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Course Documents

Foundation Design

Binod Tiwari, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Table of Contents

Page No.

1. Typical Syllabus 1

4. Sub-soil Exploration 55

2

Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

California State University, Fullerton

College of Engineering and Computer Science

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

SCH 11496 (Disc) 16017 (Lab)

Fall Semester 2010

Pinaki Chakrabarti, Ph.D., S.E.

Office: E-419/ E-314 Class Meeting: MW 16:00 16:50

Phone: (657) 278- 3968/3729 Lab Meeting: MW 17:00 18:15

Fax: (657) 278- 3916 Class Room: UH 305

Email: btiwari@fullerton.edu Units: 3

Pchakrabarti@fullerton.edu

Students registered for this course should have completed the prerequisite courses. During the

semester, the department will verify the prerequisite requirements. If any student has completed

the prerequisite courses at another school, please submit appropriate documents to the

department secretary. Otherwise, their name will be deleted from the class list at any time during

the semester.

Text Book

Principles of Foundation Engineering by Braja M. Das, 7th Edition, 2011, CENGAGE L

Publishers, ISBN 9780495668107.

Reference Materials

Handouts, website URLs, visuals, and other materials will be provided during class or

posted on Blackboard.

Foundation Analysis and Design by Bowles, 5E, McGraw Hill (1996).

Foundation Design Principles and Practices by Coduto, 2E, Prentice Hall (2001).

Engineering Manual for Retaining Walls and Abutments by Kim et al., Virginia Tech

(1991).

Engineering Manual for Shallow Foundations by Tan et al., Virginia Tech (1991).

Engineering Manual for Driven Piles by Ooi et al., Virginia Tech (1991).

Office Hours

Monday 12:00 15:00 Wednesday 12:00 13:00

As long as the office door is open, please feel free to walk in and consult. However, phone and

email appointments are encouraged.

Course Description

Design of footings and retaining walls, Mat and pile foundation for structures, Design project to

standards of professional practice using latest codes and standards, Consideration for safety,

reliability, and cost.

This course will provide the students with theory and experience-based knowledge necessary to

analyze and design civil engineering structures such as retaining walls, excavation bracing

systems, and shallow and deep foundations. Upon completion of this course the students will be

able to:

Investigate and evaluate subsurface soil conditions using techniques of geotechnical

engineering, structural engineering, and construction engineering.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Estimate soil properties from sources of information such as boring logs, visual

descriptions, and index test results, in combination with textbooks and engineering

manuals.

Evaluate bearing capacity and settlement failure condition for shallow and deep

foundations.

Select the most suitable type of foundation for given site condition and design.

Estimate total and effective horizontal earth pressures.

Design retaining walls, sheet piles, and braced excavation supports.

Review of Physical Properties of Soil Design of Retaining Walls

Review of Shear Strength of Soil Design of Sheet Piles

Sub-soil Exploration Design of Braced Excavation Supports

Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation Design of Anchor Bulkhead

Settlement of Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations

Mat Foundation Design of Drilled Shafts

Estimation of Lateral Earth Pressure

Development of a Geotechical Report Design of a Retaining Wall

Design of a Shallow Foundation Design of a Braced Excavation Support

Design of a Deep Foundation Design of a Sheet pile

The educational objectives of the program are as follows:

integrate into the local and global work force, and contribute to the economy of

California and nation.

B) Professional Skills: Graduates will continue to demonstrate the professional skills

necessary to be competent employees, assume leadership roles and have career

success and satisfaction.

The effect of this course on students learning ability will be assessed according to the

following criteria:

An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs.

An ability to engage in life long learning.

There will be several homework assignments during the course of the semester.

Homework is due at the beginning of the class, on due date. There will be no credit for

the late homework submissions, unless accompanied with a university approved excuse.

Homework will be posted on the blackboard every week. Students should check the

blackboard at least once a day. There will also be a number of quizzes of 5 minutes

duration each. These quizzes will be based on the contents covered in the class.

Homework should be submitted neatly in a clean paper, one side of which should be left

blank. New problem should be started on the fresh page. Homework submission format

and guidelines should be strictly followed.

Class Project

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Students will be provided with a compilation of field geotechnical investigation reports.

Each student is responsible to use those reports to make a complete geotechnical report

and design foundation or retaining wall or sheet pile for the assigned loading condition.

Scheduled Exams

There will be two mid-term exams. No make up exams will be conducted. However, if one

misses a midterm exam for any university approved reasons, weight of the other midterm

exam will be increased. However, students should inform the instructor in written well on

time to get approval for such reasons. Missing of exams for non-approved reasons

counts as zero score. The final exam will be comprehensive and will cover the contents

covered in the entire class.

Grading Policy

The final letter grade will be computed using the following criteria:

Homework/Quizzes 20%

Midterm Exam I (September 15, 2010) 20%

Midterm Exam II (November 1, 2010) 20%

Final Exam (December 15, 2010, 17:00 18:50) 30%

Project 10%

Letter Grades

A (> 97%)

+ -

A (93 96.9%) A (90 92.9 %)

B (87 89.9%)

+ -

B (83 86.9%) B (80 82.9 %)

C (77 79.9%)

+ -

C (73 76.9%) C (70 72.9 %)

D (67 69.9%)

+ -

D (63 66.9%) D (60 62.9%)

F (< 60%)

Honor Code

California State University, Fullerton's Honor Code explained in UPS 300.021 applies to

all works performed in this class including homework, quizzes, and examinations.

Students should strictly follow those codes.

This is a professional course. A learning environment will be created in each class for

motivated students; therefore professional conduct is expected of all participants.

Professional conduct extends to use of cell phones, personal computers, iPods and

PDAs during lecture. Students violating such professional conducts are subject to

expulsion from the class.

Drop Policy

The Fall 2010 Schedule contains the University Regulations and Deadlines for dropping

this course. Students should note that the department stamp and/or department chairs

signature is also required in addition to instructors signature to drop the course.

Students who need adaptations or accommodations because of a disability (e.g. learning,

attention deficit disorder, psychological, physical, etc.), or have emergency medical

information to share with the instructor, or need special arrangements in case the building

must be evacuated, are requested to make an appointment to discuss their needs with

the instructor during the first week of classes.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Detailed Class Schedule

1 August 23 Course Overview Handout

25 Review of Soil Mechanics 1

2 30 Review of Shear Strength of Soil 1 Home Work # 1

September 1 Subsoil Exploration 2

3 6 Labor Day No Class

8 Subsoil Exploration (Joint with Geol) 2 Home Work # 2

4 13 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Found. 3

September 15 Mid-term Exam 1

#

5 20 Design of Shallow Foundn. for B.C. 5 Home Work # 3

22 Settlement of Foundation on Sand 5

6 27 Settlement of Foundation on Clay 5 Home Work # 4

#

29 Overall Design of Shallow Foundn 5

7 October 4 Design of Combined Footing 6 Home Work # 5

6 Design of Mat Foundation 6

8 11 Structural Design of Mat Foundation 6 Home Work # 6

13 Pile Foundation 11

9 18 Design of Pile Foundation on Sand 11 Home Work # 7

20 Design of Pile Foundation on Clay 11

10 25 Design of Drilled Shaft 12 Home Work # 8

11 27 Mid-term 2 Exam Review

November 1 Mid-term Exam 2

12 3 Lateral Earth Pressure Theory 7

8 Lateral Earth Pressure Calculation 7

13 10 Design of Retaining Wall 8 Home Work # 9

#

15 Design of Retaining Wall 8

14 17 Design of Sheet Pile 9 Home Work # 10

22-28 Fall Recess

15 29 Design of Sheet Pile 9

December 1 Design of Excavation Bracing Sys. 10 Home Work # 11

16 6 Design of Excavation Bracing Sys. 10

8 Review for Final Exam

#

* Homework due date. For example Homework # 1 is due on August 30. Lead instructor Dr. Chakrabarti

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Emergency Procedures Notice to Students

paramount importance. During an emergency it is necessary for students to have a

basic understanding of their personnel responsibilities and the Universitys

emergency response procedures. In the event of an emergency please adhere to the

following guidelines

1. Know the safe evacuation routes for your specific building and floor.

2. Know the evacuation assembly areas for your building.

1. Keep calm and do not run or panic. Your best chance of emerging from an

emergency is with a clear head.

2. Evacuation is not always the safest course of action. If directed to evacuate,

take all of your belongings and proceed safely to the nearest evacuation route.

3. Do not leave the area, remember that faculty and other staff members need

to be able to account for your whereabouts.

4. Do not re-enter building until informed it is safe by a building marshal or

other campus authority.

5. If directed to evacuate the campus please follow the evacuation routes

established by either parking or police officers.

1. If an emergency disrupts normal campus operations or causes the University

to close for a prolonged period of time (more than three days), students are

expected to complete the course assignments listed on the syllabus as soon

as it is reasonably possible to do so.

University's web site at http://www.fullerton.edu, calling the University's

hotline number at 657-278-0911, or tuning into area radio and television

stations. Students should assume that classes will be held unless they hear

or read an official closure announcement.

EMERGENCY CALLS

DIAL 9-1-1

All campus phones and cell phones on campus reach the University Police

Department

24-hour recorded emergency information line: (657) 278-0911

(657) 278-4444

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Foundation design requires,

Load from superstructure

Building code requirement

Behavior of soil supporting the foundation

Geological condition underneath

Third and fourth factors are very important to a foundation engineer.

Those parameters can be measured in the lab, field, and can be estimated with

established correlations.

Grain size distribution is very important to estimate those parameters.

Index properties are the characteristics of the soil that indicate its type and composition,

and provide indicators of probable engineering behavior. Most importantly, index property

tests are used to classify soil according to various soil classification systems, one of which

is the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). The USCS provides a basis for common

technical communication between designers when referring to soils/geomaterials. Particle

size analysis and Atterberg Limits are two very important index properties of the soil.

Particle size analyses are used to determine the relative proportions of soil particles of

various sizes, in terms of percentage of the total dry weight. These tests are conducted by

mechanical sieving and/or sedimentation i.e. hydrometer analysis.

Grain Sizes

Soil grain sizes are divided into two broad classes: coarse and fine. The definitions of each

type are given below.

Boulders particles of rock/soil that will not pass a 12 square opening.

Cobbles particles of rock/soil passing a 12 square opening and retained on a 3 sieve.

Gravel particles of rock/soil passing a 3 sieve and retained on a No. 4 sieve.

coarse passing a 3 sieve and retained on a sieve.

fine passing a sieve and retained on a No. 4 sieve.

Sand particles of rock/soil passing a No.4 sieve and retained on a No. 200 sieve.

coarse passing a No. 4 sieve and retained on a No. 10 sieve.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

medium passing a No. 10 sieve and retained on a No. 40 sieve.

fine passing a No. 40 sieve and retained on a No. 200 sieve.

Silt soil passing the No. 200 sieve that does not or only slightly exhibits plasticity.

Clay soil passing the No. 200 sieve that exhibits plasticity.

Sieve analysis

Sieve analysis is done to measure particle size distribution.

Hydrometer Analysis

Hydrometer analysis is done to measure the actual proportion of particles smaller than

0.075 mm. Following equation is used for the analysis.

18. L

D .

w (G s 1) t

Where,

w = Density water = Viscosity of water

D = Diameter of soil particle L = Distance traveled at time t

g g.sec

w = , = , L = cm, t = min, and D = mm

cm 3 cm 2

30. L

D .

w (G s 1) t

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

L

D K. , where

t

30.

Where, K

w (G s 1)

Gs is more or less fixed for a soil type, and varies with the temperature of water. We can

calculate K using the data shown in the table 2. Therefore, we can calculate D if we measure

L and t for the specific temperature.

Data is interpreted in a plot of percent finer versus logarithm of sieve size opening that is

referred to as the Grain Size Distribution Curve. Figure 1 shows a typical grain size

distribution curve for a coarse-grained soil. From this plot D10, D30, and D60 are determined

and then the Coefficient of Uniformity (Cu) and Coefficient of Gradation (Cc) are computed.

Coefficient of Uniformity

uniform or well-graded. Cu is defined as:

D60

Cu

D10

Cu basically describes the slope of the grain size curve. Large values of C u indicate that the

soil is well-graded and small values indicate the soil is poorly-graded (i.e., it has a uniform

gradation). For gravel, Cu > 4 indicates the soil is well-graded. For sands, Cu > 6 indicates

the soil is a well-graded.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Coefficient of curvature (Cc) is a parameter that describes the curvature of the grain size

curve. It is defined as:

2

D30

Cc

D10 D60

Cc 1 indicates that the soil grains between D60 and D10 are very similar in size.

Soils are natural materials therefore there are an infinite number of possible grain size

curves. Figure 2 shows a few examples of the grain size curve shapes that are often

encountered.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Weight Volume Relationship

Soils are occurred in nature in a 3- phase- system: soil solid, water, and air. It is necessary

to understand the relationship between these phases to evaluate the behavior of soil.

Volume Relationship

Ws (1 w)

Vv =

Void ratio (e) = , V

Vs = d (1 w)

G (1 w)

Vv s w

Porosity (n) = 1 e

V G

d s w

Vw 1 e

Degree of saturation (S) = Gs w Se

Vv

(G e) w

sat s

n 1 e

e=

1 n d Gs w (1 n)

Gs w (1 n)(1 w)

e

n= sat Gs w (1 n) n w

1 e

n

w

Gs (1 n)

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

e

VS

Porosity VV %

n 100

V

Degree of saturation VW % Range: 0 to 100%

S 100

VV

M W

Water content w W W 100 %

(moisture content) MS WS

g

volume L3 and density = mass/volume

W ; W ;

Density of water.

VW VW L3 L3 : 1000 kg/m3 or 1 g/cm3

S ; S ;

Density of solids VS VS L3 L3

also called moist and if soil is

W F

Total Unit weight t

V saturated t = SAT .

L3

d

V 1 w L3

Relative Density emax e % Used for relatively clean

Dr 100% sands only. See note below.

emax emin

d d ,min d ,max

Dr 100%

d ,max d ,min d

Useful Hints:

Gs may be assumed when needed (Typically sand = 2.65 and clay = 2.7).

The expression: S e Gs w can be used as a check or shortcut for many problems.

V or Vs may be assumed to be equal to one (1) if no specific sample information is given.

Always draw a phase diagram as if it were a free body diagram of the soil (ie, show all

knowns and unknowns).

emax and emin represent the soil in its loosest and densest states, respectively, and are

determined using ASTM standard tests in the laboratory.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Relative Density

Relative Density (Dr) is used to indicate in-situ denseness of granular materials such as sand

and gravel.

emax e

Dr 100 %

emax emin

Where,

emax = Void ratio of the soil in loosest state emin = Void ratio of the soil in densest state

e = in-situ void ratio

Theoretically Dr varies from 0% to 100%. But Dr ranges from 20% to 85% in practice.

(1 nmin )( nmax n) ( d d min ) d max

Dr 100 % Dr . 100 %

(nmax nmin )(1 n) ( d max d min ) d

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Plasticity of Soil

Fine grained soils that have clay minerals can be remolded without crumble at the presence

of water. State of fine grained soil (known as consistency) varies with the amount of water

in it. Attergerg was the first person to describe such consistency of soil. Depending on the

moisture content, the behavior of soil can be divided into four major states solid, semi

solid, plastic, and liquid. Shown in figure 4 are the consistency stages of the soil specimen.

Physical State

Slurry

Liquid Liquid Limit Water content at the boundary

between a liquid and a plastic. Also the lower

limit of viscous soil flow.

Plastic

Moisture between semisolid and plastic. Also the lower

Content limit of the plastic state.

Semisolid

between semisolid and solid states. The lower

Solid limit of volume change upon drying.

Dry Soil

The limits of those states are called consistency limits. There are three consistency limits,

which are explained below:

2. Plastic Limit (PL), and

3. Shrinkage Limit (SL)

These limits are called Atterberg limits. In other words, Atterberg limits are the limits of

consistency of a soil as defined by water contents that are the boundaries between soil

physical states. It is specified by ASTM D 4318.

USCS and AASHTO classification.

Estimation of the Compression Index (Cc).

Approximate idea of clay mineralogy and activity.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Liquid Limit

The water content at which a groove cut in a soil sample closes for a length of inch in 25

cranks when tested in a liquid limit device is the liquid limit. This occurs at a shear strength

of approximately 2.5 KPa (shear strength decreases as water content increases) as shown in

figure 5.

Figure 5 Chart showing the decrease in shear strength with water content

Plastic Limit

The water content at which a soil begins to crumble when rolled by hand into a 1/8 (3.18

mm) diameter threads is the plastic limit.

Shrinkage Limit

The moisture content at which the volume of the soil mass ceases to change is defined as

shrinkage limit.

The PI is an indication of how much water can bind to the soil particles and is the

difference between the liquid limit and plastic limit.

PI LL PL

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Clayey soils tend to have a higher PI than silty soils. Soil consistency can be estimated with

PI as shown in the figure 6.

Plasticity of the clay is defined by the value of PI. Plasticity index depends on the clay sized

fraction and type of clay mineral.

wn PL

LI

PI

Where

wn is the natural in-situ water content.

Usual Range: 0 LI 1.

The Liquidity Index is an indication of the consistency of a soil in its natural state (at the

natural water content, wn).

