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ART AND SOCIAL CHANGE

A CRITICAL RE ADER

EDITED BY
WILL BR ADLE Y AND CHARLES ESCHE

TATE PUBLISHING IN ASSOCIATION WITH AF TER ALL


First published 2007
by order of the Tate Trustees
by Tate Publishing, a division of Tate Enterprises Ltd
Millbank, London sw1p 4rg
www.tate.org.uk/publishing

In association with
Afterall
Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design,
University of the Arts London
107109 Charing Cross Road
London wc2h 0du

Copyright Tate, Afterall 2007


Individual contributions the authors 2007
unless otherwise specified
Artworks the artists or their estates
unless otherwise specified

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted


or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,
mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter
invented, including photocopying and recording, or in
any information storage or retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the publishers

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available
from the British Library

ISBN 978-1-85437-626-8

Distributed in the United States and Canada


by Harry N. Abrams Inc., New York

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


Library of Congress Control Number: 2007934790

Designed by Kaisa Lassinaro, Sara De Bondt


Printed by Graphicom SPA , Italy
CO N T E N T S 99 Deutschland Deutschland ber Alles
Kurt Tucholsky and John Heartfield
Preface [7]
Charles Esche 104 Bauhaus no.3, The Students Voice
Kostufra
Introduction [9]
Will Bradley 106 The Fall of Hannes Meyer
Kostufra
Colour plates [25]
108 Letter, August 1936
PART I 1871 Felicia Browne

36 Letters, October 1870April 1871 110 We Ask Your Attention


Gustave Courbet British Surrealist Group
29 October 1870
18 March 1871 115 Vision in Motion
7 April 1871 Lszl Moholy-Nagy
30 April 1871
PART III 1968
40 Socialism from the Root Up
William Morris and E. Belfort Bax 121 Theses on the Paris Commune
Situationist International
47 The Socialist Ideal: Art (Guy Debord, Attila Kotnyi,
William Morris Raoul Vaneigem)

57 The War in Paterson 125 Response to a Questionnaire


John Reed from the Center for
Socio-Experimental Art
PART II 1917 Situationist International
(J.V. Martin, Jan Strijbosch,
61 En Avant DADA : Raoul Vaneigem, Ren Vinet)
A History of Dadaism
Richard Huelsenbeck 130 Statement
Black Mask
68 Programme Declaration
Komfut 132 Art and Revolution
Black Mask
69 A General Theory of Constructivism
Varvara Stepanova 134 We Propose a Cultural Exchange
Black Mask
74 Art and Propaganda
William Pickens 137 Psychedelic Manifesto
Sture Johannesson
76 The End of Art
Theo Van Doesburg 141 Hopes for Great Happenings
Albert Hunt
78 Art and Reality
Mieczysaw Szczuka 143 Guerrilla Theatre
Ronald G. Davis
86 Draft Manifesto
The John Reed Club of New York 146 Trip Without a Ticket
The San Francisco Diggers
91 Open the Prisons!
Disband the Army! 152 The Post-Competitive,
The Surrealist Group Comparative Game of a Free City
The San Francisco Diggers
92 Revolution Now and Forever!
The Surrealist Group 157 Experience 68
The Avant-Garde Artists Group
94 Cannibalist Manifesto
Oswald De Andrade 161 Tucumn Arde
The Avant-Garde Artists Group
164 Posters from the Revolution, 216 For Self-Management Art
Paris, May 1968 Zoran Popovic
Atelier Populaire
219 The Sword is Mightier
166 Position Paper no.1: than the Swede?
On Revolutionary Art Sture Johannesson
Emory Douglas
227 Position Paper: Crossroads
171 Art for the Peoples Sake Community (The Farm)
Emory Douglas Bonnie Sherk

174 Letter, April 1968 230 Art Hysterical Notions


Hans Haacke of Progress and Culture
Valerie Jaudon and Joyce Kozloff
175 Manifesto for the Guerrilla Art
Action Group 241 Ideology, Confrontation
Guerrilla Art Action Group and Political Self-Awareness
Adrian Piper
178 A Call for the Immediate Resignation
of All the Rockefellers from 245 The Docklands Photo-Murals
the Board of Trustees of Peter Dunn and Lorraine Leeson
the Museum of Modern Art
Guerrilla Art Action Group 249 Dispatches from an Unofficial
War Artist
180 Letter to Richard M. Nixon Peter Kennard
Guerrilla Art Action Group
251 Ten Items of the Covenant
181 Insertions into Ideological Circuits, Laibach
197075
Cildo Meireles 255 Flyer for the Rev-Revue
of Soc-Fashion
188 Radical Software, vol.1 no.1, Orange Alternative
The Alternate Television Movement
Phyllis Gershuny and Beryl Korot 257 Operating Manual for Leszek MAJ
Orange Alternative
190 The Videosphere
Gene Youngblood PART IV 1989

191 Cybernetic Guerrilla Warfare 260 Geometric Retroabstraction


Paul Ryan Desiderio Navarro

196 Proclamation of the Orange 271 The Border Art Workshop/


Free State Taller De Arte Fronterizo
The Kabouters Guillermo Gomez-Pena
and Emily Hicks
200 Call to the Artists of Latin America Interviewed by Coco Fusco

202 Womens Art: A Manifesto 277 A Presentation


VALIE EXPORT Gran Fury
(Tom Kalin, Michael Nesline
204 Notes on Street Art by the Brigadas And John Lindell)
Ramona Parra
Mone Gonzlez 283 Rebellion on Level p
Christoph Schfer and Cathy Skene
206 Resolutions of the Third World with the Hafenrandverein
Filmmakers Meeting In Algiers
290 Popotla
211 Press Release, September 1976 RevArte
Solvognen
293 Statement by the Feminist Artist
213 Invisible Theatre Collective Ip Gim
Augusto Boal

Art and Social Change


297 How To?
Tiqqun

313 Politicising Sadness


Colectivo Situaciones

319 Mayan Technologies and the Theory


of Electronic Civil Disobedience
Ricardo Dominguez
Interviewed by Benjamin Shepard
and Stephen Duncombe

332 The Articulation of Protest


Hito Steyerl

340 A Concise Lexicon of/for


the Digital Commons
Raqs Media Collective

350 The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic


Exchanges, Networked Resistance
Brian Holmes

369 Drifting Producers


Yongseok Jeon

378 There is no alternative:


THE FUTURE IS SELF-ORGANISED
Stephan Dillemuth, Anthony Davies
And Jakob Jakobsen

PART V Commissioned Essays

384 The Many AND s of Art


and Revolution
Gerald Raunig

395 Rebuilding the Art of the People


John Milner

408 Time Capsule


Lucy R. Lippard

422 Secular Artist, Citizen Artist


Geeta Kapur About the authors [462]

440 Selling the Air: Notes on Art and the About the editors [463]
Desire for Social Change in Tehran
Tirdad Zolghadr Notes [464]

447 Line Describing A Curb Bibliography [474]


Asymptotes about VALIE EXPORT,
the New Urbanism and Index [478]
Contemporary Art
Marina Vishmidt Acknowledgements [479]

Contents
PREFACE
C H AR LE S E SC H E

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8 Art and Social Change


INTRODUCTION
WI LL B R A DLE Y

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10 Art and Social Change


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Introduction 11
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12 Art and Social Change


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Introduction 13
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9ldfYgg]cb]ga k\]W\]bhifb`cc_YXhch\Y5fhgUbX7fUZhgacjYaYbh Vih
kUggccbUi[aYbhYXVm7cbghfiWh]j]gh]XYUg";fcd]ig\]agY`ZacjYXei]W_`m

14 Art and Social Change


ZfcaXYg][b]b[h\YYldfYgg]cb]ghGcaaYfZY`X\cigY]b%-&$hckcf_]b[
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WcbWYdh]cbgcZUfhkYfYbchbYWYggUfmhcgiddcfhh\YYl]ghYbWYcZdU]bh]b[
cfdcYhfm"
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YghUV`]g\8UXU]bDUf]g Vih]hei]W_`mXYjY`cdYXUjYfmX]ZZYfYbhW\UfUWhYf"

Introduction 15
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ZfcaWi`hifYUbX]XYc`c[mk]h\aYh\cXgU]aYXUhhUdd]b[X]fYWh`m]bhch\Y
ibWcbgW]ciga]bX"K\Yh\Yfcfbchh\YmhYW\b]WU``mgiWWYYXYX]bh\]gU]a 
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KYghYfbUfh UbXX]gfidhYXaUbmcZ]hgW\Yf]g\YXUggiadh]cbg"GiffYU`]gag
dfcdcg]h]cbgUVcihWfYUh]j]hmkYfYfUX]WU``mXYacWfUh]W/GiffYU`]gh]bg][\h
Wci`XbchVYhUi[\h bcfWci`X]hVYfYghf]WhYXVmgcW]U`^iX[YaYbhg"
:fca6fYhcbgj]Ykdc]bh h\YdfYjU]`]b[gmghYacZdc`]h]WU`cf[Ub]gUh]cb
UbXgcW]U`bcfagkYfYUbib^ighUbXib^igh]UV`Y]adcg]h]cbcbU
\YhYfc[YbYcigUbXibdfYX]WhUV`Y\iaUbbUhifY"=bh\YYUf`mXUmgcZh\Y
acjYaYbh UWWcfX]b[hc6fYhcb ]hkUgh\YYbh]fYXYZYbWYUddUfUhigcZ
gcW]Yhmh\UhkYkYfYUhhUW_]b[.h\YUfam ^igh]WY h\Ydc`]WY fY`][]cb 
dgmW\]Uhf]WUbX`Y[U`aYX]W]bY UbXgW\cc`]b["1H\YDUf]g]UbGiffYU`]gh
;fcid h\fci[\h\Y]f^cifbU` La Rvolution Surraliste UbX`UhYfLe Surralisme
au service de la Rvolution bchcb`mdfYgYbhYXYldYf]aYbhg]bdYfWYdh]cbUbX
YldfYgg]cbVihaUb]ZYghcgh\UhdfcdcgYXUWh]cbUbXhcc_Yad\Uh]Wdc`]h]WU`
dcg]h]cbgZUfacfYfUX]WU`h\UbUbmdc`]h]WU`cf[Ub]gUh]cb]b:fUbWYUh
h\Yh]aY"
AUbmGiffYU`]ghkcf_gkYfYbchYl\]V]hYXcfW]fWi`UhYXk]h\]bh\YZcfaU`
Ufhkcf`Xibh]`aUbmmYUfgUZhYfh\Y]fdfcXiWh]cb"H\]gdYf\UdgkUg]bdUfh
UXY`]VYfUhYdc`]Wm UbX]bdUfhUfYgi`hcZUXY`Um]bh\YaUf_YhUWWYdhUbWY
cZh\Ykcf_gYldYf]aYbhU`ZcfaU`bUhifY"H\YfYgi`hkUgUb]bXYdYbXYbh
Wi`hifU`Wcaaib]hmk\cgYdfcXiWh]cbfYdfYgYbhYXUgmaVc`]Wdc`]h]WU`
bY[ch]Uh]cbk]h\]bh\Y[fcid":cfa\UXdc`]h]WU`WcbhYbh]bh\]gfYghf]WhYX
WcbhYlh UbXZcfaU`dfcdcg]h]cbgkYfYfYUX]bh\YWcbhYlhcZ]bhYfbU`
hYbg]cbgVYhkYYb ZcfYlUad`Y UbUfW\]gh @Yb]b]ghcfHfchg_m]hYdcg]h]cbg"
H\YgY]bhYfbU`Wcb]Whg\UX`]hh`YdiV`]WaUb]ZYghUh]cb \ckYjYf XYgd]hY
6fYhcbgX]j]g]jYUhhYadh]b%-&+hcUZ`]UhYh\YGiffYU`]ghacjYaYbhk]h\
h\Y7caaib]ghDUfhm"A]fc Uacb[ghch\Yfg fYZigYXhc^c]b UbX6fYhcb
\]agY`ZkUgYldY``YXZfcah\YdUfhm]b%-''"K\]`Y5fU[cbUbX9`iUfX
d`UWYXh\YagY`jYgUhh\YgYfj]WYcZcZW]U`Wcaaib]ghhfih\ 6fYhcbZcibX
h\YDUfhmg]XYc`c[]WU`fY^YWh]cbcZGiffYU`]gagUfh]gh]Wj]g]cbhcVYdUfhcZ
UXYYdYfdc`]h]WU`X]gU[fYYaYbh"H\]gkUgdYf\Udg]bYj]hUV`Y[]jYbh\Uh 
Zcf6fYhcb GiffYU`]gakUg]b]hgY`ZUfYjc`ih]cbUfmdfc[fUaaY"
6Yb^Ua]bDfYh k\c\UXU`gc]b]h]U``m^c]bYXh\Y7caaib]ghDUfhm 
kYbhcbhc[\hk]h\h\YUbUfW\]ghg]bh\YGdUb]g\7]j]`KUf"H\ci[\W`cgY
hc6fYhcb \YUf[iYXh\Uhh\YdcYhWUbbchVYYldYWhYXhcdih\]g#\Yfkcf_Uh
h\YgYfj]WYcZdc`]h]Wg"=h]gdYf\Udgh\]gfYZigU`hc[]jYidh\Y]XYUcZUYgh\Yh]W
Uihcbcamh\Uh`YX\]ahcibXYfghUbXh\YXYg]fYZcfhchU`Ufh]gh]WZfYYXcaUg
XYaUbX]b[X]fYWhgcW]U`Yb[U[YaYbh"=bU``YjYbhg aiW\cZh\YXYVUhYUbX
hYbg]cbk]h\]bh\YUjUbh![UfXYgcZh\Y%-'$gkUgVfci[\hhcUbUVfidhUbX
1 Andr Breton, La Claire Tour Pierre, Surralisme et Anarchie:
(The Lighthouse), Libertaire, 297, les billets surralistes du Libertaire,
11 January 1952, reprinted in Jos Paris: Plasma 1983, pp.8687.

16 Art and Social Change


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Introduction 17
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8][[YfgUZhYfk\cah\Y7U`]Zcfb]Ub[fcidkYfYbUaYX"Crossroads Community
(The Farm)kUgUbYZZcfhhchfUbgZcfaUbUfYUcZkUghY[fcibXibXYfbYUh\U
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18 Art and Social Change


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Introduction 19
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20 Art and Social Change


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Introduction 21
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cZh\Ygd\YfYcZUfhUgUgd\YfYcZZfYYYldfYgg]cbUbXYldYf]aYbhUh]cb\Ug
UddYU`]b[YW\cYgcZacXYfb]ghdf]bW]d`Yg UgdUWYh\UhU``ckgh\Y]adcgg]V`Y
XfYUacZU`]ZYcihg]XYcZWUd]hU`]ga"<ckYjYf]h]gib`]_Y`mh\Uhh\Y
aU]bghfYUa]bgh]hih]cbgcZUfhk]``VYdc`]h]WU``mcfWi`hifU``mUV`Yhc
hfUbgZcfah\YagY`jYg]bh\YkUmgh\UhWiffYbhUWh]j]ghdfUWh]WYa][\h
dfcdcgY"=bXYYX]hgYYagacfYdfcVUV`Yh\UhYjYbh\YdfYgYbh
UWWcaacXUh]cbk]``VYg\cfh!`]jYX UgbYc!`]VYfU`dc`]W]YgWcbh]biYhc
Vf]b[diV`]W]bgh]hih]cbg]bhch\YYaVfUWYcZh\YaUf_Yh"H\YfY]gU`gc 
dYf\Udg gcaYhfih\hch\YfYaUf_aUXYVmcbYUfh]ghUhUfYWYbhi_
]bgh]hih]cbU`WcbZYfYbWYh\Uh ]Zh\Y5fhg7cibW]`]ggdcbgcf]b[h\Y
fYjc`ih]cb ]h]gjYfmib`]_Y`mhcVYh\YfYjc`ih]cb"

22 Art and Social Change


=hkci`XVYcjYf`mdYgg]a]gh]W]bh\YWcbhYlhcZh\]gVcc_ k\cgYgiV^YWh
]gUfhUbXgcW]U`W\Ub[Y hcWcbW`iXYh\Uhh\Ydf]aUfmjU`iYcZh\YZcfaU`
WcbhYadcfUfmUfhkcf`Xhccddcg]h]cbU`dc`]h]Wg]gUgUgcifWYcZXk]bX`]b[
aUhYf]U`giddcfh fUh\Yfh\UbUgUbcdYbZcfiaZcfh\YfY]bj][cfUh]cbcZW]j]`
gcW]Yhm"Gh]`` h\YWcb]WhXYgWf]VYXUhh\YVY[]bb]b[cZh\]g]bhfcXiWh]cb 
VYhkYYbh\YWcbghfiWh]cbUbXaU]bhYbUbWYcZh\Ygd\YfYcZUfhVmh\Y
Xca]bUbhgcW]U`UbXYWcbca]WZcfWYg UbXUfh]ghgdifgi]hcZh\Ydcgg]V]`]hm
cZgcW]U`W\Ub[Y fYaU]bg"H\Y]bgh]hih]cbgcZh\YKYghYfbUfhkcf`X\UjY
dfcjYbVch\Yl]V`YYbci[\hcUWWcaacXUhYYjYfmZcfaU`W\U``Yb[YUbX
fYg]`]YbhYbci[\hcfYg]ghYjYfmghfiWhifU`UhhUW_/]bh\]gh\YmfYYWhh\Y
W\UfUWhYf]gh]WgcZh\YYWcbca]WUbXdc`]h]WU`gmghYah\Uhgiddcfhgh\Ya"
K\Uh\UgW\Ub[YX]bfYWYbhXYWUXYg]gh\UhZcfaU`cfUYgh\Yh]WWf]hYf]UUfY
bc`cb[YfgiZW]Ybh ]bZUWhbc`cb[Yfj]UV`Y UgUVUg]gZcfXYgWf]V]b[h\Y
aUb]ZYghgd\YfYcZUfh"
H\YWUhY[cfmcZacXYfbUfhgmbh\Yg]gYXhkcUddUfYbh`mcddcg]b[]XYUg.
UfhUgUdfc[fYgg]cbcZUYgh\Yh]Wd\]`cgcd\]YgUbXacjYaYbhgh\UhVi]`hcb
h\YdUgh UbXh\YfUX]WU`YldYf]aYbhgcZh\YUjUbh![UfXYh\UhWcbh]biU``m
UhhYadhYXhcVfYU_Zfcah\UhhfUX]h]cbcfhcfYaU_Yh\YWUhY[cfm]hgY`Z"Bck 
]hgYYagh\UhacfY!cf!`YggU``dcgg]V`Y\iaUbUWh]cbg\UjYVYYbW`U]aYXUg
UfhUhcbYh]aYcfUbch\Yf"H\YfYUfYU`gcacfYUih\cf]h]Ygh\UbYjYfVYZcfY
k]h\h\YdckYfhc`Y[]h]a]gYh\YUfhghUhigcZh\cgYW`U]ag"=bh\]gWcbhYlh 
Ufh]ghgghfi[[`Yghc[YhWYfhU]bUYgh\Yh]WgcfWcbWYdhgUWWYdhYX]bhch\Y
WUbcbUfYcjYf UbXh\YXYVUhYcjYfh\YbUhifYcZUfh\UgVYYbgidYfgYXYXVm
UaUf_Yhd`UWY]bk\]W\U``ZcfagcfXYb]h]cbgUfYUjU]`UV`Y UbXh\YVimYfg
k\Yh\Yfh\YmUfYdiV`]Wcfdf]jUhY[U``Yf]Yg WcfdcfUhYWc``YWhcfg diV`]W
Wcaa]gg]cbYfgcfUbmch\Yf]bhYfYghYXdUfhmUfYUV`YhcgY`YWhh\cgYh\Uh
VYghgYfjYh\Y]f]bhYfYghg"
CZWcifgY h\YXYVUhYcjYfh\YbUhifYcZUfh cjYfh\YbUhifYcZh\YdckYf
cffc`YcZUfhUbXh\YZcfa]hg]bgh]hih]cbgg\ci`XhU_Y Wcbh]biYg Vih]hXcYg
gcUgUbYld`]W]h`m]XYc`c[]WU`WcbhYgh"=b\]gWcaa]gg]cbYXYggUm ;YfU`X
FUib][gi[[YghgUZfUaYkcf_ZcfibXYfghUbX]b[gcaYcZh\YfYWiff]b[
h\YaYg]bh\Y\]ghcf]WU`XYjY`cdaYbhcZh\]gg]hiUh]cb k\]`YH]fXUXNc`[\UXf
UbX;YYhU?UdifXYgWf]VYhkcjYfmX]ZZYfYbhg]hiUh]cbg]bk\]W\h\]gXYVUhY
]gVcibXhcif[Ybhdc`]h]WU`UbXgcW]U`eiYgh]cbg"=bk\UhNc`[\UXfXYgWf]VYg
Ugh\YgYa]!hchU`]hUf]UbgcW]YhmcZ=fUb UbYk[YbYfUh]cbcZUfh]ghgbY[ch]UhY
WYbgcfg\]d]bh\Y\cdYcZ]bhYfbUh]cbU`giWWYgg k\]`Yh\YghUhYacbcdc`]gYg
gcW]U`g]hYgh\YaYX]UUbXh\Yh\YUhf]WU`UfYbUcZdiV`]Wdc`]h]Wg Zcf
YlUad`Yh\Uh\UjYVYYbh\YZcWigcZX]ggYbh]bh\YKYgh"?UdifYlUa]bYg
h\Y]adcfhUbWYcZUfh]bh\YWcbhYlhcZW]j]`gcW]Yhm]bWcbhYadcfUfm=bX]U 
UbXh\Ydc`]h]WU`ghfi[[`YgcjYffYdfYgYbhUh]cb ]bYjYfmgYbgY h\UhUhhYbX
h\YUhhYadhhcUXXfYggh\YZU]`]b[gcZh\Y]bgh]hih]cbgcZXYacWfUWm"
AUf]bUJ]g\a]XhWcbbYWhgjU`]YYldcfhgdYfgcbU`Yb[U[YaYbhk]h\h\Y
dc`]h]WgcZdiV`]WgdUWYhch\YacfYfYWYbhUWh]cbgcZDUf_:]Wh]cbUbXh\Y
<UZYbfUbXjYfY]b]b<UaVif[ UWcb]WhVYhkYYbghUhY!VUW_YXWUd]hU`UbX

Introduction 23
`cWU`W]h]nYbgh\Uhib]hYXUbXcf[Ub]gYXh\YWcaaib]hmibXYfh\YVUbbYf
cZihcd]UbUfh"
K\]`Yh\YfYWYbh`mfY]bj][cfUhYXh\YcfYh]WU`XYVUhYUfcibXh\Y]XYU
cZh\YdiV`]Wgd\YfYUbXh\Y]adcfhUbWYcZUfhk]h\]b]h\UgUb
ibXYfghUbXUV`mjU`YX]WhcfmhcbY eiYgh]cbgcZW]j]`gcW]YhmfYaU]bWYbhfU`
hcUhhYadhghccddcgYWUd]hU`]gh]b^igh]WYZfcaYl]gh]b[XYacWfUh]WgmghYag"
H\Y]XYUcZUfh]gh]WZfYYXca\UgVYYbfYWYbh`macV]`]gYXVmh\YbYc!`]VYfU`
f][\h]bXYZYbWYcZaYX]UdfcdU[UbXU UbXVmh\YWcbgYfjUh]jY`YZh]bh\Y
XYZYbWYcZgcW]U`XYacWfUh]WWi`hifU`]bgh]hih]cbgYjYbUg]hVYWcaYg
UddUfYbhh\Uhh\YfY]aU[]bUh]cbcZh\YgY]bgh]hih]cbgXYdYbXgidcb
YaVfUW]b[UbYldUbXYXX]gWcifgYk]h\]bk\]W\h\Ydc`]h]WU`]bhYfYghgUh
ghU_YWUbVYUfh]Wi`UhYXUbXXYVUhYX"AYUbk\]`Y aUbmYaYf[]b[dc`]h]WU``m!
Yb[U[YXWi`hifU`acjYaYbhgUfY]bWfYUg]b[`mZcWigYXcbh\Y]XYU`gcZ
]bXYdYbXYbWYZfcaYl]gh]b[ghUhYcfaUf_YhghfiWhifYg"H\YmW\ccgYh\Y]f
hcc`gdfU[aUh]WU``m UbXVi]`Xh\Y]fbYhkcf_gUWfcggX]gW]d`]bUfmVcibXUf]Yg"
H\YWYbhfU`eiYgh]cb ]bh\YWcbhYlhcZh\Y_]bXgcZdfUWh]WYgh\Uhh\]gVcc_
UhhYadhghcXYgWf]VY ]gdYf\Udgbc`cb[YfcbYcZVfYU_]b[k]h\h\Y
]bgh]hih]cbcZUfh VihcZ\ckhcWcbgh]hihYUbUWh]jYU`hYfbUh]jY"

