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Engineering

To cite this article: Van Thinh Nguyen & Franz Nestmann (2004) Applications of CFD in

Hydraulics and River Engineering, International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, 18:2,

165-174, DOI: 10.1080/10618560310001634186

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gcfd20

Download by: [Indian Institute of Technology Madras] Date: 03 October 2017, At: 01:25

International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, February 2004 Vol. 18 (2), pp. 165174

VAN THINH NGUYENa,* and FRANZ NESTMANNb,

a

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ont., Canada N1G 2W1;

b

Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76128, Karlsruhe, Germany

In this paper, various applications and developments of CFD technology in hydraulics and river

engineering are presented. Numerical studies of three-dimensional turbulent flow fields in open

channels and rivers are carried out by CFD packages such as the finite element code FIDAP and finite

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To calculate the position of the free surface two methods are applied, free surface tracking and volume-

of-fluid, and some comparisons of these methods are discussed.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics; Hydraulics; River engineering; Free surface tracking;

Volume-of-fluid; Meshing

NOMENCLATURE

I turbulence intensity n normal vector on the free surface

P mean fluid pressure [N/m2] xi coordinates x1 x; x2 y; x3 z

Pk production of turbulent kinetic energy [m/s3] u0 fluctuating velocity [m/s]

P0 centre of control volume in FVM or node us surface velocity [m/s]

of element in FEM y dimensionless distance to the wall

PP 0 production of turbulent kinetic energy at point P0 d characteristic width of boundary layer

Q water discharge [m3/s] dn normal distance from the wall

S free surface position [m] 1 turbulent dissipation rate [m2/s3]

Ui mean velocity component in xi direction [m/s] f generic unknown

U velocity vector [m/s] k von Karman constant

Umax maximum velocity [m/s] m effective viscosity [kg s/m]

U1 the free stream velocity [m/s] m0 molecular viscosity [kg s/m]

U universal logarithmic velocity profile mt turbulent viscosity [kg s/m]

V control volume mw near-wall eddy viscosity [kg s/m]

fi body forces [N] r0 density of fluid [kg/m3]

k turbulent kinetic energy [m2/s2] tw wall shear stress [kg/m s2]

phenomena characterizing these internal flows are

In recent years, the development of CFD technology and the generation of secondary flows due to the turning of

computing power has brought major advances in research the main flow, the flow separation and the reattachment

and application of CFD codes into hydraulics, river interacting with the main flow and the sediment transport.

engineering and navigation. Thus, the ability to accurately predict the three-

The flow in rivers is very complicated, because it is not dimensional flow in open channels and rivers is of

only turbulent and highly three-dimensional, but also has obvious importance for the design and construction of

irregular boundaries of a complex geometry, a rough bed hydraulic systems in rivers.

E-mail: nestmann@iwk.uka.de

ISSN 1061-8562 print/ISSN 1029-0257 online q 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd

DOI: 10.1080/10618560310001634186

166 V.T. NGUYEN AND F. NESTMANN

the solution of various practical hydraulic problems is

presented: k2

m t r0 c m 5

1

. Godorfer Curve Project: one stretch of Rhine River

and the production of turbulent kinetic energy Pk by the

from 668 to 673 km, Germany.

mean flow is given by:

. Lengfurt Project: one stretch of Main River, from

177,300 to 174,600 km, Germany.

U i U j U i

. Kostheim Weir in Main River, Germany. Pk mt 6

x j x i x j

. Lisdorf Food Gate in Saar River, Germany.

where cm 0:09; c1 1:44; c2 1:92; sk 1:2 and

The first two of these projects are related s1 1:2 are the five empirical constants.

to navigation issues and the last two projects are

related to the flood control management in rivers in

Germany. INITIAL CONDITION

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field survey and experiments of the Laboratory of the In general, it can be said that all unsteady governing

Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute of equations are parabolic. Therefore, at the initial instant of

Germany at Karlsruhe. time t t0 the values of any dependent variable f (i.e. Ui,

k, 1 or P) have to be known at all points of the solution

domain V:

BASIC EQUATIONS

f xi ; t0 f 0 xi : 7

The computations are based on the solution of the

Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations

for the mean flow field together with a two-

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

equation turbulence model. The hydraulic flows usually

have high Reynolds numbers so they are fully turbulent

At the Inlet

and mostly the standard k 2 1 model is used for closure of

the RANS (Rodi, 1980). Thus, the equations to be Dirichlet boundary conditions for velocity, kinetic energy

solved are: and dissipation must be employed on an inlet boundary,

and should be obtained from experimental measurements.