0 LI 1 soil is in plastic range

LI > 1 soil is a viscous liquid

Some overconsolidated clays may have LI < 0 (wn < PL)

Table 7 Range of Atterberg Limit values for some common clay minerals

(after Mitchell 2005)

(%) Limit

Montmorillonite 100-900 50-100 8.5-15

Illite 60-120 35-60 15-17

Kaolinite 30-110 25-40 25-29

Chlorite 44-47 36-40

When wn PL, the soil is near the optimum moisture content for compaction.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Where

Cc - the compression index, (about 30 % reliability).

Note

These correlations are only for natural soil, not the compacted soil

Atterberg Limits are fundamental to the USCS soil classification system. Remember

that the USCS is a functional classification system, meaning that the group symbols and

group names have specific meaning in terms of engineering behavior.

Activity

Activity of a soil is an index of the type of clay mineral and has been correlated to

engineering behavior such as the shrink-swell behavior. Activity, A, is defined as follows:

PI (%)

A

% clay fraction (< 2 m)

The percent of clay fraction is determined by hydrometer analysis. Activity of the clay is an

indicator of its activeness (Table 8).

Activity Classification

<0.75 Inactive clays

0.75 1.25 Normal clays

>1.25 Active clays

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Classification of Soil

A classification scheme provides a method of identifying soils in a particular group that

would likely exhibit similar characteristics. Soil classification is used to specify a certain

soil type that is best suitable for a given application. There are several classification

schemes available. Each was devised for a specific use. For example American Association of

State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) developed one scheme that

classifies the soil according to their usefulness in roads and highways. However, Unified Soil

Classification System (USCS) was originally developed for use in airfield construction, but

was later modified for general purpose.

USCS System

The USCS uses symbols for the particular size group:

G Gravel particles retained on #4 sieve (4.75 mm)

S- Sand particles passing #4 sieve, but retained on # 200 sieve (0.075 mm)

M- Silt particles passing # 200 sieve

C- Clay particles passing # 200 sieve

These are combined with other symbols with expression on gradation characteristics

W- Well graded

P- Poorly graded

And, plasticity characteristics

H High plasticity L- Low plasticity O- Organic matter

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Table 8 USCS classification system

AASHTO System

The AASHTO soil classification is used to determine the suitability of soils for earthworks,

embankments, and road bed materials (sub base and sub grade). According to AASHTO

classification,

Gravel 75 mm 2 mm (#10 sieve)

Sand 2 mm 0.075 mm (#200 sieve)

Silt and Clay <0.075 mm

Silty: PI <10%

Clayey: PI >11

AASHTO classification classifies soil into 7 major groups: A-1 through A-7.

A-1 A-3 : Granular or coarse grained soil

A-4 A-7 : Silty clay or fine grained soil

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Shown in table 9 is the general AASHTO classification system guideline.

Silty and clayey soils can be located in a plasticity chart as shown in the figure 8.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

A group index value (GI) is appended in parentheses to the main group to provide a measure

of quality of a soil as highway sub grade material. The group index is given as:

Where,

F = % finer than #200 sieve size.

first or last terms in the above equation are less than 0, GI is 0. For them partial group

index is used, for the non-zero term. The higher the group index, the lower the quality of

soil as sub grade material. GI should not exceed 20 for any of the soil classified in group A-

4 through A-7.

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Permeability

Permeability is a measure of the ease in which water can flow through a soil volume. It is

one of the most important geotechnical parameters. However, it is probably the most

difficult parameter to determine. In large part, it controls the strength and deformation

behavior of soils. It directly affects, for example, the quantity of water that will flow

toward an excavation, the design of cutoffs beneath dams on permeable foundations or the

design of the clay layer of a landfill liner.

Application

Estimation of the quantity of underground seepage water under various hydraulic

conditions

Quantification of water during pumping for underground construction

Stability analysis of slopes, earth dams, and earth retaining structures.

Velocity of flow, k i

Where,

k = Coefficient of Permeability or Hydraulic Conductivity of soil

A = Cross-sectional area of the flow channel

Intrinsic permeability

The parameter k is a special case for flow of water through soil at a fairly constant

temperature. However, permeability can vary if the fluid is not water, such as in petroleum

recovery, or the temperature other than 200C. The intrinsic permeability, k, is defined as:

k

k'

where,

= dynamic viscosity and is the unit weight of the fluid.

Viscosity of fluid Soil void ratio

Size and continuity of pore spaces Soil fabric

or joints Presence of discontinuities

Size, surface roughness, and Degree of saturation.

shape of soil particles

The smallest particles in a soil mixture control the permeability of the soil mass. The fine

contents of a soil have a greater influence on permeability than does density. In rocks, the

presence of fractures controls permeability.

Permeability is also dependent on the scale of the problem at hand. Direct measurements

must account for presence of contrasting permeability inclusions within a soil mass. An

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

example is an openwork gravel seam lying between two relatively impervious clay layers.

Measuring the permeability of the clay will give misleading value of formation permeability

if the scale of the problem will include the gravel layer. In rock masses, the permeability of

an unfractured, massive rock will be low. However, if the rock mass is fractured, the

permeability of the entire mass is controlled by the scale of the fracture spacing.

Some typical values of permeability for soils are shown in table 10.

Typical Permeability, k

Soil Type (cm/sec)

Gravels and Coarse Sands > 10-1

Fine Sands 10-1 to 10-3

Silty Sands 10-3 to 10-5

Silts 10-5 to 10-7

Clays < 10-7

a) Hazens equation

This equation is appropriate for clean, saturated, poorly graded sands (SP) with C u < 5, and

0.1 mm < D10 < 0.3.

k = C D102 [cm/s]

where,

C = 100, and

D10 = effective grain size [cm]

or

C = 1, and

D10 = effective grain size [mm]

This equation does not account for void ratio or grain shape. This equation is empirical,

which means it was derived from experimental data. The standard error in the correlation

is unknown which means we have no way of knowing the reliability of this relationship for

computing permeability. This means we need to use Hazen's equation with caution.

b) Kozeny-Carman equation

The Kozney-Carmen equation accounts for each of the fundamental factors that influence

permeability of soils: void ratio, grain size and shape (through specific surface), amount of

fines (through specific surface), degree of saturation, flow channel conditions and fluid

properties. This equation has a theoretical basis but does contain empirical elements. It

works well for sands and gravels where laminar flow exists. It is not appropriate for clays

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

since it assumes there are no electrochemical forces but may be used on non-plastic silty

soils.

3

k 1 e

K T 2S 2 1 e

o s

where,

= unit weight of fluid

K0 = pore shape factor (2.5)

T = Tortousity factor (typically 1.41)

Ss = specific surface area (surface area of solids per unit volume)

= kinematic viscosity

e = void ratio

For water at 20o C, 9.93X10 4 [1/cm s]

KoT2 assumed to be 4.8 0.3 for uniform spheres (5 for sand and silt) .

Making these substitutions,

1 e3

k 1.99 X10 2

4

, cm/s, at 20o C

Ss 1 e

Specific surface, Ss, can be computed using a simplified method which assumes the soil

is composed of spherical grains.

Where,

D50 = median grain diameter of the soil as obtained from a grain size distribution curve.

Ss A f x1s1 x 2s2 ... x n sn

where,

Af = grain angularity factor from table 11,

xi = percent (decimal) of the total soil sample between adjacent sieves from a sieve

analysis,

si = specific surface of spheres uniformly distributed in size between adjacent

6

sieves of size dx and dy (in cm) is given by: si , or from table 12.

dx dy

Table 11 Angularity Factors (from EM 1110-2-1901, USCOE)

Material Description Angularity Factor, Af

Glass sphere Round 1.0

Sands Rounded 1.1

Subrounded 1.2

Subangular 1.3

Angular 1.4

Crushed stone Quartzite 1.5

Crushed stone Basalt 1.6

Crushed glass Pyrex 1.8

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

sizes

(from EM 1110-2-1901, USCOE)

4 to 6 15.0

6 to 8 21.2

8 to 10 27.5

10 to 16 38.9

16 to 20 60.0

20 to 30 85.2

30 to 40 120.5

40 to 50 169.0

50 to 70 239.0

70 to 100 339.2

100 to 140 479.7

140 to 200 680.7

Chapuiss Equation

0.7825

2 e3

k (cm / s ) 2.4622 D10

1 e

D10 should be in mm.

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Seepage

Darcys law is applicable when flow of water is in one direction. In real world problems,

seepage occurs in all three dimensions. Solution for 3D problems is complicated and needs

advanced mathematical calculations. In many cases, 3D problems are simplified to 2D and

seepage flow is calculated accordingly.

2h 2h

0

x 2 y 2

This equation is called Laplace Equation.

Laplace equation requires 2 families of curves that meet at right angle. One is called flow

line and the other is called equipotential line. The network of these lines is called Flow

Net (figure 9).

Properties of flow net

Same flow quantity (q) through each flow channel.

Same head drop (h) between each adjacent pair of equipotential lines

(except for partial drop).

In figure 9,

q H

q h

nf nd

Seepage Calculation Using Flow Net

If our flow nets are going to have the properties of the lines mentioned above, we need

to draw them in a certain way.

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b nf

q k .H .$. where, $

l nd

q k .H .$ and Q = q. L

For k x k y ,

ky

we make horizontal scale = x vertical Scale

kx

and plot the structure. Then we follow the same procedure. This gives,

H .n f

q k x .k y .

nd

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In Situ Stress

In a given volume of soil mass, void space is distributed randomly. Those spaces are filled

with either water or air. To analyze major problems in soil mechanics, we need to know the

distribution of stress in the soil profile. Lets consider the case with no seepage first.

' u

If water is seeping upwards, effective stress will be decreased by the amount equal to

seepage pressure (figure 12).

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When seepage pressure is so high that effective stress is zero, sand boiling or quick sand

occurs. This can be checked at site easily.

At sand boiling,

z ' ic z w

Where,

ic = critical hydraulic gradient for sand boiling to occur

Therefore,

'

ic

w

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Stress in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage

If water is seeping downwards as shown in figure 13, effective stress will be increased by

the amount equal to seepage pressure.

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1. The particle size distribution for soil A is shown on the attached figure. The soil has the

following Atterberg limits values: LL = 47 and PL = 25. What are possible group names and group

symbols for this soil?

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2. The particle size distribution for soil B is shown on the attached figure. Atterberg limits

conducted on the -#40 sieve fraction of the soil plotted under the A-line. Using the ASTM

classification procedure, what are the symbol and name for this soil?

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3. A Shelby tube sample of a clay sand was taken. The tube was extruded, and a

cylindrical specimen for the tube was trimmed for property determination. The specimen had the

following parameters:

Diameter = 2.80 inches Height = 6.00 inches Weight (moist) = 2.694 lbs

Weight (dry) = 2.405 lbs

Saturated unit weight (pcf) Water content (%)

Void ratio Degree of saturation (%)

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4. A bag sample was obtained in the field during a Standard Penetration Test. Atterberg limits

were determined for the soil sample. The liquid limit was measured to be 16% and the plastic limit

was measured to be 10%. Grain size analysis provided the following values:

D10 = 0.075 mm

D50 = 0.10 mm

D85 = 0.20 mm

What is the group name and group symbol for this soil?

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Shear strength of soil is the internal resistance of soil to shearing forces.

Determination of the shear strength of soil is one of the most important aspects of

geotechnical engineering. Ultimate shear strength and the deformation behavior of

soil under an applied load are critical for design of foundations, earth structures,

retaining structures, and many others. Shear strength is fundamentally due to the

combination of friction between particles and the work required to cause the sample

to change in volume, i.e.

1) Inter-granular friction, , and

2) Dilation, or volume change, .

Naturally, any factor which influences friction or volume change will influence the

strength of a specimen. The most influential factors (state parameters) that

affect volume change include void ratio and confining stress (3). Grain shape and

roughness are two factors that influence friction.

Shear strength at failure is normally defined by Mohr-Coulomb Failure criteria.

In most of the soil mechanics problems, failure envelope is considered as a straight line,

given by the following equation,

failure c n tan

Where,

c is the cohesion

is the angle of friction.

n is the normal stress on the failure plane.

This equation is called Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria.

In saturated soil, = + u and

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failure c' n ' tan '

Where,

is the effective stress (or drained) angle of friction.

n is the normal stress on the failure plane at failure.

Typical values of for different types of soils are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Typical value of drained friction angles for sand and silt (Das, 2006)

For sand and gravel, c = 0 (they are called cohesion less soil)

For normally consolidated and remolded clays, c = 0

For over consolidated clays, c = f (OCR)

At and above shear envelope - failure occurs

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In figure 2, 1 = Major principal stress

3 = Minor principal stress

We can draw Mohr circle for the stress condition shown above as shown in figure 3.

Figure 3 Mohr circle for the case shown in figure 2 (Das, 2006)

' '

1 ' 3 ' tan 2 (45 0 ) 2c' tan( 45 0 )

2 2

Here, c and are the effective shear strength parameters.

Safety against failure is given by:

Strength of soil

FS

Shear stress to soil

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Determination of Shear Strength

Shear strength of soil can be measured in laboratory or in-situ.

Laboratory Measurement

There are different methods to measure shear strength of soil in laboratory.

This test is generally conducted for drained condition (figure 4). It is simplest test and is

common for shear strength measurement of clays.

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Calculations

1. Calculate dry unit weight of the specimen.

Wd

Dry unit weight =

V

2. Calculate void ratio.

Gd w

e= 1

d

Normal Load

'

Area

Shear Force

Area

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5. Plot versus shear strain (shear displacement/original height of specimen) as

shown in figure 6.

6. Plot vertical strain (displacement/initial height) vs shear strain.

7. Plot normal stress (in x-axis) versus shear stress to make shear envelope.

8. The equation of the line will give you c and .

For clays, rate of strain should be very slow. Rate of strain is determined from

consolidation data.

f

' tan 1 ( )

'

When we conduct direct shear test to measure the friction angle due to interaction

between foundation material and soil, is replaced by , and c is replaced by ca

(adhesion).

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drained and undrained shear strength.

Generally 1.4 diameter (3 tall) or 2 diameter (4 tall) specimen is used.

Specimen is encased by a thin rubber membrane and set into a plastic

cylindrical chamber.

Cell pressure is applied in the chamber (which represent 3) by pressurizing

the cell fluid (generally water).

Vertical stress is increased by loading the specimen (by raising the platen in

strain controlled test and by adding loads directly in stress controlled test,

but strain controlled test is more common) until shear failure occurs. Total

vertical stress, which is 1 is equal to the sum of 3 and deviator stress (d).

Measurement of d, axial deformation, pore pressure, and sample volume

change are recorded.

Depending on the nature of loading drainage condition, triaxial tests are

conducted in three different ways.

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1. Consolidated Drained Triaxial Test (CD Triaxial test)

This test is referred as slow test (S-test).

Figure 8 Initial and final principal stresses at triaxial specimen (Budhu, 2006)

Calculations

L

Axial strain = a

L

V

Volumetric strain = v

V

Ac (1 v )

New area after deformation = A

(1 a )

Ac = Area after consolidation

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1 ' 3 ' d

Plot d vs. a for at least 3 tests (figure 9).

Plot v vs. a for at least 3 tests.

Plot Mohr circle based on 1 and 3 at failure.

Plot Mohr circle for failure for all 3 confining stresses.

Make a straight line, which is tangent to all Mohrs circles.

This is failure envelope. Get c and from the line (figure 10).

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Shear envelope for NC clay is different than that of OC clay as shown in

This is most common type of triaxial test.

Prepare the sample and follow the same procedure until consolidation.

Close the drainage valve and shear the specimen at undrained condition. Strain rate

is about 8 times faster than the drained one.

Record L, d, and u.

Conduct the test until the principal stress ratio shows ultimate value or 20% axial

strain.

Calculations

u d

Skemptons pore pressure coefficient, A = For NC clay, A = 0.5 1

d

Plot u vs a for at least 3 tests.

Plot 1/3 vs a, and p vs q . p = (1 + 3)/2 and q = (1 - 3)/2

Plot Mohr circle based on 1 and 3 at failure and 1 and 3 at failure (figure 13).

Plot Mohr circle for failure for all 3 confining stresses.

Make a straight line, which is tangent to all Mohrs circles. This is failure envelope.

Get c and from the line.

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Figure 13 Mohr circle plotted from a CU triaxial test data (Budhu, 2006)

Nature of change of pore water pressure for OC clay is different than that in NC clays as

shown in figure 14.

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for a CU test specimen (Das,

2006)

As drainage is not permitted and consolidation is not necessary, this test is very

quick, and also referred as Q-test.

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As drainage is not permitted, u increases right after the application of 3 and

further increases after the application of d.

As Uc = B. 3 and Ud = A . d

Total u = B. 3 + A . d

u = B. 3 + A . (1 - 3)

This test is common in clayey soils.

Steps for sample preparation and saturation are same as in the other tests. But the

sample is not consolidated in this test.

After the sample is saturated, it is sheared at higher strain rate.

L, d, and u are recorded.

The test is continued until the principal stress ratio shows ultimate value or 20%

axial strain.

Calculations

Plot d vs a for at least 3 tests.

Plot u vs a for at least 3 tests.