24 Art and Social Change


CO LO U R P L AT E S

Gustave Courbet La rencontre or Bonjour Monsieur Courbet, 1854 Michel Charles Fichot Paris on Fire on the Night of 2425 May, 1871
Oil on canvas, 129 149 cm Coloured engraving
Courtesy Muse Fabre, Montpellier; RMN, DR Courtesy Muse de la Ville de Paris; Carnavalet/Roger-Viollet
Raoul Hausmann The Art Critic, 19191920
Lithograph and photographic collage on paper, 31.8 25.4 cm
ADAGP, Paris; DACS , London; Tate, London

Atelier Populaire
Poster, 1968
Courtesy the International Institute of Social History ( IISH ),
Amsterdam

The Pageant of the Paterson Strike


Programme, 1912
Courtesy Tamiment Library, New York University

Previous page:
British Surrealist Group We Ask Your Attention, 1938
Pamphlet designed by Henry Moore
Courtesy the Henry Moore Foundation, London
Gran Fury Kissing Doesnt Kill: Greed and Indifference Do, ca. 1989 Sture Johannesson The Pen is Mightier than the Sword?, 1976
Poster KulturHuset, Stockholm
Courtesy Gran Fury Records, Manuscripts and Archives
Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lennox and Peter Kennard Defended to Death, 1983
Tilden Foundations Photomontage
Bonnie Sherk Documentation of Crossroads Community (The Farm), 19741981
Solvognen US Independence Day demonstration, Rebild, Denmark, 1976
Courtesy Nils Vest / www.vestfilm.dk
RevArte Documentation of the Popotla project by RevArte Ip Gim Demonstration protesting the Scattering of the Abanggung
and the Popotla community, 1997 Occupation Project at Jongmyo, 2000
Photograph James Blienser, Luz Camacho and Jim Hammond
Park Fiction Park Fiction Guides (Filiz and Noorjan)
under the Palm trees on the Teagarden Island, 2003
Photograph Margit Czenki

St. Pauli Kickboxers during the opening party for the Park,
Permanent Picnic against Gentrification, on the Tulip Patterned Next page:
Tartan Field, 2005 and Rabbit Fashion in the Park, 2004 William Morris Design for the membership card
Photographs Christoph Schfer of the Democratic Federation, 1883
Courtesy the Park Fiction Archive for Independent Urbanism Courtesy the Working Class Movement Library, Salford
PARTS 1 V
PART 1

THE COMMUNE
AND
THE COMMONWEAL

1871

Against the background of the Commune,


the role of the artist as a citizen and the
political nature of art and its institutions is
explicitly considered. Gustave Courbet and
William Morris independently develop the
notion that, as art is inextricably linked with
its social context, political activism forms
a legitimate part of an artists practice. During
the upheavals of the Paris Commune, Courbet
proposes the effective de-institutionalisation
of art. Morris sees his dream of art as part
of the daily life of all members of society
as inseparable from the creation of an
egalitarian social order.
LET TERS, OCTOBER 1870 APRIL 1871
G U STAV E CO U R B E T

Extracts from letters written by


Gustave Courbet, Paris 187071.
From Petra Ten-Doesschate Chu (ed.
and trans.), Letters of Gustave Courbet,
University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Letter to the German army and the German artists, Paris, 29 October 1870

@]ghYb.`YUjYigmcif?fiddWUbbcbg kYk]``aY`hh\Yahc[Yh\Yfk]h\cifg/
h\Y`UghWUbbcb ]hgidhifbYXainn`YWcjYfYXk]h\Ud\fm[]UbVcbbYh 
d`UbhYXcbUdYXYghU`fYgh]b[cbh\fYYWUbbcbVU``g.h\UhWc`cggU`acbiaYbh
h\UhkY``YfYWhhc[Yh\Yfcbh\Yd`UWYJYbXaYk]``VYcifWc`iab Zcfmci
UbXZcfig h\YWc`iabcZh\YdYcd`Y h\YWc`iabcZ;YfaUbmUbX:fUbWY
ZcfYjYfZYXYfUhYX"

Letter to his colleagues, Paris, 18 March 1871

H\YdfYWYX]b[fY[]aYgh\Uh[cjYfbYX:fUbWYbYUf`mXYghfcmYXUfh
VmdfchYWh]b[]hUbXhU_]b[UkUm]hggdcbhUbY]hm"H\UhZYiXU`UddfcUW\ 
gighU]bYXVmUXYgdch]WUbXX]gWfYh]cbUfm[cjYfbaYbh dfcXiWYXbch\]b[
VihUf]ghcWfUh]WUbXh\YcWfUh]WUfh ^ighh\Ycddcg]hYcZh\YacXYfb
hYbXYbW]Yg cZcifbYYXg cZcifd\]`cgcd\mUbXh\YfYjY`Uh]cbcZaUb
aUb]ZYgh]b[\]g]bX]j]XiU`]hmUbX\]gacfU`UbXd\mg]WU`]bXYdYbXYbWY"
HcXUm k\YbXYacWfUWmaighX]fYWhYjYfmh\]b[ ]hkci`XVY]``c[]WU`Zcf
Ufh k\]W\`YUXgh\Ykcf`X hc`U[VY\]bX]bh\YfYjc`ih]cbh\Uh]ghU_]b[
d`UWY]b:fUbWYUhh\]gacaYbh"
=bcfXYfhcUW\]YjYh\]g[cU` kYk]``X]gWigg]bUbUggYaV`mcZUfh]ghg
h\Yd`Ubg dfc^YWhgUbX]XYUgh\Uhk]``VYgiVa]hhYXhcig ]bcfXYfhc
UW\]YjYh\YbYkfYcf[Ub]gUh]cbcZUfhUbX]hgaUhYf]U`]bhYfYghg"

36 Art and Social Change 1871


Letter to the artists of Paris, 7 April 1871

5gDUf]g\UgbU``mkcb]hgY`ZZfYYXcacZUWh]cbUbX]bXYdYbXYbWY 
=WU``idcbUfh]ghghcUggiaYWcbhfc`cZh\YaigYiagUbXUfhWc``YWh]cbg
k\]W\ h\ci[\h\YdfcdYfhmcZh\YbUh]cb UfYdf]aUf]`mh\Y]fg Zfca
h\Y]bhY``YWhiU`UgkY``Ugh\YaUhYf]U`dc]bhcZj]Yk""""
H\YEcole de Romeg\U``VYUVc`]g\YX UbXgcg\U``h\YEcole des beaux-arts
Vihh\YDUf]g]UbacbiaYbhWci`XVY`YZhUhh\YX]gdcgU`cZghiXYbhghc
dfcachY h\fci[\h\Y]fYbh]fY`mZfYYW\c]WYcZdfcZYggcfg h\YYjc`ih]cb
cZh\Y]fghiX]Yg""""
<cbcifWfcggYgUbXaYXU`gcZU``W`UggYgg\U``VYYbh]fY`mUVc`]g\YX"

Letter to his family, Charenton, 30 April 1871

<YfY=Ua h\Ub_ghch\YdYcd`YcZDUf]g idhcambYW_]bdc`]h]Wg.dfYg]XYbh


cZh\Y:YXYfUh]cbcZ5fh]ghg aYaVYfcZh\Y7caaibY XY`Y[UhYhch\YCZWY
cZh\YAUmcf XY`Y[UhYhch\YA]b]ghfmcZDiV`]W9XiWUh]cb ZcifcZh\Yacgh
]adcfhUbhcZWYg]bDUf]g=[Yhid =YUhVfYU_ZUgh UbX=g]hUbX=dfYg]XY
hkY`jY\cifgUXUm"Am\YUX]gVY[]bb]b[hcZYY``]_YUVU_YXUdd`Y"6ih]b
gd]hYcZU``h\]gU[]hUh]cb]bam\YUXUbX]bamibXYfghUbX]b[cZgcW]U`
eiYgh]cbgh\Uh=kUgbchZUa]`]Ufk]h\ =Ua]bgYjYbh\\YUjYb"
DUf]g]gUhfiYdUfUX]gY"""H\YDUf]g7caaibY]gacfYgiWWYggZi`
h\UbUbmZcfacZ[cjYfbaYbhh\Uh\UgYjYfVYYb"

Gustav Courbet Letters, October 1870 April 1871 37


Gustave Courbet The Stone Breakers, 1849 The Paris Commune Barricade Rue du Faubourg
Oil on canvas, 160 259 cm Saint Antoine, 1871
Courtesy Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden; BPK BHVP/Roger-Viollet

38
William Morris Design for a textile; Rose and Thistle, 1882 Washing cotton in the River Wandle,
Charcoal and watercolour Merton Abbey Works, Surrey
Courtesy V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum,
London

39
SOCIALISM FROM THE ROOT UP
WI LLIA M MORR I S AN D E . B E LF ORT B A X

Commonweal, vol.2 no.38,


2 October 1886.

=bXYU`]b[k]h\h\Y[fYUhYjYbhcZh\YDUf]g7caaibY kYaighhU_YZcf
[fUbhYXU_bck`YX[YcZh\YZUWhg k\]W\UfY]bUVf]YZZcfaUWWYgg]V`YhcU``
g]bWYh\YdiV`]WUh]cbVmh\YGcW]U`]gh@YU[iYcZ]hgdUad\`Yhcbh\YgiV^YWh"
5gkY\UjYghUhYXVYZcfY h\Y=bhYfbUh]cbU`kUgZcibXYX]b%,*(ibXYf
h\Y`YUXYfg\]dcZ6YYg`Ym AUflUbXCX[Yf"=b%,*- Uhh\Y7cb[fYggcZ6Ug`Y 
AUflXfYk]h]bhch\YWcadUggcZgcW]U`]ga/UbXh\ci[\]b9b[`UbX]hgh]``
fYaU]bYXUb]bXYb]hY`UVcif!VcXm cbh\Y7cbh]bYbh]hVYWUaYUhcbWY
XYW]XYX`mgcW]U`]gh]WUbXfYjc`ih]cbUfm UbX]hg]biYbWYkUgWcbg]XYfUV`Y"
H\Ydfc[fYggcZgcW]U`]gaUbXh\YgdfYUX]b[ZYY`]b[cZh\Ygc`]XUf]hm
cZ`UVcifkYfYjYfmW`YUf`mg\ckbVmh\YbcV`YdfchYghaUXYVmh\Y;YfaUb
gcW]U`]ghg1U[U]bghh\YkUfk]h\:fUbWY ]bh\YhYYh\cZUdUhf]ch]WZYY`]b[
gcghfcb[]bUddYUfUbWYh\Uh]ha][\h\UjYVYYbYldYWhYXhcg]`YbWYUbm
cV^YWhcfgZfcah\Yfgh"H\YfYgi`hcZh\YkUfgYYaYXhccZZYfUh`YUghU
W\UbWYZcfUWh]cbhch\YfUd]X`m]bWfYUg]b[GcW]U`]ghDUfhm ]Zh\YmWci`X
aUbU[YhchU_YUXjUbhU[YcZ]h hc[Yh]bhch\Y]f\UbXgh\Ydc`]h]WU`dckYf/
UbXibXYfh\Y]biYbWYcZh\Y=bhYfbUh]cbU`]ghg h\Y:fYbW\gcW]U`]ghg
XYhYfa]bYXhchU_YUWh]cb]ZUb]aaYX]UhYcddcfhib]hmcZZYfYXO]hgY`Z Q"
BY]h\YfX]Xh\Ycddcfhib]hmZU]`"H\YbU`XYZYUhcZh\Y:fYbW\UfamUhGYXUb
Vfci[\hcbh\YZU``cZh\Y9ad]fY k\YbFYdiV`]WUb:fUbWYa][\hdYf\Udg
\UjYaUXYhYfagk]h\h\Y]bjUXYfg k\cah\YaYbcZh\Y9ad]fY\UX
W\U``Yb[YX"6ihUfYg]ghUbWYkUgcf[Ub]gYXVm;UaVYhhU Uhh\Y\YUX
cZUghcW_!^cVV]b[W`]eiYk\cgY]bhYfYghg Vch\WcaaYfW]U`UbXdc`]h]WU` 
ZcfVUXYh\Yahc`Yhh\YkUfX]Ycih`Yghh\Ymg\ci`XbXh\YagY`jYgZUWY
hcZUWYk]h\UdYcd`YXYhYfa]bYXhcVYYYWYXbc`cb[Yf"H\]gfYg]ghUbWY 
gighU]bYXVmh\YgiWWYggk]h\k\]W\h\]gW`]eiYd`UmYXcbh\Yg\UadUhf]ch]W
cf^]b[c]gh]WZYY`]b[gcZh\Y[YbYfU`dcdi`Uh]cb kUgU`kUmgei]hY\cdY`Ygg
ZfcaUa]`]hUfmdc]bhcZj]Yk UbXVfci[\hh\YWcibhfmhch\YjYf[YcZfi]b"
=hU`gcbYWYggUf]`m]bjc`jYXh\Y;YfaUbg]Y[YcZDUf]g h\YfYgi`hcZk\]W\
kUghch\fckU[fYUhXYU`cZdckYf]bhch\Y\UbXgcZh\YW]hmdfc`YhUf]Uh g]bWY
h\YmUh`YUghkYfY]bYUfbYgh]bh\Y]ffYg]ghUbWYhch\YZcfY][bYbYam UbXh\Y
h\YUhf]WU`fYg]ghUbWYbYWYggUfmhch\YUaV]h]cbcZh\Ydc`]h]WU`UXjYbhifYfg
k\cdcgYXUgh\Y]f`YUXYfgWci`Xbch\UjYUXYWYbhZUWYhcdihidcb]h
1 They also protested, at the end
of the war, against the annexation
of Alsace and Lorraine.

40 Art and Social Change 1871


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William Morris and E. Belfort Bax Socialism from the Root Up 41


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42 Art and Social Change 1871


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William Morris and E. Belfort Bax Socialism from the Root Up 43


Walter Crane Prospectus for the International School,
ca. 1891
Courtesy the Working Class Movement Library, Salford

44
Walter Crane The Workers Maypole, 1894
Print
Courtesy the Working Class Movement Library, Salford

45
Walter Crane Stop the War, ca. 1899
Print
Courtesy the Working Class Movement Library, Salford

46
THE SOCIALIST IDE AL: ART
WI LLIA M MORR I S

New Review, January 1891.

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Bcf \ckYjYfaiW\kYaUmgiZZYfZfcah\]g]ZkY\UddYbhcVYUfh]ghg 

48 Art and Social Change 1871


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William Morris The Socialist Ideal: Art 49


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50 Art and Social Change 1871


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William Morris The Socialist Ideal: Art 51


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h\Y]fdf]jUhYUXjUbhU[Y UbXh\YfYVmhcfcVh\YWcaaib]hm"H\YXUmk\Yb
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hchifbh\YY`XgcZ?Ybh]bhcUbch\YfWc``YWh]cbcZW]bXYf\YUdg]bcfXYf
h\Uhh\YmaUmYlhfUWhkYU`h\ ibYUfbYXVmh\Ya ZfcaUaUggcZ\U`Z!dU]X
`UVcifYfg/h\YXUmk\YbgcaY\]h\YfhcU``dckYfZi`d][!g_]bghiZZYXk]h\
acbYm]ghc`Xh\Uh\Yg\U``bchdi``XckbgcaYUbW]YbhVi]`X]b[]bcfXYf
h\Uh\YaUmZcfWY\]gZY``ckW]h]nYbghcdUm\]aUXX]h]cbU`fUW_!fYbhZcf`UbX
k\]W\]gbch\]ggUjYUgh\YbYk`mUWei]fYXkUhW\cZh\Y\][\kUmaUb]g
h\UhXUmk]``VYh\YVY[]bb]b[cZh\YZfYg\bYk!V]fh\cZUfh]bacXYfbh]aYg"
6ihh\UhXUmk]``U`gcVYcbYcZh\YaYacfUV`YXUmgcZgcW]U`]ga/Zcfh\]g
jYfmdf]j]`Y[Y k\]W\]gVihh\Ydf]j]`Y[YcZh\YfcVVYfVmZcfWYcZUfag ]g^igh
h\Yh\]b[k\]W\]h]gh\YU]aUbXYbXcZcifdfYgYbhcf[Ub]gUh]cbhcid\c`X/
UbXU``h\YZcfa]XUV`YYlYWih]jYUhh\YVUW_cZ]h Ufam dc`]WY `UkWcifhg 
dfYg]XYXcjYfVmh\Y^iX[YUgfYdfYgYbh]b[h\YYlYWih]jY ]gX]fYWhYXhckUfXg
h\]gcbYYbXhchU_YWUfYh\Uhh\Yf]W\Yghg\U``fi`Y UbXg\U``\UjYZi``
`]WYbWYhc]b^ifYh\YWcaacbkYU`h\hch\YZi``YlhYbhcZ\]gf]W\Yg"

52 Art and Social Change 1871


Walter Crane and William Morris
Pamphlet for Alfred Linnell: A Death
Song, 1887
Courtesy the Working Class
Movement Library, Salford

Bloody Sunday, 1887


Illustrated London News

53
PART II

THE MASSES;
ART IS DEAD;
CONSTRUCTION;
UTOPIANS;
THE ARTISTS
INTERNATIONAL;

1917

Artists take positions against the background


of an increasing polarisation of the forces of
capital and labour; proletarian propaganda
appropriates high cultural forms in the US ;
the Dadaists extend their critique of authority
to the form of language itself; many strands
of the European avant-garde declare the end
of art itself; artists in revolutionary Russia seek
to construct a new practice that reflects a new
form of social organisation; the Surrealists
connect the liberation of the forces of production
with the liberation of the imagination; the events
surrounding the Spanish Civil War mark the end
of the revolutionary project of 1917.
The Paterson Strike Pageant, 1912
The cast of the pageant photographed in front of
the 200-foot-wide backdrop painted by John Sloan
Courtesy Tamiment Library, New York University

56
THE WAR IN PATERSON
JOH N R E E D

Extract from The Masses,


New York, June 1913.

H\YfYgkUf]bDUhYfgcb"6ih]hgUWif]cig_]bXcZkUf"5``h\Yj]c`YbWY
]gh\Ykcf_cZcbYg]XYh\YA]``CkbYfg"H\Y]fgYfjUbhg h\YDc`]WY 
W`iVibfYg]gh]b[aYbUbXkcaYbUbXf]XYXckb`Uk!UV]X]b[WfckXgcb
\cfgYVUW_"H\Y]fdU]XaYfWYbUf]Yg h\YUfaYX8YhYWh]jYg g\cchUbX_]``
]bbcWYbhdYcd`Y"H\Y]fbYkgdUdYfg h\YPaterson PressUbXh\YPaterson Call 
diV`]g\]bWYbX]UfmUbXWf]aY!]bW]h]b[UddYU`ghcacV!j]c`YbWYU[U]bgh
h\Yghf]_Y`YUXYfg"H\Y]fhcc` FYWcfXYf7Uffc`` XYU`gcih\YUjmgYbhYbWYg
hcdYUWYZi`d]W_Yhgh\Uhh\Ydc`]WY!bYh[Uh\Yfgid"H\YmWcbhfc`UVgc`ihY`m
h\YDc`]WY h\YDfYgg h\Y7cifhg"
Cddcg]b[h\YaUfYUVcih&) $$$ghf]_]b[g]`_!kcf_Yfg cZk\ca
dYf\Udg%$ $$$UfYUWh]jY UbXh\Y]fkYUdcb]gh\Yd]W_Yh!`]bY"@YhaYhY``
mcik\Uh=gUk]bDUhYfgcbUbXh\Ybmcik]``gUmk\]W\g]XYcZh\]gghfi[[`Y
]gUbUfW\]gh]WUbXWcbhfUfmhc5aYf]WUb]XYU`g"5hg]lcW`cW_]bh\Y
acfb]b[U`][\hfU]bkUgZU``]b["G`UhY![fYmUbXWc`X h\YghfYYhgcZDUhYfgcb
kYfYXYgYfhYX"6ihgccbWUaYh\Y7cdg&$cZh\Yaghfc``]b[U`cb[k]h\
h\Y]fb][\hgh]W_gibXYfh\Y]fUfag"KYkYbhU\YUXcZh\YahckUfXh\Ya]``
X]ghf]Wh"BckkYVY[UbhcgYYkcf_aYb[c]b[]bh\YgUaYX]fYWh]cb WcUh
Wc``UfghifbYXid \UbXg]bh\Y]fdcW_Yhg"KYWUaY]bhcU`cb[ghfYYh cbY
g]XYcZk\]W\kUg`]bYXk]h\g]`_a]``g h\Ych\Yfg]XYk]h\h\YkccXYb
hYbYaYbh\cigYg"=bYjYfmXccfkUm UhYjYfmk]bXckcZh\Y\cigYgW`ighYfYX
ZcfY][b!ZUWYXaYbUbXkcaYb `Ui[\]b[UbXW\Uhh]b[Ug]ZUZhYfVfYU_ZUgh
cbU\c`]XUm"H\YfYgYYaYXbcgYbgYcZYldYWhUbWm bcghfU]bcfZYY`]b[cZ
ZYUf"H\Yg]XYkU`_gkYfYU`acghYadhm cb`mcjYf]bZfcbhcZh\Ya]``gUZYk
Wcid`Ygh\YfYWci`Xbh\UjYVYYbacfYh\Ub)$aUfW\YXg`ck`midUbX
Xckb Xf]dd]b[k]h\h\YfU]b"GcaYkYfYaYb k]h\\YfYUbXh\YfYUaUb
UbXkcaUbhc[Yh\Yf cfhkcmcib[Vcmg"5gh\YkUfaYf`][\hcZZi``XUm
WUaYh\YdYcd`YXf]ZhYXcihcZh\Y]f\cigYgUbXVY[UbhcdUWYVUW_UbX
Zcfh\ [Uh\Yf]b[]b`]hh`Y_bchgcbh\YWcfbYfg"H\YmkYfYei]W_k]h\
[Ygh]Wi`Uh]b[\UbXgUbX`ck!jc]WYXWcbjYfgUh]cb"H\Ym`cc_YXcZhYb
hckUfXh\YWcfbYfgcZg]XYghfYYhg"
GiXXYb`mUddYUfYXUdc`]WYaUb gk]b[]b[\]gW`iV"5\!\!\gU]X
h\YWfckXgcZh`m"
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7caYcb;YhcihcZh\UhmY``YXh\Ydc`]WYaUb UXjUbW]b["H\YaYbei]Yh`m
cVYmYX";YhcZZh\]gghfYYh;c\caY bck8cbhVYghUbX]b[\YfYH\Ym
[UjYkUmVYZcfY\]a]bg]`YbWY Xf]Zh]b[VUW_U[U]bk\Yb\YhifbYXUkUm"

57
Ch\Yfdc`]WYaYbaUhYf]U`]gYX \igh`]b[ Wifg]b[ VfihU` ]bYZZYWhiU`"
BccbYUbgkYfYXVUW_"BYfjcig V`YUfm!YmYX ibg\UjYb h\YgYcZWYfg
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g\cihYXUZYkgWUhhYfYXjc]WYg"Hkc=hU`]UbVcmg`YUbYXU[U]bghh\Ya]``ZYbWY
UbXg\cihYXUaYffm=f]g\h\fYUh GWUV7caYcihU\YfY=_bcW_Umci\YUX
cZZ5dc`]WYaUb[fUVVYXh\YVcmgfci[\`mVmh\Yg\ci`XYf";Yhhc\Y``cih
cZ\YfY\YWf]YX ^Yf_]b[UbXdig\]b[h\Yaj]c`Ybh`mhch\YWcfbYf k\YfY
\Y_]W_YXh\Ya"BchUjc]WY bchUacjYaYbhZfcah\YWfckX"
5`]hh`YZifh\YfU`cb[h\YghfYYhkYgUkUmcib[kcaUbk]h\UbiaVfY``U 
k\c\UXVYYbd]W_Yh]b[ giXXYb`mWcbZfcbhYXVmUV][dc`]WYaUb"
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g\f]``YXdUgg]cbUhY`m k]h\V`Un]b[YmYg"MciV][[Ugh]ZZ 
G]`Ybh`m ghYUXZUgh`m gc`]X`mh\Yd]W_Yh!`]bY[fYk"=b[fcidgcf]bWcid`Yg
h\Yghf]_YfgdUhfc``YXh\Yg]XYkU`_"H\YfYkUgbcacfY`Ui[\]b["H\Ym
`cc_YXcbk]h\YmYgZi``cZ\UhY"H\YgYkYfYYfm!V`ccXYX=hU`]Ubg UbX
h\Ydc`]WYkYfYh\YgUaYVfihU`h\i[gh\Uh\UXVYUhYbh\YaUbX]bgi`hYX
h\YaZcfb]bYkYY_g"=kcbXYfYX\ck`cb[h\YmWci`XghUbX]h"
=hVY[UbhcfU]b\YUj]`m"=Ug_YXUaUbgdYfa]gg]cbhcghUbXcbh\Y
dcfW\cZ\]g\cigY"H\YfYkUgUdc`]WYaUbghUbX]b[]bZfcbhcZ]h"<]g
bUaY =UZhYfkUfXgX]gWcjYfYX kUgAW7cfaUW_"=\UXhckU`_UfcibX
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`]jY]bh\Uh\cigY3H\YaUb]bX]WUhYXh\Yh\fYYch\Yfghf]_YfgUbX\]agY`Z 
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Bckmci[Yhhc\Y``cZZh\]gghfYYhgU]XCZWYfAW7cfaUW_"
=kcbh[YhcZZh\]gghfYYhcfUbmch\YfghfYYh"=Z=aVfYU_]b[Ubm`Uk 
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gck]h\U[fYUhXYU`cZdfcZUb]hm"

58 Art and Social Change 1917


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MYg \YVY``ckYX Ub=[chmcifbiaVYf=``UffYghmci"<Yhcc_aY
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\Y;cX!XUabYXaY\Ufg\`m `cUX]b[aYk]h\UVigYUbXcVgWYb]hm UbX
h\fYUhYbYXaYk]h\\]gb][\h!gh]W_ gUm]b[ MciV][`i[ =X`]_Yhc
VYUhh\Y\Y``cihcZmcik]h\h\]gW`iV"

John Reed The War In Paterson 59


Hannah Hch Heads of State, 19181919
Photomontage
Courtesy Institut fr Auslandsbeziehungen e.V., Stuttgart;
DACS , London

60
EN AVANT DADA :
A HISTORY OF DADAISM
R IC H AR D H U E L S E N B EC K

Extract from En Avant Dada: Eine Geschichte des


Dadaismus, Hanover: Paul Steegemann, 1920.
From Robert Motherwell, Dada Painters and Poets,
Cambridge Uni. Press, 1989.