U j In the absence of detailed experimental profiles of k and 1

0 1 for external or unconfined flows, a value for k can be

x j 0

derived from k 1:5IU 1 2 ; where I u 2 1=2 =U 1 is the

turbulence intensity and U1 is the free stream velocity.

U i U i An inlet value of 1 can be given by 1 rcm k 2 =Rm m;

r0 Uj

t xj where Rm mt =m (ratio of the turbulent and laminar

viscosities) is about O101 2 O102 : In the case of

P U i U j confined (internal) or semi-confined flows (boundary

2 r0 f i m 2

x i xj xj x i layer, etc.), the values of k and 1 can be calculated from

2 2 2 21

k c1=2

m lm dU=dy and 1 cm k lm jdU=dyj ; where

lm is a mixing length, y is the normal coordinate axis to the

k k mt k nearest wall and U is the streamwise velocity component

r0 Uj Pk 2 r0 1 3

t x j x j sk x j at the inlet plane. Its profile can be approximated by a

power-law form U=U max y=d1=n ; where Umax is a

maximum velocity and the exponent n is dependent on

1 1

r0 Uj the Reynolds number and can be taken from Table I.

t x j

The pressure at the inlet boundary is obtained by

extrapolation from inside the solution domain.

mt 1 1 12

c 1 Pk 2 r 0 c 2 4

x j s1 x j k k

At the Wall

where Ui are the mean velocity components, P is The standard k 2 1 model is only applied for high

mean pressure, r0 is density, m is the effective Reynolds numbers and, therefore, it cannot be used in

viscosity identified as the sum of the molecular and the near-wall regions, which contain the viscous sub-layer

eddy viscosities m m0 mt ; k is turbulent adjacent to solid boundaries (the so-called low Reynolds

kinetic energy and 1 is the dissipation rate. The eddy number effects on turbulence). The k and 1 equations are

CFD IN HYDRAULICS AND RIVER ENGINEERING 167

n 6.0 6.6 7.0 8.8 10 10 The Neumann boundary condition, i.e. zero-gradient of

dependent variables is applied on these boundaries:

rUmaxd/m 4 103 2.3 104 11 105 11 106 2 106 3.2 106

f

0: 14

xi

not solved in the near-wall sub-layer; instead, the Therefore, the outflow boundary must be placed in a

interpolation is based on the so-called wall functions. downstream location which is sufficiently far from regions

Essentially, the near-wall viscosity is replaced by the of the flow where large perturbations occur in the flow

value mw determined from the universal logarithmic field.

velocity profile

y At the Free Surface

mw m 8

U

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where

Especially for the flow over man-made hydraulic

8 structures such as spillways, weirs, fluvial works, etc., it

< y ; y , y

s

U

9 is very difficult to accurately calculate the free surface

: k1 ln Ey ; y $ y

s shape. Methods used to calculate positions and shapes of

the free surface fall into two broad categories: free surface

and y is the dimensionless distance to the wall, obtained tracking and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods.

from

1=2 Free Surface Tracking Method

rc1=4

m k P0 dnP0

y : 10 The simulation of free surface flows using the free surface

m

tracking method inevitably involves domains with moving

dn is the normal distance from the wall, k is the von boundaries. A new unknown S, which represents the

position of the free surface, is introduced, i.e. the free

Karman constant which has a value of about 0.41, E is the

surface is defined by the relation (Engelman and Sani,

logarithmic profile constant (whose value depends on the

1986)

wall roughness), P0 denotes the centre (or node in FEM) of

the control volume next to the wall and y s is the viscous Sxi ; t 0: 15

sub-layer thickness

In the free surface tracking method, a Lagrangian grid is

1

y

s ln Ey

s : 11 constructed, which is moved with the fluid, and hence the

k position of the free surface is taken as known throughout

the calculation. The two following boundary conditions

At the wall with no-slip condition, zero values for

that need to be satisfied on the free surface are:

velocity components are assigned. In the k-equation, the

flux through the wall is taken as zero and the production of

. the kinematic condition, which states that there is no

k in the wall is obtained from the universal velocity

convective mass transfer through the free surface, or, in

distribution

other words, that the fluid velocity component

C1=4

1=2 normal to the free surface is equal to the free surface

ut m k P0

PP0 jtw j jtw j 12a velocity, i.e.:

kdnP0 k dn P0

U 2 us nfs 0 16

or

!2 where fs denotes the part of the boundary that coincides

PP0 d nP0 with the free surface.

kP0 k 1=4

12b

tw cm

. the dynamic condition, which states that the forces

and the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy near acting on fluids in contact at the free surface are in

the wall is obtained from equilibrium.