Plot 1/3 vs a, and p vs q . p = (1 + 3)/2 and q = (1 - 3)/2

Plot Mohr circle based on 1 and 3 at failure and 1 and 3 at failure. They should

give the same d value.

Plot Mohr circle for failure for all 3 confining stresses. All tests should give same d,

as 3 is same for all tests although 3 is different.

Make a straight line, which is tangent to all Mohrs circles. This gives c u with a

horizontal line, i.e. u = 0. Therefore this test is called = 0 test (figure 15).

cu = d/2

c. Unconfined Compression Test

This is a special type of UU test used for saturated clays, where 3 = 0.

The specimen is not enclosed into a rubber membrane, but is kept uncovered.

Axial load is applied rapidly to cause failure.

The procedure is as follows:

Get three trimmed soil specimens.

Measure dimensions of the specimens.

Measure weights of the specimens.

Load the samples into the unconfined compression device. They should be placed

in between two platens.

Lower the upper platen slowly, just to make contact with the top of the soil

specimen.

Set vertical displacement dial gauge and loading proving ring dial gauge to zero.

Lower the upper platen at the speed of about 0.5%/min.

Record the load and displacement dial gauge readings. Usually the readings are

taken at every 0.01 inch of displacement.

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The compression load goes on increasing, peaks, and then decreases.

After it starts to decrease, stop the test.

Reverse the platen movement, and remove the specimen.

Draw free hand sketch of the specimens after failure.

Determine moisture contents of the specimen.

Calculate void ratio prior to the test

Repeat this procedure for two more specimens.

Note L, and d.

Calculations

L

Calculate axial strain. =

L

L = Vertical deformation of the specimen.

Calculate vertical load on the specimen.

A0

Calculate corrected area of the specimen (Ac) Ac

1

A0 = Initial cross-sectional area i.e. x D2/4

Calculate the stress on the specimen.

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Load

Ac

Plot versus axial strain. Peak is unconfined compression strength (qu)

(figure 16). Then calculate cu.

unconfined compression strength (Das, 2006)

d. Simple Shear Test

e. Ring shear test

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1. Given the following data from triaxial compression tests on clay, find the effective stress

friction angle, ', and the effective stress cohesion intercept, c.

2. (a) The effective stress strength parameters for a saturated clay soil are c' = 180 psf and

' = 25. The value of the major principal effective stress at failure is 2130 psf. What is

the value of the minor principal effective stress at failure?

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b) If the failure described in part (a) took place during an unconfined compression test,

what was the value of the pore water pressure at failure?

2

c) The cross-sectional area of the sample at failure was 6.4 in . What was the externally

applied axial load (pounds) on the specimen at failure?

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3. A rectangular foundation 4 m x 5 m transmits a load of 5 MN to a deep uniform deposit of

3

stiff over-consolidated clay with OCR = 4 and saturated unit weight is 18 kN/m . Ground

water level is at 1 m below the ground surface. A CU test was conducted on a soil

sample taken at a depth of 5 m below the center of the foundation. The results obtained

are: Su = 40 kPa, p = 27 , cs = 24 . Will the soil reach the failure state at a) short-term

0 0

and b) long-term condition? Assume the soil above the ground water level is saturated.

Consider z = 71.1 kPa and x = 5.1 kPa

0.5

Ko = (1 sincs) (OCR)

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Sub-soil Exploration

In nature, soil below the ground is heterogeneous and stratified.

To design the foundation safely, it is necessary to know the type of soil strata

with depth.

For this purpose, subsoil exploration is done. The main objectives of the subsoil

exploration can be summarized as,

To determine the nature of soil and depth-wise stratification.

To obtain the disturbed or undisturbed specimens for geotechnical

analysis

To know the depth of bedrock.

To conduct in-situ tests for the measurement of shear strength and

permeability.

To determine the position of ground water table.

Proper planning of subsoil exploration program is essential to have efficient

investigation.

Compilation of the existing information about the proposed structure

Compilation of the existing subsoil exploration information of the nearby

area

Reconnaissance survey at the site

Detailed site investigation

Generally, explorations should be made as much as possible. However, table 1

gives us an idea for the initial planning.

For light steel and narrow concrete building, Z b 3 s

0.7

m

For heavy steel and wide concrete building, Z b 6 s

0.7

m

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s = no. of story

However, ASCE recommendation is as follows:

Estimate z due to construction.

Determine depth (D1) at which z is 10% of v

Plot v0 vs depth, and the graph for z vs depth

Find depth (D2) where zv0

Minimum depth of boring is smaller of the two (D1 and D2)

For embankment

Depth of boring = (0.5 2) times height of embankment

Methods of Boring

Can be used up to the depth of 3 5 m.

Used for highways and small structures

An auger is driven below the ground and the soil trapped inside the rig is

collected.

This gives disturbed sample only

Can be hand driven or power driven (continuous flight augers) augers

depending on the depth.

Can be solid stem or hollow stem

SPT and sampling can be done by hollow stem auger.

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hollow-stem auger with removable plug

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2. Rotary Drilling

A drill bit is attached at the bottom of the drill rod (figure 2).

Drilling is done by rotating and pushing the drill rod downwards.

Water or drilling mud is forced inside while drilling.

Drilling mud (slurry of bentonite and water) helps to support the sides

temporarily.

Water jet at high pressure brings the drilled sample out.

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3. Wash Boring

Difference between rotary drilling and wash boring is that wash boring is

done by drilling the casing down. Casing has metal or diamond bit attached at

the bottom.

Force of water brings the soil chops out from the hole (figure 3).

A number of segments of casings can be connected to increase the drilling

depth.

4. Percussion Drilling

This method is used in drilling hard rock.

A heavy drill bit is raised and lowered to chop the rock.

Chopped soil is brought up by the force of circulating water.

1. Sampling by Split Spoon (figure 4)

It consists of a driving shoe and split spoon tube.

It has coupling at the top to connect with the drill rod.

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Drilling rod is removed from the desired depth where sample is to be

taken (generally every 5 ft) and split spoon sample is attached to the

drilling rod and lowered to the bottom of the bore hole (figure 5).

The sampler is driven into the ground by hammering on the top of the

drill rod by dropping a 140 lb hammer from the height of 30 inch.

Number of blows required to drive each 6 inch of the sampler is

recorded. Sum of the number of blows required to drive last two 6

inches (1 ft in total) is standard penetration number (N).

After complete drilling, the sampler is withdrawn and removed from the

rod.

Soil sample is sealed and transferred to the lab.

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Figure 5 A drilling rod with split spoon sampler is being lowered down (Das, 2006)

This N value should be corrected for actually energy applied to the hammer as opposed

to the theoretically calculated energy. The N value is corrected with various influencing

factors to get N60 (standard penetration number corrected for field condition) value,

as shown by the following equation.

N H B S R

N 60

60

Where H = Hammer efficiency (%)

B = Bore hole diameter correction

S = Sampler correction

R = Rod length correction

Shown in table 2 are those factors for various situations.

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This is used to get undisturbed soil specimen as the split spoon always gives

disturbed specimen.

They are seamless thin tubes and are also called Shelby tubes (figure 6).

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Sampler is attached to the drilling rod and lowered to the bottom of the

hole.

Then the sampler is pushed hydraulically into the soil.

The tube is then rotated to shear the end of the soil before removing.

The sample is sealed with wax and brought to the laboratory.

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3. Sampling by Piston Sampler

It consists of thin wall tube with piston (figure 7).

Sampler is lowered into the bottom of the borehole by keeping piston at the

bottom.

Then the tube is pushed down hydraulically past the piston.

Then the pressure is released through the hole on top of the piston rod, and

the sample is removed.

hole, and b) pressure released through hole in piston rod (Das, 2006)

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In-situ Soil Tests

1. Standard Penetration Test

Undrained shear strength of soil is estimated by measuring the number of

blow (N) to get certain amount of penetration of a standard tube into the

soil, and correlating it with the empirical relations.

Those N values are corrected as explained above to get N 60 values.

Density of soil, relative density, and values are correlated with this value

as shown below.

0.72

(kPa)

Likewise,

' 27.1 0.3 N1,60 0.00054 N1,60 2

1

Where, N1,60 C N N 60 and C N 9.78 (0 in kN/m2)

0'

0.689

N

OCR 0.193 '60

v0

Table 4 Approximate relationship between N1,60 and relative density (Das, 2006)

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2. Vane Shear Test

There are different methods to conduct in-situ test for the measurement of shear

strength.

vane shear device (Das, 2006)

Vane shear tests are done to measure cu of soft to medium cohesive clays.

Shear vanes consist of 4 thin, equally spaced steel plates welded to a steel torque

rod.

Equipment is pushed into the soil and torque is applied at top.

Soil is rotated at constant speed.

T = Ms + Me + Me

Where,

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T = Applied torque.

Ms = Resisting moment of shear force by surface of soil cylinder.

Me = Resisting moment of the shear force by top and bottom.

Figure 10 Derivation of equatuion for : a) resisting moment of shear force, and b) variations in shear strength mobilization (Das, 2006)

d

M s ( .d .h).cu .

2

Assuming uniform mobility of undrained shear strength at the top and bottom of the device,

1 .d 2 1 .d 3

Me ( .d ).cu = ( ).cu

2 4 2 4

1 .d 3 .d 2 .h 1 d

Now, T ( ).cu .cu = .d 2 cu (h )

2 4 2 2 4

2.T

Therefore, cu

d

.d 2 (h )

4

Table 5 Recommended dimensions of field vane (Das, 2006)

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Vane shear test always gives a higher shear strength than the triaxial test results.

Therefore, the results should be factored for safe design.

According to Bjerrum, cu design = . cu vane shear, where depends on PI, LL and e.

3. Cone Penetration Test (CPT)

This test doesnt need borehole.

A 600 apex cone with base area of 10 cm2 (mechanical or electrical) is

inserted into the ground at 20 mm/sec.

Resistance to penetration is measured. Two resistance components are

measured.

Cone resistance (qc) Vertical force/plan area of cone

Frictional resistance (fc) Resistance by the sleeve Vertical

force/surface area of sleeve

Pore water pressure can also be measured by piezocone.

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Pressuremeter Test

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Dilatometer Test

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#1

Shown on the attached figure is the boring log (ABH-0809) for a site in Papua (Irian Jaya),

Indonesia. At the location of the boring, an excavation will be made to a final grade elevation of

24 m. There will be a drainage system installed so that the final water table will not exceed the

final grade elevation. The saturated unit weights of the SM and SP soils were measured to be

3 3

approximately 18.8 kN/m and the moist unit weights were 18.5 kN/m . The saturated unit weights

3

of the CH and ML soils were measured to be about 18.2 kN/m and the moist unit weights were

3

measured to be 18.0 kN/m .

(a) Plot the total stress, pore water pressure, and effective stress for +24 m MSL to -20 m MSL

prior to excavation.

(b) Plot the total stress, pore water pressure, and effective stress for +24 m MSL to -20 m MSL

after excavation.

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#2

Attached is a boring log (NSA-003) from the same site. This boring was drilled offshore at the

proposed location of a jetty. In addition to the unit weights given above, the CL soils had

3

saturated unit weights of 18.5 kN/m .

(a) Plot the total stress, pore water pressure, and effective stress from the mud line (ocean floor)

to the depth where the boring was terminated. You should take into account that the unit weight

of salt water is greater than the unit weight of fresh water (generally specific gravity of sea water

is 1.03).

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Foundation

Lowest part of the structure is foundation.

Function of the foundation is to transfer the load of the structure safely to the

soil,

Without excessive settlement, and

Without shear failure

Bearing capacity of the soil is evaluated to examine whether the design load can

be transferred safely or not.

Types of foundation

Mat Foundation

Figure 1 Different type of shallow foundations

Spread footing individual footing

Strip footing length > 5 x width

Combined footing two footings combined

Mat Foundation Many footings combined by a slab

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Bearing pressures

Depth of footing

Footing dimensions

Anticipated settlement magnitude and rate

Site preparation and construction considerations

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Ultimate bearing capacity of the shallow foundation

After the application of the load, soil settles.

Settlement increases with the increase in load (Q).

At a particular value of Q, settlement increases rapidly without any increase in

Q.

This shows the bearing capacity failure.

Value of stress (Q/area) at that situation is bearing capacity of soil.

At failure, clear failure surfaces are formed and soil bulges at both sides.

This type of failure (occurred in a stiff soil) is called general shear failure.

When a load is applied, a triangular wedge shaped zone is pushed down. This

presses the adjacent soil upwards and sideways.

At the load of Qu, Factor of safety is 1.

However, in the case of loose sand, load settlement curve becomes steep beyond

certain value of Q, but shear failure does not extend to ground. Only about 67%

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of the shear strength is mobilized. This type of failure is called a local shear

failure.

Figure 6 shows the relationship between relative depth of foundation, relative

density and mode of failure.

Figure 6 Various modes of foundation failure for different relative depths and densities

q = . Df

Df </= B

Df

Terzaghi first derived the equation for the strip footing.

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In figure 8,

Zone I (ABJ) is an elastic zone. Angles BAJ = ABJ =

Zone II (AJE and BJD) are radial shear zones, made with spiral curved surface.

Zone III (AEG and BDF) are Rankines passive zones.

Angles AGE = GAE = FBD = BFD = 450 /2

When a uniform pressure of q is applied to those walls, AJ pushes AJEG and BJ

pushes BJDF. Pp is the total passive force acting at angle from the normal

surface.

But of soil is .

Therefore, from the geometry of the wedge, Pp should be vertical.

Cohesion provided by the soil along the failure plane = c . AJ or c . BJ,

but AJ = BJ = b/cos

For ABJ to be in equilibrium,

qu .(2.b).1 W 2.C. sin ' 2.Pp

1

But, W . .2.b.b. tan ' or W . b 2 . tan ' and

2

c '.b

C

cos '

Now, 2 b qu 2 Pp 2 b c' tan ' b 2 tan '

Pp b

Therefore, qu c' tan ' tan ' (1)

b 2

Pp can be calculated using passive earth pressure theory. Total Pp is occurred due

to three force components, , c and qu.

1. Pp due to

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1 1

Pp H H K or Pp H 2 K

2 2

As = , This force is acting vertical.

a b c

a) contribution of weight b) Contribution of cohesion, c and c) contribution of surcharge q

2. Pp due to c

Pp c' H K c

This force is also acting vertical

3. Pp due to q

Pp q H K q

This force is also acting vertical

1

Pp H 2 K c' H K c q H K q

2

1

or Pp (b tan ' ) K c' (b tan ' ) K c q (b tan ' ) K q

2

2

Substituting it to equation (1)

1 b

qu b tan 2 K c' tan ' K c q tan K q c' tan ' tan '

2 2

1 b

Or qu b tan 2 K tan 'c' tan ' K c c' tan ' q tan ' K q

2 2

1 1

Or qu b ( tan 2 K tan ' ) c' tan ' ( K c 1) q tan ' K q

2 2

Therefore, qu b N c' N c q N q

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1

Or qu B N c' N c q N q

2

Where,

1

N tan ' ( K tan '1)

2

N c tan ' ( K c 1)

N q K q tan '

For square Footing,

qu 0.4 B N 1.3 c' N c q N q

For circular footing,

qu 0.3 B N 1.3 c' N c q N q

N, Nc, and Nq depend on the value of , which is shown in the table.

2 2

c ' c' tan ' tan '

3 3

1

qu ' B N 'c ' N c ' q N q '

2

For square Footing, qu ' 0.4 B N '1.3 c ' N c ' q N q '

Effect of Ground Water Table

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Figure 10 Effect of the location of ground water table on the bearing capacity of shallow foundation

= for N term

1

= average for N term average ( D ' ( B D))

B

Factor of Safety

qu qu

FS Therefore, q allowable

qallowable FS

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W( D L ) W F W S

Generally, qu

A

Where, W(D+L) = Dead and live load

Wf = Weight of footing

Ws = Weight of soil above footing

A = Area of the base of the footing

Many cases, soil is considered same as concrete and as the foundation already has the

weight of soil and footing, net ultimate load is calculated as,

W( D L ) qu ( net )

qu ( net ) qu q and q allowable( net )

A FS

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Modified General Bearing Capacity Equation

However, it was found later that it is (450+ /2).

The bearing capacity factors were modified accordingly as recommended by

Meyerhof. Major difference comes for N factor.

1

qu B N c' N c q N q

2

Where,

N c ( N q 1) cot '

tan ' '

Nq e tan (45

2

)

2

N ( N q 1) tan(1.4 ' )

Modified bearing capacity factors are given in the following table.

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capacity theory is more accurate.

However, the above equations are also modified to incorporate depth factor (to

account for shearing resistance of soil above base), shape factor (to determine

the bearing capacity for other than strip shape), and load inclination factor (to

account for inclined load). The modified equation is:

1

qu Fs Fd Fi B N c' Fcs Fcd Fci N c qFqs Fqd Fqi N q

2

Where,

Fs Fcs Fqs Shape factors

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Replace with F

Replace with F

Replace with F

Vesics equation

N 2( N q 1) tan '

Hansens equation

N 1.5( N q 1) tan '

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In many cases foundations are subjected to moments along with the vertical

loads. eg. Cantilever retaining wall.

In such cases, the pressure distribution is not uniform.

