was successful in generating and detecting

radio waves.

The laws of electromagnetism that Maxwell put together in the form of four equations

were presented earlier in a table for static conditions. The more generalized forms of these

equations are those for time-varying conditions shown in Table below:

We notice from the table that the divergence equations remain the same while the curl

equations have been modified. The integral form of Maxwell's equations depicts the underlying

physical laws, whereas the differential form is used more frequently in solving problems.

For a field to be "qualified" as an electromagnetic field, it must satisfy all four Maxwell's

equations.

43

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