3=2

c3=4

m k P0

1P 0 13 Volume-of-fluid (VOF) Method

kdn P0

The VOF method is based on a kind of two-phase model.

where tw is the wall shear stress. Immiscible fluids are not considered separately, but are

168 V.T. NGUYEN AND F. NESTMANN

rather replaced by an effective fluid, which is considered conjugate gradient squared (CGS) or conjugate gradient

as a continuum in the whole solution domain. A scalar squared stabilized (CGSTAB) methods for an asymmetric

indicator function, known as the volume fraction C, is matrix. The segregated algorithm is guaranteed to have

introduced according to the following expressions substantially lower storage requirements compared to the

(Ferziger and Peric, 1997): fully coupled solver, therefore for large-scale three-

dimensional problems the segregated solver is favored.

r Cr1 1 2 Cr0

17

m Cm1 1 2 Cm0

APPLICATIONS

where the subscripts 0 and 1 denote the two constituent

fluids (e.g. air and water). The function C is used to The following results are obtained from various research

distinguish between the two different fluids. A value of and development projects of the Institute of Hydraulic

unity indicates the presence of fluid 1 (water) and the Engineering and Water Resources Management (IWK),

value of zero indicates fluid 0 (air). Volume fraction University of Karlsruhe with the Federal Waterway

Engineering and Research Institute of Germany (BAW)

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the interface of the two fluids. The volume fraction C and at Karlsruhe, Germany. Other results and further details

the mass fraction c of fluid 1 are linked by the expression have been reported by Nguyen (2000) and Nguyen et al.

(2000a,b; 2001).

r1

cC : 18

r

Turbulent Flow in One Stretch of the Rhine River

The transport of c is governed by: (Germany) from 668 to 673 km

With a length of 1320 km, the Rhine River is one of the

d

r c dV r cU 2 us ds 0: 19 most important rivers of Europe. In order to develop and

dt promote the transportation on inland waterways, some

V S

stretches of the Rhine River (Germany) will be deepened.

Further, it is assumed that for the portion of the solution One stretch of the Rhine between Cologne and Koblenz,

domain where c has a value between 1 and 0, both fluids

share the same velocity and pressure.

NUMERICAL METHODS

finite element (FIDAP) procedure are used to discretize the

system of Equations (1)(4), as described in the FIDAP

(1993) and COMET (199798) User Manuals. Results

may be represented in a set of nonlinear algebraic equations:

Af f F f 20

and c are from Equations (15) and (19)) is the global vector

of unknowns and Ff is a vector which includes the effects of

body forces and boundary conditions. There are two

different solution methodologies for solving this nonlinear

equation system, of which the algorithms are conceptually

quite different. The first approach solves all equations of

system (20) in a simultaneous coupled manner by iterative

procedures, but this is rarely done due to the excessive

storage and computing time requirements. The second

approach separately solves each equation in a sequential

segregated manner. This avoids the direct formation of a

global system matrix. Instead, this matrix is decomposed

into smaller sub-matrices, then these smaller sub-matrices

are solved in a sequential manner using either

direct Gaussian elimination or iteration methods such as

conjugate gradient (CG) for a symmetric matrix and FIGURE 1 The physical model of Rhine, 668673 km.

CFD IN HYDRAULICS AND RIVER ENGINEERING 169

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FIGURE 3 Isoline of streamwise velocity at cross-section of Rhine, 671,000 km (with Qinlet 935 m3/s).

170 V.T. NGUYEN AND F. NESTMANN

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FIGURE 4 Streamwise velocity profiles at six vertical lines ML (distances from the left river bank: 50, 80, 110, 140, 170 and 200 m) at cross-section

671,000 (with Qinlet 935 m3/s).

from 664,000 to 675,200 km, with its current depth of only concentrated in the middle of the river when the flow

2.10 m, had to be deepened to 2.50 m. To predict the exits from the curved portion. Figures 3 and 4 show

changes of flow field under consideration of the bed comparisons of isolines and profiles of the streamwise

stability, both experimental and numerical studies have velocity between computation and experiment at cross-

been implemented. section of the Rhine, 671,000 km (middle of the curve).