Q 6M

q m ax Q = Vertical load and M = Moment on foundation

BL B 2 L

Q 6M

q m in

BL B 2 L

M

e

Q

Q 6e

Therefore, q max (1 )

BL B

Q 6e

qmin (1 )

BL B

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When eccentricity is B/6, qmin is 0.

For eccentricity more than that, qmin becomes negative and bring soil in tension.

This tension develops crack and tension cant last long.

Therefore, the portion of foundation beyond this zone cant be effective.

At that time effective width will be as shown in the figure above and below.

4Q

q max

3L ( B 2e)

Qult

Qall

FS

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Meyerhofs Theory for the Calculation of Ultimate Bearing Capacity

of Eccentric Loading

B = B 2 e and L = L 2 e

2. Use the following equation to evaluate the bearing capacity of foundation.

1

qu Fs Fd Fi B N c' Fcs Fcd Fci N c qFqs Fqd Fqi N q

2

For depth factor, use B, for other factors use B and L.

Qult qu B ' L'

4. Factor of safety against bearing capacity failure,

Qult

FS

Q

5. Factor of safety against qmax is,

qu

FS

qmax

Foundation with two-way eccentricity

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Let, Mx is moment about x-axis and My be the moment about y-axis.

And x = eB and y = eL

My Mx

eB and eL

Qult Qult

Qult = qu A

For calculation follow the same method as explained for one way eccentricity.

Case 1

1 1

eB B and eL L

6 6

The effective area is shown in the figure

1 3eB 3eL

A' B1 L1 where, B1 B(1.5 ) and L1 L(1.5 )

2 B L

A'

Effective length is larger of B1 and L1 and Effective width is equals to B '

'

L

Case 2

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1 1

0 eB B and eL L

6 2

The effective area is shown in the figure.

1

A' B( L1 L2 ) L1 and L2 can be determined from the following figure.

2

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A'

B '

, whichever is larger.

L1orL2

Effective length (L) is larger of L1 and L2 .

Case 3

1 1

0 eB B and eL L

2 6

The effective area is shown in the figure.

1

A' L( B1 B2 ) B1 and B2 can be determined from the following figure.

2

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A'

B

'

Effective length (L) is L .

L

Case 4

1 1

eB B and eL L

6 6

The effective area is shown in the figure.

B2 and L2 can be determined by using EL/L curve sloping upward and downwards

respectively.

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1

A' L2 B ( L L2 )( B1 B2 )

2

A'

B

'

Effective length (L) is L .

L

Case 5

Circular Foundation

0.1 2.8 1.85

0.2 2.4 1.32

0.3 2.0 1.2

0.4 1.61 0.80

0.5 1.23 0.67

0.6 0.93 0.50

0.7 0.62 0.37

0.8 0.35 0.23

0.9 0.12 0.12

1.0 0.00 0.00

A'

B

'

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1. You have to design a foundation based on consideration of bearing capacity only for a

continuous wall footing shown below. Please calculate the width of wall. Use a minimum factor of

safety of 2.5. Unit weight of soil is 120 pcf.

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2. SPT result per depth below the ground is presented below for a foundation construction site.

Load of superstructure above the foundation is shown in the figure. Based on consideration of

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3. Please calculate the allowable gross vertical load bearing capacity of foundation for the

following parameters.

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0

4. A column footing of 3 m x 2 m size in plan is shown in the figure. D f = 2 m, = 25 , and c = 50

kPa. Using FS = 4, determine the net allowable load the foundation could carry.

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5. Determine the size of footing for a 3 m deep square foundation. Vertical gross allowable load is

0

150 kips. Consider unit weight of soil as 115 pcf, = 40 , c = 0, FS = 3.

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6. Shown in figure is an eccentrically loaded foundation. Determine the ultimate load that the

foundation can carry.

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7. A square footing is shown in the figure. If FS = 4, determine the size of footing.

8. A shallow foundation shown in the figure below is 4 ft. x 6 ft. in plan and is subjected to a

centric load and a moment. If eB = 0.4 ft, eL = 1.2 ft, and Df = 3 ft, determine the allowable load

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that the foundation can carry. Use a factor of safety of 4. Laboratory test result shows the

0

following soil properties: Unit weight = 115 pcf, = 35 , c = 0.

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In many cases, size of the foundation is controlled by settlement, not the

bearing capacity. The allowable settlement is controlled by the building

codes. Typical value is shown in table 1.

immediate settlement and consolidation settlement.

Immediate settlement takes place during and right after the construction.

Consolidation settlement takes time.

Total settlement is the sum of elastic settlement and consolidation

settlement.

We need to calculate vertical stress increase in the soil mass due to the

increased loading to estimate the settlement.

Load (Das, 2006)

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P 3 1

z 2

z 2 r 2

(( ) 1) 5 / 2

z

P

z I1

z2

Where,

3 1

I1

2 (( r / z ) 1) 5 / 2

2

1

z q.1

(

R / z ) 2

1

3 /

2

z

We can calculate for different values of R/z (R and z are known for one point, but as

q

R is known, we can even evaluate z for different z). As q is known, we can come up with

the value for one R/z value using the table.

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uniformly loaded circular area (Das, 2006)

2. At any point

The loading condition is shown in the figure below.

Vertical stress at any point can be calculated using the following equation (Ahlvin and

Ulery,1962)

z q( A' B ' )

Where, A and B are functions of z/R and r/R respectively. They can be calculated from

tables shown below.

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Figure 3 Increase in vertical stress at any point below the uniformly loaded circular area

(Das, 2006)

Table 4 Variation of A with z/R and r/R

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Table 4 continued

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Table 5 continued

point below the edge of rectangularly

loaded area (Das, 2006)

The force system is shown in figure.

To calculate the vertical load at point A, which is right below a corner of the loaded

rectangular area, we can extend Boussinesqs solution.

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z q.I 4 (17)

Where,

I4 is a function of m and n. m = B/z n = L/z

We can get values of I4 from the table and figure for different m and n values.

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Table 6 continued..

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Vertical stress at any point caused by rectangularly loaded area

To calculate the stress at any point under a rectangularly loaded area, we divide the

area into 4 rectangles, all of which touch that point (as shown in figure). Then we

calculate the stress for each rectangle and sum it up to get the total stress.

z q.( I 4(1) I 4( 2) I 4(3) I 4( 4) )

Use the same chart as in the earlier case to get values for I4.

below a rectangularly loaded area (Das, 2006)

In most cases, the stress right below the center of the rectangular load is required.

This can be obtained by further simplification of the parameters.

z q.I 5

Where, I5 is a function of m1 and n1.

m1 = L/B and n1 = z/b

where, b = B/2

I5 can be obtained from table for different values of m1 and n1.

Figure 7 Increase in vertical stress below the center of a rectangularly loaded area

(Das, 2006)

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Other Useful Charts

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Approximate Method To Determine the Increase in Stress

This method is called 2:1 method, as shown in the figure. i.e. stress from the

foundation spreads out along lines with V:H slope of 2:1.

increase in vertical stress below the center

of a loaded area (Das, 2006)

q0 BL

( B z )( L z )

Average Vertical Stress increase Due to Rectangularly Loaded Area

In many cases we need to calculate the average stress increase.

av q0 I a

Where,

B L

I a f (m2 , n2 ) m2 n2

H H

Figure 8 Average vertical stress increase due to rectangularly loaded flexible area

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Elastic Settlement of Foundation

and rigid foundation

1 s

2

S e q0 (B' ) IsI f

Es

Where,

q0 = Net applied pressure in the foundation

s = Poissons ratio of the soil

Es = Average modulus of elasticity of soil below foundation from z=0 to z=4B

B = B/2 for center of foundation and B for the corner of foundation

= Factor that depends on the location where settlement is calculated

1 2 s

Is = Shape factor = F1 F2

1 s

F1 & F2 = f (m, n)

L H

For center of foundation, m' n' 4

B B

2

L H

For corner of foundation, m' n' 1

B B

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For rigid foundation, S e ( rigid ) 0.93 S e ( Flexible,center )

In most of the cases soil deposit is non homogenous and Es may vary with depth.

In such cases,

Es

E s (i ) z

z

Where, Es(i) = Soil modulus of elasticity within a depth z

z = H or 5B, whichever is smaller

q0 B

S e( flexible) A1 A2 A1 = f (H/B and L/B) & A2 = f (Df/B)

Es

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1. A flexible circular area is subjected to a uniformly distributed stress of 3 ksf. The diameter

of loaded area is 9.5 ft. Determine the stress increase in the soil mass at a point located

7.5 ft below the center of the loaded area.

2. Figure shown below is a flexible rectangular area. Following parameters are knows:

B1 = 1.2 m B2 = 3m

L1 = 3m L2 = 6m

The area is subjected to a uniform stress of 110 kPa. Please determine the stress

increase from 0 to 5 m. below the center of the area.

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3. Figure shown below is a flexible rectangular area. Following parameters are knows:

B1 = 5 ft B2 = 10 ft

L1 = 7 ft L2 = 12 ft

The area is subjected to a uniform stress of 2.5 ksf. Please determine the stress increase

from 0 to 20 ft. below the center of the area.

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4. A foundation system is shown in the following figure. Determine the average stress

increase in clay layer below the center of foundation due to the net foundation load of 50

ton.

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5. A planned flexible load area is shown in the figure. Size of the foundation is 3 m x 4.6 m

and carries a uniformly distributed load of 180 kPa. Estimate the elastic settlement below

the center of the loaded area. Depth of foundation is 2 m and H is infinity.

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6.

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7. Shown in the following figure is a foundation measuring 1.5 m x 3.0 m and supported by

a saturated clay. Depth of foundation is 1.2 m and H is 3 m. Es of clay is 600 kPa,

foundation pressure is 150 kPa. Determine the elastic settlement of foundation.

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Consolidation Settlement

All soils settle under load, causing settlement of the structures founded on or within them.

Settlement problems are actually two problems in one both the magnitude and time rate of

settlement should be calculated. If the settlement is not kept to a tolerable limit, the

desired use of structure may be impaired or design life of the structure may be reduced.

Settlements can be uniform or differential, the later is crucial in design.

Elastic settlement or immediate settlement

Caused by elastic deformation of soil without any change in moisture content.

They are calculated based on equation derived from theory of elasticity.

Primary consolidation settlement

It is the change in volume of a fine grained soil caused by the expulsion of

water from the voids and transfer of load from the excess pore water

pressure to the soil particles.

It is very important in fine grained soil.

Secondary consolidation settlement

Is the change in volume of fine grained soil caused by the adjustment of the

soil fabric (internal structure) after primary consolidation has been

completed. It is also called creep.

Effective stress is constant at this consolidation stage.

Total settlement, ST = S c + Ss + Se

Where,

Sc = Primary consolidation settlement

Ss = Secondary consolidation settlement

Se = Elastic (immediate) settlement

For foundations bearing on coarse grained soil, most of the total settlement appears

right after the application of load.

Primary consolidation in coarse grained soil also appears rapidly due to high

permeability.

In case of fine grained soil, primary consolidation, which extends over a long time, is

the main cause of settlement although small amount of elastic settlement

(immediate settlement) is also occurred. In such soils, secondary settlement also

occurs but the magnitude is far less than the primary settlement.

Secondary settlement in organic soil is more than that in the inorganic soil.

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Consolidation Settlement

Increase in vertical stress causes immediate increase in pore water pressure.

Time taken for the drainage of water with the increase in stress depends on the

value of coefficient of permeability.

Drainage causes reduction in volume of void which causes settlement of soil.

In sandy soil, elastic settlement and consolidation occurs simultaneously.

When saturated compressible clay layer is subjected to a stress increase, elastic

settlement occurs immediately, but consolidation settlement takes time. Therefore,

associated volume change takes longer time period.

In clays, Sc >>>>>>>>>>>>>> Se

Figure 1 Variation of total stress, pore pressure, and effective stress in a doubly drained clay layer (Das, 2006)

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In figure 1, = + u

At t = 0, = 0 and at t = , u = 0

consolidation (Das, 2006)

The laboratory consolidation curve will give you three patterns of settlement

Stage I = initial compression, which is caused by preloading.

Primary consolidation

Secondary consolidation

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Ws

Hs

A.Gs . w

Where,

Ws = weight of soil solid (figure 3)

A = Area of specimen

Gs = specific gravity of soil solid

w = unit weight of water

Initial height of void = H v = H - Hs Hs = Initial height of specimen

Vv Hv A Hv

e0 = =

Vs Hs A Hs

For 1st incremental loading (1)

H 1

e1

Hs

H v H 1 H v H 1

new void ratio e1 e0 e1

Hs Hs Hs

H v H 2

Likewise, e2

Hs

Plot e-log curve based on the available data as shown in figure 4.

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Effect of Over-consolidation

Soil is over-consolidated if it was subjected to a higher stresses in the past, than

the present stress it is subjected to.

Over-consolidation effect in the soil comes with erosion, deglaciation, landslides etc.

b

c

Figure 5 Loading unloading reloading cycle for e-log curve (Das, 2006)

Release the load gradually to b and check e values. Void ratio ed is not equal to

eb. The soil does not return to b.

Increase the load again to the pressure equal to c, the consolidation curve does

not follow the swelling curve.

Eventually with the increase in load, the curve follows the pre-consolidation

curve pattern. Curve for bcg is the curve for normally consolidated soil. The

curve dc is the curve for over consolidated soil. dc is recompression curve.

Over consolidation ratio at d = OCR = c/d.

Pre-consolidation stress is denoted by p.

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Determination of pre-consolidation pressure (p)

Choose by eye the point of minimum radius of curvature on the e-log curve (point A

in figure 6).

Draw a horizontal line through point A.

Draw a line tangent to the curve at point A.

Bisect the angle made by steps 2 and 3.

Extend the straight line portion of the virgin compression curve until it intersects

the bisecting line from step 4.

The intersection point gives the best estimate of pre-consolidation pressure.

A = Cross sectional area of clay layer

0 = Effective over-burden pressure

= Increase in stress

Sc = Primary settlement

Let, V0 and V1 be initial and final volumes, respectively.

(V) = Sc A = Vv0 Vv1 = Vv

Vv V0 A.H

But, e and Vs

Vs 1 e0 1 e0

AH

Then, Vv = Sc . A = e . Vs = e.

1 e0

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e

Sc H

1 e0

Stage I

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Stage II

Find p.

Measure eo.

Make a horizontal line from e0 and a vertical line from p. They intersect at g.

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Calculate (0.4 x e0) and plot at e, and make a horizontal line from e. That intersects

the curve at f.

Join g and f by a straight line.

Slope of gf is Cc.

Empirical equation:

n0

Cc = 0.009 (LL 10) Cc =

371 .747 4.275 n0

Swell Index (Cs)

1 1

C s ( )C c

5 10

Empirical equation:

LL

C s 0.0463 ( )Gs

100

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Time rate of settlement

From Terzaghis equation for time rate of pore pressure dissipation (figure 11) with

consolidation,

cv t

Time factor T 2

H dr

k

Where, cv = coefficient of consolidation =

a

w( v )

1 e0

where, av = coefficient of compressibility

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u0 u z

Average degree of consolidation i.e. uz = is a function of T (Figure 12).

u0

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Calculation of coefficient of consolidation (cv)

There are four different methods, but earlier two methods are commonly used. Two most

common ones are described here.

1. Casagrandes Log of time method (figure 13)

Make h vs log t plot.

Find t100 by extending the tangents for primary and secondary consolidation

lines. The point of intersection (A) gives the time for 100% primary

consolidation.

Find d100 corresponding to t100.

At the initial parabolic curve select at point for time t1 (point B)

Mark the point in the curve that corresponds to time t 2, which is equal to (4

x t1) (Point C).

Let vertical difference between point B and C be x. Then make a line parallel

to x axis, which is located at x height from point B.

That line intersects y axis at a point, which is a point for settlement at time

= 0 i.e. (d0).

Based on d0 and d100, fine d50.

d 0 d100

Settlement for 50% consolidation = d 50

2

Using the table for 50% consolidation, T50 = 0.197, using Terzaghis equation,

cv t 50

T50 2

H dr

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2

0.197 .H dr

Therefore, cv , Hdr = average longest drainage path.

t 50

Draw d vs. t curve.

Draw a line AB through early portion of the curve. That line intersects x-

axis at B.

Measure OB.

Make a point in x-axis i.e. C in such a way that, OC = 1.15 (OB).

Connect A and C with a straight line. This line intersects the consolidation

curve at a point whose t value corresponds to 90% consolidation.

cv t 90

T90 2

H dr

Using the chart, T90 = 0.848

2

0.848 .H dr

Therefore, cv

t 90

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1. A foundation for an oil tank is proposed for a site with a soil profile as shown in figure 1. A

specimen of the fine-grained soil, 75 mm in diameter and 20 mm thick, was tested in an

oedometer in a laboratory. The initial water content was 62% and G s was 2.7. The

vertical stresses were applied incrementally each increment remaining on the specimen

until the pore water pressure change was negligible. The cumulative settlement values at

the end of each loading steps are shown in table 1. The time settlement data when the

vertical stress was 240 kPa are shown in table 2. The tank, when full, will impose vertical

stresses of 90 kPa and 75 kPa at the top and bottom of the fine grained soil layer,

respectively. Assuming that the vertical stress is linearly distributed in this layer,

a) Determine the primary consolidation settlement of the fine grained soil layer when the

tank is full

b) Calculate and plot the settlement-time curve.

zzzz

Figure 1

Table 1

Settlement (mm) 0.10 0.11 0.21 1.13 2.17 3.15

Table 2

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2. The foundations supporting two columns of a building are shown in figure 2. An extensive

soil investigation was not carried out and it was assumed in the design of the footing that

the clay layer has an uniform thickness of 1.2 m. Two years after construction, the

building settled with the differential settlement of 10 mm. Walls of the building began

cracking. The doors have not jammed but by measuring the out of vertical distance of

the doors, it is estimated that they would become jammed if the differential settlement

exceeded 24 mm. A subsequent soil investigation showed that the thickness of the clay

layer was not uniform but varies as shown in the figure 1. The owners would like to get an

estimate of the expected total differential settlement and how long it would take before

the doors become jammed. Could you perform those calculations?

