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This documents directs students how to proceed to Limit Equilibrium procedure for Slope stability problem

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Procedure

Approach

There are a number of methods available - very simple to

highly complicated numerical calculation approach

Shear Strength ( )

FS =

Shear stress required for equillibrium

Applied shear stress mobilizes both cohesion and friction.

Once all shear strength is mobilized, soil fails

Equations used and methods adopted should satisfy all three

sets of static equilibrium conditions.

F H =0 F V =0 M = 0

Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

Single Free Body Procedure

Infinite Slope with Seepage

Circular Failure

Non-circular Failure

Infinite Slope (Homogenous soil without

seepage)

Driving Force = W sin

Resisting Force = T = c (bc) + W cos tan

Re sisting Force

Fs =

Driving Force

B

c' + B H cos tan '

cos

Fs =

B H sin

c'

+

tan '

Fs = H cos sin tan

H sin cos

Infinite Slope with Seepage

Driving Force = W sin = sat B H sin

Resisting Force (T) = c (bc) + (W cos U) tan

B B

c' + ( sat B H cos w H )

cos cos

+ ( sat cos 2 w )

cos cos

cos

Re sisting Force

Fs =

Driving Force

Re sisting Force

Fs =

Driving Force

cos

=

sat B H sin

= +

sat H sin cos sat H sin cos

= +

sat H sin cos sat sin cos

For rough estimation

w tan ' '

( sat ) c'

c' tan ' cos

2 Fs = +

= + sat H sin cos tan sat

sat H sin cos tan sat

Finite Slope Analysis

Circular Failure

Mass Procedure (Swedish Circle Procedure)

= 0

Resisting Moment = c . (AED) . r

= c . r2.

Fs =

Re sisting Moment c r 2

=

Driving Moment W1l1 W2l2

Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

shear stress

m=

H

critical condition, = cu

cu

H cr =

m

m can be calculated

from the chart if b and D

are known

Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

cu = cu (z=0) + a0 z

cu ( z =0 ) 1

m=

H Fs

a0 H

Let CR =

cu ( z =0 )

Ordinary Method of Slice

Easy to use and simple - is still used commonly.

Divide the slope into a number of slices and calculate

stability parameters for each slice and sum them up.

Driving Force (T) = Wn sin n

Total Driving force = T = Wn sin n

n= p

Fs = n =1 Inter-slice forces are neglected.

n= p

If friction angles of different layers are

W

n =1

n sin n different, we need to analyze separately.

Non-homogenous soil mass

Stability Analysis for Steady-state Seepage

n= p

Fs = n =1

n= p

W

n =1

n sin n

Bishops Simplified Method of Slice

c' L + N r tan '

Fs =

Tr

W + T = N r cos + Tr sin

Tr =

Fs

c' L

W + T sin

Fs

Nr =

tan sin

cos +

Fs

For the equilibrium, taking moment about O

n= p n= p

W r sin = T r

n =1 n =1

n= p

1

(c'.b + W tan '+T tan )

n =1 m

Fs = tan '.sin

m = cos +

n= p

W

n =1

sin

Fs

n= p

1

(c'.bn + Wn tan ' )

n =1 m ( n )

Fs = n= p

W

n =1

n sin n

Stability Analysis for Steady-state Seepage

n= p

1

(c'.bn + (Wn u n bn ) tan ' )

n =1 m ( n )

Fs = n= p

W

n =1

n sin n

Non- Circular Failure Surface

In many cases, the slip surface is more complex than the

circular or infinite.

Quite often, the sliding surface follows the zone of weak layer

or the interface between two different types of materials.

In such cases, stability analysis of slopes should be conducted

with more complex methods.

These procedures are also the methods of slice with more

complex analysis, many of them satisfy all conditions of

equilibrium.

Depending on the satisfaction of equilibrium condition, they

are classified as

force equilibrium procedures

complete equilibrium procedures.

Force Equilibrium Procedure

Inclination of inter-slice force is assumed to make the problem

statically determinant.

Different methods assume the inclination of inter-slice forces in

different ways:

Lowe and Karafiath: The inter-slice forces are inclined at an

average slope of ground surface and slip surface. Inclination

varies from slice to slice.

Simplified Janbu: The side forces are horizontal and there is no

shear stress between slices. Instead, a correction factor is

assumed to adjust the factor of safety.