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cZh\YghfYYh UbXk\cYjYbaU_Y]hUdc]bhcZdf]XYhcVYgk]bX`YXVmYjYfm

62 Art and Social Change 1917


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]UaV]Wg ]gh\YeiU`]hmcZUmcih\k\]W\bYjYf_bYk\ckhcVYmcib["
9ldfYgg]cb]ga X]gWcjYfYXUVfcUX UbX]b;YfaUbm hfiYhcghm`Y 
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ZcfkUfXUbYkUfh Zfcak\]W\h\YmYldYWhh\YfYU`]gUh]cbcZbYk]XYU`g"
5bXgccb"<YfYh\YX]ZZYfYbWYVYhkYYbcifWcbWYdh]cbUbXh\UhcZ
HnUfU]gW`YUf"K\]`YHnUfUkUggh]``kf]h]b[.Dada ne signifie rien8UXU
aYUbgbch\]b[ ]b;YfaUbm8UXU`cgh]hgUfh!Zcf!Ufhg!gU_YW\UfUWhYfk]h\
]hgjYfmfghacjY"=bghYUXcZWcbh]bi]b[hcdfcXiWYUfh 8UXU ]bX]fYWh
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XfUkbidVmFUci`<UigaUbbUbXamgY`Z"=b]hkYWcbgW]cig`mUXcdhYX
Udc`]h]WU`dcg]h]cb.

What is Dadaism and what does it want in Germany?


1. Demands:
a) The international revolutionary union of all creative and intellectual
men and women on the basis of radical communism;
b) The introduction of progressive unemployment through comprehensive
mechanisation of every field of activity. Only by unemployment does it become
possible for the individual to achieve certainty as to the truth of life and finally
become accustomed to experience;
c) The immediate expropriation of property (socialisation) and the communal
feeding of all; further, the erection of cities of light, and gardens which will
belong to society as a whole and prepare man for a state of freedom.
2. Central council demands:
a) Daily meals at public expense for all creative and intellectual men and women
on the Potsdamer Platz (Berlin);
b) Compulsory adherence of all clergymen and teachers to the Dadaist articles
of faith;
c) The most brutal struggle against all directions of so-called workers of the spirit
(Hiller, Adler), against their concealed bourgeoisism, against expressionism
and post-classical education as advocated by the Sturm group;
d) The immediate erection of a state art centre, elimination of concepts of property
in the new art (expressionism); the concept of property is entirely excluded from
the super-individual movement of Dadaism which liberates all mankind;
e) Introduction of the simultaneist poem as a communist state prayer;

Richard Huelsenbeck En Avant DADA: A History of Dadaism 63


f ) Requisition of churches for the performance of bruitism, simultaneist and
Dadaist poems;
g) Establishment of a Dadaist advisory council for the remodelling of life in
every city of over 50,000 inhabitants;
h) Immediate organisation of a large scale Dadaist propaganda campaign
with 150 circuses for the enlightenment of the proletariat;
i) Submission of all laws and decrees to the Dadaist central council for approval;
j) Immediate regulation of all sexual relations according to the views of
international Dadaism through establishment of a Dadaist sexual centre.

The Dadaist revolutionary central council.


German group: Hausmann, Huelsenbeck.
Business Office: Charlottenburg, Kantstrasse 118.
Applications for membership taken at business office.

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64 Art and Social Change 1917


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Richard Huelsenbeck En Avant DADA: A History of Dadaism 65


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66 Art and Social Change 1917


Alexander Rodchenko Workers Club, for the Exposition
Internationale des Arts Dcoratifs et Industriels
Modernes, Paris 1925; DACS , London

First International Dada Exhibition in the Otto Burchard


Gallery, Berlin 1920
Space 1 (with Margarete Herzfelde seated at the table)
Courtesy Berlinische Galerie, Landesmuseum fr Moderne
Kunst Fotografie und Architektur

67
PROGR AMME DECL AR ATION
KO M F UT

Iskusstvo Kommuny (Art of the Commune), no.8, Petrograd,


26 January 1919. From Charles Harrison and Paul Wood,
Art in Theory, 19002000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas,
Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.

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68 Art and Social Change 1917


A GENER AL THEORY
OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
VARVAR A STE PAN OVA

Lecture delivered at inkhuk, Moscow, 22 December 1921.


From Alexander Larentiev (ed.), Varvara Stepanova:
A Constructivist Life, London: Thames & Hudson, 1988.

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70 Art and Social Change 1917


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Varvara Stepanova A General Theory of Constructivism 71


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HYWhcb]Wg]gUXcdhYXVmh\Y7cbghfiWh]j]ghghcfYd`UWYh\Y]XYU
cZghm`Y"H\YacbiaYbhU`]hmcZUkcf_cZUfhWfYUhYXh\YWcbWYdh

72 Art and Social Change 1917


cZYhYfbU`VYUihmh\UhYl]ghYXcihg]XYh]aY"H\YVUg]WdYWi`]Uf]hm
cZh\YacXYfbYdcW\]ghYadcfU`]hmhfUbg]YbWY"
=bWcbhfUgh]b[hYWhcb]Wgk]h\h\YacbiaYbhU`ghm`YcZh\YdUgh 
7cbghfiWh]j]gadfcj]XYgUXYb]hY]XYc`c[]WU`UddfcUW\hckcf_]b["
9jYfmhUg_WUbVYWUff]YXcihVch\acbiaYbhU``mUbXhYWhcb]WU``m"
HYWhcb]Wg]gUkUmcZUddfcUW\]b[h\YhUg_UgYggYbh]U``mUhUg_ ]bXYdYbXYbh
cZh\Yghm`YcZh\YYdcW\"=XYc`c[]WU``m hYWhcb]WgWUbbchYl]ghcihg]XY
h\YYldYf]aYbh h\Uh]g k]h\cihWcbghfiWh]cbUbXZUWhifY"
HYWhcb]Wg]gZifh\YfX]gh]b[i]g\YXZfcah\YacbiaYbhU`Vm]hg
XmbUa]WeiU`]hm k\]W\WUbW\Ub[YUgei]W_`mUg]hgYbj]fcbaYbh 
WcbX]h]cbgcfYldYf]YbWYg"
5gUdf]bW]d`Y hYWhcb]Wg]gh\YfYgi`hcZYldYf]YbWY"=bh\YdfYgYbh
g]hiUh]cb]h]gX]WhUhYXVmdfcXiWh]cb VYWUigYaUhYf]U`]gVY]b[]adfcjYX 
YldYf]YbWYUbX_bck`YX[YUfY]bWfYUg]b[UbXdfcj]X]b[bYkWcbX]h]cbg
UbXdcgg]V]`]h]YgZcfZcfai`Uh]b[h\YhUg_"
=ZkYhU_Y]bhcUWWcibhU``h\YeiU`]h]YgcZh\YaUhYf]U` UbXUddfcUW\
h\YaU_]b[cZUh\]b[cf[Ub]WU``m kYk]``UddfcUW\]hhYWhcb]WU``m"<YbWYh\Y
UddfcUW\hcUXYb]h]cbcZhYWhcb]WgUggcaYh\]b[cf[Ub]WUbXWcbh]bi]b["
H]``bckh\]gWcbh]bi]b[cf[Ub]WbYggX]XbchYl]gh UbXh\ci[\ghm`YkUg
]b]h]U``mgaY`hYXhYWhcb]WU``mhchh\YXYaUbXgcZh\YYdcW\ ]hVYWUaYUb
YlhYfbU`ZcfagiV^YWhhch\YWcbjYbh]cbgcZU[]jYbYfUUbXkUggiVgYeiYbh`m
ibXYfghccX]bhYfagcZUYgh\Yh]WdfYhh]bYgg"
<YbWYghm`]gh]WZcfaVYWUaYh\Ydf]bW]d`YcZh\YYdcW\ UbXh\YeiYgh]cb
kUgUddfcUW\YX]bfYjYfgY ]Y"Zfcah\Ydf]bW]d`Yhch\YYldYf]aYbhUbX
h\YfYgi`h"
Ghm`YibXYfghccXUgh\Ycf[Ub]gYXZcfacZUbYdcW\UZcfaaUXY
WUbcb]WU`bchVmUdf]bW]d`YVihVm]hgYlhYfbU`aUb]ZYghUh]cb`cgYg]hg
aYUb]b[]bh\YYfUcZ]bXighf]U`Wi`hifY"H\YYUgYk]h\k\]W\YlhYfbU`
Zcfa]gW\Ub[YXUbXdfcXiWYXXYWfYUgYg]hgjU`iY"Cb`mh\Ydf]bW]d`Y
UbXh\YdfcWYggUfY]adcfhUbh UbXh\YcV^YWh]ggdYW]WU``m]bhYbXYXhc
]ad`YaYbhh\]g"
H\YWcbWYdhcZUacbiaYbhU`ghm`YfYgi`hYXZfca`cb[\cifgcZaUbiU`
`UVcifYldYbXYXcbYUW\bYkZcfaUbXcV^YWh"HcXUm k\Ybh\Yg`c[Ub
cZh\YYdcW\]gh\YhYadcfUfmUbXh\YhfUbg]Ybh h\YfYWUbbc`cb[YfVYU
acbiaYbhU`ghm`Y ]Y"h\YYghUV`]g\aYbhcZWYfhU]bWcbjYbh]cbgcZYlhYfbU`
Zcfa]bUg]b[`YWcad`Yl ]bh\YdfYgYbhXUm k\YbZibWh]cb UWh]cb 
XmbUa]WgUbXhYWhcb]WgUfYfYd`UW]b[h\YghUh]WcV^YWhcfY`YaYbh"
H\YWcb]WhVYhkYYbh\YhYadcfUfmUbXh\YacbiaYbhU`WUbVY
gc`jYXcb`mVmhYWhcb]Wg ]Y"h\Ydf]bW]d`YcZWYUgY`Yggg\]Zh"
6ihh\Yg\cfh!hYfag][b]WUbWYcZYUW\bYkZcfaWcbhU]bgUgh]ai`ig
hcZifh\YfYldUbg]cbUbXYjc`ih]cb"Cb`mUWcad`YhY`UW_cZibXYfghUbX]b[
cZh\YacaYbh`YUXgcbYhcgYY_giddcfh]bacbiaYbhU`]hm k\YfYcbY]g
U``ckYXhcacjYf][\hUbX`YZh Vihcb`mcbh\YgUaYd`UbY"=ZmciacjYmcif
ZcchZcfkUfX mciXYW`UfYmcifgY`ZhcVYcihg]XYh\YdfcWYggcZWcbh]bi]hm"

Varvara Stepanova A General Theory of Constructivism 73


ART AND PROPAGANDA
WI LLIA M PIC KE N S

Extract from The Messenger, New York, April 1924.


From Sondra Kathryn Wilson, The Messenger Reader,
New York: Random House Inc., 2000.

K\UhkYUfY[c]b[hcgUmbckk]``aU_YigUD\]`]gh]bYhcgcaYcZh\Y
Ufh]ghg UbXhcU``cZh\YbYUf!Ufh]ghg"6ihU`]hh`Ythinkingk]``XcYjYb
UbUfh]ghgcaY[ccX"
H\YUfh]ghg UbXYgdYW]U``mh\YbYUf!Ufh]ghg UfYbck!U!XUmgZUfcjYfXc]b[
h\Y]XYUh\Uh5fhUbXDfcdU[UbXUWUbbchVYXcbY]bh\YgUaYVcc_ cfgUaY
kcf_cZUbm_]bX"H\YfYaighVYbcdfcdU[UbXU]bUkcf_cZUfh"H\Ym
Zcf[Yhh\Uhh\UhghUhYaYbh]gg]ad`mcbYcZh\YXc[aUgcZUfh UWcbjYb]Ybh
fYXiWh]cbcZUWYfhU]bdf]bW]d`YVihh\Uh `]_YU``ch\YfXc[aUg YjYb
h\YXc[aUgcZfY`][]cb ]h]gbchUbXWUbbchVYcbY\ibXfYXdYfWYbhhfiY"
<UjYbchh\YUfh]ghgUbXh\YUfh]ghgYjYffYYWhYXh\Uh ^igh`]_Yh\Y
fY`][]cb]ghg h\YmbYjYfcZZYfUbm]bXiWh]jYdfccZcZh\]gXc[aU Vihh\Ym
g]ad`mdeclare]h35bXZcfh\Yg]ad`YfYUgcbh\Uhdatakci`XcjYfh\fck
h\YXc[aU"
=hkci`XVYaiW\bYUfYfh\Yhfih\hcgUmh\]g.Art and Propaganda always do
exist side by side/Zcf]bZUWhdfcdU[UbXU]gh\YgiVgc]`cihcZk\]W\U``Ufh\Ug
[fckbfY`][]cig Yh\]WU` fUW]U`cfW`UggdfcdU[UbXU"6ihUbX\YfYgk\Uh
h\YbYUf!Ufh]ghgghiaV`YcjYfit is the function of art to so conceal the propaganda
as to make it more palatable to the average recipient, while yet not destroying its effect"
8]ZZYfYbhUfhgjUfm]bh\]gdifdcgYY`YaYbh.bchYjYfmdcYa bchYjYfm
`mf]W \UgUbm[YbYfU`difdcgY VihdfUWh]WU``mYjYfmghcfm\Ug"5bXYjYbh\Y
`]hh`YdcYa k\]`Ya]bigU[YbYfU`difdcgY]bdfcdU[UbXU aUm\UjYUX]fYWh
dYfgcbU`fYZYfYbWYcfU]ahckUfXgcaY]bX]j]XiU`"
Uncle Toms CabinO%,)&QWUb`UmgcaYW`U]aghcUfhUbXmYh]hkUgh\Y`Ugh
kcfX]bdfcdU[UbXU"8]W_YbgkUgWYfhU]b`mU`]hYfUfmUfh]gh UbXUVcihU``\Y
kfchYkUgdfcdU[UbXU"5bXkYfYbchU``=hU`]UbUfh UbXacghcZh\Yaig]W
cZh\Ykcf`X XcbY]bh\YWUigYcZfY`][]cb3H\Yart Y`YaYbhk]``cih`Ughh\Y
dfcdU[UbXUY`YaYbh cZWcifgY/Zcf]ZUh\]b[]gU[ccXkcf_cZUfh ]hk]``gh]``
VYU[ccXkcf_cZUfhUZhYfh\YdfcdU[UbXUWUigY\UgdUggYX"K\cWUbgUm
hcXUmh\UhD\]X]Ug\UXbcdckYfZi`difdcgY]b\]gkcf_3D`UhcWYfhU]b`m\UX"
H\YfYU`Ufh]ghgUmghfi`mh\UhUfhaighbchVYWcbZcibXYXk]h\dfcdU[UbXU 
UbXh\YbYUf!Ufh]gh[Yhg`]hYfU`UbXfYdYUhgh\Uhh\YdfcdU[UbXUaighbch
Yl]ghUhU``"H\YfY]gd`YbhmcZdfcdU[UbXUk]h\cihUfh VihUh`YUgha][\hm
`]hh`Ykcfh\mUfhk]h\cihdfcdU[UbXUZcfdfcdU[UbXU]gh\Yraison dtre cZ
h\Y[fYUhYghUfhg"5gUd\mg]W]gWcbWYU`YXibXYfh\Ygi[Uf!WcUh]b[ 

74 Art and Social Change 1917


gc]gdfcdU[UbXUVYghWcbWYU`YXibXYfUfh"=hh\YbaYYhg`YggfYg]ghUbWY"
DYcd`YUfYVYhhYfdYfgiUXYXk\Ybh\YmXcbhfYU`]gYh\Uhh\YmUfYVY]b[
dYfgiUXYX"H\YmfYgYbhh\YibWcbWYU`YXUbXVU`X]ad`]WUh]cbh\Uhh\Ym
need to be persuaded.
5bXbckkYWcaYhccbY`]hYfUfmUfh k\]W\]gdfUWh]WU``mcbY\ibXfYX
dYfWYbhdfcdU[UbXUH\Y5fhcZOratory" MciaUm[YhUkUmk]h\]h k\Ybmci
gUmh\UhUd]WhifY]gdU]bhYXcfUjYfgYkf]hhYb Zcfh\YgU_YcZh\Yd]WhifYcf
h\YjYfgY Vihmcik]``\UfX`m\UjYh\YbYfjYhcW`U]ah\UhU[fYUhgdYYW\kUg
YjYfaUXYfor the sake of the speech" 5aUbaUmg]b[Ugcb[cfd`Umh\Yj]c`]bhc
\YUf\]agY`Z Vih\Yk]``bYjYfaU_YU[fYUhcfUh]cbhc\YUf\]agY`ZhU`_">igh
]aU[]bYUZY``ckgdYU_]b[cjYfhkch\cigUbXmYUfgU[ccbh\YAUWYXcb]Ub
eiYgh]cb cfgdYU_]b[hcXUmcbh\YHUf]ZZ ^ighhcgYY\ckaUbmbYd\fUgYg
\YWci`Xgd]bH\YdccfYghgdYW]aYbgcZgdYYW\YgUfYWYfhU]b`mh\cgYaUXY
Zcfh\Y]fckbgU_YUbXgcibX"8Yacgh\YbYg 7]WYfc :fYXYf]W_8ci[`Ugg 
FcVYfh;"=b[Yfgc``h\YgYUfYfghaU[b]hiXYg]bU``h\YfaUaYbhcZ
gdYYW\UbXmYhh\YmbYjYfcdYbYXh\Y]facih\gYlWYdh]bdfcdU[UbXU"
Oratory cbYcZh\Y[fYUhYghUfhgcZU``h]aY Uacb[U``aYb ]gU``
dfcdU[UbXU"6ihh\YfYU`cfUhcf]ggcaiW\cZUbUfh]ghh\Uh ibXYf
h\YgdY``cZ\]gUfh h\Y`]ghYbYfZcf[Yhgh\YdfcdU[UbXU k\]`Y\Y[Yhg]h"
H\YfYZcfY Af"BYUf!5fh]gh h\Yhfih\]gdYf\UdggcaYh\]b[`]_Yh\]g.
H\Ycf][]bcZUfh]gdfcdU[UbXU VihaUbmcZh\YbYUfhg\UjYf]gYbZUf
UVcjYaYfYdfcdU[UbXU"<UfX`mUbmUfh \ckYjYf ]gUgdifdcgY`YggUgU
V]fXggcb["H\YV]fXVihbchaYbaUmg]b[]bXYYX^ighhc[Yhh\Ygcb[
cihcZ]hgh\fcUh UbX]haUmg]b[U`h\ci[\cb`mh\Ygc`]hiXY`]ghYbg"=hg]b[g
VYgh \ckYjYf hc]hgaUhY"6ihaYbUfYbchV]fXg h\YmUfYdifdcgYZi`VY]b[g 
UbXh\Y]f[fYUhYghYZZcfhgUfY]bgd]fYXVmdifdcgY"5bXh\YfY]gbcX]ZZYfYbWY
VYhkYYbdifdcgYUbXdfcdU[UbXU ib`YggkYVY[h\YeiYgh]cbVmbUffck]b[
h\Y]XYUcZdfcdU[UbXUhcgcaYnecessarily sordid aYUb]b["
KYWUb\UjYbceiUffY`k]h\UdifdcgY ]Z]h]ghUgh]`mXcbYid]b
h\YdfcdYfXfYggcZUfh"

William Pickens Art and Propaganda 75


THE END OF ART
TH EO VAN DO E S B U RG

De Stijl, series xii. no.9, Leiden, 1925. From


Joost Baljeu (ed.), Theo van Doesburg, New York:
Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.

The other collaborators of this magazine undertake no responsibility for this article.