Figure 2

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3. A bore hole at a site for a proposed building reveals the soil profile as shown in table 3. A

building is to be constructed on this site with its foundation at 2 m below ground level. The

building load is 30 MN and the foundation is rectangular with a width of 10 m and length of 15 m.

A sample of the clay was tested in an oedometer and the results obtained are shown in table 4.

Table 3

Table 4

Calculate the primary consolidation settlement. Assuming that the primary consolidation took 5

years to achieve in the field, calculate the secondary consolidation for the period of 10 years

beyond primary consolidation. Consider cs = one sixth of cc.

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1. An office building is to be located at a site with a representative soil strata as shown in the

figure. The loads from two columns of preliminary size 0.3 m x 0.3 m are shown in the figure.

Determine the suitable size of shallow foundation to safely transmit the loads. The total

settlement should not exceed 25 mm and the differential settlement should not exceed 10 mm.

The finished elevation is 0+00 m. Consider the following soil parameters:

Sand Clay

Poissons ratio 0.3 0.5

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity 10 MPa 1 MPa

Effective friction angle 330 -

Undrained shear strength - 55 kPa

Coefficient of Consolidation - 0.24

Water content - 20%

Specific gravity 2.65 2.7

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2. Shown in the figure is cross section of a building frame. The frost level is at 0.7 m below the

ground level. Therefore, it is recommended to locate the depth of the foundation at 1 m depth

below the ground. The total settlement should not exceed 25 mm and the differential settlement

should not exceed 10 mm. Geotechnical investigation revealed the following soil parameters.

Design the appropriate size of footing for the factor of safety of 4.

Poissons ratio 0.3 0.5

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity 8 MPa 500 kPa

0

Effective friction angle 30 -

Undrained shear strength - 100 kPa

3 3

Dry unit weight 17 kN/m 15 kN/m

3 3

Saturated unit weight 20 kN/m 18 kN/m

Cc - 0.24

Cr 0.04

Specific Gravity 2.70

Moisture Content 40%

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1. Shown in the figure is a plan and cross section of a building frame. The frost level is at 3

ft below the ground level. Therefore, it is recommended to locate the depth of the

foundation at 4 ft. below the ground. Geotechnical investigation revealed the following

soil properties:

For sand: = 100 pcf sat = 122 pcf Es = 3200 psi

= 30

0

Poissons ratio = 0.3 c = 0

For Clay: sat = 118 pcf Es = 1200 psi Poissons ratio = 0.5

= 25

0

c = 400 psf e0 = 0.7

Cc = 0.25 Cr or Cs = 0.06 Preconsolidation = 1 ksf

Design the appropriate size of footing for the factor of safety of 6. Consider the bearing

capacity failure criteria only. There is a bed rock right below the clay layer.

2. A residual building is to be located at a site with a representative soil strata as shown in the

figure. The loads from all columns are same and size and spacing of the columns are shown

in the figure. Please check whether the size of the mat foundation safely transmits the loads

without excessive settlement or not. Consider the following soil parameters:

sat Poissons ratio 0.5

3

19 kN/m

d

3

18 kN/m

Cu 70 kPa E 1 MPa

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Cc 0.3 Cr 0.05

3. An office building is to be located at a site with a representative soil strata as shown in the

figure. The loads from two columns of preliminary size 0.3 m x 0.3 m are shown in the figure.

Determine the suitable size of shallow foundation to safely transmit the loads. The total

settlement should not exceed 25 mm and the differential settlement should not exceed 10 mm.

The finished elevation is 0+00 m. Consider the following soil parameters:

Sand Clay

Poissons ratio = 0.3 Poissons ratio = 0.5

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity = 10 MPa Youngs Modulus of Elasticity = 1 MPa

0

Effective friction angle = 33 Undrained shear strength = 55 kPa

3 3

Dry unit weight = 18 kN/m Saturated unit weight = 17.5 kN/m

3

Saturated unit weight = 19 kN/m Coefficient of Consolidation = 0.24

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4. Shown in the figure is a plan and cross section of a building frame. The frost level is at 3 ft

below the ground level. Therefore, it is recommended to locate the depth of the foundation at

4 ft. below the ground. Geotechnical investigation revealed the following soil properties:

For sand: = 100 pcf sat = 122 pcf Es = 3200 psi

= 30

0

Poissons ratio = 0.3 c = 0

For Clay: sat = 118 pcf Es = 1200 psi Poissons ratio = 0.5

= 25

0

c = 400 psf e0 = 0.7

Cc = 0.25 Cr or Cs = 0.06 Preconsolidation = 1 ksf

Design the appropriate size of footing for the factor of safety of 6. Consider the bearing

capacity failure criteria only. There is a bed rock right below the clay layer.

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For the footing you designed, calculate the total elastic settlement i.e. settlement at the sand

layer and settlement at the clay layer.

5. An office building is to be located at a site with a representative soil strata as shown in the

figure. The loads from two columns of preliminary size 0.3 m x 0.3 m are shown in the figure.

Determine the suitable size of shallow foundation to safely transmit the loads. The total

settlement should not exceed 25 mm and the differential settlement should not exceed 10

mm. The finished elevation is 0+00 m. Consider the following soil parameters:

Sand Clay

Poissons ratio 0.3 0.5

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity 10 MPa 1 MPa

0 -

Effective friction angle 33

3 -

Dry unit weight 18 kN/m

3

Saturated unit weight 19 kN/m 17.5

3

kN/m

Undrained shear strength - 150

kPa

Coefficient of Consolidation - 0.24

Water content - 20%

Specific gravity 2.65 2.7

6. You have to design an appropriate foundation for a 4 story residential building. Plan of the

building is shown in Figure 1. An exploratory boring revealed underground information, which

is presented in Figure 2. The column loads that was calculated based on the prevailing

practice are shown in Table 1. Because of the property line issue, you are required to design

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a combined footing for columns A1 and B1. Please, determine the suitable size of shallow

foundation for that combined footing to safely transmits the load of A1 and B1 to the ground.

The total settlement should not exceed 25 mm and the differential settlement should not

exceed 10 mm. There is no frost depth. Therefore assume the depth of footing as 3 ft.

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A1 200 80

B1 300 180

C1 300 180

D1 200 80

A2 200 80

B2 300 180

C2 300 180

D2 200 80

A3 200 80

B3 300 180

C3 300 180

D3 200 80

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Combined Footing

Under normal condition, the spread and strip footings are economical.

In many cases low bearing capacity of soil warrants larger footing size, but

property line limits the dimension of the footing.

In such situation, we make combined footing for two or more columns and

such types of footings are called combined footings.

Size of the combined footing is determined based on the bearing capacity.

Depending on the shape, combined footings are rectangular, trapezoidal, and

strap.

1. Determine net allowable bearing capacity of soil based on the method you

studied in the spread footing.

2. Determine the area of foundation as,

Q1 Q2

A (1)

q net,allowable

Where, Q1, and Q2 = Column loads

qnet,allowable = Net allowable bearing capacity of soil

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3. Determine the location of the resultant (R) of the column load. For that, take

moment at the center of left column,

R . X Q2 .L3 where, R = Q1 + Q2

Q2 .L3

X (2)

Q1 Q2

4. If the resultant passes through the Center of footing, soil pressure will be

uniform. Lets make that situation for our designed foundation. Let L be the

length of foundation and L2 be the maximum projection we can make from the

center of the footing.

L

( X L2 )

2

L 2( L2 X ) (3)

5. Now calculate the required projection in the other side of the column (L1) as,

L1 L L2 L3 (4)

6. Calculate the width of the foundation.

A

B (5)

L

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Trapezoidal footings are designed when there are large column loads for an

isolated footing and there is a limited space.

Ultimate goal is to distribute the column loads uniformly.

Following steps are taken while designing the size of footings.

1. Determine the area of footing as we did for the rectangular footing.

Q1 Q2

A

q net,allowable

2. But, from the definition of the trapezoid,

B1 B2

A L (6)

2

3. Determine the location of the resultant exactly as in the rectangular footing.

Q2 .L3

X (7)

Q1 Q2

4. Calculate the centroid of the trapezoid from the left side boundary of the

footing.

B1 2 B2 L

X L2 ( ) (8)

B1 B2 3

5. From (8) and (6) calculate B1 and B2.

6. Note that centroid of the trapezoid should be located from one third to one

half of foundation length.

L L

X L2

3 2

In many cases we design a cantilever footing (figure 3) by introducing strap

beams to connect the eccentrically loaded foundations with other interior

foundations.

These footings replace the combined footings when the soil bearing capacity

is high and distance between the columns is large.

]

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Mat Foundation

If the area of the isolated footing is more than 50% of the entire building

plan, a large footing is designed to cover the entire structure. This type of

foundation is called mat or raft foundation.

Mats are designed at low bearing capacity soil supporting a high load.

There are different types of mat foundation, some of them are shown in

figure 3.

Flat plate thickened under column (b)

Beam and slabs (c)

Flat plates with pedestals

Slab with basement walls as a monolithic part of mat

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When it is essential to reduce the settlement and control buoyancy (under

water), mats are supported with piles.

Design of mat is same as that of the isolated footing, but width is the entire

width of the mat as shown in figure 5.

The gross bearing capacity of the mat is same as in the spread footing.

1

qu c' N c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi B N Fs Fd Fi

2

Net ultimate bearing capacity of a mat foundation is calculated as,

qnet,u qu q

A suitable safety factor should be chosen to calculate the allowable bearing

capacity. For mats on clay and sand, safety factor of 3 is taken, but minimum

safety factor of 2 is seldom used for clays.

Bearing capacity is calculated exactly in the same way as explained in the

preceding chapters.

If SPT value is known for a granular soil layer, following equation can also be

used,

N B 0.3

2

S

qnet (kPa) 60 ' Fd ( e

0.08 B 25

Where,

Df

Fd = 1 0.33( ) 1.33

B

Se = settlement

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As the width of mat foundation is large, the stress increase with depth is much

larger than that in the isolated footing.

For a maximum settlement of 2 in., a differential settlement of 0.75 in is

expected.

Q

Net allowable pressure q D f qall

A

Compensated foundation

Net pressure increase in the soil under the mat can be reduced by increasing Df.

This approach is called Compensated Foundation Design.

This method is used when foundations are designed on soft clays.

Deeper basement is made below the higher portion of superstructure and vice

versa to make the pressure distribution uniform.

At fully compensated foundation situation, depth of the foundation is

calculated as,

Q

Df

A

qnet ,u

FS

And Q

.D f

A

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Structural Design of the Mat Foundation

There are four methods for structural design of the mat foundation.

Conventional Rigid Method

Approximate Flexible Method

Finite Difference Method

Finite Element Method

However, first two methods are commonly used.

ACI 366 (1988) mentions that we need to use conventional rigid method if the c/c

spacing of column is less than 1.75/. Otherwise flexible method should be used.

B1K

4

4 EF I F

Where,

q

K = coefficient of sub-grade reaction = q = load/unit area

= Settlement

EF = Modulus of elasticity of foundation material

B1 h 3

IF = Moment of inertia of the cross-section of the beam =

12

B1 = Width of foundation (strip)

Following steps are followed to design the foundation with conventional rigid method.

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1. Calculate total load Q = Q1 + Q2 + .

2. Calculate stresses at all corners/ columns

Q Myx Mxy BL3 LB 3

q Ix Iy

A Iy Ix 12 12

M x Q.e y M y Q.e x

3. Calculate location of resultant force

Q1 .x1 'Q2 x2 '.... B

x' e x x'

Q 2

Q . y 'Q2 y 2 '.... L

y' 1 1 e y y '

Q 2

4. Check if q > q, all net

5. Divide the mat into several strips of width B1.

6. Draw Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram for individual strips

qI qF

For this, q av

2

Total reaction = qav x B1 x B

Total Q = Q1 + Q2 + ..

q av B1 B Q

Average load =

2

average load

Modified qav = q av

q av B1 B

F = (average load)/Q, Modify the column loads by multiplying with F.

7. Calculate depth of mat (d) with

U b0 d 0.34 f c ' U = Factored load (MN)

= Reduction factor (0.85)

fc = 28 day compressive strength of concrete (MN/m2)

For English unit

U b0 d (4) f c ' U = Factored load (lb)

fc = 28 day compressive strength of concrete (psi)

9. Calculate Mmax/B1

a

10. M U M 'Load factor As f y (d )

2

As f y

a

0.85 f c ' b

As = Area of steel

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fy = Field stress of steel

= 0.9

Figure 8 calculation of bo

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1. A mat foundation is shown in the figure. The values of column loads are as follows:

Q1 40 t Q6 60t

Q2 45t Q7 50t

Q3 40 t. Q8 50t

Q4 60t Q9 45t

Q5 60t

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2. A mat foundation is shown in the figure. Size of the all columns is 50 cm x 50 cm.

b) Using load factor of 1.7, design the mat foundation.

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3. A mat foundation is shown in figure below. Design parameters are also shown below.

Calculate the consolidation settlement under the center of mat.

L = 12 m B = 10 m Df = 2.2 m

Q = 30 MN x1 = x2 = 2 m, x3 = 5.2 m

Preconsolidation pressure = 105 kPa

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1. A mat foundation is shown in the figure. Size of the column is 0.5 m x 0.5 m. Calculate

the pressures at A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H.

(35 points)

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Pile Foundation

When one or more soil layers at upper depth are highly compressible or too weak

to support the load, we use pile foundation instead of the shallow foundation.

For this purpose, load is transferred to the bed rock or relatively stronger layer.

When the horizontal load at foundation is very high, pile foundation is used in

place of shallow foundation.

To bypass the load from expansive or collapsible soil layer to the stable layer,

we use pile foundation.

When foundation is to be constructed under water, pile foundation is preferred.

To be safer from the loss of bearing capacity due to scouring, we found the

bridge structures on piles.

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Types of Pile

Depending on the type of materials used, piles are classified as,

Steel Pile

Concrete Pile

Wooden Pile

Composite Pile

Steel Piles

They are either pipe piles (hollow or concrete filled) or H-piles. H-pile is

preferred over pipe or I sections.

Capacity: Qallowable As f s

Where, As = Cross-sectional area

fs = Allowable stress of steel (0.4 fy)

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To prevent from corrosion, either it is used in the non-acidic area or epoxy

coating is done before installation.

Length ranges from 50 to 200 ft. Load capacity ranges from 67 to 265 kips.

It is easy to handle and easy to reshape/cut off

It does not damage easily while driving.

It has high load carrying capacity

But it is costly, cause a large noise during construction, and cause corrosion.

Figure 2 Steel pile sections a) splicing of H-pile by welding, b) splicing of pipe pile by welding,

c) splicing of H-pile by bolts, d) flat driving point of pile, e) conical driving point of pile

Concrete Pile

They are either pre-cast, pre-stressed, or cast-in-situ

Precast piles are available in rectangular or square shape.

Usual length for pre-cast pile ranges 30 50 ft, pre-stressed pile ranges from

30 - 150 ft, and cast-in-situ piles ranges from 15 150 ft.

Usual load for pre-cast pile ranges 67 675 kips, pre-stressed pile ranges from

1700 - 1900 kips, and cast-in-situ piles ranges from 45 - 115 kips.

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Concrete piles are relatively cheap, can be connected to super structures easily,

are corrosion resistant, but are difficult to cut-off and are subjected to

damage while driving.

Capacity: Qallowable As f s Ac f c

Where, As, Ac = Cross-sectional area of steel and concrete, respectively

fs, fc = Allowable stress of steel and concrete, respectively

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Timber Pile

They are tree trunks

These piles are used under water, especially in the bay area.

Usual length ranges from 15 to 50 ft. and load carrying capacity ranges from 67

to 115 kips.

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Capacity: Qallowable Ap f w

Where, Ap = Cross-sectional area

fw = Allowable stress of wood (0.4 fy)

Composite Pile

They are made of more than 2 materials. Steel and concrete or concrete and

timber combinations are common.

Piles are divided into 3 major groups as per their load transfer functions:

Point Bearing Piles

Friction Piles

Compaction Piles

Used when bed rock is available at reasonable depth

Load bearing capacity depends on the bearing capacity of soil layer where the

pile is resting.

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Sometimes, piles are extended slightly inside a reasonably hard stratum

although firm bed rock is not available.

Figure 8 Calculation for load bearing (a and b) piles and friction piles (c)

Qp = Load carried at the tip

Qs = Load carried by skin friction

In this type of pile Qs is very small and Qu Q p

Friction Piles

When bed rock is not available at reasonable depth, load is transferred through

the skin friction even at the softer materials.