US Army Corp of Engineers: The side forces are parallel to the

average embankment slope.

Solutions for Force Equilibrium

Procedures

Graphical Solution

Draw the slope in scale and divide them into a number of slices.

Calculate net force due to pore pressure, which is acting

perpendicular to the base of the slide (U = u x l).

Calculate mobilized resistance due to cohesion (T = c'd x l).

Assume F to calculate c'd.

Calculate weight of each slice (W = x b x h).

Make a force polygon by plotting these forces in scale.

Make a line from the end of W, at an angle parallel to the

application of inter-slice force Z2.

Make a line from the starting point of U at an angle inclined at

mobilized friction angle ('d) from a line normal to the sliding

plane. 'd is calculated based on the assumed F.

Complete the force polygon, extending both lines until they meet.

Scaled length of corresponding lines give side friction force (Z2)

and base reaction force (R').

Normal Force, N' = R' Cos 'd.

Follow the same procedure for other slices, starting from the

known forces.

For last slice, only R' is unknown.

Force polygon may not close in the last slice.

The unbalanced inter-slice force is calculated from the force

polygon.

Assumed a new factor of safety and follow the procedure until the

force polygon is balanced.

Analytical Solution

Resolve all forces in a vertical direction and equate to zero.

equation

Repeat this procedure for all slices and check if the last value

of Zn = 0 or not. If not follow the procedure by assuming new

value of F until it becomes 0.

Complete Equilibrium Procedure

can calculate the inter-slice forces

SPENCER's METHOD

Inter-slice forces for all slices are parallel.

This method determines the inclination of inter-slice forces.

Normal force acts at the center of the base of slice.

Was originally proposed for circular failure surface but was

later accepted for non-circular sliding surfaces too.

Two equations of equilibrium are solved - force and moment,

to find the factor of safety (F) and angle of inclination of inter-

slice force ().

Qi = Zi -Zi=1 For Force equilibrium

Q i =0

Q sin .xb Q cos . yQ = 0 Q(sin .x

b cos . yQ ) = 0

M0

M 0 = Q cos ( yQ yb ) yQ = yb +

Q cos

M0 =0 and yQ = yb

N + Fv cos Fh sin Q sin( ) = 0

c' L + ( N u.l ) tan '

S=

F

l tan '

Fv sin Fh cos (c' ) + ( Fv cos Fh sin + u l )

Q= F F

tan '

cos( ) + sin( )

F

Q(sin .x

b cos . yQ ) = 0

Prepare excel spreadsheet for each slice for Q and assume some

values of F and . Sum of Q should be 0 .

Also prepare a column in spreadsheet to calculate for moment

equilibrium at the origin using the calculated Q.

With multiple trial values of F and , both equations (summation

of columns in excel spreadsheet) should be satisfied.

Once F and are known, Z, N, S and yQ can be calculated.

MORGENSTERN AND PRICE METHOD

Morgenstern and Price (1965) is similar to Spencer's method,

but it assumes that the shear forces between slices depends on

the normal force with a specific function.

SHARMA'S METHOD

Sharma (1973)'s method considers seismic force to be known

and factor of safety as known and we calculate seismic

coefficient to produce F of 1. This seismic coefficient is known

as yield coefficient.

Application of different methods of slope stability analysis

Infinite Slope Homogeneous cohesionless slope

Slope with very shallow sliding soil on hard bed

Swedish Circle Undrained analysis for saturated clays

Relatively thick bed of weak soil

Method of Slice Non-homogeneous slope with c- soil where slip surface is approximately circular.

For quick calculation

But is not suitable for slope with very high pore water pressure

Simplified Bishop Non-homogeneous slope with c- soil where slip surface is approximately circular.

More accurate than Ordinary Method of Slice, especially for slopes with high pore

water pressure

Easy to perform calculation with relatively good accuracy

Better than circular but are sensitive to the assumption of the inclination of sliding

plane

Spencer Accurate method applied to all geometries and slopes. Simpler than

Morgenstern and Price method

Morgenstern and Accurate method applied to all geometries and slopes. More accurate but more

Price rigorous than other methods

Sharma Accurate method applied to all geometries and slopes. More accurate but more

rigorous method to calculate the yield acceleration (seismic coefficient that

produces F of 1)

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