5[U]bghJ]YbbU
5[U]bghDUf]g
5[U]bghh\YBYh\Yf`UbXg

5fhWUbbchVYfYbcjUhYX"

5fh]gUFYbU]ggUbWY]bjYbh]cb k\]W\\UgVYYbWUff]YXhcUghUhYcZYlhfYaY
fYbYaYbh]bh\YdfYgYbhXUm"

H\]g]gh\Ygc!WU``YXabstractUfh

H\YdfcXiWh]cbcZ[ccXkcf_gcZUfhkUgUW\]YjYXcb`mUhh\YWcghcZUb
YbcfacigWcbWYbhfUh]cbidcbWYfhU]baUhhYfg"H\]gWcbWYbhfUh]cbWci`X
VYUW\]YjYXcb`mh\fci[\bY[`YWh]b[life,h\fci[\h\YjYfm`cggcZ`]ZY^igh
UgfY`][]cb\UXYldYf]YbWYXVYZcfY"

Today, this situation is no longer tolerable"

HcXUm`]ZY]gdUfUacibh"AcXYfb`]ZY]b[YbYfU`Uh`mfY^YWhgU``hYbXYbW]Yg
hckUfXg]gc`Uh]cbUbX]jcfm!hckYf!`]_YYlW`ig]jYbYgg"

=h]gUVgc`ihY`mibacXYfbhcWcbWYbhfUhYidcb^ighcbYh\]b[UgX]Xh\Y
A]XX`Y5[Yg

AcXYfb`]ZY]gVUgYXidcbWcbghfiWh]cb k\]W\]ghcgUm idcbUgmghYa


cZhYbg]cbgcfUghfiWhifU`VU`UbWY"

=bU[fYYaYbhk]h\h\]gWcbWYdhkYhccaighX]ghf]VihYcifj]hU`]hmcjYfh\Y
k\c`YfUb[YcZ`]ZYhU_Yb]bh\YVfcUXYghdcgg]V`YgYbgY"5``ch\YfUhh]hiXYg
hckUfXg`]ZYdfcXiWYhfU[YXm"

H\]gWUbVYWU``YXdfc[fYggUbX]hYlW`iXYgWcbWYbhfUh]cbcbcbY]bhYfYgh"
H\]g]gh\Ydf]aUfmfYUgcbk\mUfh]g]adfUWh]WUV`Y"

76 Art and Social Change 1917


GYWcbX`m h\YXYjY`cdaYbhcZUhfiY`]ZY]g\UadYfYXVmUfh ^ighUg]b
h\YA]XX`Y5[YggW]Ybh]WXYjY`cdaYbhkUg`]a]hYXVmfY`][]cbUbX]hg
cZW]U`fYdfYgYbhUh]jYg"

H\Ydcg]h]cbk\]W\fY`][]cbh\Ybhcc_]gbckhU_YbVmUfh"

5fh\Ugdc]gcbYXcif`]ZY"

5Ygh\Yh]Wg\Ug]bZYWhYXYjYfmcbYkYUfYcifgY`jYgbchYlW`iXYX"Bcg]b[`Y
cV^YWhfYaU]bgib]bZYWhYX]bh\YBYh\Yf`UbXgYjYfmWcVV`Y!ghcbY]gdU]bhYX
k]h\UbcfbUaYbhcfUfYWhUb[`Y"Bcd]`YWUbVYXf]jYb]bhch\Y[fcibX
k]h\cihh\Ydf]YghgcZUfhfU]g]b[cV^YWh]cbgUbXWcad`U]b]b[UVcihh\Y
fYgi`h]b[XUaU[Yhch\Y\UfacbmcZhckb!d`Ubb]b[cf`UbXgWUd]b["

=ZcbYW\ccgYghcdihUhmdYkf]hYfcfUgYk]b[!aUW\]bY]bh\Y`]j]b[
fcca h\Y\cigYk]ZYgUmg.D`YUgYhU_Y]hUkUm/]hXYghfcmgh\Y\Ufacbm
cZh\Yfcca"

Dcgh!WUfXg ghUadg dciW\Yg fU]`kUm!h]W_Yhg dchg iaVfY``Ug hckY`g 


dm^UaUg W\U]fg V`Ub_Yhg \UbX_YfW\]YZgUbXh]YgYjYfmh\]b[]gUfhm"
<ckaiW\acfYfYZfYg\]b[UfYh\cgYUfh]W`Ygk\]W\UfYbchWU``YXUfh.
VUh\fccag VUh\!hiVg V]WmW`Yg UihcacV]`Yg Yb[]bY!fccagUbXUh!]fcbg"

H\YfYUfYgh]``dYcd`Yk\cWUbaU_YVYUih]Zi`h\]b[gk]h\cihUfh"

H\YmUfYh\Ydfc[fYgg]jYg"

<ckYjYf giW\dYcd`YUfYZfighfUhYX/h\Y]fUWh]j]h]YgUfYdfYgWf]VYX
Vma]b]ghYfgcZUfhUbXh\Y]f]bjYbh]cb]g\UadYfYXVmUfh"

:cfh\YgU_YcZdfc[fYggkYaighgiddfYggh\Ybch]cbcZUfh
UgUbUYgh\Yh]WgdYWi`Uh]cb"

Paris 1925

Theo Van Doesburg The End of Art 77


ART AND RE ALIT Y
M I ECZ YS AW SZCZU K A

Dzwignia, no.4, Warsaw, July 1927. From Ryszard


Stanislawski (ed.), Constructivism in Poland 19231936,
Lodz: Muzeum Sztuki, 1973 and Timothy O. Benson and
Eve Frogacs (eds.), Between Worlds, LACMA , 2002.

5fYaUf_UV`YZYUhifYcZh\YYjc`ih]cbh\Uh\UgcWWiffYX]bh\YXcaU]b
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VYhkYYbUkcf_Yf]bUfhh\YUfh]ghUbXYjYfmXUm`]ZY"H\]gX]j]g]cb\UgVYYb
dUfh]Wi`Uf`mWcbgd]Wicig]bh\Yd`Ugh]WUfhg"6YZcfYkYdUgghch\YYld`UbUh]cb
cZh\YWUigYgcZgiW\X]j]g]cb kYg\ci`XaYbh]cbh\YZcfaUbXWcbX]h]cbg
cZh\Y`UVcifcZUfh]ghg]bYUf`]YfXUmg"
5bUfh]ghcZh\YdUghWYbhif]Yg UXUdhYXhcUgcW]U`gmghYaVUgYXidcb
gaU``!gWU`YdfcXiWh]cb fYaU]bYX]bUWYfhU]bXY[fYYcZ\Ufacbmk]h\]h"
5gkY_bck h\Y`]a]hgcZh\YUfhgkYfYVfcUXYfh\UbhcXUm"=bUgYbgY U`acgh
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k]h\fY`Uh]jY`mdf]a]h]jYhcc`g \YXYWcfUhYXh\YcV^YWhg\YaUXY]bUWWcfX
k]h\WYfhU]bWUbcbgh\UhWUaYhcVYYghUV`]g\YXk]h\cihVY]b[hccVfcUX`m
YldUbXYXcfj]c`Ybh`mhfUbgZcfaYXh\YmWci`XcZhYbgifj]jYaUbm
[YbYfUh]cbg"<ckYjYf k]h\]bgiW\UWUbcb \Y\UXUWYfhU]b]b]h]Uh]jY 
dYfa]hhYX\]aVm\]ghcc`g aUhYf]U`g UbXgYbg]V]`]hm"
H\cgYWcbX]h]cbgW\Ub[YXfUX]WU``mk\YbgaU``!gWU`YWfUZhgaUbg\]d
kUggiVgh]hihYXVmWUd]hU`]ga k]h\]hgghcfamfUhYcZ[fckh\ j]c`Ybh
hYW\bc`c[]WU`id\YUjU`g ibWcbhfc``YXaUf_YhUbXUVcjYU``k]h\]hg
aUW\]bYaUggdfcXiWh]cb]bU``UfYUg"1
H\Ygc!WU``YXd`Ugh]WUfhgUfYX]fYWh`mXYdYbXYbhcbUfW\]hYWhifY k\]W\
]gh\YacghWcbgd]WicigZcf]hgWcb^ibWh]cbcZUih]`]hUf]UbWcbhYbhk]h\
UbUYgh\Yh]Wgifd`ig"H\YUfhcZVi]`X]b[]gacghghf]Wh`mUX^ighYXhch\Y
`]ZYWcbX]h]cbgcZh\cgYhck\ca]hdfcj]XYgUg\Y`hYfcfUkcf_g\cd"
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1 Even a craftsman today, though expensive to make a piece of furniture adjusted to the making of things in
he seems to be independent, is a with rational simple shapes than to certain taste, sometimes make the
slave of his improved tools. Things make a similar piece with modernistic most rational and humble forms
have gone so far that it is more curvatures. Factories, producing tools unattainable.

78 Art and Social Change 1917


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Mieczysaw Szczuka Art and Reality 79


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2 Sorel pointed out the expressions of social altruism and multistoried buildings). Thus,
antechambre-servitory traits in care for the cultural requirements in it is simple interest rather than
French eighteenth-century literature. the life of the broadest masses. Eg. humanitarian considerations that
But even after the Revolution, those the new American bill on urban dictates to capitalism those moves
symptoms came back with remarkable development, which is seen as the which are illusions of healthy, modern
strength. Balzac, the Homer of the first step towards urbanisation of social tendencies in architecture.
bourgeoisie, gave vent in his novels to cities, is explained by the desire to 4 The workers garden cities and
an apparently strange, lackey-like cult increase profits. The rooms on the rationally-planned suburbs (in Britain,
of aristocracy, debasing the quality of lowest floors of skyscrapers did not Austria, Germany, the Netherlands,
many of his works. Curious symptoms yield such incomes as would satisfy Belgium) arise under the pressure of
can also be remarked in Comtes the appetite of capitalists because of the demands of the proletariat and
philosophy in this respect. the complete darkness in them they should be treated as its concrete
3 Capitalism, in its own well- (caused by the narrowness of the achievements.
understood interest manifests streets, out of proportion to the

80 Art and Social Change 1917


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5 The same airs were taken
by the medieval master
craftsman.

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6 The ideological changes in the was decisive. An artist, considering material. The problem of materials
plastic arts and the proof of the the constructional properties of a (not treated as a fetish in the manner
influence of bourgeois ideology on material, the variety of surface of the Cubists or Suprematists)
modern art will be discussed in qualities of the same material brought forth the problem of the
papers devoted to cinema and depending on the finish, the peculiar utilitarian value of the work of art,
advertising, as they represent this qualities of a material when exposed which has become the pivotal
ideology in the best manner. to light, etc., became aware that the question for certain modern artists.
7 Among the abundant formal character of the things he made
assumptions, the problem of materials should be dependent on the applied

82 Art and Social Change 1917


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Mieczysaw Szczuka Art and Reality 83


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84 Art and Social Change 1917


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Mieczysaw Szczuka Art and Reality 85


DR AF T MANIFESTO
TH E JO H N R E E D C LU B OF N E W YORK

New Masses, New York,


June 1932.

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86 Art and Social Change 1917


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gYYU`UbXcZ%*$a]``]cbdYcd`Y cWWidm]b[cbY!g]lh\cZh\Y[`cVY k\YfY

The John Reed Club of New York Draft Manifesto 87


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aUmib]hY]bh\YWcaacbghfi[[`YU[U]bghWUd]hU`]ga"H\YmUfY.

88 Art and Social Change 1917


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]bh\YVUhh`YZcfUbYkUbXgidYf]cfkcf`X"

The John Reed Club of New York Draft Manifesto 89


Benjamin Pret photographed in the act of insulting
a priest (as published in La Rvolution Surraliste no.8,
December 1926)

Vladimir Tatlin Monument to the Third International


or Tatlins Tower, 1919
The maquette paraded through the streets
on a horse-drawn cart, Moscow, 1927

90
OPEN THE PRISONS !
DISBAND THE ARMY!
TH E S U RR E A LI ST G RO U P

La Rvolution Surraliste, no.2, Paris, 1925. From Franklin


Rosemont (ed.), What is Surrealism? Selected Writings of
Andr Breton, New York, London: Pathfinder Press, 1978.

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GYbXh\Ygc`X]YfgUbXWcbj]WhgVUW_hch\YY`X"McifZfYYXca3BcZfYYXca
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DUf`]UaYbhjchYgZcfUaUb[`YXUabYghm/bYlhgdf]b[g[fUXiUh]b[W`Ugg
k]``XYdUfh"=b9b[`UbXUk\c`Yhckb\UgVYYbdckYf`YgghcgUjYcbYaUb"
=hkUg`YUfbYXk]h\cih[fYUhgifdf]gYh\Uh]b5aYf]WUh\YYlYWih]cbcZgYjYfU`
WcbXYabYXaYb\UXVYYbdcghdcbYXibh]`UZhYf7\f]ghaUgbecause they had
good voices"5bXbckh\Uhh\Ym\UjYgib[h\Yma][\hUgkY``X]Y Zcfh\Y
YlYfW]gY"=bh\YgYbhfmVclYg ]bh\YY`YWhf]WW\U]f h\YXm]b[kU]h"
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91
REVOLUTION NOW AND FORE VER !
TH E S U RR E A LI ST G RO U P

La Rvolution Surraliste, no.5, Paris, 1925. From Franklin


Rosemont (ed.), What is Surrealism? Selected Writings of
Andr Breton, New York, London: Pathfinder Press, 1978.

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dfcdYfhmYbg`UjYh\cgYk\cXcbch/Vihk\Ybh\]gcddfYgg]cb[cYgVYmcbX
kU[Y`UVcifUbXVYWcaYg ZcfYlUad`Y h\YhmdYcZg`UjYfm]adcgYXVm
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92 Art and Social Change 1917


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ihcd]Ubg/kYWUbWcbWY]jYh\]gfYjc`ih]cbcb`mUgUgcW]U`Zcfa"=ZUbmk\YfY
h\YfYUfYaYbk\c\UjYgYYbUWcU`]h]cbZcfaU[U]bghh\YahfU]hcfghc
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`Uk `Yhh\YabYjYfZcf[Yhh\Uhh\Y]XYUcZfYjc`ih]cb]gh\YVYghUbXacgh
YZZYWh]jYgUZY[iUfXcZh\Y]bX]j]XiU`"

The Surrealist Group Revolution Now and Forever! 93


CANNIBALIST MANIFESTO
OS WA LD DE AN DR A DE

Manifesto Antropfago, Revista de Antropofagia, no.1,


So Paolo, May 1928. From Third Text, no.46, London,
Spring 1999. Courtesy Taylor & Francis Books uk.

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94 Art and Social Change 1917


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idUgUgYbUhcfcZh\Y9ad]fY"AU_]b[VY`]YjY\YgD]hh"CfUddYUf]b[

Oswald De Andrade Cannibalist Manifesto 95


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Catiti Catiti
Imara Noti.
Noti Imara.
Ipej.

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8ckbk]h\7cbgYfjUhcf]YgUbXgdYWi`Uh]jYhYX]ia"

96 Art and Social Change 1917


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Oswald De Andrade Cannibalist Manifesto 97


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dYb]hYbh]Uf]Yg]bh\YaUhf]UfW\mcZD]bXcfUaU"

Oswald de Andrade
In Piratininga, in the 374th year of the swallowing of Bishop Sardinha.

Translated by the editors.

98 Art and Social Change 1917


DEUTSCHL AND DEUTSCHL AND
BER ALLES
KU RT TUC HOL S KY AN D JOH N H E ARTF I E LD

Deutschland Deutschland ber Alles,


Berlin: Neuer Deutscher Verlag, 1929
(trans. Anne Halley), Amherst: UMP,
1972; photographs DACS , London.

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99
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aUhhYf]b\iaUbXYjY`cdaYbh"6ihk\mbch[fUbhh\YgYkcf_YfgO"""Q
The wages that they really deserve but dont get under the present system.

100 Art and Social Change 1917


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Kurt Tucholsky and John Heartfield Deutschland Deutschland ber Alles 101
H\Y=Xc`gcZh\YAU][chc!6`UW_g
UWif]cigdfUWh]WY"H\Yhf]VYYfYWhgWcghiaYX]Xc`gcZkccX cfYjYb
kUl ]bgdYW]U`\U``gUbXXUbWYgUfcibXh\YacbWYfYacb]U`cWWUg]cbg"
H\Ykf]hYf\Ug\UXcddcfhib]hmhcYbhYfh\YgYfccag.\YgUkhfi`mhYff]Zm]b[
[ifYg k]`XaUg_gYldfYgg]b[]bgYbg]h]jY VfihYdf]a]h]j]ga"CbY]Xc` 
Ybh\fcbYXcbUhchYa!Ub]aU` \Y`XUgdYUf]b]hg\UbXh\YAU][chc!6`UW_g
UfYYlWYYX]b[`mdfciXcZh\YgYkcf_gcZUfh

102 Art and Social Change 1917


Gh]``U>c_Y
CbYXUm]hk]``VYgYf]cig"H\Ygbcih!ZUWYk]``VYcfX]bUfmfYU`]hm"BccbYk]``
h\]b_]h]gZibbmUbmacfY"AUbmdYcd`Yk]``kYYd"6ih cZWcifgY kYWUbh
dfYjYbh]h.h\Y\UhaUbiZUWhifYfdfcW`U]agghfUk!\UhkYY_ h\Y7UbUX]Ub
Zfi]h![fckYfdfcdU[UhYgdYUW\Yg UbXh\YXYZYbWY]bXighfmbYYXgkUf"

Kurt Tucholsky and John Heartfield Deutschland Deutschland ber Alles 103
BAUHAUS N 3,
THE STUDENTS VOICE
KOS TU F R A

Extract from Bauhaus: Sprachrohr der


Studierenden (The Students Voice),
no.3, Dessau, 1930.

Herr?UbX]bg_m ]g]hhfiY

h\Uhmcicfmcifk]ZYB]bUdYXX`YXh\Yghcfmhch\YUih\cf]h]Ygh\Uh
<UbbYgAYmYf\UXXcbYUXfUk]b[Zcfh\Yrote hilfegch\Uh]hkci`X
VYdiV`]g\YX]bh\YdfYgg3

Herr?UbX]bg_m ]g]hZifh\YfacfYhfiYh\UhYjYbVYZcfYmcifhf]dhcUgiaaYf
fYgcfhh\Uhmci_bYkcZh\Yh\]b[gh\Uhkci`X\UddYb36YZcfYmcifXYdUfhifY 
\UXbhmciUbXAUmcf<YggYU`fYUXmXYW]XYXidcbUgiWWYggcf cf\ck]g]h
h\Ybh\Uh]b\]ghY`Y[fUahch\YaUghYfgh\Uh\YfYZYfghcmcicZU``dYcd`Y3

Herr;fcd]ig ]g]hhfiY

h\Uh]bWcbbYWh]cbk]h\h\YX]ga]ggU`cZ<UbbYgAYmYf mcigi[[YghYX
h\UhHerrAUmcf<YggYg\ihXckbh\YWUZYhYf]UYlWYdh]b[aYU`h]aYg
UbXg\ihXckbh\YprellerhausWcad`YhY`m3H\YUhhYadhhcg\ihXckb
h\YWUZYhYf]UkUgaUXY"

Herr;fcd]ig ]g]hZifh\YfacfYhfiYh\Uhcb`mjYa]bihYgUZhYfh\Y
W]fW`YcZUfW\]hYWhgdfchYghYXU[U]bghh\YaU[]ghfUhYgdfcWYXifY
h\Uhmci`cX[YXUbUddYU`3

Translated by April Lamm.

104 Art and Social Change 1917


Bauhaus: The Students Voice, no.3, 1930
The journal of the Bauhaus students communist group,
KOSTUFRA
Courtesy Bauhaus Archives Berlin.

105
THE FALL OF HANNES MEYER
KOS TU F R A

Extract from Bauhaus: Sprachrohr


der Studierenden, no.3, Dessau, 1930.

<UbbYgAYmYfkUgX]ga]ggYX A]YgjUbXYfFc\Y]gh\YbYkX]fYWhcf"=hU``
\UddYbYXgcZUghUbXkUgibYldYWhYXVmacgh"HcgcaYaUmVYbch Ugh\Ym
U`kUmggU]Xh\Uhh\YWcaaib]ghgUbXgccbVihh\YWcaaib]ghg\UjY
VYYbUhh\Y6Ui\UigZcfUg`cb[Ug]h\UgYl]ghYX UbXh\YdYhhmVcif[Yc]g]Y
dfUhh`]b[cbUVcihUWcaaib]gh!bYghZcf^ighUg`cb["6ihaUmVYh\Ykcf_
cZh\Y6Ui\UigibXYfh\YX]fYWhcfg\]dcZ<UbbYgAYmYfkUggYWcbXfUhY3
Hch\YWcbhfUfmH\Y6Ui\Uig\UX]bWfYUgYX]hgdfch UbXYjYbgcaYXUmg
VYZcfY<UbbYgAYmYfkUgh\fckbcih U``cZh\Y8YggUidfYggkUgg]b[]b[
dfU]gYgUVcih\]glaubenganghuser]bHcfhYb"BckAUmcf<YggYW`U]agh\Uh
UAUfl]gh`YUXYfcZh\Y6Ui\Uig]gbchk\UhkYbYYX"6Yg]XYg h\YZUWhh\Uh
<UbbYgAYmYf]gbchUAUfl]ghk\cUhacgh]fhYXk]h\AUfl]ga]g
gcaYh\]b[AUmcf<YggY_bYkYjYbVYZcfY\"a"gfghXUm]bcZWY"5bX
;fcd]igWci`Xcb`m\cdYhcgdYU_cZ\]gh]aYUgVY]b[h\UhcZh\YWUh\YXfU`
cZgcW]U`]ga":ifh\YfacfY k\UhfYUgcbgkYfYh\YfY3BcbYk]``VYZcibXUg
`cb[UgkY`cc_Zcfh\YaZfcah\YdYfgdYWh]jYcZh\Yprellerhaus"KYWUbbch
j]Yk[]j]b[\"a"h\YVcchUgUh\]b[WcbhU]bYXk]h\]b]hgY`ZVihfUh\YfUg
gcaYh\]b[WcbbYWhYXhck\Uh]g\UddYb]b[cihg]XY"H\Y]bhYfjYbh]cb
WUaYZfcak]h\cihUbX\Ug]hgWUigYh\YfYhcc"
H\YAUmcfghUhYgh\YfYUgcb.\"a"gAUfl]ghghUbWY YjYbh\ci[\]h
kUgbchUdfcV`Yak\Yb\Yhcc_cZWY]b5i[igh%-'$ ]gh\YWUigYcZ
h\YdfcV`Yabck]bW]XYbhU``m \"a"]gbchUb]gc`UhYXWUgY"AcghfYWYbh`m
kYWUbWcbfah\UhgYjYfU`giW\fYghf]Wh]cbgZfcafUX]WU`cZW]U`g\UjY
VYYb]adcgYX"
H\YVcif[Yc]g]Y]g[c]b[h\fci[\UX]ZWi`hWf]g]gbckaYUb]b[h\Uh
h\YWcbX]h]cbgcZh\Ykcf_]b[!UbX`ckYf!a]XX`YW`Uggk]``cb`m[YhkcfgY
UbXU[U]bk]``fYgi`h]bh\YZUWhh\Uhh\YgYW`UggYgk]``VYWcaYacfYfUX]WU`
UbXk]``ghU[YUbidf]g]b["H\YVcif[Yc]g]Yaigh ]Z]hXcYgbhkUbhhc`cgY
]hggidfYaUWm X]ghfUWhh\YaUggYgZfcaghUfh]b[Udfc`YhUf]UbfYjc`ih]cb"
5bYlWY``YbhaYX]iaZcfh\]g]gZUgW]ga":UgW]gaWU``gidcb`ckYf!a]XX`Y
W`Ugg]bgh]bWhgU\caYghYUX ZUa]`m acfU`g \caY`UbXUbXVf]b[gOUh`YUghQ
gcaYcZh\YcddfYggYXcbUXYhcifZfcah\Y]fUWhiU`[cU`g":UgW]ga]g
giWWYggZi`k]h\gaU``Vig]bYggckbYfgUbX`ckYfcZW]U`gUbX ]bg\cfh 
giWWYggZi`k]h\U``cZh\cgYk\cUfYXc]b[\cff]V`m h\cgYk\cgh]``Xc
bchibXYfghUbXh\Uhh\Y]f\cff]V`Yg]hiUh]cbk]``cb`mdcgg]V`m[YhVYhhYf
VmW\Ub[]b[h\YYbh]fYgmghYa ]Y" k]h\h\YcjYfhifb]b[cZh\YWUd]hU`]gh
YWcbca]WgmghYa"