One stretch of the Rhine River from 668,000 to

673,000 km including a 1808 curve is modelled (Fig. 1).

Turbulent Flow in One Stretch of Main River

The velocity field has been measured at eight cross-sections

(Germany) from 177,300 to 174,600 km

beginning at 669,000 km and following at the distance

of 500 m to the downstream. The flow parameters are given This project related to the nautical problems, to study the

by two variants of the inlet discharge of 935 and 1730 m3/s. turbulent flow field in the upstream of the Lengfurt Port in

The geometry data are obtained from the field survey, the Main River of Germany in order to find the reasons

GAMBIT is used for the meshing with 89,265 nodes why the ships were shipped outside their fairway when

(108,256 elements). The calculation is carried out by they navigated into the Lengfurt Port (Fig. 5).

FIDAP on a parallel IBM RS/6000 SP computer. Because The meshing procedure is implemented by CFD-

the maximum slope of the free surface in this curved GEOM with 136,976 cells, the calculation is carried

stretch is quite small (about 0.2% from the measurement), out by COMET on a parallel SGI computer. In this

the free surface tracking method is used in this case, i.e. a case, the free surface is not enfolded so that the free

moving grid is used, it is moved together with the water, surface tracking method is used. Figure 6 shows the

and the position of the free surface is known throughout difference of the water level near the mole peak in

the calculation. comparison with the initial water level (142 m from

The numerical results and comparisons, which are datum). This is quite a good agreement with the

shown here, are for the case of the inlet discharge of measurement that the maximum sinking of the water

935 m3/s. Figure 2 shows the distribution of velocity at level near to the mole peak is about 30 cm.

cross-sections as well as an eddy zone of the flow in the In order to study the horizontal flow near the mole peak,

Godorf Port area. It shows that in the curve from 670,000 where the ships are shipped from the left riverbank to the

to 672,000 km, due to the centrifugal force the maximum right riverbank (following the flow direction) when they

velocity is located near the concave bank, where the enter the Lengfurt Port, two straight lines are put in the

erosion of riverbed occurs, then it is gradually upstream of the port (Lines 1 and 2 shown in Fig. 7).

CFD IN HYDRAULICS AND RIVER ENGINEERING 171

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page available to view online.)

the grid is refined in the area near the mole peak. The Turbulent Flow Over Kostheim Weir in Main River

numerical and experimental results shown in Fig. 7 (Germany)

explain that when a ship navigates into the Lengfurt Port Figures 10 and 11 show the geometry from the nature and

along Line 1 like a fairway, it will be shipped outside the model of the Kostheim Weir, which includes three

Port, because the cross velocity of the flow in front of the cylinders. By the lifting of these cylinders the weir can

mole peak is strong. be operated to open or close for the flooding control.

Figure 8 shows the distribution of the turbulent kinetic In this work, the two following operations of the weir are

energy k and the streamlines in the area of Lengfurt Port. modelled:

A comparison of velocity profiles at the cross-section

175,100 km is shown in Fig. 9. . three cylinders are lifted up simultaneously, with the

minimum distance from the peak of the cylinder to

the riverbed of about 1.4 m. The water flows under the

three cylinders. The results are shown in Figs. 12 14

(underflow).

. the left and right cylinders are closed and the middle

cylinder is sunk for the water overflow. The results are

shown in Figs. 15 and 16 (overflow).

CFD-GEOM and calculation by COMET). Due to the free

surface being strongly enfolded, the free surface tracking

method is not suitable in this case, so that the VOF method

is used and shapes of free surfaces obtained from the

calculation are shown in Fig. 14 (underflow) and Fig. 16

(overflow). Figures 12 and 13 show velocity vectors in the

case of underflow of the three cylinders.

Figures 15 and 16 show the strongly enfolded shape

of the free surface, which is defined by the value of mass

fraction c 0:5; at t 350 s in the case of overflow of

FIGURE 6 Water level near the mole peak. the middle cylinder. The discharge is an important

172 V.T. NGUYEN AND F. NESTMANN

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175,100 km, and under water surface, 1.5 m (z WS 2 1.5 m). FIGURE 11 The geometry of the Kostheim Weir in simulation.

parameter for the flooding control and its comparison (104,975 cells). This requires of course more CPU time for

between computations and experiments is shown in the calculation and more storage space.