Value of Qs is very small and Qu Qs

Length of friction pile depends on shear strength of soil, applied load, and pile

size.

Compaction Piles

Compaction piles are driven to achieve proper compaction

Length depends on relative density of soil, desired relative density, and required

depth of compaction.

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Installation of Piles

Drop hammer

Single acting air or steam hammer

Double acting and differential air or steam hammer

Diesel hammer

A cap is attached to the pile to safeguard from damage.

Figure 9 Pile driving equipment- a) drop hammer and b) single acting air or stem hammer

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Figure 9 Pile driving equipment- c) double acting and differential air or stem hammer, d) diesel

hammer, e and f) vibratory pile driver

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Estimation of Pile Capacity

Qu Q p Qs

Qp = Point bearing capacity (Load carried at the tip)

Qs = Load carried by skin friction as a result of soil-pile interface

1

qp Fs Fd Fi D N c' Fcs Fcd Fci N c qFqs Fqd Fqi N q

2

But D <<<<<<< than L. Therefore,

Q p q p Ap

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Table 1 Meyerhofs shape, depth, and inclination factors for rectangular footing

Frictional Resistance

Qs p L f

Where, p = perimeter of pile

L = Incremental pile length that has constant p and f.

f = unit friction resistance

Allowable Load

Qu

Qall

FS

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Meyerhofs method for estimation of Qp

Sand

Or Q p qN q * Ap but Q p ql A p

ql 0.5 Pa N q * tan ' Pa = 100 kPa

L

ql 0.4 Pa N 60 * 4 Pa N 60 Average N60 is from 4 D to 10 D depth.

D

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Clay

=0

Frictional Resistance (Qs)

Sand

L = 15 D Qs p L f

From 0 to L, f K 0 ' tan ' = 0.8

From 0 to L to L, f f zL'

For bored pile K = K0

For low displacement driven pile K = 1.4 x K0

For high displacement driven pile K = 1.8 x K0

high displacement = 0.02 low displacement = 0.01

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Clay

Method

Qs f p L f cu = adhesion factor

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Method

For Normally consolidated clays u = 4 to 6 cu

But this excess pore pressure dissipates within a month.

Clay becomes remolded clay then after as CD situation prevails.

Shearing resistance can be calculated with effective normal stress

Qs f p L f 0' K 0 tan R '

Point Bearing Capacity in Rock

q p qu ( N 1) qu = Unconfined compression strength

'

N tan 2 (45 ) qu, design = qu, lab/5

2

qu ( design) ( N 1). A p

Qall

FS

Pile Load test

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Figure 18 a) Remolded or compacted zone around a pile driven into soft clay, b) Nature of

variation of cu with time for pile driving in a soft clay

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Piles in a Group

Sand

In most of the cases, piles are used in groups as shown in the figure in order to

transmit the structural load to the subsoil.

Those groups of piles are connected at the top with a pile cap. Those caps can

be right on the ground level or above the ground level as shown in the figure.

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When a number of piles are arranged to transmit the load as a group, there will

be overlap between the stresses transmitted by some piles, as shown in figure.

This reduces the efficiency of pile in terms of soil bearing capacity.

Ideally, if the spacing is large enough, soil bearing capacity of the group equals

the total soil bearing capacity of the individual piles.

Standard practice says that such spacing should be more than 2.5 times (in many

cases goes up to 3.5 times) the diameter of pile.

Qg (u )

Q u

Where,

Qg(u) = Ultimate load bearing capacity of pile group

Qu = Ultimate load bearing capacity of a single pile

For friction piles, if the spacing of the piles is wide enough, each pile acts as an

individual pile.

Otherwise, all piles act as a group of pile.

where,

Pg = Perimeter = 2(n1 n2 2)d 4 D for groups of n1 rows and n2 columns

fav = unit frictional resistance

where,

P = Perimeter

Qg (u ) f av 2(n1 n2 2)d 4 DL

Q u n1n2 pLf av

Or

2(n1 n2 2)d 4D

n1n2 p

Qg (u ) Qu

2(n1 n2 2)d 4D

And

n1n2 p

Q u

But, if 1 Qg (u ) Qu

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There are other equations too to calculate group pile efficiency. We can use a chart to

calculate group efficiency as shown in figure.

in sand

Saturated Clays

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1. Calculate ultimate bearing capacity of a single pile

Q u n1n2 (Q p Qs )

But

Q p Ap 9cu ( p )

Qs pcu L

Therefore,

Q u

n1n2 9 Ap cu ( p ) pcu L

2. Determine ultimate bearing capacity of a pile group assuming that a pile is acting

as a block of dimension Lg x Bg x L

Q p ( g ) Ap cu ( p ) N c* Lg Bg cu ( p ) N c*

Qs ( g ) 2( Lg Bg )cu L

Therefore,

Q u( g ) Lg Bg cu ( p ) Nc* 2( Lg Bg )cu L

Note: Check settlements using the similar concepts as you used in the shallow

foundation.

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1. You are driving a square prestressed concrete pile of 20 m length. Size of the

pile is 460 mm x 460 mm. The pile is embedded entirely into a sand homogenous

sand layer. Water table is far below the pile tip. Following parameters are known

from the field test.

= 18.6 kN/m3 = 300 K = 1.5 = 0.6 x

Calculate the point bearing and skin frictional resistance of pile. Comment on the values.

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2. You are driving a square prestressed concrete pile of 20 m length. Size of the

pile is 381 mm x 381 mm. The pile is embedded entirely into a saturated

homogenous clay layer. However, water table is far below the pile tip. Following

parameters are known from the field test.

Calculate the total allowable load on this pile for a factor of safety of 3.

Comment on the values.

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3. Shown in the figure is a group of pile constructed under a bridge pier. Spacing

of the pile (d) is 2 times the diameter (D) and diameter of each pile is 460 mm.

the pile is driven in a homogenous sand layer. Calculate the efficiency of the

group of pile.

4. A group of 9 piles are driven in a homogenous clay layer having undrained cohesion of

95.8 kPa. Diameter (D) of each pile is 406 mm and spacing of the pile (D) is 700 mm.

Length of each pile is 18.5 m. Assume that the clay is saturated and is 18 kN/m3.

Ground water table is at 30 m below the tip of pile. Calculate the allowable load on this

group of pile for a factor of safety of 3.

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5. Plan and section of a building system in downtown LA is shown in the following figure.

It is impossible to extend the foundation beyond the boundary and we need to design a

pile foundation. Considering the safety factor of 3 and ignoring the effect of ground

water, please design the size, number, length, and spacing of driven concrete pile to

support the load.

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1. We need to design the foundation for a building. As the soil below the

foundation is very weak, we need to design a group of pile to transfer the load.

Available diameter and length of the pre-stressed concrete piles are 0.4 m and

20 m, respectively. Total load to be transferred is 36 MN and desired factor of

safety is 3. Ground water table is more than 30 m below the ground. The

homogenous clay layer has an undrained cohesion of 100 kPa. Please calculate

the number of piles and spacing of piles to be connected with a pile cap to

transfer the load from the building. Consider that all piles behave similarly and

horizontal movement is zero.

2. We need to support the foundation for a building shown in the following figure

with a number of driven piles. Available diameter and length of the pre-stressed

concrete piles are 0.5 m and 20 m, respectively. Desired factor of safety is 3.

Ground water table is more than 35 m below the ground. The properties of the

clay layers are shown below. Please calculate the number of piles and spacing of

piles to be connected with a pile cap to transfer the load from the building.

Consider that all piles behave similarly and horizontal movement is zero.

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3. It is requested to design a foundation system for a student housing project at CSUF. Plan

of the building and column loads are shown in the following figure. Preliminary design

calculation shows that we need to design a deep foundation system with piles. Noise during

pile driving is strictly prohibited. University has a stock of 500 number of circular concrete

piles of 1 ft diameter and 20 ft length. We need to use those piles to save the cost. It is

estimated that the base of pile cap is at the distance of 4 ft below the ground. Desired factor

of safety is 3. Please design the pile foundation system. Consider that all piles behave

similarly and there is no horizontal load in pile.

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Vertical or near vertical slopes of soil are supported by retaining walls, cantilever

sheet pile walls, sheet pile bulkheads, and braced excavations.

All those backfills induce lateral forces to the pertinent structures.

Lateral earth pressures are important in the design of retaining walls, basement

walls, and bulkheads.

Forces of the backfill materials need to be calculated to design the structures

properly.

Following assumptions are made while deriving equations for lateral earth pressure.

Earth facing sides of the earth retaining wall is vertical.

The interface between the wall and the soil is frictionless.

The wall is rigid and extends to an infinite depth in dry, homogenous, and

isotropic soil mass.

Soil surface is horizontal and no shear acts on horizontal and vertical

boundaries.

Soil is loose and is initially at rest condition.

In earth pressure, we calculate horizontal forces acting to the retaining walls. As z

is generally known, h is calculated based on earth pressure coefficients.

h

Earth pressure coefficient (K) = where z is the vertical pressure.

z

There are three types of earth pressure situations, which are described below.

When no movement of wall is occurred, it is said that the earth pressure is at rest (figure

1). Coefficient of earth pressure at rest is denoted by K 0.

Examples consolidometer, basement floor, soil resting under ground.

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In figure 1,

Vertical stress = z = q + . z

Horizontal stress = h = K0 . 0 + u

K0 can be calculated by using Jakys equation, which is as follows.

K0 = (1 sin )

This works for normally consolidated and fine grained soil.

For over-consolidate soil, we need to use Mayne and Kulhawy (1982)s equation, which is as

follows.

'

OCR = over consolidation ratio

Based on the calculated earth pressure, we need to calculate lateral earth force which is

equal to the area of the pressure diagram. Line of action of this force is acting at the CG of

the pressure diagram as shown in figure 1 b (for dry case).

For the situation shown in figure 1 b,

1

P0 P1 P2 qK 0 H H 2 K 0

2

The line of action of resultant force is located at,

H H

P1 P2

z 3

2

P0

If water table is located within the retaining wall height, the pressure distribution will be

as shown figure 2.

1 1 1

P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 K 0 qH1 K 0 H 1 K 0 (q H 1 ) H 2 K 0 ' H 2 w H 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

Line of application of the force can be calculated by taking the moment at the base.

Figure 2 At rest earth pressure when water table is at a depth smaller than H (Das, 2006)

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Active Earth Pressure

Figure 3 Variation of the value of earth pressure coefficient with the tilt of wall (Das, 2006)

When the frictionless wall moves away from soil mass as shown in figure 3 and 4, h

decreases. If the wall moves with a distance sufficient enough to reach plastic

equilibrium condition, the horizontal stress acted on the wall is called active earth

pressure.

h'

Earth pressure coefficient Ka =

z'

Soil should move with sufficient amount of distance to reach this condition. Table 1

shows that required distance for different types of soil.

When the frictionless wall moves towards the soil mass as shown in figure 3, 4 and 5,

h increases. If the wall moves with a distance sufficient enough to reach plastic

equilibrium condition, the horizontal stress acted on the wall is called active earth

pressure.

h'

Earth pressure coefficient Kp =

z'

There are various theories to calculate earth pressures, which are described below.

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Rankines Active Earth Pressure

Soil reaches the plastic equilibrium at every point in a soil mass on a verge of failure.

At the beginning, when the soil is at rest, h = K0 . z

Lets move the wall gradually to the left. Then the horizontal stress is also gradually

decreased until it causes failure as shown in figure 5.

At failure, the soil touches the Mohrs Circle.

This failure state is called Rankines active state and horizontal stress h in this

condition is called Rankines active earth pressure.

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Figure 6 Rankines active (b) and passive (a) zones (Budhu, 2006)

From figure 5 as we derived in Strength of Soil,

' '

a ' z ' tan 2 (45 0 ) 2 c' tan( 45 0 )

2 2

' '

Or a ' ' z tan 2 (45 0 ) 2 c' tan( 45 0 )

2 2

For NC and coarse grained soil, c = 0

a' '

Then, Ka tan 2 (45 0 )

z 2

In general, a ' ' z K a 2 c' K a

2 c' 2 c' 2 c' '

zc Or zc = tan( 45 0 )

' Ka ' ' 2

' tan( 45 0 )

2

Zc is referred as the depth of tensile crack.

'

As seen from the Mohrs Circle and figure 6, failure occurs at ( 45 ) from

0

2

horizontal.

Lets push and move the wall towards the earth.

That will increase h.

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Ultimately the circle touches the failure envelope and soil undergoes plastic

failure as shown in figure 5.

This situation is Rankines passive state and the horizontal stress at this

condition is Rankines passive earth pressure.

From figure 5,

p' '

Kp tan 2 (45 0 )

z' 2

' '

z ' ' p tan 2 (45 0 ) 2 c tan( 45 0 )

2 2

For cohesionless soil or NC clay,

p' 1 '

Kp = tan ( 45

2 0

)

0 '

2

tan (45

2 0

)

2

' '

' p tan 2 (45 0 ) z 2 c tan( 45 0

'

)

2 2

'

Or '

p z tan (45

' 2 0

) 2 c tan( 45 0

)

2 2

1

Therefore, 'p 'z Kp 2 c Kp Here, Kp =

Ka

'

Failure occurs at ( 45 ) from horizontal as shown in figure 5 and 6.

0

2

In practice, the wall of limited height yields certain distance La or Lp to give active or

passive pressure condition as shown in figure 6. Those limits are presented in the table 1.

The active and passive earth pressure diagram for a general case is shown in figure 7.

Figure 7 A generalized active and passive earth pressure diagram (Budhu, 2006)

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Rankines Earth Pressure for Granular Backfill and general case (figure 8)

Figure 8 A generalized case of Rankines active and passive earth pressure (Das, 2006)

a '

cos sin 2 ' sin 2

sin

Where, a sin 1 ( ) 2

sin '

Line of action of a is inclined at from the plane normal to the frictionless wall.

sin '.sin a

tan 1 ( )

1 sin ' cos a

1

And Pa = K a( R) H 2

2

Where

K a( R)

cos2 (cos sin 2 ' sin 2 )

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Locations and directions of Pa and Pp are shown in figure 9. Likewise, an inclination of failure

wedge is calculated as,

' 1 sin

sin 1

4 2 2 2 sin

When = 0 (i.e. vertical back fill), K a ( R ) cos

cos cos2 cos2 '

Table 2 shows the values of Ka(R) for different and for a vertical backfill.

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Rankines Passive earth Pressure case

p '

cos sin 2 ' sin 2

sin

Where, p sin 1 ( ) 2

sin '

Line of action of a is inclined at from the plane normal to the frictionless wall.

sin '.sin p

tan 1 ( )

1 sin ' cos p

1

And Pp = K p ( R ) H 2 , where

2

cos( ) 1 sin 2 ' 2 sin '.cos p

K p( R)

cos2 (cos sin 2 ' sin 2 )

For = 0,

K p ( R ) cos

cos cos2 cos2 '

The value of Kp for a vertical back fill is shown in table 3.

Table 3 Passive earth pressure coefficient (KpR) for a vertical backfill (Das, 2006)

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Distribution of Lateral Earth Pressure

Cohesionless Soil with Horizontal Backfill (figure 10)

Active Case

a ' K a z

At depth H, a ' K a H

1 1

Pa K a H . H or Pa K a H 2

2 2

H

Line of action, x=

3

Figure 10 Pressure distribution against a retaining wall for cohesionless backfill with

horizontal surcharge: a) Rankines active, and b) Rankines passive (Das, 2006)

Passive Case

p ' K p H

1

Pp K p H 2

2

H

Line of action, x=

3

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Partially Submerged Cohesionless Soil Supporting a Surcharge (figure 11)

Active Case

a ' K a 0 '

At z = 0 0 = q and a = Ka . q

At z = H1, 0 = q + . H1 and a = Ka ( q + . H1)

At z = H 0 = q + . H1 + . H2 and a = Ka ( q + . H1 + . H2)

= sat - w

At z = H u = w . H2

1 1

Pa = Ka q H + Ka H12 + Ka H1 H2 + (Ka + w) H22

2 2

partially submerged cohesionless soil

backfill. (Das, 2006)

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Passive Case (figure 12)

1 1

Pp = Kp q H + Kp H12 + Kp H1 H2 + (Kp + w) H22

2 2

earth pressure for partially

submerged cohesionless soil

backfill. (Das, 2006)

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Cohesive Soil with Horizontal Backfill

Active Case (figure 13)

Figure 13 Rankines active earth pressure for cohesive soil backfill. (Das, 2006)

2 cu

z0

As the soil cant resist negative pressure, cracks are formed up to z0 depth. They

are called tension cracks. In long term, these cracks are filled with water and

provide water pressure.

1

Pa = Ka H2 2 K a c H

2

For = 0 condition,

1

Pa = H2 2 c u H

2

Generally, pressure from ground level to z0 is ignored.