106 Art and Social Change 1917


5bX\YfYh\Yfc`YcZh\YgdXOGcW]U`8YacWfUh]WDUfhmQ]gYghUV`]g\YX.h\Uh
cZh\YdUWYaU_YfcZZUgW]ga"H\Ykcf_YfgUbX`ckYfa]XX`YW`UggUfYh\Y
jchYfgcZh\]gdUfhm"5bXUgh\Ykcf_]b[W`Uggg`]dgZfcah\YgdXhch\Y_dX
O7caaib]ghDUfhmQXiYhc]hg\cgh]`Ykcf_Yfdc`]W]Ygh\YgdXaighcf]Ybh
]hgdc`]h]WghckUfXgh\Y`ckYf!a]XX`YW`UggjchYf"=bXYYX ]h]gWi`h]jUh]b[h\Y
dYhhmVcif[Yc]g]Yk]h\]hgdfcdU[UbXUZcfdf]jUhY\caYg YhW"H\YgdXbc
`cb[YfgdYU_gcZfYjc`ih]cbVihcZYjc`ih]cb"H\YgdXbc`cb[YfgdYU_gcZ
h\Y]bhYfbUh]cbU` VihdfciX`mXYgWf]VYh\YagY`jYgUgh\Ycb`mhfiYbUh]cbU`
dUfhm"GYYh\YRheinlandrummel"H\]g]gh\YVfYYX]b[[fcibXcZZUgW]ga"
5bXZfca\YfY kYUfYcb`mcbYgaU``ghYdUkUmZfcaUZUgW]ghX]WhUhcf"
6ihhcWcaYVUW_hc<UbbYgAYmYf.h\YFY]W\ghU[kUgX]ggc`jYX UbX
cb%(GYdhYaVYfh\YfYk]``VYbYkY`YWh]cbg/h\YBUh]cbU`GcW]U`]ghg\UjY
dckYfZi`dfcdU[UbXUVY\]bXh\YaUbXUfYen voguek]h\h\Y`ckYf!a]XX`Y
W`UggYg"H\]g]gUXUb[Yfcigg]hiUh]cbZcfh\YgdXUbX]haighdfcjYhch\Y
`ckYf!a]XX`YW`UggYgh\Uh]h]gh\Y]fdUfhm"GYYbZfcah\Ydc]bhcZj]YkcZ
8YggUi h\]gaYUbgUghfi[[`YU[U]bgh`ckYfa]XX`YW`Uggbi]gUbWYg"
5bX<UbbYgkUg^ighgiW\Ubi]gUbWY
6ihAUmcf<YggY]gWYfhU]b`mbcGcW]U`8YacWfUh=bXYYX <YggYVYWUaY
AUmcfVmh\Y[fUWYcZDUi`]W_"KYU``_bckh\Uh<YggY]gh\Y\YUfhcZh\]g
gmghYa"H\ig cbYg\ci`Xbchh\]b_AUmcf<YggYUb]bbcWYbh`UaV"<Y]g
U8YacWfUh"5bXh\YhfUbgZcfaUh]cbcZh\Y8YacWfUh]WDUfhm]bhch\YdUfhm
cZh\YghUhYXYacbghfUhYg]hgfYUWh]cbUfmXYjY`cdaYbh"H\YY`YWh]cbgUfYcb
%(GYdhYaVYf"KYXcbchVY`]YjYh\Uhh\YGcW]U`8YacWfUh]WUbX8YacWfUh]W
DUfhm\Ugkcbh\YgmadUh\]YgcZh\YghiXYbhgh\fci[\]hgfYUWh]cbUfmX]fhm
hf]W_"<cdYZi``mh\YaYaVYfgcZh\Y6Ui\Uig\UjYbU``mfYWc[b]gYXh\Uh
h\YfY]gcb`mcbYfYjc`ih]cbUfmdUfhm.h\Y_dX"

Translated by April Lamm.

KOSTUFRA The Fall of Hannes Meyer 107


LET TER , AUGUST 1936
F E LIC IA B ROWN E

Extract from a letter written by


Felicia Browne, Spain, August 1936.
From Lynda Morris and Robert
Radford (eds.), A.I.A: Story of the Artist
International Association, 193353,
Modern Art Oxford, 1983.

McigUm=UaYgWUd]b[UbXYjUX]b[h\]b[gVmbchdU]bh]b[cfaU_]b[
gWi`dhifY"=Zh\YfY]gbcdU]bh]b[cfgWi`dhifYhcVYaUXY=WUbbchaU_Y
]h"=WUbcb`maU_YcihcZk\Uh]gjU`]XUbXif[YbhhcaY"=ZdU]bh]b[UbX
gWi`dhifYkYfYacfYjU`]XUbXif[YbhhcaYh\Ubh\YYUfh\eiU_Yk\]W\
]g\UddYb]b[]bh\YfYjc`ih]cb cf]Zh\YgYhkckYfYfYWcbW]`YXgch\Uh
h\YXYaUbXgcZcbYX]XbhWcb]Wh]bh]aY YjYb cfWcbWYbhfUh]cb
k]h\h\YXYaUbXgcZh\Ych\Yf =g\ci`XdU]bhcfaU_YgWi`dhifY"

108 Art and Social Change 1917


British Surrealists May Day Demonstration,
Hyde Park, 1 May 1938
The Surrealists, in Neville Chamberlain
masks, protest the British governments
non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War
Courtesy the Scottish National Gallery
of Modern Art Archive, Edinburgh

109
WE ASK YOUR AT TENTION
B R ITI S H S U RR E A LI ST G RO U P

Extract from pamphlet issued


by the British Surrealist Group
and designed by Henry Moore,
London, 1938. Courtesy the Henry
Moore Foundation.

Cbh\YcWWUg]cbcZh\Y5fh]ghg=bhYfbUh]cbU`7cb[fYggUbX9l\]V]h]cb
kYUg_mcifUhhYbh]cb

bcb!]bhYfjYbh]cb]gbchaYfY`mUdc`]h]WU`YldYX]Ybh]bh\YGdUb]g\
g]hiUh]cb bcfh\YU``Y[YXdc`]WmcZUWYfhU]b]bhYfbUh]cbU`Wcaa]hhYY"=h]g
gcaYh\]b[aiW\acfYh\Ubh\Uh/]h]gh\Yhmd]WU`UbX]bYj]hUV`YdfcXiWhcZ
UkUmcZh\]b_]b[UbXVY\Uj]b[ h\YdfYjU]`]b[dc`]h]WU`Uhh]hiXYcZYXiWUhYX
UbXWcbgW]cigdYcd`Yg]bWYh\YkUf"

H\]gUhh]hiXY\UgVYYbdifYbcb!]bhYfjYbh]cb"Dc`]h]WgkYfY`cc_YX
idcbUgUX]fhmUbXghid]X[UaYcZ`]hh`YfYU`]adcfhUbWY"Dc`]h]W]UbgkYfY
dU]XcZZhcd`Um]hcbh\Y]fckb fYWc[b]gYX_bUjYgUbXdfcZYgg]cbU``]Ufg Vih
bchhccg\Ufd`meiYgh]cbYXUg`cb[Ugh\]b[gkYbhcbbchhcccihfU[Ycig`m 
UbXUVcjYU``Ug`cb[Ugh\Y]bhY``YWhiU`gkYfY`YZhgUZY`mk]h\h\Y]fVcc_g 
h\Y]fUfhgUbX]bhY``YWhiU`]bhYfYghg"H\Y]fU]akUghc`cWU`]gYdc`]h]Wg hc
WcbbY]hhcUZYkdYcd`Y hchfYUh]hUgUdcgg]V`mWcbhU[]cig WYfhU]b`m
X]g[igh]b[X]gYUgY"

H\]gUhh]hiXY\UgVYYbacX]YX]bcbYX]fYWh]cbcb`m"AYacf]YgcZ
h\Y`UghkUf UbXh\YcVj]cig`m[fck]b[XUb[YfgcZUbch\Yf \UjYdfcXiWYX
k]XYgdfYUXdUW]ga":cfh\YdUW]ghhf]YghcXYU`k]h\kUfUgUb]gc`UhYX
X]gUghYf UdUfhZfca]hgk]XYfWUigYgUbXWcbbYWh]cbg/\Yhf]Yghc`cc_idcb
]hUgh\YYaVcX]aYbhcZUbUVghfUWhdf]bW]d`YcZj]c`YbWY UbX\Yk]``hfmhc
cddcgY]hVmh\YYeiU``mUVghfUWhdf]bW]d`YcZfYUgcb"<Yk]``bchYlUa]bY
h\YUWhiU`gcW]U`UbXYWcbca]WW]fWiaghUbWYgk\]W\dfcXiWYj]c`YbWY UbX
UVcjYU``\Yk]``bchgYY_hccddcgY]hVmUWhiU`dc`]h]WU`aYUbg/\Yk]``bch
aYYh]hcb]hgckb[fcibX"<YfYaU]bgbcb!]bhYfjYbh]cb]gh"

=bUg]a]`UfkUmh\Y@cbXcbBcb!=bhYfjYbh]cb7caa]hhYYkUgXYg][bYX
hcUdd`mh\]gdc`]Wm]bh\Yg]hiUh]cbWfYUhYXVmh\Y]bhYfbUh]cbU`:UgW]ghWcid
]bGdU]b"Dc`]h]WU`YldYX]YbWYUbXdc`]h]WU`^igh]WYkYfY][bcfYX/U``gcW]U`
UbXdc`]h]WU`W]fWiaghUbWYgkYfYX]gfY[UfXYX ]bZUjcifcZUg]b[`YcV^YWh.
hc`cWU`]gYh\YWcb]Wh hcWcbbYk]h\]b`]a]hgUgbUffckUgdcgg]V`Yh\]g
cihVfYU_cZj]c`YbWY"

110 Art and Social Change 1917


=bh\]gkUmh\Y@cbXcb7caa]hhYY\UgUg][b]WUbWYZUfVYmcbX]hgckb
]aaYX]UhYU]ag"=h]gUdfUWh]WU`hYgh UWfiW]U`YldYf]aYbhidcbh\YUhh]hiXYg
k\]W\kY\UjYUXcdhYX"=g]hdcgg]V`YhcfYaU]bV`]bXhch\YfYgi`hgcZh\]g
YldYf]aYbh3

H\YZUWhg h\YYjYbhg UfYbch]bX]gdihY"H\Y:UgW]ghWcibhf]Yg =hU`m 


;YfaUbmUbXDcfhi[U` \UjYUgg]ghYX:fUbWcZfYY`mk]h\aUhYf]U`gcZkUfUbX
VUfY`mX]g[i]gYXX]j]g]cbgcZh\Y]ffY[i`UfUfa]Yg"H\Ym\UjYWcbXYgWYbXYX
hcW`cU_h\Y]fUWh]cbghcgcaYYlhYbhibXYfdfca]gYg U[fYYaYbhg XYb]U`g
UbXWcibhYf!W\Uf[Yg"6ihVY\]bXh\]gZc[cZkcfXg :UgW]gh]bhYfjYbh]cb\Ug
dfcWYYXYXib\UadYfYXgUjYVmh\YaU[b]WYbhWcifU[YcZh\YUfa]YgcZ
h\YgdUb]g\dYcd`Y"

=gh\YfYUbmfYUgcbhcgiddcgYh\UhBcb!=bhYfjYbh]cbUhZihifYh]aYgUbX
]bch\Yfd`UWYgaUmgiWWYYXVYhhYf3<Ug:UgW]gha]`]hUf]gaUbbcibWYXUbm
`]a]hhc]hg\cdYgcZWcbeiYgh3<Ug]hg\ckbg][bgcZUacfU`fY[YbYfUh]cb 
cZU[fYUhYffYgdYWhZcfU[fYYaYbhgUbXWcbjYbh]cbg3H\Ycd]b]cbcZh\Y
dc`]h]W]UbgUh`YUgh]gW`YUf"G]bWYh\Y:UgW]ghcihVfYU_]bGdU]bYjYfm
9ifcdYUbWcibhfm\Ug\UghYbYXUbXYb`Uf[YX]hgd`UbgcZfY!UfaUaYbh"
Cb`mUZYkdUW]ghgWcbh]biYhcVY`]YjY]bBcb!=bhYfjYbh]cb"6mXc]b[gc 
h\YmWUbcb`mUgg]ghh\YZcfWYgcZkUf/Vmm]Y`X]b[cbYghfUhY[]Wdc]bhUZhYf
Ubch\Yfhch\Ya]`]hUfmX]WhUhcfg h\YmaU_Yj]c`YbWYacfYWYfhU]bUbX
]bb]hY`macfYX]gUghfcig]b]hgYZZYWhg"

CbYh\]b[ h\Yb ]gW`YUf"K]h\U``fYgdYWhZcfh\Yach]jYgcZdUW]ga 


Zcfh\Yg]bWYf]hmUbXWcifU[YcZdUW]ghg h\]gZcfacZBcb!=bhYfjYbh]cb
]gWcad`YhY`mX]gWfYX]hYX]bdfUWh]WYVmh\YGdUb]g\YldYf]aYbh"

6ihacfYXYdYbXgcbh\YYldYf]aYbhh\Ubh\]g"Bchcb`mdUW]ga\UgVYYb
cbhf]U` Vihcifk\c`YUhh]hiXYcZBcb!=bhYfjYbh]cb]bdc`]h]Wg"<ck\UjY
cifdU]X_bUjYgUbX`]UfgWcbXiWhYXh\YagY`jYg3

IbZcfhibUhY`m`]_YdU]X_bUjYgUbX`]Ufg"=Z WcbWY]jUV`m g]lacbh\gU[c


bcb!]bhYfjYbh]cbkUgXYZYbg]V`Y ]hkUgcb`mfYachY`m^igh]UV`YUg
`cb[Ugh\YfYkUgUZU]f[\hVYhkYYbh\YdUfh]YgcZGdU]b"H\Y;YfaUbUbX
=hU`]Ub]bjUg]cbfYacjYXYjYbh\YgYfYachY^igh]WUh]cbg"5hh\YjYfm`YUgh
kYa][\h\UjYYldYWhYXibYei]jcWU`dfchYghgU[U]bghh\Y:UgW]ghU[[fYggcf 
VihYjYbh\YgY\UjYVYYb`UW_]b["

IbZcfhibUhY`m h\]g]gbchU``"Cif;cjYfbaYbh\Ug]bjUf]cigkUmg
]bhYfjYbYXUWhiU``mcbVY\U`ZcZh\Y:UgW]ghU[[fYggcf"GYjYfU`kYY_g
VYZcfYh\Y]bhYfbUh]cbU`VUbcbjc`ibhYYfg ]hXi[idUWYbhifm!c`X5Whcb
:cfY][b9b`]ghaYbh UbX]bX]WUhYX]hg]bhYbh]cbhc\UfUgg6f]h]g\jc`ibhYYfg
[fUhi]hcig`mVmh\]gUbh]eiUhYX]bghfiaYbh"=h\UgfYdYUhYX`mfYZigYXhcUXa]h

British Surrealist Group We Ask Your Attention 111


fYdfYgYbhUh]jYgcZh\YgdUb]g\dYcd`Y UbXh\Y]fZf]YbXgUhh\YgUaY
h]aYU``ck]b[ZfYYdUggU[Yhc:fUbWcgbUbW]U`U[Ybhg"5bXW`YUfYghcZU`` 
]h\UgbY[ch]UhYX]hgZUacig[Ybh`YaUbgU[fYYaYbhk]h\Aiggc`]b] Ub
U[fYYaYbhk\]W\UddUfYbh`m]bW`iXYgUZfYY\UbXZcf:UgW]ga]bGdU]b"
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5fYUg kYaighbckdcifU[][Ubh]W`cUb]bhch\YdcW_YhcZ\YUjm]bXighfm
UbXUfaUaYbhg hcaU]bhU]bUg\UaZUWYcZdfcgdYf]hm"

KcfgY ]Zdcgg]V`Y h\Ubh\Ydfc[fUaaY]hgY`ZkUgh\YkUm]bk\]W\]hkUg


]bhfcXiWYX"Cb`mUmYUfUZhYfh\YDYUWY6U``chY`YWh]cbg\cbYgh6U`Xk]b
\]agY`ZUbbcibWYX]bh\Y<cigYcZ7caacbgh\Uh\Y\UX]bhYbXYXhcfY!
UfaU``h\Yh]aY UbXh\Uh\YXY`]VYfUhY`mWcbWYU`YXh\]g]bhYbh]cbZfcah\Y
Y`YWhcfUhYVYWUigY\YZYUfYXh\Uhh\Ymkci`XbchUddfcjYcZ]h"H\]g]gh\YYbX
cZXYacWfUWmUbXfYdfYgYbhUh]jY[cjYfbaYbh/]h]gUZUgW]gak\]W\igYg
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ZcfWYk]``Zc``ck"6mUb]b]ei]hcigHfUXYg8]gdihYg5Whh\Ydc`]h]WU`ghf]_Y\Ug
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5Wh\Ug[]jYbh\Ydc`]WYdfUWh]WU``mWcad`YhYdckYfhcgiddfYggU``ibXYg]fYX
dc`]h]WU`UWh]j]h]Yg"

5hh\YgUaYh]aYghYdgUfYVY]b[hU_YbhcYbgifYa]`]hUf]gUh]cbUbX
cf[Ub]gUh]cbcZh\YW]j]`]Ubdcdi`Uh]cb"5WUadU][bZcfd\mg]WU`hbYgg 
Uh][\hYb]b[cZWcbhfc`cbh\YYggYbh]U`aYUbgcZdfcdU[UbXU UlUh]cb
cZkUf`]_Y]XYUgUbX]aU[YgVmh\YZUfW]WU`dU[YUbhfmcZh\Y7cfcbUh]cb
ZUgW]ga h\ci[\gh]``cb`m:UgW]gaVmXYWY]h"

KY\UjYbc`cb[YfUbmYlWigY"bcb!]bhYfjYbh]cb]bU``ZcfagaighYbX"
5fh]ghg ]bhY``YWhiU`g U``dYcd`Yk\c`]jYWcbgW]cig`m aighfYWc[b]gYh\Y]f
dc`]h]WU`fYgdcbg]V]`]h]Yg UVcjYU`` h\Y]fXihmcZX]fYWhdc`]h]WU`UWh]cb]b

112 Art and Social Change 1917


XYZYbWYcZh\Y]fckb]bhYfYghg"8cbch`YhigXYWY]jYcifgY`jYgZifh\Yf/]b
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WfYUhY"GYhh]b[Ug]XY[YbYfU`eiYgh]cbgcZXYacWfUWm ^igh]WY \iaUb]hm 
kYUfYZcfWYXhcXYZYbXh\YVUfYcddcfhib]hmhcWUffmcbcifkcf_"

=bhYfjYbYVih\ck3

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cZ]bX]j]XiU`g cfcZ[fcidg"KYUfYXYZYbX]b[cifWcaacb]bhYfYghg
UbXbYWYgg]h]Yg"

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dUfh]Wi`Uf`mh\Y7cb[fYggcZ6f]h]g\5fh]ghg cf[Ub]gYXVmh\Y5fh]ghg
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dc`]h]WU`UWh]cb"Ch\Yfcf[Ub]gUh]cbghck\]W\kYkci`XXfUkUhhYbh]cbUfY.
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@]VYfhm/h\Y=bhYfbUh]cbU`DYUWY7UadU][b"

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WfiW]U`dYf]cX"K]h\]bh\Y@UVcifDUfhm h\YHfUXYgIb]cbg UbXh\Ykcf_]b[
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[fcibXfUd]X`m"

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h\YXYjY`cdaYbhcZWcbgW]cigbYggUbXh\Yk]XYfgUh]gZUWh]cb
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cZ]bhY``][YbWYUbX]aU[]bUh]cb"

British Surrealist Group We Ask Your Attention 113


]bhYfjYbYUgdcYhg Ufh]ghgUbX]bhY``YWhiU`gVmj]c`Ybh
cfgiVh`YgiVjYfg]cbUbXVmgh]ai`Uh]b[XYg]fY"

Eileen Agar
Hugh Sykes Davies
D. Norman Dawson
Merlyn Evans
David Gascoyne
Erno Goldfinger
G. Graham
Charles Howard
Joyce Hume
Rupert Lee
Henry Moore
Paul Nash
Roland Penrose
Herbert Read
Julian Trevellyan

114 Art and Social Change 1917


VISION IN MOTION
L SZL MO HO LY- N AGY

Extract from Lszl Moholy-Nagy,


Vision in Motion, Chicago: Paul
Theobald, 1947. Courtesy Hattula
Moholy-Nagy.

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WcbhYadcfUfm h\YXY[YbYfUhYUfh Ug\YWU``YX]hZfcah\Y[U``Yf]YgUbX
aigYiag VifbYXVcc_g UbXZcfVUXYh\YhYUW\]b[cZ9]bghY]bgh\Ycf]Yg"
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cZcifch\YfihhYfUbWYg"H\Ycb`mX]ZZYfYbWY]gh\UhUfh]gdfcXiWYXaU]b`m
VmgiVWcbgW]cigcf[Ub]gUh]cbcZh\YaYUbg]ad`]W]h]bh\YWi`hifU`UbXgcW]U`
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]bh\YghfiWhifYcZW]j]`]nUh]cbcZh\UhdUfh]Wi`UfdYf]cX"
5fhaUmdfYggZcfh\YgcW]cV]c`c[]WU`gc`ih]cbcZdfcV`Yag^ighUg
YbYf[Yh]WU``mUgh\YgcW]U`fYjc`ih]cbUf]YgXch\fci[\dc`]h]WU`UWh]cb"H\Y
gc!WU``YXibdc`]h]WU`UddfcUW\cZUfh]gUZU``UWm"Dc`]h]WgZfYYXZfca[fUZh 
dUfhmWcbbchUh]cbg cfacfYhfUbg]hcfmhUWh]Wg ]gaUb_]bXgaYh\cXcZ
fYU`]g]b[]XYUgZcfh\YkY`ZUfYcZh\YWcaaib]hm"GiW\Uweltanschauung]g
hfUbgZcfaYXVmh\YUfhg]bhcYach]cbU`Zcfa UbXVYWcaYgfYhfcUWh]jY]bh\Y
fYU`acZWcbgW]cigYl]ghYbWY"H\]ggi[[Yghgh\Uhbchcb`mh\YWcbgW]cigVih
U`gch\YgiVWcbgW]ciga]bXUVgcfVggcW]U`]XYUg k\]W\UfYh\YbYldfYggYX
]bh\YgdYW]WaYX]UcZh\YUfhg"Ch\Yfk]gYUbmdfcV`YaWci`XVY

