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# Mechanism of Limit Equilibrium

Procedure

## Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Approach
There are a number of methods available - very simple to
highly complicated numerical calculation approach

## = c'+( n u ) tan '

Shear Strength ( )
FS =
Shear stress required for equillibrium
Applied shear stress mobilizes both cohesion and friction.
Once all shear strength is mobilized, soil fails
Equations used and methods adopted should satisfy all three
sets of static equilibrium conditions.

F H =0 F V =0 M = 0
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Single Free Body Procedure

## Infinite Slope (Homogenous soil without seepage)

Infinite Slope with Seepage

## Finite Slope Analysis

Circular Failure
Non-circular Failure

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Infinite Slope (Homogenous soil without
seepage)
Driving Force = W sin
Resisting Force = T = c (bc) + W cos tan

Re sisting Force
Fs =
Driving Force
B
c' + B H cos tan '
cos
Fs =
B H sin

## c' + H cos 2 tan ' Fs =

c'
+
tan '
Fs = H cos sin tan
H sin cos

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Infinite Slope with Seepage
Driving Force = W sin = sat B H sin
Resisting Force (T) = c (bc) + (W cos U) tan

B B
c' + ( sat B H cos w H )
cos cos

## c' B B H tan '

+ ( sat cos 2 w )
cos cos

cos

Re sisting Force
Fs =
Driving Force

Re sisting Force
Fs =
Driving Force

cos
=
sat B H sin

## c' H tan ( sat cos 2 w )

= +
sat H sin cos sat H sin cos

## c' tan ( sat cos 2 w )

= +
sat H sin cos sat sin cos
For rough estimation
w tan ' '
( sat ) c'
c' tan ' cos
2 Fs = +
= + sat H sin cos tan sat
sat H sin cos tan sat

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Finite Slope Analysis
Circular Failure
Mass Procedure (Swedish Circle Procedure)

= 0

## Driving Moment about the center O = W1l1 W2l2

Resisting Moment = c . (AED) . r
= c . r2.

Fs =
Re sisting Moment c r 2
=
Driving Moment W1l1 W2l2
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shear stress
m=
H

critical condition, = cu

cu
H cr =
m

m can be calculated
from the chart if b and D
are known

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cu = cu (z=0) + a0 z
cu ( z =0 ) 1
m=
H Fs

a0 H
Let CR =
cu ( z =0 )
Ordinary Method of Slice
Easy to use and simple - is still used commonly.
Divide the slope into a number of slices and calculate
stability parameters for each slice and sum them up.
Driving Force (T) = Wn sin n

## Resisting Force (Tr)= c' Ln + Wn cos n tan '

Total Driving force = T = Wn sin n

n= p

## c' L n + Wn cos n tan ' can be positive and negative

Fs = n =1 Inter-slice forces are neglected.
n= p
If friction angles of different layers are
W
n =1
n sin n different, we need to analyze separately.
Non-homogenous soil mass
Stability Analysis for Steady-state Seepage

n= p

## (c'.L n + (Wn Cos n u n Ln ) tan ' )

Fs = n =1
n= p

W
n =1
n sin n
Bishops Simplified Method of Slice
c' L + N r tan '
Fs =
Tr

W + T = N r cos + Tr sin

## c' L + N r tan '

Tr =
Fs

c' L
W + T sin
Fs
Nr =
tan sin
cos +
Fs
For the equilibrium, taking moment about O

n= p n= p

W r sin = T r
n =1 n =1

n= p
1
(c'.b + W tan '+T tan )
n =1 m
Fs = tan '.sin
m = cos +
n= p

W
n =1
sin
Fs

## For simplicity let's assume T = 0

n= p
1
(c'.bn + Wn tan ' )
n =1 m ( n )
Fs = n= p

W
n =1
n sin n
Stability Analysis for Steady-state Seepage

n= p
1
(c'.bn + (Wn u n bn ) tan ' )
n =1 m ( n )
Fs = n= p

W
n =1
n sin n
Non- Circular Failure Surface
In many cases, the slip surface is more complex than the
circular or infinite.
Quite often, the sliding surface follows the zone of weak layer
or the interface between two different types of materials.
In such cases, stability analysis of slopes should be conducted
with more complex methods.
These procedures are also the methods of slice with more
complex analysis, many of them satisfy all conditions of
equilibrium.
Depending on the satisfaction of equilibrium condition, they
are classified as
force equilibrium procedures
complete equilibrium procedures.
Force Equilibrium Procedure