From diagram shown in figure 12,

2c'

Pa

1

K a H 2 K a c' H

K a

2

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1 c' 2

Pa K a H 2 2 K a c' H 2

2

For = 0 situation

2

1 c

Pa H 2 2 cu H 2 u

2

Passive Case

Figure 14 Rankines passive earth pressure for cohesive soil backfill. (Das, 2006)

p K p z 2 K p c'

At z = 0, p 2 K p c'

At z = H, p K p H 2 K p c'

1

Pp K p H 2 2 K p c' H

2

For = 0 condition, Kp = 1

1

Pp H 2 2cu H

2

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Earth Pressure for c- Soil with Inclined Backfill

According to Mazindrani and Ganjali (1997),

a ' z K a ( R ) z K ' a ( R ) cos

Where,

Ka(R) = Rankines Earth Pressure Coefficient

K a(R)

Ka(R) =

cos

pressures for inclined backfill. (Das, 2006)

2

1 c' c' c'

2 cos 2 2 cos '.sin ' 4 cos 2 (cos 2 cos 2 ' ) 4 cos 2 ' 8 cos 2 sin ' cos ' 1

cos ' z z z

2

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Coulombs Earth Pressure theory

Assumptions:

Failure surface is plane

There is wall friction between wall and soil

Cohesionless Backfill

Figure 16 Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory: (a) trial failure wedge, and (b) Force Polygon(Das, 2006)

W = Weight of soil wedge

F = Resultant of shear and normal forces at BC

Pa = Active earth force inclined at to the normal drawn to the face of wall and also

the friction angle between wall and soil.

W Pa

sin( 90 ' ' ) sin( ' )

sin( ' )

Therefore, Pa W

sin( 90 ' ' )

1 cos( ) cos( ) sin( ' )

Or Pa H2 2

2 cos sin( ) sin( 90 ' ' )

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All terms other than are constant.

1

Maximum Pa occurs at Pa = K a (C ) H 2

2

Where, Ka(C) = Coulombs active earth pressure

cos2 ( ' )

Ka 2

sin( ' ' ) sin( ' )

cos cos( ) 1

2

cos( ' ) cos( )

For = 0, = 0, and = 0, Coulombs earth pressure coefficient is same as Rankines earth

pressure coefficient.

Table 5 Value of Ka for =0 and = 0 (Das, 2006)

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Graphic Solution of Coulombs theory

This solution was proposed by Culmann (1985)

This solution can be used for any wall friction

2. Determine , which is 90

3. Draw a line BD at an angle from horizontal.

4. Draw a line BE at an angle from BD.

5. Draw a trial failure wedge BC1, BC2, BC3, and so on.

6. Calculate area of ABC1, ABC2, ABC3, . and so on.

7. Determine the weight of the soil from each trial wedge.

W1 = AreaABC1 x x 1 and similar for other wedges

8. Plot W1, W2, .. in some scale on line BD.

9. Draw C1C1 CnCn parallel to BE. This will give a smooth curve, which is called

Culmanns curve.

10. Draw a tangent BD on the curve to make BD parallel to BD. Let Ca be the tangent

point.

11. Draw a line CaCa parallel to BE.

Pa = Length of CaCa x Load scale

12. Draw a line from B to connect Ca. That will intersect at Ca. BCaCa is failure wedge.

obtained by making a line from O to O which is parallel to BC.

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point of application of the resultant active

force (Das, 2006)

pressure; (a) trial failure wedge, and (b)

force polygon (Das, 2006)

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cos2 ( ' )

Kp 2

sin( ' ' ) sin( ' )

cos cos( ' ) 1

2

cos( ' ) cos( )

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a) Analyze the retaining wall using the Coulomb trial wedge method to find

the magnitude of the active earth force, assuming that the wall-backfill

interface friction angle is 0 degrees.

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2. Compare the values of the horizontal force, Ph, to be used for design of the

retaining wall shown in the attached sketch if the backfill is

c) compacted lean clay d) compacted fat clay

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Retaining walls are designed to retain a soil mass.

Earth pressure calculation for retaining wall is done exactly in the same way as

we studied in lateral earth pressure.

There are four types of retaining walls:

Gravity Retaining Wall

Semi-gravity Retaining Wall

Cantilever Retaining wall

Counterfort Retaining Wall

Gravity retaining walls are constructed with plain concrete or stone masonry.

Stability is maintained by the weight of wall. It is not economical for high walls.

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Semi-gravity walls are same as the gravity wall, but are reinforced by small

amount of steel.

Cantilever retaining walls are made of reinforced concrete and consist of a stem

and a base slab. This is economical up to the height of 25 ft.

Counterfort retaining walls are the cantilever retaining wall, but are stiffened

by concrete slabs called counterforts at certain interval to tie the base and

stem so that bending moment and shear force could be reduced.

Design of retaining wall consists of designing the retaining wall section and

checking overturning, sliding, and bearing capacity failure, and structural steel

reinforcement design.

MSE walls have reinforced backfill to increase the strength of soil.

Dimensions of retaining Wall

While designing retaining wall, we assume some dimensions. This is called

proportioning.

Stability of the wall is checked for that dimension, and if it is critical, we

reshape the wall.

Depth should be at least 2 ft. But is mainly dictated by frost level or other

parameters as mentioned in foundation design.

Counterfort spacing is 0.3 H to 0.7 H c/c and the size of slab is about 1 ft thick.

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Calculation of Earth Pressure

cantilever retaining wall (Das, 2006)

vertical line AB from heel and Rankines active earth pressure is calculated at

that vertical line.

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The concept works if we can directly connect AC without the obstruction of the

stem.

That angle is calculated as,

' sin

45 0 sin 1 ( )

2 2 sin '

For gravity wall also, same theory can be used or earth pressure is calculated

directly from Coulombs Theory.

Figure 5 Assumption - determination of earth pressure in semi-gravity retaining wall (Das, 2006)

But for Coubombs theory, soil structural friction angle should be known.

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Stability of retaining Wall

Retaining walls may have 5 modes of failure:

Overturning about the toe

Sliding along base

Bearing capacity failure

Deep seated failure

Excessive settlement

bearing capacity failure; d) deep seated shear failure (Das, 2006)

Excessive settlement and deep seated failure occurs when the weak soil is underlain by

a strong soil.

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Check of Over-turning

(Das, 2006)

1

PP K P 2 D 2 2c 2 ' K P D

2

'2

K P tan 2 (45 0 )

2

M R Sum of resisting moment

FSoverturning about toe >3

M O sum of overturnin g moment

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Check of Sliding along base

FR ' Sum of Re sisting Force

FS sliding >1.5

FD sum of Driving Force

Resisting force = B( ' tan 'ca ' ) PP = (V ) tan ' Bca ' PP

If the FS is not enough, we increase the heel of the footing or make shear key. If key

is included, passive force is increased to a greater depth.

Figure 9 Shear key and extended heel can increase FS against sliding (Das, 2006)

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Checking Bearing Capacity Failure

The concept is exactly same as that in the bearing capacity of foundation.

2006)

qu

FS bearing capacity >3

q max

V 6e

q max qtoe (1 )

B B

V 6e

q min q heel (1 )

B B

1

qu c 2 ' N c Fcd Fci qN q Fqd Fqi 2 B' N Fd Fi

2

B = B 2e

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Example

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1. For a cantilever retaining wall shown in the figure below, following date is given.

Please calculate the factor of safety with respect to over-turning, sliding and

bearing capacity. Take adhesion = 2/3 of c and = 2/3 conc = 150 pcf. Ignore the

passive earth pressure.

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2. A gravity retaining wall is shown in the following figure. Calculate the factor of

safety with respect to over-turning and sliding. Considerconc = 23.58 kN/m3,

adhesion = 2/3 of c and = 2/3 and ignore the passive earth pressure.

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3. Analyze the stability of the retaining wall shown below. The wall should be

analyzed for (1) overturning, (2) bearing capacity, and (3) sliding.

For sliding stability, you may assume that = for the foundation soil. In

determining the factor of safety against bearing capacity failure at the toe of

the wall, you may assume that the ultimate bearing pressure is 10,000 psf.

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19 feet. Both the foundation soil and the backfill soil will be clean coarse sand.

The backfill will be compacted to a medium dense condition. Both the backfill

and toe slopes will be level. The frost depth is 2 feet. The surcharge pressure

could be up to 200 psf. The ultimate bearing pressure for the sand is 8 tsf. The

water table is below the bottom of the wall, and drainage will be provided behind

the wall. Provide a neat, labeled sketch of the wall that you have designed. You

must include all supporting calculations.

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1. Please design a cantilevered concrete retaining wall for the height and soil

as shown in the figure. The frost depth at the site is 2 feet. Consider the

ultimate bearing capacity of the sand as 8 tsf. Provide a neat, labeled sketch

of the wall that you have designed. Check the following design parameters:

a. Factor of safety against overturning

b. Factor of safety against bearing capacity

c. Factor of safety against shearing

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2. Please design a cantilevered concrete retaining wall for the height and soil as shown in

the figure. The frost depth at the site is 2 feet. Provide a neat, labeled sketch of the

wall that you have designed. Check all of the necessary design parameters. Bearing

capacity of foundation soil is 8 tsf.

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3. You have to review the design of a cantilevered concrete retaining wall designed for the height

and soil as shown in the figure. Please check the design and provide your recommendation for

the following situation:

Surcharge load on top of the backfill material = 200 psf

Lean clay at foundation same soil for backfill

Dry unit weight of soil = 115 pcf

Cohesion/adhesion of the clay/concrete = 1200 psf

Bearing capacity of the soil = 8,000 psf

Active earth pressure coefficient = 0.4

Ignore the effect of ground water table

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4. An engineer designed a cantilevered concrete retaining wall for the height of 15 ft in a medium

stiff clay, properties of which are shown in the figure. Same clay material was used for the back

fill and the backfill material has the following properties.

Unit weight of soil = 113 pcf

Cohesion =0

0

Drained friction angle = 10

Bearing capacity of the foundation soil is 6,000 psf. Please check the design and provide your

recommendation.

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5. For sustainable construction, use of tire derived aggregate (TDA) as a geotechnical material is

being popular lately. A retaining wall was designed and constructed at Highway 91 near Riverside

with that type of material. Shown in the following figure is a section of a cantilever retaining wall

that was designed by a geotechnical engineer. Section of the retaining wall and the properties of

the foundation soil as well as the TDA backfill material are shown in the sketch. Please ignore the

effect of thin clay layer used at the top. Bearing capacity of the foundation soil is 6,200 psf.

Please check the design and provide your recommendation. If the TDA material is replaced with

0

sand that has unit weight of 115 pcf and friction angle of 33 , will the design be better? Use unit

weight of concrete as 150 pcf and ignore the effect of soil above the base of retaining wall for the

passive earth pressure calculation.

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1. A geotechnical engineer designed the following cantilevered concrete retaining wall for the

height and soil as shown in the figure. The eccentricity of the resultant force was calculated to

be 0.3 ft. I have checked the factor of safety of this retaining wall for bearing capacity and it

was 7.3. Please check whether the retaining wall has enough safety factors for all three

criteria or not.

2. A proposed super store site is shown in the figure. A cantilever retaining wall is to be designed

to retain the soil for final grade as well as the storm water, shown below. Frost depth in the area

is 3 ft. Please propose a tentative section of the retaining wall and check whether the retaining

wall you proposed is safe or not against over-turning, bearing capacity, and sliding. The

0

foundation soil as well as the backfill soil is a loose sand of 30 friction angle. Saturated unit

weight of soil is 120 pcf. Bearing capacity of the foundation material is 10,000 psf.

3. You have to review the design of a cantilevered concrete retaining wall designed for the height

and soil as shown in the figure. Please check the design and provide your recommendation for

the following situation:

= 34 d = 120 pcf

0

Sandy backfill with and

Clayey base soil with Cu/a = 1.4 ksf and d = 115 pcf

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Bearing capacity of the soil = 10 ksf

4. A retaining wall is already constructed and the section of the retaining wall is shown in the

following figure. There was a debate between two engineers regarding the use of backfill material.

Engineer A wanted to use the soil that was derived from the excavation material as a back fill soil.

Engineer B wanted to use an imported sandy backfill material. Properties of the soils are given in

Table. Please perform review calculations to evaluate the appropriateness of the backfill

materials proposed and provide your opinion.

Unit weight (pcf) 110 118

Cohesion (psf) 0 0

0 0

Drained friction angle 15 35

Bearing capacity of the foundation soil is 8 ksf. Please consider: a) the surcharge load for both

resisting moment and earth pressure calculations; b) passive earth pressure below the top of the

footing/slab. Take skin friction as 0.7 times the drained friction.

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They are mostly constructed for water front structures.

We dont need to dewater the area while constructing the sheet piles.

Sheet piles are also used for braced cuts.

Sheet piles are made of wood, pre-cast concrete, aluminum, or steel.

Wooden sheet piles are used for temporary structures above water table.

Concrete sheet piles are used to withstand a heavy permanent stress.

Steel sheet piles are about 0.5 in. thick and are available in various sections.

They are available for different types of interlocking in order to make them

water tight. Thumb and finger and ball and socket are two common types of

connections. Allowable stresses for some common types of sheet piles are shown

in the table below.

Table 1 Allowable stresses of different sheet pile sections

Type of steel Allowable stress (MN/m2) Allowable stress (psi)

ASTM A328 170 25,000

ASTM A572 210 30,000

ASTM A690 210 30,000

Properties of some sheet pile section, produced by Bethlehem Steels Corporation are shown

below.

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Method of Construction

Surface of soil in the water front is called mud line or dredge line.

Backfill material is granular material.

Dredge material can be clay or silt.

Construction method is different for backfill and dredge. Sequence of backfill

structure for anchor sheet pile is shown in the figure below.

Dredge the soil in back and front

Drive the sheet pile

Backfill to the anchor level and place anchor

Backfill completely.

for backfilled structure

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for dredged structure

Backfill until anchor level and place anchor

Complete backfill

Dredge the front side.

For cantilever sheet pile, anchors are not necessary, but other process is same.

Design Consideration

Cantilever sheet piles are useful up to 20 ft. height above dredge line.

The wall rotates at an imaginary point O.

We dont need to consider hydrostatic pressure as they cancel out.

Pressure distribution is shown in the following figure.

Designing the sheet pile includes calculation of embedment depth, pile section

and design of anchor block.

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Design of Cantilever Sheet Pile Penetrating Sandy Soil

Figure 6 Pressure and moment diagram of cantilever sheet pile penetrating sand

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At z = L1,

'

'1 L1 K a K a tan 2 (45 0 )

2

At z = L1+L2,

' 2 ( L1 ' L2 ) K a (Note: water pressures balance each other)

At depth of z,

' a ( L1 ' L2 ' ( z L1 L2 )) K a

At depth of z,

'

' p ' ( z L1 L2 ) K p K p tan 2 (45 0 )

2

Net pressure,

' ' a ' p ( L1 ' L2 ' ( z L1 L2 )) K a ' ( z L1 L2 ) K p 0

Or ' 2 ' ( z L)( K p K a ) 0

'2

or ( z L) L3

' (K p K a )

Slope of net pressure increase with depth = ' ( K p K a )

Therefore, HB ' ( K p K a ) L4

'

3

At depth of z =L+D,

Active Earth Pressure from left:

' a ' DK a

Passive Earth Pressure from right:

At depth of z,

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'

p (L1 ' L2 ' D) K p

Net lateral pressure at the bottom of sheet pile,

' p ' a ' 4 (L1 ' L2 ' D) K p ' DK a

= (L1 ' L2 ) K p ' ( L3 L4 )( K p K a )

For equilibrium,

PH 0 M @ B 0

PH 0

P 0.5 '3 L4 0.5 L5 ( '3 ' 4 ) 0 P = Area of pressure diagram ACDE

'3 L4 2P

L5

'3 ' 4

M @ B 0

L4 L

P( L4 z ) (0.5 '3 L4 )( ) 0.5 L5 ( '3 ' 4 )( 5 ) 0

3 3

Combining both equations will give a quadratic equation in terms of L4.

L4 A1 L4 A2 L4 A3 L4 A4 0

4 3 2

Where

'5

A1

' (K p K a )

8P

A2

' (K p K a )

6 P(2 z ' ( K p K a ) '5 )

A3

'2 (K p K a ) 2

P(6 z '5 4 P)

A4

'2 (K p K a ) 2

Stepwise Procedure to get pressure diagram

' '

1. Calculate Ka and Kp K a tan 2 (45 0 ) K p tan 2 (45 0 )

2 2

2. Calculate 1 and 2 with given L1 and L2

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1 L1 K a

'

' 2 ( L1 ' L2 ) K a

'2

3. Calculate L3 L3

' (K p K a )

4. Calculate P Sum of the area in pressure diagram

5. Calculate z Take moment about E for pressure diagram

6. Calculate 5 '5 (L1 ' L2 ) K p ' L3 ( K p K a )

7. Calculate A1, A2, A3, and A4

'5 8P

A1 A2

' (K p K a ) ' (K p K a )

6 P(2 z ' ( K p K a ) '5 ) P(6 z '5 4 P)

A3 A4

' (K p K a )

2 2

'2 (K p K a ) 2

8. determine L4 L4 A1 L4 A2 L4 A3 L4 A4 0

4 3 2

10. Calculate 3 ' 3 ' ( K p K a ) L4

'3 L4 2P

11. Calculate L5 L5

'3 ' 4

12. Draw pressure distribution diagram as shown in the figure.

13. Calculate D D = L3 + L4

14. calculate Design D Ddesign = 1.3 D

P 0.5 z ' 2 ( K p K a ) '

2P

z'

( K p K a ) '

z'

M max P( z z ' ) (0.5 z ' 2 ( K p K a ) ' )

3

Design sheet pile based on the section modulus (S) calculated from Mmax and

allowable stress (all). i.e. select the right section for this section modulus.