115
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X]ZWi`hm`]Yg]baUggdUfh]W]dUh]cb"H\YaUggYgUfY``YXk]h\UdYh]h
Vcif[Yc]g]XYc`c[m h\YaUgWi`]bYgidYfaUb]XYU`dfcachYXVmdUdYfg
UbXfUX]cg Vcc_gUbX`agVmh\YibcZW]U`YXiWUh]cb k\]W\h\YdYcd`Y
\UjYVYYbhUi[\hhcYb^cm]bgd]hYcZ`]dgYfj]WYhcWUgiU`fYjc`ih]cbUfm]XYUg"
CbWYh\Y]fgYbg]h]j]hm]g_]``YX h\YmUfYibUV`YhcfYWY]jYh\YaYggU[YcZ
Ufhk\Yh\YfWcbhYadcfUfmcfc`X"
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Ubh]!Ufh]gh"5fh]ghgUfYWcbg]XYfYXYZZYa]bUhYk\cXcbch\UjYh\YghUa]bU
hcdUfh]W]dUhY]bWcadYh]h]cb"H\]g]gbchcb`mibhfiY UgUfYacghW`]W\g Vih
hfU[]Wg]bWYUhdfYgYbhUfh]gdYf\Udgh\Ycb`mY`Xk\YfYWcbjYbh]cbXcYgbch
Wcad`YhY`mgiddfYgggYbh]aYbhUbXk\YfYh\Ycab]dchYbWYcZh\ci[\hUbX
h\Y]bXYdYbXYbWYcZYach]cbUfY_YdhfY`Uh]jY`m]bhUWh"HcZc``ckh\YX]j]b]b[
fcXcZ]bhi]h]cbUbXYldfYgg]jYXYg]fYaUmcZhYbUWhUgUdgmW\c`c[]WU`
`]ZYgUjYfYgdYW]U``m]bdYf]cXgcZ\]XXYbUbXcdYbgiddfYgg]cbcZ
]bXYdYbXYbhh\ci[\h"H\Yd\fUgYh\Uhh\YUfh]ghfYdfYgYbhgh\Y
WcbgW]cigbYggUbXaYacfmcZ\]gh]aY]gU[ccXW\UfUWhYf]gUh]cb
cZ\]gZibWh]cb"BcgcW]YhmWUbYl]ghk]h\cihYldfYgg]b[]hg]XYUg UbX
bcWi`hifYUbXbcYh\]WgWUbgifj]jYk]h\cihdUfh]W]dUh]cbcZh\YUfh]gh
k\cWUbbchVYVf]VYX"
5fhfYdfYgYbhgh\YibWYbgcfYXghUhYaYbhcZ]hgUih\cf/h\]g]gcbYcZ
]hgacghdcg]h]jYW\UfUWhYf]gh]Wg"Bc!cbYVihh\YdU]bhYf h\YUih\cf h\Y
WcadcgYf]gh\Ygc`YaUghYfcZ\]gdYfZcfaUbWY"H\Yg]ad`Yf\]gaYX]ia
UbXh\Y`Ygg]bjYghaYbh]h]bjc`jYg h\YYUg]Yf]h]ghcUjc]Xdcgg]V`Y
WYbgcfg\]dUbXhcdfYgYfjYh\YkUmgcZ[Ybi]bY`mZfYYYldfYgg]cb"
H\fci[\\]ggYbg]h]j]hmh\YUfh]ghVYWcaYgh\YgY]gac[fUd\cZYjYbhg
UbXacjYaYbhgdYfhU]b]b[hch\YZihifY"<Y]bhYfdfYhgh\YmYh\UnmdUh\
cZWca]b[XYjY`cdaYbhgVm[fUgd]b[h\YXmbUa]WgcZh\YdfYgYbhUbXVm
ZfYY]b[\]agY`ZZfcah\YacaYbhUfmach]jUh]cbgUbXhfUbg]hcfm]biYbWYg
Vihk]h\cihYjU`iUh]b[h\Y]fhfYbXg"<Y]g]bhYfYghYXcb`m]bh\YfYWcfX]b[
UbXWcaaib]WUh]b[cZ\]gj]g]cb"H\]g]gk\UhaUhYf]U`]gYg]b\]gUfh"<Y
WUbbcha]gigYgiW\Ug]hiUh]cb"HcVYUZi``!h]aYkcf_Yf UdfcZYgg]cbU` 
]bjc`jYgUacfU`fYgdcbg]V]`]hm"H\]g]gk\mh\YgYWifYXYl]ghYbWYcZh\Y
ibWcadfca]g]b[UbX]bWcffidh]V`YUfh]gh]ggc]adcfhUbhhcgcW]Yhm"
H\Yg]``mamh\h\Uh[Yb]ig\UghcgiZZYf]gh\Yg`mYlWigYcZUgcW]Yhm
k\]W\XcYgbchWUfYZcf]hgdfcXiWh]jYaYaVYfgib`Yggh\Y]fkcf_
dfca]gYg]aaYX]UhYhYW\bc`c[]WU`cfYWcbca]WUdd`]WUh]cbgk]h\
WU`Wi`UV`Ydfch"
9UW\[YbYfUh]cbX]ZZYfgZfcah\YdfYWYX]b[cbY]bh\YXYhYfa]bUh]cb
cZ]hghUg_"H\YhUg_cZh\]g[YbYfUh]cb]ghcgYUfW\Zcf]hgfcchg"=haighhfm
hcibXYfghUbXh\Yg][b]WUbWYcZbUhifU`ZibWh]cbggch\UhYjYfmcbYaUm
VYWcaYUkUfYcZh\YYggYbh]U`difdcgYcZ`]j]b[.h\YdfYgYfjUh]cbUbX
fYbYaYbhcZh\YV]c`c[]WU`bUhifYcZh\Y]bX]j]XiU`k]h\]bU\Ufacb]cig
gcW]U`Yl]ghYbWY"H\YjU`iYcZgiW\UbYl]ghYbWYk]``VYaYUgifYX]bhYfag

116 Art and Social Change 1917


cZWccdYfUh]cb gcW]U`igYZi`bYggUbXdYfgcbU`\Udd]bYgg"H\]gbYk`]ZY
fYei]fYgUbYkaYh\cXc`c[mZcfUddfcUW\]b[dfcV`Yag/UgcW]U`aYW\Ub]ga
cZdfcXiWh]cbUbXUWfYUh]jYYXiWUh]cb"HcaYYhh\YaUb]Zc`X
fYei]fYaYbhgcZh\]gU[Yk]h\UXYb]hYdfc[fUaaYcZ\iaUbjU`iYg 
h\YfYaighWcaYUbYkaYbhU`]hmUbXUbYkhmdYcZdYfgcbU`]hm"H\Y
WcaacbXYbca]bUhcf]gh\YZibXUaYbhU`UW_bck`YX[YaYbhcZ\iaUb
bYYXg/h\YhUg_]ghcfYWc[b]gYh\YacfU`cV`][Uh]cb]ggUh]gZm]b[h\YgYbYYXg 
UbXh\YU]a]ghcdfcXiWYZcf\iaUbbYYX bchZcfdfch"

Lszl Moholy-Nagy Vision In Motion 117


PART III

THE WORLD REVOLUTION;


NETWORKED RESISTANCE;
INSTITUTIONAL CONFLICTS;
RIGHTS AND IDENTITY

1968

The period that sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein


calls the world revolution. Many artists participate
in specific liberation struggles anti-colonial
struggles, civil rights and womens liberation for
example. At the same time the other, strong
current of the upheavals around 1968 anti-statism
and a growing distrust of formal ideology is
intensively developed within much art practice. The
formal institutions of art are once again attacked;
informal networks are proposed as models become
active and in all kinds of practice, from distribution
structures to political resistance, collective
production to education.
George Maciunas Fluxus Manifesto, February 1963
Courtesy the Gilbert and Lyla Silverman Collection,
Detroit and New York

120
THESES ON THE PARIS COMMUNE
S ITUATION I ST I NTE RN ATION A L
( G U Y DE BORD, AT TI L A KOTN YI , R AO U L VAN E IG E M )

Sur la Commune, 18 March 1962.


From Ken Knabb (ed. and trans.),
Situationist International Anthology
(Revised and Expanded Edition), Berkeley:
Bureau of Public Secrets, 2006.

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gcZUf ZcfigUbXZcfh\YZihifY"Internationale Situationnistebc"+O%-*&Q

&"H\Y7caaibYkUgh\YV][[YghZYgh]jU`cZh\Yb]bYhYYbh\WYbhifm"
IbXYf`m]b[h\YYjYbhgcZh\Uhgdf]b[cZ%,+%cbYWUbgYYh\Y]bgif[Ybhg
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cbh\Y`YjY`cZ[cjYfbaYbhU`dc`]h]WgUgcbh\Y`YjY`cZh\Y]fYjYfmXUm`]ZY"
7cbg]XYf ZcfYlUad`Y h\YgamesYjYfmcbYd`UmYXk]h\h\Y]fkYUdcbg.h\Ym
kYfY]bZUWhd`Um]b[k]h\dckYf"=h]galso]bh\]ggYbgYh\UhAUflg\ci`XVY
ibXYfghccXk\Yb\YgUmgh\Uhh\Yacgh]adcfhUbhgcW]U`aYUgifYcZh\Y
7caaibYkUg]hgckbYl]ghYbWY]bUWhg"

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cZh\Ydfc`YhUf]Uh g\ci`XVYhU_YbgYf]cig`m]bcfXYfhcfYjYU`k\Uhh\Y
X]WhUhcfg\]dcZh\Ydfc`YhUf]Uh]gbchh\YjUf]cigZcfagcZghUhYX]WhUhcfg\]d
cjYfh\Ydfc`YhUf]Uh]bh\YbUaYcZh\Ydfc`YhUf]Uh"

("=h\UgVYYbYUgmhcaU_Y^igh]YXWf]h]W]gagcZh\Y7caaibYgcVj]cig
`UW_cZUcoherent organisational structure"6ihUgh\YdfcV`YacZdc`]h]WU`
ghfiWhifYggYYagZUfacfYWcad`YlhcighcXUmh\Ubh\Ykci`X!VY\Y]fg
cZh\Y6c`g\Yj]_!hmdYghfiWhifYW`U]a]hhcVY ]h]gh]aYkYYlUa]bYh\Y
7caaibYbch^ighUgUbcihacXYXYlUad`YcZfYjc`ih]cbUfmdf]a]h]j]ga 
U``cZk\cgYa]ghU_YgWUbYUg]`mVYcjYfWcaY VihUgUdcg]h]jYYldYf]aYbh
k\cgYk\c`Yhfih\\UgmYhhcVYfYX]gWcjYfYXUbXZi```YX"

121
)"H\Y7caaibY\UXbc`YUXYfg"5bXh\]gUhUh]aYk\Ybh\Y]XYUcZh\Y
bYWYgg]hmcZ`YUXYfgkUgib]jYfgU``mUWWYdhYX]bh\Ykcf_YfgacjYaYbh"
H\]g]gh\YfghfYUgcbZcf]hgdUfUXcl]WU`giWWYggYgUbXZU]`ifYg"H\YcZW]U`
cf[Ub]gYfgcZh\Y7caaibYkYfY]bWcadYhYbhWcadUfYXk]h\AUflcf
@Yb]b cfYjYb6`Ubei]"6ih cbh\Ych\Yf\UbX h\YjUf]cig]ffYgdcbg]V`Y
UWhgcZh\UhacaYbhUfYdfYW]gY`mk\Uh]gbYYXYXZcfh\YWcbh]biUh]cbcZ
h\YfYjc`ih]cbUfmacjYaYbhcZcifckbh]aYYjYb]Zh\YW]fWiaghUbWYg
fYghf]WhYXU`acghU``h\cgYUWhghch\YdifY`mXYghfiWh]jY`YjY`h\Yacgh
ZUacigYlUad`YVY]b[h\YfYVY`k\c k\YbUgigdYWhVcif[Yc]g]bg]ghYX
h\Uh\Y\UXbYjYf\UXUbmh\]b[hcXck]h\dc`]h]Wg fYd`]YX H\UhgdfYW]gY`m
k\m=a[c]b[hc_]``mci""

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dfUWh]WU``mUbXgmaVc`]WU``mZfcah\YVY[]bb]b[hch\YYbXcZh\YacjYaYbh"
6mUbX`Uf[Yh\Yf][\hhc]adcgYdcdi`Ufk]``VmZcfWYkUgbchgiffYbXYfYX
UbX`YZhhcUbmgdYW]U`]gYXXYhUW\aYbhg"H\]gYlYad`UfmUihcbcamcZh\Y
UfaYX[fcidg\UX]hgibZcfhibUhY]d!g]XY]bh\Y]f`UW_cZWccfX]bUh]cb.
Uhbcdc]bh]bh\YcZZYbg]jYcfXYZYbg]jYghfi[[`YU[U]bghJYfgU]``YgX]Xh\Y
dYcd`YgZcfWYgUhhU]ba]`]hUfmYZZYWh]jYbYgg"=hg\ci`XVYVcfbY]ba]bX 
\ckYjYf h\Uhh\YGdUb]g\fYjc`ih]cbkUg`cghUg ]bh\YbU`UbU`mg]g kUg
h\YW]j]`kUf]hgY`Z]bh\YbUaYcZgiW\UhfUbgZcfaUh]cb]bhcUfYdiV`]WUb
Ufam"H\YWcbhfUX]Wh]cbVYhkYYbUihcbcamUbXWccfX]bUh]cbkci`XgYYa
hc\UjYVYYb`Uf[Y`mfY`UhYXhch\YhYW\bc`c[]WU``YjY`cZh\YdYf]cX"

+"H\Y7caaibYfYdfYgYbhgthe only implementation of a revolutionary


urbanismhcXUhYUhhUW_]b[cbh\Ygdchh\YdYhf]YXg][bgcZh\YXca]bUbh
cf[Ub]gUh]cbcZ`]ZY ibXYfghUbX]b[gcW]U`gdUWY]bdc`]h]WU`hYfag fYZig]b[
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h\Yptroleuses g\ci`XgdYW]Zmk\Uh\YVY`]YjYghcVYcZdcg]h]jYjU`iY]b
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WYfhU]bncbYg"K\UhkYWU``WcbghfiWh]cbghUfhgh\YfY"=hWUbVYW`Uf]YX
Vmh\Ypositive voidWcbWYdhXYjY`cdYXVmacXYfbd\mg]Wg"6Ug]WDfc[fUa
cZIb]hUfmIfVUb]ga Internationale Situationniste, bc"*O%-*%Q

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cZ\UV]h"H\YacghgWUbXU`cigdfUWh]WU`YlUad`YkUgh\YfYZigU`hcigYh\Y
WUbbcbghcgY]nYh\Y:fYbW\BUh]cbU`6Ub_k\YbacbYmkUggcXYgdYfUhY`m
bYYXYX"8if]b[h\YYbh]fYYl]ghYbWYcZh\Y7caaibYh\YVUb_fYaU]bYX
UJYfgU]``YgYYbW`UjY]bDUf]g XYZYbXYXVmbch\]b[acfYh\UbUZYkf]Yg
UbXh\Yamgh]eiYcZdfcdYfhmUbXh\YZh"H\Ych\Yf]XYc`c[]WU`\UV]hgdfcjYX

122 Art and Social Change 1968


]bYjYfmfYgdYWhYeiU``mX]gUghfcigh\YfYgiffYWh]cbcZ>UWcV]b]ga 
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]bcbYkUmcfUbch\YfZfcah\YWcad`]W]hmcZfYjc`ih]cbUf]YgdUfh]Wi`Uf`mcZ
h\cgYfYjc`ih]cbUf]Ygk\caYfY`mthink aboutfYjc`ih]cb UbXk\chifbcihhc
gh]``think likeh\YXYZYbXYfg"=bh\]gkUmh\Yc`Xkcf`XfYhU]bgVUgYg]XYc`c[m 
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h\YhYffU]b]h\Ug`cgh"Cb`mh\Yh\ci[\h!]b!UWhgbUhifU`hch\YfYjc`ih]cbUfm
dfc`YhUf]UhYgWUdYg]h]ffYjcWUV`m.h\YHUl6ifYUikYbhid]bUaYg"H\YfYU`
Zh\Wc`iab]g]bh\YjYfma]bXgcZfYjc`ih]cbUf]Yg"

%$"H\YghcfmcZh\YUfgcb]ghgk\cXif]b[h\YbU`XUmgcZh\Y7caaibY
kYbhhcXYghfcmBchfY!8UaY cb`mhcbXh\YagY`jYgWcbZfcbhYXVmUb
UfaYXVUhhU`]cbcZ7caaibYUfh]ghg ]gUf]W\`mdfcjcWUh]jYYlUad`YcZ
X]fYWhXYacWfUWm"=h[]jYgUb]XYUcZh\Y_]bXcZdfcV`Yagh\Uhk]``bYYXhcVY
fYgc`jYXZfcah\YdYfgdYWh]jYcZh\YdckYfcZh\YWcibW]`g"KYfYh\cgYUfh]ghg
f][\hhcXYZYbXUWUh\YXfU`]bh\YbUaYcZYhYfbU`UYgh\Yh]WjU`iYgUbX]b
h\YbU`UbU`mg]g ]bh\YbUaYcZaigYiaWi`hifYk\]`Ych\YfdYcd`Y
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gmaVc`]gYh\Y]fUVgc`ihYXYUbWYcZUgcW]Yhmh\Uh ]b]hgacaYbhcZhf]iad\ 
kUgUVcihhcWcbg][bh\Y]fYbh]fY`]jYghcg]`YbWYUbXcV`]j]cb3H\YUfh]gh
dUfh]gUbgcZh\Y7caaibY UWh]b[UggdYW]U`]ghg U`fYUXmZcibXh\YagY`jYg
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9jYfmh\]b[]bX]WUhYgh\Uhh\YdcYhgk\cUhh\UhacaYbhUWhiU``mYldfYggYX
h\Y7caaibYg]b\YfYbhdcYhfmkYfYg]ad`mwiped out"H\Y7caaibYg
aUggcZibUWWcad`]g\YXUWhgYbUV`YX]hghYbhUh]jYUWh]cbghcVYhifbYX
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H\cgYk\caU_YfYjc`ih]cb\U`ZkUmcb`mX][h\Y]fckb[fUjYg" U`gc
Yld`U]bg\]gowng]`YbWY"

%%"H\YcfYh]W]Ubgk\cYlUa]bYh\Y\]ghcfmcZh\]gacjYaYbhZfcaUX]j]bY`m
cab]gW]Ybhj]Ykdc]bh`]_Yh\UhZcibX]bW`Ugg]WU`bcjY`gWUbYUg]`mdfcjY
h\Uhh\Y7caaibYkUgcV^YWh]jY`mXccaYXhcZU]`ifYUbXWci`Xbch\UjY
VYYbgiWWYggZi``mWcbgiaaUhYX"H\YmZcf[Yhh\UhZcfh\cgYk\cfYU``m
`]jYX]h h\YWcbgiaaUh]cbkUgalready there"

%&"H\YUiXUW]hmUbX]bjYbh]jYbYggcZh\Y7caaibYaighcVj]cig`mVY
aYUgifYXbch]bfY`Uh]cbhccifh]aY Vih]bhYfagcZh\Ydc`]h]WU` ]bhY``YWhiU`
UbXacfU`Uhh]hiXYgcZ]hgckbh]aY ]bhYfagcZh\YsolidaritycZU``
h\YWcaacbUggiadh]cbgh\Uh]hV`UghYXhcd]YWYg"H\YdfcZcibXgc`]XUf]hm

Situationist International Theses on the Paris Commune 123


cZdfYgYbh`mdfYjU]`]b[Uggiadh]cbgf][\hUbX`YZh[]jYgigUb]XYUcZ
h\Y]bjYbh]jYbYggkYWUbYldYWhcZUWcadUfUV`YYld`cg]cbhcXUm"

%'"H\YgcW]U`kUfcZk\]W\h\Y7caaibYkUgcbYYd]gcXY]ggh]``VY]b[
Zci[\hhcXUmh\ci[\]hggidYfW]U`WcbX]h]cbg\UjYW\Ub[YXWcbg]XYfUV`m"
=bh\YhUg_cZaU_]b[WcbgW]cigh\YibWcbgW]cighYbXYbW]YgcZh\Y
7caaibY9b[Y`g h\Y`UghkcfX\UgmYhhcVYgU]X"

%(":cfU`acghhkYbhmmYUfg]b:fUbWYh\YGhU`]b]ghgUbXh\Y`YZh]gh7\f]gh]Ubg
\UjYU[fYYX ]baYacfmcZh\Y]fUbh]!;YfaUbbUh]cbU`Zfcbh hcghfYggh\Y
Y`YaYbhcZbUh]cbU`X]gUffUmUbXcZZYbXYXdUhf]ch]ga]bh\Y7caaibY"
5WWcfX]b[hch\YWiffYbhGhU`]b]gh`]bY h\Y:fYbW\dYcd`YdYh]h]cbYXhc
VYVYhhYf[cjYfbYXUbXkYfYbU``mXf]jYbhcXYgdYfUhYaYUgifYgVmh\Y
hfYUW\YfmcZh\YibdUhf]ch]Wf][\hk]b[cZh\YVcif[Yc]g]Y"=bcfXYfhcfYZihY
h\]gd]cigbcbgYbgY]hkci`XgiZWYhcWcbg]XYfh\Yfc`Yd`UmYXVmU``h\Y
ZcfY][bYfgk\cWUaYhc[\hZcfh\Y7caaibY"5gAUflgU]X h\Y7caaibY
kUgh\Y]bYj]hUV`YVUhh`Y h\YW`]aUlcZ&'mYUfgcZghfi[[`Y]b9ifcdY
VmcifdUfhm"

124 Art and Social Change 1968


RESPONSE TO A QUESTIONNAIRE
FROM THE CENTER FOR
SOCIO-E XPERIMENTAL ART
S ITUATION I ST I NTE RN ATION A L
( J .V. M ARTI N , JAN STRI J BOSC H , R AO U L VAN E IG E M , R E N V I N E T )

Internationale Situationniste, no.9,


Paris, 1964. Courtesy Ken Knabb.