## Satisfy only the force equilibrium.

Inclination of inter-slice force is assumed to make the problem
statically determinant.
Different methods assume the inclination of inter-slice forces in
different ways:
Lowe and Karafiath: The inter-slice forces are inclined at an
average slope of ground surface and slip surface. Inclination
varies from slice to slice.
Simplified Janbu: The side forces are horizontal and there is no
shear stress between slices. Instead, a correction factor is
assumed to adjust the factor of safety.
US Army Corp of Engineers: The side forces are parallel to the
average embankment slope.
Solutions for Force Equilibrium
Procedures

Graphical Solution
Draw the slope in scale and divide them into a number of slices.
Calculate net force due to pore pressure, which is acting
perpendicular to the base of the slide (U = u x l).
Calculate mobilized resistance due to cohesion (T = c'd x l).
Assume F to calculate c'd.
Calculate weight of each slice (W = x b x h).
Make a force polygon by plotting these forces in scale.
Make a line from the end of W, at an angle parallel to the
application of inter-slice force Z2.
Make a line from the starting point of U at an angle inclined at
mobilized friction angle ('d) from a line normal to the sliding
plane. 'd is calculated based on the assumed F.
Complete the force polygon, extending both lines until they meet.
Scaled length of corresponding lines give side friction force (Z2)
and base reaction force (R').
Normal Force, N' = R' Cos 'd.
Follow the same procedure for other slices, starting from the
known forces.
For last slice, only R' is unknown.
Force polygon may not close in the last slice.
The unbalanced inter-slice force is calculated from the force
polygon.
Assumed a new factor of safety and follow the procedure until the
force polygon is balanced.
Analytical Solution
Resolve all forces in a vertical direction and equate to zero.

equation

## Calculate Zi+1 by assuming a value of F.

Repeat this procedure for all slices and check if the last value
of Zn = 0 or not. If not follow the procedure by assuming new
value of F until it becomes 0.
Complete Equilibrium Procedure
can calculate the inter-slice forces

SPENCER's METHOD
Inter-slice forces for all slices are parallel.
This method determines the inclination of inter-slice forces.
Normal force acts at the center of the base of slice.
Was originally proposed for circular failure surface but was
later accepted for non-circular sliding surfaces too.
Two equations of equilibrium are solved - force and moment,
to find the factor of safety (F) and angle of inclination of inter-
slice force ().
Qi = Zi -Zi=1 For Force equilibrium
Q i =0

## For Moment equilibrium

Q sin .xb Q cos . yQ = 0 Q(sin .x
b cos . yQ ) = 0

M0
M 0 = Q cos ( yQ yb ) yQ = yb +
Q cos

## When there is no earthquake force, reinforcement force, surface force,

M0 =0 and yQ = yb
N + Fv cos Fh sin Q sin( ) = 0

## S + Fv sin + Fh cos + Q cos( ) = 0

c' L + ( N u.l ) tan '
S=
F
l tan '
Fv sin Fh cos (c' ) + ( Fv cos Fh sin + u l )
Q= F F
tan '
cos( ) + sin( )
F

Q(sin .x
b cos . yQ ) = 0

Prepare excel spreadsheet for each slice for Q and assume some
values of F and . Sum of Q should be 0 .
Also prepare a column in spreadsheet to calculate for moment
equilibrium at the origin using the calculated Q.
With multiple trial values of F and , both equations (summation
of columns in excel spreadsheet) should be satisfied.
Once F and are known, Z, N, S and yQ can be calculated.
MORGENSTERN AND PRICE METHOD
Morgenstern and Price (1965) is similar to Spencer's method,
but it assumes that the shear forces between slices depends on
the normal force with a specific function.

SHARMA'S METHOD
Sharma (1973)'s method considers seismic force to be known
and factor of safety as known and we calculate seismic
coefficient to produce F of 1. This seismic coefficient is known
as yield coefficient.
Application of different methods of slope stability analysis
Infinite Slope Homogeneous cohesionless slope
Slope with very shallow sliding soil on hard bed
Swedish Circle Undrained analysis for saturated clays
Relatively thick bed of weak soil
Method of Slice Non-homogeneous slope with c- soil where slip surface is approximately circular.
For quick calculation
But is not suitable for slope with very high pore water pressure
Simplified Bishop Non-homogeneous slope with c- soil where slip surface is approximately circular.
More accurate than Ordinary Method of Slice, especially for slopes with high pore
water pressure
Easy to perform calculation with relatively good accuracy

## Force Equilibrium Applied to all slopes and geometry

Better than circular but are sensitive to the assumption of the inclination of sliding
plane
Spencer Accurate method applied to all geometries and slopes. Simpler than
Morgenstern and Price method
Morgenstern and Accurate method applied to all geometries and slopes. More accurate but more
Price rigorous than other methods
Sharma Accurate method applied to all geometries and slopes. More accurate but more
rigorous method to calculate the yield acceleration (seismic coefficient that
produces F of 1)