M max

S

all

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Special Case: If there is no water table

penetrating sand having no water

' 2 LK a

' 3 L4 ( K p K a )

' 4 5 ' L4 ( K p K a )

'5 L K p L3 ( K p K a )

'2 LK a

L3

' (K p K a ) (K p K a )

1 1

P 2 ' L 2 ' L3

2 2

L LK a L L( 2 K a K p )

z ' L3

3 K p Ka 3 3( K p K a )

'5 8P

A1 A2

(K p K a ) (K p K a )

6 P (2 z ( K p K a ) ' 5 ) P(6 z '5 4 P)

A3 A4

(K p K a )

2 2

2 (K p K a ) 2

L4 A1 L4 A2 L4 A3 L4 A4 0

4 3 2

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Figure 8 Pressure and moment diagram of cantilever sheet pile penetrating clay

Above point O,

At depth z

'

a ( L1 ' L2 sat ( z L1 L2 ) 2c K a tan 2 (45 0 ) 1

2

Passive Earth Pressure from left:

At depth of z,

'

' p sat ( z L1 L2 ) 2c K p tan 2 (45 0 ) 1

2

Net pressure,

6 ' ' p ' a [ sat ( z L1 L2 ) 2c] [( L1 ' L2 sat ( z L1 L2 ) 2c] 4c (L1 ' L2 )

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At the bottom of sheet pile,

Active Earth Pressure from left:

' a sat D 2c

Passive Earth Pressure from right:

' p (L1 ' L2 sat D) 2c

Net lateral pressure at the bottom of sheet pile,

7 ' p ' a 4c (L1 ' L2 )

For equilibrium,

PH 0 M @ B 0

PH 0

1

P1 [4c (L1 ' L2 )]D L4 [4c (L1 ' L2 ) 4c (L1 ' L2 )] 0

2

P1 = Area of pressure diagram ACDE

D[4c (L1 ' L2 )] P1

L4

4c

M @ B 0

2

D 1 L

P( D z1 ) [( 4c (L1 ' L2 )] L4 (8c)( 4 ) 0

2 2 3

Combining both equations,

P1 ( P1 12c z1 )

D 2 [4c (L1 ' L2 )] 2 DP1 0

(L1 ' L2 ) 2c

Get D from the above equation.

'

1. Calculate Ka for backfill K a tan 2 (45 0 )

2

2. Calculate 1 and 2 with given L1 and L2

'1 L1 K a ' 2 ( L1 ' L2 ) K a

3. Calculate P1 Sum of the area in pressure diagram

4. Calculate z Take moment about E for pressure diagram

5. Obtain theoretical value of D

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P1 ( P1 12c z1 )

D 2 [4c (L1 ' L2 )] 2 DP1 0

(L1 ' L2 ) 2c

D[4c (L1 ' L2 )] P1

6. Calculate L L4

4c

7. Calculate 6 and 7 6 ' 4c (L1 ' L2 ) 7 4c (L1 ' L2 )

8. Draw pressure distribution diagram as shown in the figure.

9. Calculate Design D Ddesign = 1.5 D

P1 6 z' 0

P1

z'

6

M max P1 ( z1 z ' ) (0.5 6 z ' 2 )

Design sheet pile based on the section modulus (S) calculated from Mmax and

allowable stress (all). i.e. select the right section for this section modulus.

M max

S

all

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Special Case: If there is no water table

penetrating clay having no water

' 2 LK a

' 6 4c L

' 7 4c L

1 1

P 2 ' L L2 K a

2 2

1

D (4c L) L2 K a

L4 2

4c

P1 ( P1 12c z1 )

D 2 [4c L] 2 DP1 0

L 2c

L

z1

3

M max P1 ( z1 z ' ) (0.5 6 z ' 2 )

P1 0.5L2 K a

z'

6 4c L

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Design of Anchored Sheet Pile Penetrating Sandy Soil

When height of cantilever sheet pile is more than 20 ft, we can make the wall

economical by tying the wall near the top with anchor plates or anchor wall or

anchor piles (called anchor bulkhead).

Anchor reduces the depth of penetration, cross sectional area and weight of

sheet pile.

Anchored sheet piles are designed with two main methods

free earth support method

Fixed earth support method

Figure 10 Variation of deflection and moment for anchored sheet pile a) free

earth support method, and b) fixed earth support method

Penetration depth with free earth support system is always less than that with the

fixed earth support system.

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Design of Anchored Sheet Pile with Free earth Support method Sandy Soil

At z = L1,

'

'1 L1 K a K a tan 2 (45 0 )

2

At z = L1+L2,

' 2 ( L1 ' L2 ) K a

At the point of rotation E, net pressure is 0.

Exactly in the similar way as in cantilever wall,

'2

L3

' (K p K a )

At the bottom (B) net stress is calculated as

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8 ' ( K p K a ) L4

'

For equilibrium,

PH 0 M @ O ' 0

PH 0

P 0.5 '8 L4 F 0 P = Area of pressure diagram ACDE

F P 0.5[ ' ( K p K a )] L4

2

M O ' 0

1 2

P[( L1 L2 L3 ) ( z l1 )] [ ' ( K p K a )]L4 (l 2 L2 L3 L4 ) 0

2

2 3

3P[( L1 L2 L3 ) ( z l1 )]

Or L4 1.5 L4 (l 2 L2 L3 ) 0

3 2

' (K p K a )

Get L4 from the above equation.

Dtheoretical = L3+L4

Ddesign = 1.4 Dtheoretical

1 1

1 ' L1 F 1 ' ( z L1 ) K a ' ( z L1 ) 2 0

2 2

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Rowes Moment Reduction for Anchored Sheet Pile

Yielding of sheet pile cause re-distribution of lateral earth pressure.

This causes the reduction in bending moment.

For a sheet pile penetrating in wall, moment reduction is calculated using the

following chart.

Figure 12 Log vs Md/Mmax chart for sheet pile walls penetrating sand in Rowes MR Method

In figure,

H '4

relativefl exibility 10.91 10 7 H in m E in MN/m2

EI

I in m4/ m length of wall

H '4

relativefl exibility H in ft E in psi

EI

I in in4/ ft length of wall

Md = design Moment

Mmax = Maximum theoretical moment

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Choose a sheet pile section

Find S per unit length

Determine I per unit length

Calculate H and calculate and log

Find Md = all x S

Determine Md/Mmax

Plot log r and Md/Mmax in the figure

If plotted above the curve, it is safe, otherwise repeat the procedure for

bigger section.

Design of Anchored Sheet Pile with Free earth Support method Clay

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At z = L1+L2 to L1+L2+D,

6 4c ( L1 ' L2 )

'

For equilibrium,

PH 0 M @ O ' 0

PH 0

P1 '6 D F

F = Anchor Force per unit length of sheet pile

M O ' 0

D

P1 ( L1 L2 l1 z1 ) ' 6 D(l 2 L2 )0

2

Or '6 D 2 2 '6 D( L1 L2 l1 ) 2P1 ( L1 L2 l1 z1 ) 0

Moment reduction technique is also calculated by Rowe, which is as follows.

Calculate H ' L1 L2 Dactual

L1 L2

Calculate Non-dimensional wall height

( L1 L2 Dactual )

cu

Calculate stability number S n 1.25

(L1 ' L2 )

L1 L2

Calculate Non-dimensional wall height

( L1 L2 Dactual )

Calculate and log

Md

Determine from chart shown below

M max

Choose a sheet pile section and follow the same technique as explained in the

case of sand.

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Figure 12 Stability number vs Md/Mmax chart for sheet pile walls penetrating clay in Rowes MR

Method

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1. Shown in the following figure is a sheet pile section penetrating a granular

backfill.

a. Calculate Dtheotetical, Ddesign for 30% increment, and Length of sheet pile.

b. Mmax (theoretical)

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backfill.

a. Calculate Dtheotetical, Ddesign for 40% increment, and Length of sheet pile

b. Mmax (theoretical)

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penetrating a granular backfill.

a. Calculate Dtheotetical, , and draw a pressure distribution diagram

b. Anchor Force per unit length of wall.

c. Ddesign = 1.3 x Dtheory, determine Mmax,theoretical.

d. Design a sheet pipe section using Rowes moment reduction method.

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penetrating a clay.

a. Calculate Dtheotetical

b. Anchor Force per unit length of wall.

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1. A sheet pile is to be designed for the section shown below. Using the Free

earth support method, calculate the following parameters.

a. Dtheotetical and Ddesign

b. Anchor Force per unit length of wall.

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2.

a. Design a sheet pile wall section for the above problem using Rowes moment

reduction technique,

b. Design an anchor bulkhead section for the above section.

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1. An anchored sheet pile wall is shown in the following diagram. Using the free

earth support method, please complete an earth pressure diagram for the design

of sheet pile.

prepare the pressure diagram required for the design of the sheet pile.

3. You have to check the calculation for the total height of an anchored sheet pile

wall as shown in the following figure. Using the free earth support method,

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b) Calculate design force per length to be supported through the anchor

system.

4. Please check the calculation for the total height of an anchored sheet pile wall

as shown in the following figure. Using the free earth support method,

b) Calculate design force per length to be supported through the anchor

system.

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5. You are required to design a total height of sheet pile system for the following topographic

condition and make a complete pressure diagram that helps to estimate the maximum

moment required for the design of sheet pile. Please perform necessary calculations for that

and present your results neatly.

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We already calculated the force to be supported by an anchor bulkhead.

Various types of anchors can be used to support that force.

Deadman (anchor plate or beam)

Tie backs

Vertical anchor piles

Anchor beams supported by batter

Figure 1 Various types of anchor system for the sheet pile walls a) anchor plate or

beam, b) tie back, c) vertical anchor pile, d) anchor beam with batter pile

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Anchor plates are precast concrete blocks, attached to sheet piles by

coated/painted anchor rods with the support of wale.

Tiebacks are bars or cables (high strength, pre-stressed steel tendons) placed

in predrilled holes and supported with concrete grouts.

Vertical anchor piles and batter piled anchors are shown in the figure.

Anchors should be placed beyond (inside) Rankines active zone of the sheet pile

(wedge ABC). Likewise, anchors should also be placed beyond the Rankines

Passive zone (CHI) of the anchor itself.

F H 0

1 1

P'u F H 2 K p cos H 2 K a cos '

2 2

1

P'u H 2 ( K p cos K a cos ' )

2

F V 0

1 1

H 2 K p sin H 2 K a sin 'W 0

2 2

1

H 2 K a sin 'W

K p sin 2

1

H 2

2

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Substitute it in the first equation and get H.

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Case 2 Continuous Anchor

C ov 1

P'us Pu ' Pus = Ultimate resistance of a continuous anchor

H

C ov ( )

h

Cov = 19 for dense sand and 14 for loose sand.

anchors; b) Variation of (Be-B)/(H+h) with (S-B)/(H+h) :

(S B)/ (H + h)

after Ovesen and Stromann, 1972.

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Pu P'us Be

Equivalent length (Be) can be calculated from the above figure.

Empirical Method

Pu can also be calculated from empirical method.

0.28

5 .4 H 2

P'u AH

tan ' A

A = area of anchor i.e. B.h

Factor of safety

Pu

FS = generally 3

P' all

Pall

S

F

F = Force per unit length of sheet pile

Figure 6 Experimental variation of Pu/(hBc) with H/h for plate anchors in clay

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Ultimate resistance of Tieback

resistance of tiebacks

'0 = Average effective vertical stress

In clays,

Pu d l ca

Generally, FS of 2 is taken.

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1. Shown in the following figure is an anchored sheet pile bulkhead section

penetrating a homogeneous sand backfill. Using the Free earth support method,

draw a pressure distribution diagram and calculate the required (design) length of

sheet pile. Also calculate the anchor force per unit length of wall.

For the material of the sheet pile, consider E = 29 x 106 psi all = 30,000

psi

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1. An anchored sheet pile wall is shown in the following diagram. Please

calculate the size of anchor for to support the F of 8 kips.

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In many cases we need to construct a vertical or near vertical trench for the

construction of foundation.

We need to protect that slope from collapsing with the help of bracing system.

Those bracings are provided with a) soldier pile ( a vertical steel or timber

beam braced by horizontal members called lagging), or b) sheet pile ( a vertical

inter-locking sheet piles), and c) slurry wall

In both cases, piles are driven before trenching and once the desired depth is

reached, wales and struts are used to support the piles.

We need to calculate the lateral earth pressure distribution for designing such

bracing systems.

Mostly, the empirical pressure diagrams are used for the design purpose.

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Figure 1: Different types of braced excavation systems a) soldier beams, b) sheet piles

Sequence of construction

1. Install pile.

2. Excavate a little

3. Install bracing or anchors

4. Go to 2.

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5. Pressure Distribution for Braced excavation System Design

The lateral earth pressure on the braced cut depends,

Type of soil

Construction method

Type of equipment used

Location of the structural member (strut/wales)

Figure below shows the apparent pressure diagram to calculate the loads

subjected to the struts.

known strut loads

P1 P2

1 2

d d d

s d 1 2 s 2 3

2 2 2

P3 P4

3 4

d d d d

s 3 4 s 4 5

2 2 2 2

Excavation in Sand

Based on the knowledge got from subway cut in Munich and New York, Peck

(1969) proposed (for the diagram shown below),

a 0.65 H K a

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Excavation in Clay ( = 0)

Figure 4: Pecks apparent pressure envelope for cuts in soft to medium stiff clays

H

For soft to medium clays with 4 , pressure should be larger of,

c

4c

a H 1

and a 0.3 H

H

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H

For stiff clays and 4 , pressure should be,

c

a 0.3 H (coefficient ranges from 0.2 to 0.4)

Assumptions

Apply to the excavations deeper than 20 ft.

Water table is below the bottom of excavation

Sand completely drained

Clay completely undrained

Layered Soil

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When sand and clay layer is encountered, we calculate equivalent c value for

sand (for = 0) and calculation for clay is used.

c av

1

2H

s K s H s 2 tan ' s ( H H s )n ' qu

For = 0, Ks = 1

n = coefficient of progressive failure = 0.75

Ks = earth pressure coefficient for sand

qu = Unconfined compressive strength of clay

Likewise, av

1

s H s ( H H s ) c

H

For different types of clay layers,

c H

1

c av i i

H

Hi

1

av i

H

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Design of Braced Excavation System

Strut

Minimum vertical spacing should be 9 ft. for workability

Struts are horizontal columns (axially loaded) subjected to bending

Total load carrying capacity depends on slenderness ratio. Slenderness ratio can

be reduced by providing horizontal and vertical support at regular interval or

splicing.

Depth of first strut from ground surface should be less than the depth of

2c '

tensile crack zone i.e.

ka

Design steps are as follows:

Draw pressure diagram and show proposed strut level. The sheet

pile/soldier piles are hinged at the strut level except at top and bottom

Determine the reactions for 2 simple cantilever beams (top and bottom)

and all others as simple beams (A, B1, B2, C1, C2, D)

Calculate strut loads as:

PA A s PB ( B1 B2 ) s PC (C1 C2 ) s PD D s

Calculate sections for those loads

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Sheet Piles

Determine maximum bending moment for each section

Get maximum value of Mmax

M max

Obtain required section modulus S =

all

Choose sheet pile that has S greater than this

Wale

Calculate maximum bending moment at wales at all levels.

A s2

At level A M max

8

( B1 B2 ) s 2

At level B M max

8

(C1 C 2 ) s 2

At level C M max

8

D s2

At level D M max

8

M max

Calculate section modulus S =

all

Choose wale section that has S greater than this

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Construction Sequence and Braced Excavation Examples

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Lateral Movement of Sheet Pile

Figure shown below has been developed from the data gathered from a number of

excavation projects. It is a tool to predict the ground movement in the surrounding

areas as the result of an excavation for wide varying subsurface conditions. Using this

figure one can determine the induced settlement adjacent to an excavation. It is an

empirical and not a theoretical expression of actual expectations.

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Example:

soft clay.

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1. Shown in the following figure is an excavation section which should be braced

appropriately. Following parameters are known.

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appropriately. Following parameters are known.

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direction of the paper is 15 ft and all for the strut material was 25000 psi.

Please calculate the axial loads in strut and design bending moments in

wales for all three levels.

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1. Shown in the following figure is an excavation section which should be braced

appropriately. Following parameters are known. all = 25000 psi

Design the Braced Excavation System

appropriately. Following parameters are known. all = 25000 psi

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Spacing of the strut is 10 ft. Using steel sections with allowable stress of

30,000 psi, calculate axial loads for all struts, and section modulus for all

wales and sheet piles.

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4. You are required to design an excavation bracing system as shown in the

following figure. Spacing of the strut is 15 ft. Using steel sections with

allowable stress of 4000 ksf, calculate axial loads for all struts, and section

modulus for all wales and sheet piles.

5. Detail of a trench that requires a design of the bracing system is shown in the following

figure. Using steel sections with allowable stress of 4000 ksf, calculate axial loads for all

struts, and section modulus for all wales and shoulder piles. Please make necessary

assumptions.

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