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125
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gcW]U`ZibWh]cb"H\]g]gVYWUigY]bh\Y9UghdckYf]gaU]bhU]bYXdf]aUf]`m
VmgY``]b[]XYc`c[m]Y"amgh]Zm]b[^igh]WUh]cbg k\]`Y]bh\YKYgh]h]g
aU]bhU]bYXVmgY``]b[WcbgiaYf[ccXg"H\YZUWhh\Uhh\Y9UghYfbVifYUiWfUWm
\UgdfcjYX]bWUdUV`YcZXYjY`cd]b[]hgckbUfh UbX\UgVYYbZcfWYXhcUXUdh
h\YZcfagcZh\YdgYiXcUfh]gh]Wj]g]cbcZdYhhm!Vcif[Yc]gWcbZcfa]ghgcZh\Y
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h\YdfYgYbh]adcgg]V]`]hmcZUbmUfhUgUfi`]b[!W`Uggdf]j]`Y[Y"
BYjYfh\Y`Ygg U``Ufh]ggcW]U`]bh\YgYbgYh\Uh]h\Ug]hgfcchg]bU[]jYb
gcW]YhmUbXYjYbXYgd]hY]hgY`Zaigh\UjYgcaYfY`Uh]cbhch\YdfYjU]`]b[
WcbX]h]cbg cfhch\Y]fbY[Uh]cb":cfaYfacaYbhgcZcddcg]h]cbgifj]jY
fragmentarilyUbX`cgYh\Y]fUfh]gh]Wcfdcgh!Ufh]gh]WjU`iYhch\YdfYW]gY
YlhYbhh\Ym\UjY`cghh\Y\YUfhcZcddcg]h]cb"K]h\h\Y]f`cggcZh\]g\YUfhh\Ym
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hcfYd`UWYUfh"H\]gZfU[aYbhUfmcddcg]h]cbWUbh\Ybcb`mk]h\XfUkhcUb
UYgh\Yh]Wdcg]h]cbUbX\UfXYbfUd]X`m]bhcUXUhYXUbX]bYZZYWhiU`UYgh\Yh]W
in a world where it is already too late for aestheticsUg\Ug\UddYbYXk]h\
GiffYU`]ga ZcfYlUad`Y"Ch\YfacjYaYbhgUfYhmd]WU`cZXY[fUXYXVcif[Yc]g
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ZcfacZgc`]hUfmZUbhUgmcf]XYU`]ghdfYhYbg]cbh\YZcfWYgh\UhXca]bUhY

126 Art and Social Change 1968


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h\YjYfm]XYUcZ]hgWcbgiadh]cbUbXh\Uh\Y\UgdfcdcgYXh\YfghUfh
cZgc`]dg]gaInternationale Situationniste bc"(O%-*$Q"
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cZh\YacXYfbgU`YghYW\b]eiYcZaUf_Yh]b[h\YgUaYdfcXiWhibXYff]jU`
hfUXYaUf_g"

&" <ckWUbUfhVYfYU``mgcW]U`3
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by being realised"

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 cfX]gWcifU[YmcifgcW]U`ZibWh]cbUgUbUfh]gh3
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h\YgdYWhUW`YXcYg"H\Yg]hiUh]cb]ghg \ckYjYf XcbchbXh\]gYad`cmaYbh
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'" 8cmcih\]b_mcifUYgh\Yh]Wgkci`XVYX]ZZYfYbh]Zmci`]jYX]b
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h\Y]fbY[Uh]cbk]``VYgidYfgYXYX"
=ZkYkYfYdfYgYbh`m`]j]b[]bUbibXYfXYjY`cdYXWcibhfmcf]bcbY
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g][b]WUbWY UbXUbchYbh]fY`mg\UaWcaaib]WUh]cb]ggh]``dcgg]V`Y
k]h\]bh\YhfUX]h]cbU`Zcfag"
=ZkYkYfY`]j]b[]bUWcibhfm[cjYfbYXVmUgcW]U`]ghVifYUiWfUWm 
k\YfY]bZcfaUh]cbUVcihWi`hifU`UbXch\YfYldYf]aYbhUh]cb]bUXjUbWYX

Situationist International Response to a Questionnaire from the Center for Socio-Experimental Art 127
]bXighf]U`]gYXWcibhf]YgcjYfh\Y`UghZhmmYUfg]ggmghYaUh]WU``mgiddfYggYX 
kYkci`XWYfhU]b`mgiddcfhh\Ya]b]aiaXYaUbXZcfX]ggYa]bUh]cbcZ
hfih\ ]bW`iX]b[h\Yhfih\UVcihWcbhYadcfUfmKYghYfbUfh"KYkci`XXc
h\]gXYgd]hYh\Y]bYj]hUV`YUaV][i]hmcZgiW\UXYaUbX g]bWYh\Y\]ghcfm
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bcbYh\Y`Ygggh]``dfcZcibX`mZU`g]YX/UbX]hg]adcfhUh]cb]bhch\Y9UghYfb
V`cWkci`XfghcZU``VYYld`c]hYXVm\UW_g`]_YMYjhig\Yb_c]bh\Y]f
acXYfb]gUh]cbcZcZW]U`Ufh"

(" 8cmcidUfh]W]dUhY]bdc`]h]Wgcfbch3K\m3
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kYUfYkcf_]b[hckUfXh\Y`]b_idUbXh\Yh\YcfYh]WU`UbXdfUWh]WU`
cf[Ub]gUh]cbcZUbYkfYjc`ih]cbUfmacjYaYbh"
5``h\YWcbg]XYfUh]cbgkYUfYXYjY`cd]b[\YfYg]ai`hUbYcig`m
XYacbghfUhYh\YbYYXhc[cVYmcbXh\YZU]`ifYgcZdfYj]cig
gdYW]U`]gYXdc`]h]Wg"

)" 8cYgUbUggcW]Uh]cbcZUfh]ghggYYabYWYggUfmhcmci3
 K\Uhkci`XVY]hgcV^YWh]jYg3
H\YfYUfYU`fYUXmbiaYfcigUggcW]Uh]cbgcZUfh]ghg Y]h\Yfk]h\cihdf]bW]d`Yg
cfVUgYXcbcbYcfUbch\YfYlhfUjU[UbhUVgifX]hmaihiU`U]Xib]cbg 
aihiU`Wcb[fUhi`Uh]cbgcW]Yh]Yg U``]UbWYgZcfWc``YWh]jYWUfYYf]ga"
Kcf_gh\Uhcbh\Yg`][\hYghdfYhYlhUfYdfcW`U]aYXWc``YWh]jYdfc^YWhgUfY
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DUf]gV]Ybb]U`g h\igX]jYfh]b[UhhYbh]cbZfcah\YfYU`dfcV`YagcZh\Y
gidYfgYgg]cbcZUfh"KYfY[UfXU``h\YgYUggcW]Uh]cbgk]h\YeiU`WcbhYadh
UbXUWWYdhbcWcbhUWhk\UhgcYjYfk]h\h\]ga]`]Yi"
KYXcVY`]YjYh\UhUWc\YfYbhUbXX]gW]d`]bYXUggcW]Uh]cbZcfh\Y
fYU`]gUh]cbcZUWcaacbdfc[fUaaY]gdcgg]V`Ycbh\YVUgYgkcf_YXcihVm
h\YG]hiUh]cb]gh=bhYfbUh]cbU` dfcj]XYXh\Uhh\YdUfh]W]dUbhgUfYgcf][cfcig`m
gY`YWhYXh\Uhh\YmU``XYacbghfUhYU\][\XY[fYYcZWfYUh]jYcf][]bU`]hm UbX
h\Uh]bUgYbgYh\YmWYUgYhcVYUfh]ghgcfhcWcbg]XYfh\YagY`jYgUgUfh]ghg
]bh\Yc`XgYbgYcZh\YkcfX"
=hWci`X]bZUWhVYeiYgh]cbYXk\Yh\Yfh\Yg]hiUh]cb]ghgUfYUfh]ghgUhU`` 
YjYbUjUbh![UfXYcbYg"Bchcb`mVYWUigYU`acghYjYfmcbY]bh\YWi`hifU`
gWYbYfYg]ghgUW_bck`YX[]b[h\YaUggiW\Uh`YUghcbWYh\Yk\c`YcZh\Y
g]hiUh]cb]ghdfc[fUaaY]g]bjc`jYXcfVYWUigYh\Y]f]bhYfYghgYlhYbXZUf
VYmcbXh\YZcfaYfgWcdYcZUfh"H\Y]fbUhifYUgUfh]ghg]gYjYbacfY
dfcV`YaUh]Wcbh\YgcW]cYWcbca]W`YjY`"AUbmg]hiUh]cb]ghggiddcfh
h\YagY`jYgVmfUh\YfXiV]cigaYh\cXg fUb[]b[Zfca\]ghcf]WU`fYgYUfW\hc
dc_Yf ZfcaVUfhYbX]b[hcfibb]b[diddYhh\YUhfYg"=h]gghf]_]b[h\UhcZh\Y
&,aYaVYfgcZh\YG]hiUh]cb]gh=bhYfbUh]cbU`k\cakY\UjY\UXhcYlW`iXY
gcZUf &'dYfgcbU``m\UXUgcW]U``mfYWc[b]gYXUbX]bWfYUg]b[`mdfchUV`Y
fc`YUgUfh]ghg.h\YmkYfY_bckbUgUfh]ghgXYgd]hYh\Y]faYaVYfg\]d]bh\Yg]"

128 Art and Social Change 1968


6ihUggiW\h\YmkYfYhYbX]b[hcfY]bZcfWYh\Ydcg]h]cbcZcifYbYa]Yg k\c
kUbhhc]bjYbhUg]hiUh]cb]gagcUghcb]g\k]h\igVm]bhY[fUh]b[ig]bhc
h\YgdYWhUW`YUg^ighcbYacfYXccagXUmUYgh\Yh]W"MYhk\]`YXc]b[h\]g 
h\YgYUfh]ghgkUbhYXhcfYaU]b]bh\Yg]"H\]gkUgibUWWYdhUV`YZcfig"
H\Y[ifYggdYU_Zcfh\YagY`jYg"
=h[cYgk]h\cihgUm]b[h\UhUbmch\YfcV^YWh]jYgcZUbmUggcW]Uh]cb
cZUfh]ghgUfYcZbc]bhYfYghhcig g]bWYkYfY[UfXh\YaUgbc`cb[Yf\Uj]b[
Ubmdc]bhk\UhgcYjYf"

*" <ck]gh\Ykcf_mciUfYdfYgYbh]b[\YfYfY`UhYXhch\YgYghUhYaYbhg3
H\Ykcf_kY\UjYcZZYfYX]bfYgdcbgYhcmciffYeiYghcVj]cig`mWUbbch
fYdfYgYbhUg]hiUh]cb]ghUfh"IbXYfh\YdfYgYbhX]gh]bWh`mUbh]!g]hiUh]cb]gh
Wi`hifU`WcbX]h]cbgkY\UjYhcfYgcfhhcWcaaib]WUh]cbWcbhU]b]b[]hgckb
Wf]h]eiY k\]W\kY\UjYYldYf]aYbhYXk]h\]bYjYfmUWWYgg]V`YaYX]ia 
Zfca`ahckf]h]b[ UbXk\]W\kY\UjYh\Ycf]gYXibXYfh\YbUaYcZ
dtournement"G]bWYh\Y7YbhYfZcfGcW]c!9ldYf]aYbhU`5fh\Ug`]a]hYX]hg
gifjYmhch\Yd`Ugh]WUfhg kY\UjYgY`YWhYX ZfcaUacb[h\YbiaYfcig
dcgg]V]`]h]YgcZdtournementUgUaYUbgcZU[]hUh]cb A]W\`Y6YfbghY]bgUbh]!
dU]bh]b[Victory of the Bonnot GangO%-*'Q"=hZcfagdUfhcZUgYf]Yg]bW`iX]b[
Victory of the Paris Commune, Victory of the Great Jacquerie of 1358, Victory of the
Spanish Republicans, Victory of the Workers Councils of BudapestUbXgYjYfU`ch\Yf
j]Whcf]Yg"GiW\dU]bh]b[gUhhYadhhcbY[UhYDcd5fhk\]W\]gaUhYf]U``m
UbX]XYc`c[]WU``mW\UfUWhYf]gYXVmindifferenceUbXXi``Wcad`UWYbWmVm
]bWcfdcfUh]b[cb`mtoycV^YWhgUbXVmaU_]b[h\YaaYUb]b[Zi`]bUg\YUjm!
\UbXYXUkUmUgdcgg]V`Y"=bUgYbgYh\]ggYf]YgWUff]Ygcbh\YhfUX]h]cbcZh\Y
dU]bh]b[cZVUhh`Yg/UbXU`gcfYWh]Ygh\Y\]ghcfmcZfYjc`hgk\]W\]gbchcjYf
]bUkUmh\Uhd`YUgYgig"=hgYYagh\UhYUW\bYkUhhYadhhchfUbgZcfah\Y
kcf`X]gZcfWYXhcghUfhcihk]h\h\YUddYUfUbWYcZUnew unrealism"
KY\cdYh\UhciffYaUf_g\YfY Vch\\iacfcigUbXgYf]cig k]``\Y`d
hcW`Uf]Zmcifdcg]h]cbcbh\YdfYgYbhfY`Uh]cbg\]dVYhkYYbUfhUbXgcW]Yhm"

Situationist International Response to a Questionnaire from the Center for Socio-Experimental Art 129
STATEMENT
B L AC K M A S K

Black Mask, no.1, New York,


October 1966.

5bYkgd]f]h]gf]g]b["@]_Yh\YghfYYhgcZKUhhgkYVifbk]h\fYjc`ih]cb"
KYUggUi`hmcif;cXg"""KYg]b[cZmcifXYUh\"XYghfcmh\YaigYiag"""
cifghfi[[`YWUbbchVY\ib[cbkU``g"@Yhh\YdUghZU``ibXYfh\YV`ckgcZ
fYjc`h"H\Y[iYff]``U h\Y6`UW_g h\YaYbcZh\YZihifY kYUfYU``Uhmcif
\YY`g";cXXUabmcifWi`hifY mcifgW]YbWY mcifUfh"K\UhdifdcgYXch\Ym
gYfjY3McifaUgg!aifXYfWUbbchVYWcbWYU`YX"H\Y]bXighf]U`]gh h\YVUb_Yf 
h\YVcif[Yc]g]Y k]h\h\Y]fib`]a]hYXdfYhYbWYUbXji`[Uf]hm Wcbh]biYhc
ghcW_d]`YUfhk\]`Yh\Ymg`Ui[\hYf\iaUb]hm"Mcif`]Y\UgZU]`YX"H\Ykcf`X
]gf]g]b[U[U]bghmcifcddfYgg]cb"H\YfYUfYaYbUhh\Y[UhYggYY_]b[UbYk
kcf`X"H\YaUW\]bY h\YfcW_Yh h\YWcbeiYf]b[cZgdUWYUbXh]aY h\YgY
UfYh\YgYYXgcZh\YZihifYk\]W\ ZfYYXZfcamcifVUfVUf]ga k]``WUffm
igZcfkUfX"KYUfYfYUXm"""

@Yhh\YGhfi[[`Y6Y[]b

CbAcbXUm %$CWhcVYfUh%&"'$dakYk]``W`cgYh\YAigYiacZAcXYfb
5fh"H\]ggmaVc`]WUWh]cb]ghU_YbUhUh]aYk\Yb5aYf]WU]gcbUdUh\cZ
hchU`XYghfiWh]cb UbXg][bU`gh\YcdYb]b[cZUbch\YfZfcbh]bh\Ykcf`X!k]XY
ghfi[[`YU[U]bghgiddfYgg]cb"KYgYY_UhchU`fYjc`ih]cb Wi`hifU` 
UgkY``UggcW]U`UbXdc`]h]WU``Yhh\Yghfi[[`YVY[]b"

130 Art and Social Change 1968


Black Mask leaflet ca. 1968

131
ART AND REVOLUTION
B L AC K M A S K

Black Mask, no.3, New York,


January 1967.

KYUfYbY]h\YfUfh]ghg bcfUbh]!Ufh]ghg"KYUfYWfYUh]jYaYbfYjc`ih]cbUf]Yg"
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hcc`gk]h\k\]W\kYk]``fYd`UWYh\]g\cffcf"KYaighWfYUhYh\YgYYXgcZ
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h\YaUggYg bY]h\Yf`YUX]b[h\YabcfVY]b[`YX"
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Vmcihg]XYZcfWYg cbYkYUdcbVY]b[YXiWUh]cbUbXZfYYWfYUh]j]hm"8]ZZYfYbh
dYfgcbU`]h]Yg Ybj]fcbaYbhg U[Ygk]``XYhYfa]bYh\YZcfWYgaYbXYjY`cd 
YUW\dchYbh]U``mUgjU`iUV`YUdUfhcZh\YhchU`]hmUgh\Ych\Yf"5ZYkYlUad`Yg
g\ci`XgiZWYUg]``ighfUh]cb"
H\YFigg]UbFYjc`ih]cb U`cb[k]h\]hggcW]U`W\Ub[Yg Vfci[\hUVcih
UWi`hifU`id\YUjU`"AUbmgUkh\YXYUh\cZYUgY`!dU]bh]b["5gZUfUgkYUfY
WcbWYfbYX]hkUgU`kUmgXYUX h\cgYWfYUh]jYaYbk\cih]`]gYX]hU`kUmg
gci[\hacfYh\Ub]hkUgh\ci[\hhccZZYf"H\igUJUb;c[\X]ZZYfgZfcaU
6ci[YfYUi"KY\YfU`XYXh\YXYUh\cZUfhZcfUfhggU_Y Vihh\]gU[U]bkUgU
ZU`gY]ggiY"KYfYh\YWUjYaUf_]b[gaUXYUgUfh38]Xh\Ydf]a]h]jYgdfcXiWY
ZcfUfhggU_Y cfh\YYUf`m7\f]gh]Ubg cfdfY!UbXYUf`m!FYbU]ggUbWYUfh]ghg
giW\Ug;]chhc cfh\Ych\YfWfYUh]jYaYbU``h\YkUmh\fci[\hch\YhkYbh]Yh\
WYbhifm k\]W\Vifghk]h\:ihif]ga3K\UhX]X\UddYb]b%-%+ kUgh\Y

132 Art and Social Change 1968


W\UbWYZcfh\YWfYUh]jYaUbhcZibWh]cbk]h\]bUgcW]U`fYjc`ih]cb"H\YfY
kYfYhkcaU]bUddfcUW\Yg cbYfYdfYgYbhYXVmAU`Yj]W\UbXh\Ych\Yf
VmHUh`]b"
H\Yh\YcfmcZ`UVcfUhcfmUfh UgXYjY`cdYXVmAU`Yj]W\ aUXYigYcZ
h\Y]bX]j]XiU`]gh]Wkcf_cZh\YWfYUh]jYaUb]bVch\]hgdgmW\c`c[]WU`UbX
d\mg]WU`dchYbh]U` fghVmcdYb]b[h\Ya]bXgj]g]cbUbXgYWcbXVm`Um]b[
h\YVUg]gZcfUbcfXYfYXUffUb[YaYbhcZaUbggiffcibX]b[g"H\Ych\Yf
UddfcUW\ UgfYdfYgYbhYXVmHUh`]b kUghchU_Yh\YaUhYf]U`bYYXgUbX
hch\YbhfUbg`UhYh\Ya]bhcUWfYUh]jYYbh]hm"G]bWYYUW\UfcgYcihcZh\Y
dgmW\c`c[]WU`bYYXgcZh\Y]fZcibXYfgUbXh\YgcW]U`bYYXgcZUXUkb]b[
gcW]Yhmh\YmkYfYVch\UdUfhcZh\YfYjc`ih]cb"=h]gcb`m`UhYfk\Yb
VifYUiWfUWmUbXh\Ybf]g]b[GhU`]b]gaZcfWYXUZU`gYacjYaYbh 
GcW]U`]gh!FYU`]ga idcbh\YgWYbYh\UhWfYUh]j]hmghcddYX"
H\YgUaYmYUfg%-%+&)X]X ]bX]ZZYfYbhd`UWYgUbXk]h\X]ZZYfYbh
]bX]j]XiU`g gYYX]ZZYfYbhUbgkYfg"H\YkUf!hcfbKYghk]h\]hgVcif[Yc]g
Xca]bUbWYWci`XbchVYYldYWhYXhcZc``ckh\YgUaYWcifgYUgUdcgh!
fYjc`ih]cbUfmFigg]U"MYhh\YfYkYfYgcaYg]a]`Uf]h]YgYjYb\YfY"H\Y
;YfaUb6Ui\Uighcc_UWcbghfiWh]j]ghUhh]hiXYgcaYh]aYg^c]b]b[h\Yhkc
k\]`Yh\Y8ihW\8YGh]^`Zc``ckYXUWcifgYacfYg]a]`Ufhch\UhcZAU`Yj]W\"
6ih\YfYh\Y8UXU]ghgYbhYf k]h\UhchU``mX]ZZYfYbhUbX^ighUg]adcfhUbh
fc`Y"H\YmkYfYibXYfa]b]b[UbYZZYhYUbXacf]VibXgcW]Yhm UgcW]Yhm
k\cgYXYghfiWh]cbkci`XVYbYhU``"H\YmkYfY UgfYjc`ih]cbUf]Yg ]bh\Y
ghfYYhgUbX UgWfYUh]jYaYb h\Ymgci[\hhccjYfh\fckh\UhdYfjYfhYX
W]j]`]nUh]cbk\]W\kfYU_YX\UjcWcbh\Ykcf`X"H\]ggUaY[cU`kUg`UhYf
gci[\hVmh\YGiffYU`]ghg k]h\h\Y]fUhhYadhgUhVi]`X]b[UbYkdgmW\c`c[]WU`
YldYf]aYbh UgkY``UgUbYad\Ug]gcbX]fYWhfYjc`ih]cb hcXYghfcmh\Y
Vcif[Yc]g]YfUh\Yfh\Ub\cd]b[hcg\cW_h\Ya]bhcUkUfYbYggh\Y`UhhYf
\UXVYYbgcaYk\UhdfYjU`Ybh]bh\Y8UXU]ghacjYaYbh YlWYdh]b[h\Y
6Yf`]bVfUbW\"
MYhkYUfYcZUbYkU[Y"KY\UjY`YUfbYXZfcah\YdUgh Vihhc\Y``
k]h\h\YdUgh"CbYcZh\YgYWUbVYcifgkYUfYbchgc`iW_m"H\YfYk]``VY
g]a]`Uf]h]YgVihh\YfYk]``VYX]ZZYfYbWY"KY\UjYX][YghYXh\YaU``Vihcb`m
hcfY^YWhh\YaUgZYfh]`]nYfZfcak\]W\h\YbYkk]``f]gYcb]hgckb ]bh\Y
bUhifU`dfcWYggcZ[fckh\"H\YfYUfYYaYf[]b[ZcfWYg/WmVYfbUh]cb [fck]b[
kYUdcbfm UbXkcf`X!k]XYfYjc`ih]cbk\]W\kYUfYUZZYWhYXVmUbXk\]W\kY
]bhifbaighUZZYWh"KYWUbUbXaighfY!g\UdYh\YhchU`Ybj]fcbaYbh/
d\mg]WU`UbXdgmW\c`c[]WU` gcW]U`UbXUYgh\Yh]W `YUj]b[bcVcibXUf]Yg
hcX]j]XYaUb"H\YZihifY]gcifg Vihbchk]h\cihUghfi[[`Y"

Black Mask Art and Revolution 133


WE PROPOSE
A CULTUR AL E XCHANGE
B L AC K M A S K

Black Mask leaflet,


New York, ca.1967.

WE PROPOSE A CULTURAL EXCHANGE


(garbage for garbage )

AMERICA TURNS THE WORLD INTO GARBAGE


IT TURNS ITS GHETTOS INTO GARBAGE
IT TURNS VIETNAM INTO GARBAGE

IN THE NAME OF UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES


(DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS)
IN THE NAME OF THE FATHERLAND
(COLLIE DOGS, NEW ENGLAND CHURCHES)
IN THE NAME OF MAN
IN THE NAME OF ART
IN THE NAME OF MONEY

AMERICA TAKES
ALL THAT IS EDIBLE, EXCHANGEABLE, INVESTABLE
AND LEAVES THE REST

THE WORLD IS OUR GARBAGE, WE SHALL NOT WANT,


WE LIE DOWN IN GREEN PASTURES. THE REST LIE DOWN IN GARBAGE.

AND WE PLAY AS WE MAKE OUR GARBAGE


BEETHOVEN BACH MOZART SHAKESPEARE
TO COVER THE SOUND OF OUR GARBAGE MAKING

AND WE EXCLUDE THE GARBAGE FROM OUR PALACES OF CULTURE

134 Art and Social Change 1968


AND WE WILL NOT ALLOW IT TO MARRY OUR DAUGHTER
AND WE WILL NOT NEGOTIATE WITH IT OR LET IT TAKE OUR SHIPS

BUT WE ARE FACED WITH A REVOLT OF THE GARBAGE

A CULTURAL REVOLUTION
GARBAGE FERTILIZES
DISCOVERS ITSELF

AND WE OF THE LOWER EAST SIDE HAVE DECIDED TO BRING


THIS CULTURAL REVOLUTION TO LINCOLN CENTER IN BAGS
IS NOT LINCOLN CENTER WHERE IT BELONGS?

ASSEMBLE TO COLLECT GARBAGE 5PM 12 FEBRUARY


(at 9th Street between c and d)
MARCH TO LINCOLN CENTER
BE AT LINCOLN CENTER BY 8:30PM FOR THE GARBAGE PLANTING

Black Mask We Propose a Cultural Exchange 135


Sture Johannesson Outside Cannabis Gallery with
friends, 1967

The Kingdom is Within You, 1967


Poster printed by Permild and Rosengreen, Copenhagen

136
PSYCHEDELIC MANIFESTO
S TU RE JO H AN N E S SON

Ord & Bild, (Cultural Review for


the Nordic Countries, 76th annual
volume), no.1, 1967.