Table II. The shape of the free surface obtained after t 120 s

from both methods is quite similar, as shown in Figs. 18

Turbulent Flow Over Lisdorf Flood Gate in the Saar and 19, but after this step the calculation by the free

River (Germany) surface tracking method breaks down, because of strong

warped elements at the free surface (over the step), while

This gate is used to control the discharge when the floods the calculation by the VOF method continues.

occur in the Saar River. The water flows over a 3.8 m step Figure 20 shows a comparison of the shape of the free

(Figs. 17 20 presented with 10 times water depth). In this surface between calculation and experiment. A compari-

case, both methods, free surface tracking and the VOF son of the water discharge between computations and

method, are used in order to point out advantages and experiments is shown in Table III.

disadvantages of each method for the calculation of a free

surface (meshing by CFD-GEOM and calculation by

COMET). CONCLUSIONS

Figure 17 shows an initial grid (with 50,483 cells) at the

beginning of the calculation by the free surface tracking From above study cases, various applications of CFD in

method. The free surface is moved together with the water hydraulics, river engineering and navigation are

and its shape obtained from this calculation is shown in illustrated. In order to achieve these successful

Fig. 18. applications, of course, suitable user codes for solving

The result for the free surface obtained by the VOF a free surface problem as well as pre- and post-

method is shown in Fig. 19. By the VOF method, the processing procedures are developed. The results

computational domain is extended with almost double obtained from computations show good agreement with

height; therefore, the number of cells is nearly double experiments.

From results of the above computations as well as the

results obtained from various computations of R & D

projects, one can point out advantages and disadvantages

of both methods, free surface tracking and VOF. The

advantage of the free surface tracking method is that a

sharp shape of a free surface can be obtained; however,

when the free surface is strongly enfolded (e.g. flow over

spillways, weirs, sluices,. . .), the numerical implemen-

tation becomes very difficult. The VOF method can

overcome this limitation of the free surface tracking

method, but it has some inherent disadvantages of larger

CPU time and storage space due to the extension of the

FIGURE 10 The geometry of the Kostheim Weir in nature. solution domain. Therefore, in the case of flow in which

CFD IN HYDRAULICS AND RIVER ENGINEERING 173

FIGURE 12 Distribution of velocity vector underflow of three cylinders. FIGURE 8 The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy and the

streamlines in the area of Lengfurt Port.

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FIGURE 15 Overflow of the middle cylinder. by experiment (lower).

174 V.T. NGUYEN AND F. NESTMANN

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FIGURE 18 The free surface shape obtained by free surface tracking

Overflow (m3/s) Underflow (m3/s) method.

Experiment Q=49 Q=520

Computation Q=52 Q=528

160 158166

260 266

Continuum Mechanics GmbH (ICCM), Germany.

Nguyen, V. Th., Numerical computation of turbulent flows in

FIGURE 17 Initial computational grid. meandering channels Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Karlsruhe

(Germany).

Nguyen, V. Th., Nestmann, F. and Eisenhauer, N. (2000a)

Three dimensional computation of river flow. Paper NE-2,

a free surface is not strongly enfolded, the free surface Proceedings of International Conference on Hydroinformatics,

Iowa, USA.

tracking is preferred. Nguyen, V. Th., Nestmann, F. and Eisenhauer, N. (2000b) Numerical

computation of turbulent flow in different curved rectangular-

sectioned channels, Paper FEDSM-11013, Proceedings of ASME

References Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting 2000, Boston,

MA, USA.

Engelman, M.S. and Sani, R.S. (1986) Finite element simulation of Nguyen, V. Th., Lausen, R. and Nestmann, F. (2001) 3D numerical

incompressible fluid flow with free/moving surface, Recent computation of free surface flow in open channels and

Advances in Numerical Methods in Fluid 5, 4774, Pineridge rivers, Paper FEDSM2001-18129, Proceedings of ASME Fluids

Press: Swansea, UK. Engineering Division Summer Meeting 2001, New Orleans,

Ferziger, J.H. and Peric, M. (1997) Computational Methods for Fluid LA, USA.

Dynamics (Springer-Verlag, Germany). Rodi, W. (1980) Turbulence Models and Their Application in Hydraulics

FIDAP Manuals (1993), Fluid Dynamic International Inc., USA. (IAHR, The Netherlands).

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