One can demand that a cultural product fulfils one or more of these criteria;
that it intensifies sensory experience, creates knowledge of mankinds situation,
eases human relations and inherits a certain general validity"
BcfXU`5_YfaUb#C``YGjYbb]b[A Socialist View on Culture

HcXUm ZcifWi`hifU`dfcXiWhgYl]ghh\Uh\UjYh\YgYZcifW\UfUWhYf]gh]Wg/
h\YdgmW\YXY`]WXfi[g`gX aYgWU`]bY dg]`cWmV]bUbX\Ug\]g\"H\YWi`hifU`
kcf_Yfgacgh]adcfhUbhhUg_]bh\YZihifY]ghcgdfYUX]bZcfaUh]cbUVcih
h\YgYaUhhYfg"DgmW\YXY`]WXfi[gaYUbZfYYXca YeiU`]hmUbXVfch\Yf\ccX"

Joy of life! He saw it clearly. One should sell joy of life, not kitchen hardware
or brown envelopes. Joy of life demanded love as its partner, and this marriage
gave birth to ethics, the good and the right acts.
GjYb:U[YfVYf[The Costume Ball

:fYYXca]gbchUb]adYf]g\UV`Yd\fUgYc`c[]WU`OcjYfU``QcbYdihgcb
]bdf]aUfmgW\cc` ZfYYXca]gU`iadcZ\Ug\]g\]bh]bZc]` h\YZfYYXca
mciWUbbch\]XY]bmcifVcchgcfibXYfkYUfk]h\cihh\Ydc`]WYbX]b[]h"
:fYYXca]gUVU``cZh]bZc]`cbYgeiYYnYg]bcbYg\UbXUbX]gfYUXmhch\fck
UkUmk\YbdckYf]bhYfjYbYg"=h]gUVigYX_bck`YX[Y]bgcW]Yhm _bck]b[
h\UhdckYfckbghfih\UbXh\Uhhfih\]ggcaYh\]b[U[fcidcZdYcd`YWUb
U[fYYidcbh\fci[\XYacWfUh]Wkcf_]b[aYh\cXgUbXaU^cf]hmdf]bW]d`Yg"
H\YWi`hifU`kcf_YfaighVYUbUfh]ghk]h\bcW`U]ahcVYhU_YbgYf]cig`m"
FY`]UV]`]hmWcaYg]bh\YZcfacZUWcdgVUX[Y"CbYg\ci`XgY``\Ug\]g\ 
bchc]`dU]bh]b[gcfh\YUhfYh]W_Yhg"

Communication is everything that brings people together. The communicative field


is the in-between space. The in-between space between people. With this we can bid
the beholder farewell"
>Ybg!>cYf[YbH\cfgYbPaletten '#**

137
Gc hfih\]ggcaYh\]b[idcbk\]W\U[fcidcZdYcd`YWUbU[fYY"6ih
hfih\gY`X`]YgVYhkYYb`Y[]g`UhifYg"=bh\Y]bhYfgh]WY"K]h\h\]gkYWUbV]X
h\Ydfcd\YhgZUfYkY``"5fh]ghgk\cUddYUf]bh\Y[U``Yf]YgUgWcbZcfa]ghUbX
X]gW]d`]bYXaYaVYfgcZUdUf`]UaYbhZcfUYgh\Yh]Wh\Ycf]YgUbX]XYc`c[]Yg
OUfYQbchXYUX VihgY`Z!UadihUhYX"OH\YfY]gUQghfi[[`YUVcih[]aa]W_g 
f]jU`fmUVcihh\YfYj]YkgcZWf]h]Wg]bkUhW\aYbgib]Zcfag ]bhY``YWhiU`\U]f!
gd`]hh]b[UbXUZc`_gmfc``]bh\Y\Um"Culture distribution? GcW]Yhmg]bhYfYgh]ghc
administer UfhUbXWi`hifY hcdcfh]cbcihk\Uh]gWcbg]XYfYXgUZYcfigY`Ygg"

The manifestation of consciousness is a kind of creation, all such things are truth
that has the same value no matter how it is articulated, academically or colloquially.
A human being with psychedelic experience recognises his or her karma, an original
universal truth and human authenticity, in art, poetry, music, theatre and
literature, in situations between person and person, between person and thing,
between person and divinity. Everything is holy.
5``Yb;]bgVYf[

Escapism? BchhcUWWYdhh\Uh]bbYffYU`]hm]g^ighUgfYU`Ugh\YcihYf]g
UgYf]ciga]ghU_YaUXYVmdYcd`Yk\c\UjYbYjYfhf]YXcf\UjYZU]`YXhc
UW\]YjYh\]g"8cbhhU`_UVcih]hhU_Y]h=aU[]bUh]cb]g^ighUXYYdYffYU`]hm"
Drug addiction? K]``]Ua6iffci[\gfYZYfghch\Y Naked Lunch UZfcnYb
acaYbhk\YbYjYfmVcXmgYYgk\Uh]gg]hh]b[Uhh\YZcf_gdc]bh.

Hashish works as a guide to areas in the psyche that one later can return to without
taking the drug, that is one can stop smoking hashish when one has become familiar
with those landscapes which the drug has opened up the road to just as it is the case
with other psychedelic drugs.

Alienation? 5gUbUfh]ghk]h\Ub]bWcaYVY`ckh\YVfYUX`]bY=\UjYVYYb
g]nYXidcbYgh]aUh]cbUbXdYbU``mhUlYXgch\Uh]h]g]adcgg]V`YZcfaY
hckcf_Zcfam`]j]b[UgYad`cmYX]bUbmWcadUbmVYWUigYcZgYeiYghYfYX
]bWcaY"H\]gk\]`Yh\Ya]`]hUfmUbXYWcbca]WdckYfgh\UhVYbYYXbch
UWWcibhZcfcfYjYbgh]W_Xckbh\YgYfj]WYYbjY`cdYk]h\h\YV][Vf]VYg"

How many dark hours / Ive been thinking of this


that Jesus Christ was / betrayed by a kiss
but I cant think for you / you have to decide
whether Judas Iscariot had / GOD on his side.
6cV8m`Ub

Communication?KUjYmcif\UbXgBchcb`mgcibXUbX`][\hVihU``aUhhYf
aUb]ZYghg]hgY`Z]bkUjYg"7caaib]WUh]cb]gkUjYg"KYWUbkUjYhcYUW\
ch\Yf"KUjYmcif\UbXg

138 Art and Social Change 1968


Sture Johannesson Outside Cannabis Gallery with Ninna,
model for the poster Hash Girl and the Macedonian
children who liked to play in and around the gallery, 1967

139
Albert Hunt The Russian Revolution,
staged in the streets of Bradford, November 1967

140
HOPES FOR GRE AT HAPPENINGS
A LB E RT H U NT

Extracts from Hopes for Great Happenings,


concerning The Russian Revolution in
Bradford of 1967, New York: Taplinger
Publishing Co., 1977.

H\YU]acZYXiWUh]cb]ghc\Y`ddYcd`Y`YUfb\ckhcibXYfghUbX Wcbhfc`
UbX i`h]aUhY`m W\Ub[Yh\Y]fYbj]fcbaYbh"6ihh\YYXiWUh]cbgmghYa]bh\]g 
UbX]bacghch\YfUXjUbWYX]bXighf]U`gcW]Yh]Yg ]g[YUfYXhcdfYW]gY`mh\Y
cddcg]hYYbX.]Y"did]`gUfYhUi[\hh\Uhh\Ykcf`X]gYlhfYaY`mX]ZWi`hhc
ibXYfghUbX/h\Uhcb`mUdf]j]`Y[YXZYkWUbfYUW\giW\UbibXYfghUbX]b[/
h\Uhh\YgYZYk\UjYh\Yf][\hhcWcbhfc`h\YUWh]j]h]YgcZU``h\YfYgh/UbXh\Uh 
ZUfZfcahfm]b[hcW\Ub[Yh\Y]fYbj]fcbaYbh h\YjUghaU^cf]hmcZdYcd`Y
g\ci`XhfmUbXh]b\Udd]`mk]h\h\Yg]hiUh]cbUg]h]g"9XiWUh]cbhf]Yghc
hYUW\dYcd`Y\ckhcUX^ighgiWWYggZi``mhch\YgcW]U`fc`Yh\Ym``VYWU``YX
cbhcd`Um"

H\YgYbgYcZch\YfdYcd`Y k]h\amghYf]cig_bck`YX[Y Wcbhfc``]b[mcif`]ZY


]gk\UhcifYXiWUh]cbgmghYa]gghfiWhifYXhcWcaaib]WUhY"H\YZcfacZh\Uh
Wcaaib]WUh]cb]gtheatrical f]hiU`]gh]W"H\Y`]b]b[!id]bh\Yd`Um[fcibX
k\YbgcaYVcXmV`ckgUk\]gh`Y/h\Yacfb]b[UggYaV`m k\YfYdckYf]g
X]gd`UmYX cZhYbXYWcfUhYXk]h\h\YUhf]WU`YaV`Yag giW\Ug[ckbg/h\Y
f]hiU`gcZacj]b[Zfcafccahcfccak\Ybh\YVY``f]b[g/U``h\YgYUfY
h\YUhf]WU`]bh\Y]fYZZYWh"H\Uh]ghcgUm h\Ymkcf_]bh\YkUmh\Uhh\YUhfY
kcf_g aU_]b[h\YUVghfUWhWcbWfYhY XYacbghfUh]b[]bd\mg]WU`hYfag
k\YfYh\YdckYf`]Yg"

5h11cW`cW_]bh\Yacfb]b[cb&BcjYaVYf%-*+ UXcnYbghiXYbhg
giXXYb`mUddYUfYXcbh\YghYdgcZh\YEiYYbJ]Whcf]UacbiaYbh]bh\Y
WYbhfYcZ6fUXZcfX"H\YmkYfYU``XfYggYX]bV`UW_V`UW_^YUbg V`UW_

141
gkYUhYfg V`UW_dc`mh\YbYWUdYgh]YXfcibXh\Y]fbYW_g UbXh\YmU``kcfY
fYXUfaVUbXg"H\YmW`]aVYXidh\YghYdg hifbYXfcibX UbXVY[UbhcfYUX
U`ciX]bib]gcbZfcah\Yh\ci[\hgcZ7\U]faUbAUc"5dc`]WYaUbUhh\Y
ZcchcZh\YghYdghf]YXhcdfYhYbXh\Uhbch\]b[kUg\UddYb]b["
5hfci[\`mh\YgUaYh]aY hkca]`YgcfgcZfcah\YW]hmWYbhfY 
UdfcWYgg]cbcZacfYh\UbU\ibXfYXghiXYbhg `YXVmUW\UbWYVUbX WUaY
gk]b[]b[h\fci[\h\Y[UhYgcZh\YdUf_]bk\]W\h\YW]hmgaU]bUfh[U``Yfm 
h\Y7Ufhkf][\hAYacf]U`<U`` ]ggYh"H\YgYghiXYbhg hcc kYfYXfYggYX]b
V`UW_ Vihk]h\k\]hYUfaVUbXg"H\Y[]f`g\UXVcchgUbX`cb[g_]fhgh\Uh
gkib[fcibXh\Y]fUb_`Yg UbXh\YmWUff]YXkccXYb\caY!aUXYf]Yg"
6Y\]bXh\Ya ]bh\YdfcWYgg]cb kYfYZcif\i[Y %&!ZcchdiddYhg aUXY
cihcZWUfXVcUfXVclYgdU]bhYXV`UW_"H\YghiXYbhgWUff]YXg`c[Ubgcb
VUbbYfg.GiddcfhMcif;cjYfbaYbh 8ckbk]h\FYX5[]hUhcfg 
BcDYUWYk]h\5[[fYggcfg"
=bh\YW]hmVigghUh]cb UVigUff]jYXZfca6Ufbg`Ym"5Vcih&)ghiXYbhg 
]bV`UW_k]h\k\]hYUfaVUbXg [chcZZh\YVigUbX`cc_YXfcibX"5jUbXfcjY
id WfiXY`mWUaciU[YX"CihcZ]h`YUdhUghiXYbhk]h\UfYXUfaVUbX"<Y
d]W_YXcihh\YZcifdfYhh]Ygh[]f`g hc`Xh\Yahc[Yh]bh\YjUb UbXXfcjY
UkUm"=bg]XYh\YjUb h\Y[]f`g\UXh\Y]fk\]hYUfaVUbXgYlW\Ub[YXZcffYX"
Cihg]XYUVfYUXg\cd]bh\YW]hmWYbhfY UeiYiYcZhkcXcnYbghiXYbhg
ZcfaYX"H\YmkcfYfYXUfaVUbXgh\UhWUff]YXh\Yg`c[UbDYUWY @UbX 
6fYUX"9UW\ghiXYbhVci[\hcbYhYUWU_Y"H\Ybh\Ymhcc_h\Y]fhYUWU_Yg
UWfcggh\YhckbhcUX]gigYXdcghcZWYh\Uh\UXVYYb`YZhhcWfiaV`Y]b
h\Ya]XX`YcZUV`cW_cZ\][\!f]gYWcibW]`Uhg"=bh\Yg\cdk]bXckkYfY
d`UWUfXghY``]b[dYcd`Yh\YmWci`XhU_YUbmh\]b[h\Ym`]_YXZfcah\Yg\cd 
ZcfZfYY UbXWci`X`YUjYUbmh\]b[h\Ym`]_YXYlWYdhacbYm"5kcfX`Ygg
dcghYfg\ckYX@Yb]bfYUW\]b[cihcjYfh\Y=hU`]UbUhYW]hm\U``UbXh\Y
a]``gcZ6fUXZcfX"

142 Art and Social Change 1968


GUERRILL A THE ATRE
RON A LD G . DAV I S

Extract from Ronald G. Davis, Guerrilla


Theatre, San Francisco
Mime Troupe, 1967.

=Zh\YYmYVY^UibX]WYX d`iW_]hcih"
=Zh\YgcW]Yhm]gfchhYb f]Xh\mgY`ZcZ]h"
=Zh\Ykcf`XVY]aacfU` W\Ub[Y]h"

V]V`]WU`!Yl]ghYbh]U`!VfYW\h]Ub

H\YgcW]U`Uggiadh]cbgk\]W\cbYUWWYdhgk]``XYhYfa]bYh\YhmdY
cZh\YUhfYcbYWfYUhYg.ghfYYhh\YUhfY dUf_h\YUhfY kcf_Yfgh\YUhfY cf
kUfaYX!cjYfVUh\fccah\YUhfY"H\YUhf]WU`X]gWigg]cbgaigh]bW`iXYh\Y
gcW]c!dc`]h]WU`Uhh]hiXYgcZh\YdYfZcfaYfg]bcfXYfhcWcadfY\YbXk\m
gcaYVY`]YjYh\YUhfYUhcc`cZW\Ub[YUbXch\Yfg`cjYh\Yh\YUUUUUhYf"
=h]gcZWcifgYYbhYfhU]b]b[hcfYUXeiUg]!fYjc`ih]cbUfmghUhYaYbhgUbX
gWiff]`cigUhhUW_gcbh\Yh\YUhfYUbXgcW]YhmZcfUfYUXYfg\]dh\Uh]gcihg]XY
h\YaU]bghfYUacZUWh]cb/\ckYjYf kYg\U``Wcbh]biY]b\cdYh\UhkcfXg
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YZW]YbhgdYW]U`]gUh]cb"H\]g]gUg]ad`]WUh]cbcZh\YWcbX]h]cb/Zcf
Zifh\Yf]bZcfaUh]cbfYUX.AUfl :fYiX BcfaUbC"6fckb <"AUfWigY 
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143
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ibXYfghUbXh\Ya UbXh\Ym]XYbh]Zmk]h\mci"
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kYh\YbX]XUgUh]fYcbcifckbUbh]kUfdUW]gaLAmant MilitaireVm
>cUb<c`XYbUbXch\Yfg"
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FY[]g8YVfUm.H\YfYjc`ih]cbUfm]bh\YacibhU]bg]gX]ZZYfYbhZfcah\Y
hU`_]b[fYjc`ih]cbUfm]bh\YW]hm"CfAW@i\Ub.AYX]U]gdUfhcZh\Y
aYggU[Y@cWUh]cb]gh\Yd`UhZcfacfh\Ygdcb[YZcfmcifdfc[fUaaY"
H\Ypublic ]gaUXYidcZU``h\cgYk\ch\]b_h\YmgYYmci]bh\YaUbX
U``h\cgYk\ca_bck/Zf]YbXg UZW]cbUXcg hcif]ghgUbXgcaYh]aYgdYYfg"
=hgU``jYfmg]ad`YcbdUdYf Vihh\YaU_]b[UbXh\YdfcdYfigYcZ
aUhYf]U`gXYdYbXgidcbmcifckbUbU`mg]gcZh\YbYYXgUbXdcgg]V]`]h]Yg
]bmcifckb`cWUh]cb"HcdfYgYbhcommedia dellarte]bh\Ya]XX`YcZ7UbUXU
aUmcb`mVYU\]ghcf]WU`Yld`cfUh]cb"6ihk\UhYjYfh\YdfYgYbhUh]cb ]haigh
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GiWWYgg]bhYfagcZacbYm WcaaYfW]U`ZUaY ZUbWmaU[Un]bYgdfYUXg
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ib`Yggmci`]jY]bh\YUXjUbWYXbYc!gcW]U`]ghWcibhf]Ygk\YfYWf]h]W]gacZ
h\YdfYjU]`]b[WcbX]h]cbg]g]bcfXYf"J]n" >YUb@ci]g6UffUi`hk]h\The Screens
BUh]cbU`5ggYaV`mU`acghghcddYX]hcf?YbbYh\HmbUbUbX@UifYbWY
C`]j]Yfk]h\SoldierVmF"<cW\ih\WYbgcfYXVmh\YDiV`]W7Ybgcf"=bh\cgY
`Yggh\UbUXjUbWYX[cjYfbaYbh!giVg]X]gYXWcibhf]Yg h\Yh\YUhfYUgacfU`
ZcfWYk]`` UgXcYgh\Yg]b[`YUfh]gh \UjYhc`]jYVm]hgk]hg"Hc`]jYVmmcif
k]hg]gbchhc]a]hUhYh\Y\igh`Yfk\c]gU`ck!W`UggWUd]hU`]gh VihfUh\Yf
h\Y@Uh]b5aYf]WUb[iYff]``Uk\c]gU`ck!W`UgggcW]U`]gh"
H\YcV^YWh]ghckcf_UhUdfYgYbhUh]cbh\UhhU`_ghcUWcaaib]hmcZ
dYcd`YUbXh\UhYldfYggYgk\UhmciUgUWcaaib]hmU``_bckVihk\Uh
bccbY]ggUm]b[.h\ci[\hg ]aU[Yg cVgYfjUh]cbgUbXX]gWcjYf]Ygh\UhUfY
bchdf]bhYX]bbYkgdUdYfgcfaUXY]bhcacj]Yg.hfih\h\UhaUmVYg\cW_]b[
UbX\cbYghmh\Uh]gji`[Ufhch\YUYgh\YhY"

144 Art and Social Change 1968


DfYdUfYhc[ccihcZVig]bYggUhUbmacaYbh"
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Bch\]b[]ggUWfYXcb`mgcaYh]aYghYbXYfbYgg"

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@]_YU`]ZYh\Uh]gjU`iUV`Y mciaighVY[]bVmXfcdd]b[cih [Yhh]b[UkUm 
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VcfYXUbXXYdfYggYXUbmkUm"
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a]XX`Y!W`Ugg5aYf]WUb`]ZYghm`Ya]XX`Y!W`Ugg5aYf]WU]gU``cjYfh\Ykcf`X"
MYhh\YUWhcZWfYUh]b[U`]ZYghm`Yh\UhfYd`UWYgacgh ]ZbchU`` a]XX`Y!W`Ugg
WUd]hU`]gh]WUggiadh]cbgk]h\U`]ZYghm`Yh\Uhkcbhei]h ]gUZi``!h]aY^cV
cZUZi``!h]aY[iYff]``U"
K\]W\cZWcifgY]gh\Ycb`mkUmhc`]jY"

Ronald G. Davis Guerrilla Theatre 145


TRIP WITHOUT A TICKET
TH E SAN FR ANC I SCO DIGG E R S

The Digger Papers, August 1968.

CifUih\cf]gYXgUb]h]YgUfYgcaUbmBYaVihU`g"BcfaU`W]h]nYbgk]h\
ghcfY!Xiaamga]`YgghUbXUdUfhZfcaYUW\ch\Yf`]_YWchhcb!dUW_YX
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fY`Uh]cbg\]dUbX5fhUgUZUbhUgmdUW]Yf"9jYfmcbY]g_Ydh]bg]XYk\]`Y
h\Ycihg]XY]gg\ckbh\fci[\k]bXckg.UXjYfh]g]b[UbXaUb]WifYXbYkg"
5bXkYU``_bckh\]g"

<ckaUbmhjgdYW]U`gkci`X]hhU_YhcYghUV`]g\cbY;iUhYaU`UbfYjc`ih]cb3
<ckaUbmkYY_gkci`XUbUXU[YbWmfYei]fYhcZUWY!`]Zhh\Y]aU[YcZh\Y
J]Yh7cb[3G`ck`m jYfmg`ck`mkYUfY`YXbck\YfY"7cbgiaYfW]fWigYgUfY
\Y`X]bh\YkUfXXU]`m"7f]h]WgUfYhc`YfUhYX`]_YYld`cX]b[bcjY`h]Yg"KYk]``
VYhc`Xk\]W\Vifb]b[5g]UbghchU_YgYf]cig`m"
G`ck`m"@UhYf"

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5bXkYU``_bckh\]g"

K\Uh]Z\Y]gghUfh`YXf][\hcihh\Yk]bXck3

BccbYWUbWcbhfc`h\Yg]b[`YW]fWi]h!VfYU_]b[acaYbhh\UhW\Uf[Yg[UaYg
k]h\Wf]h]WU`fYU`]hm"=Zh\Y[`Ugg]gWih ]Zh\YWig\]cbYXX]ghUbWYcZaYX]U
]gfYacjYX h\YdUh]YbhgaUmbYjYffYgdcbXUgbcfaU`gU[U]b"H\Ymk]``
VYWcaY`]ZY!UWhcfg"

Theatre is territory"5gdUWYZcfYl]gh]b[cihg]XYdUXXYXkU``g"GYhh]b[Xckb
UghU[YXYW`UfYgUib]jYfgU`dUfXcbZcf]aU[]bUh]cb"6ihk\Uh\UddYbgbYlh
aighaYUbacfYh\UbgUbWhiUfmcfdfYgYfjY"<ckkci`XfYU`kUfXYbgfYUWh
hc`]ZY!UWhcfgcb`]VYfUhYX[fcibX3<ckWUbh\Y]bhf]bg]WZfYYXcacZh\YUhfY
]``ia]bUhYkU``gUbXg\ckh\YkYU_!gdchgk\YfYUVfYU_cihWci`XcWWif3

Guerrilla theatre intends to bring audiences to liberated territory to create life-actors.


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cZZfYYXVY]b[g"=hk]``VYWcaYUb]ggiY]hgY`Z"

146 Art and Social Change 1968


H\]g]gh\YUhfYcZUbibXYf[fcibXh\UhkUbhgcih"=hgU]a]ghc`]VYfUhY
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=hgd`UmgUfY[`UggWihhYfgZcfYad]fYk]bXckg"

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aUhYf]U`g g\Y`hYfUbXdfcdgUfYg]ad`mh\YfY"GhiZZ"5dYfZYWhX]gdYbgYf
kci`XVYUbcdYb5ihcaUhcbh\YghfYYh"@cW_gUfYh]aY!Wcbgia]b["
7caV]bUh]cbgUfYW`cW_g"

GcUghcfYcZ[ccXgcfW`]b]WcffYghUifUbhh\Uh]gZfYYVYWcaYgUgcW]U`Ufh
Zcfa"H]W_Yh`Yggh\YUhfY"CihcZacbYmUbXWcbhfc`"

First you gotta pin down whats wrong with the West. Distrust of human nature,
which means distrust of Nature. Distrust of wildness in oneself literally means
distrust of Wilderness.
;UfmGbmXYf

8][[YfgUggiaYZfYYghcfYghc`]VYfUhY\iaUbbUhifY":]fghZfYYh\YgdUWY 
[ccXgUbXgYfj]WYg"@Yhh\Ycf]YgcZYWcbca]WgZc``ckgcW]U`ZUWhg"CbWY
UZfYYghcfY]gUggiaYX \iaUbkUbh]b[UbX[]j]b[ bYYX]b[UbXhU_]b[ 
VYWcaYk]XYcdYbhc]adfcj]gUh]cb"

5g][b.If Someone Asks to See the Manager Tell Him Hes the Manager.

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K\ckUbhg+)WYbhg35[]f`k\c\UX^ighkU`_YX]bWUaYcjYfUbXhcc_]h"

5VUg_Yh`UVY``YXFree Money.

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?]XgWUgYh\Y^c]bhkcbXYf]b[\ckhcVccgh"

The San Francisco Diggers Trip Without a Ticket 147


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hcch\YfdYcd`Y"H\YW\c]WY]gUbmcbYg"

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58][[YfYjYbh":`ckYfg a]ffcfg dYbbm!k\]gh`Yg []f`g]bWcghiaYg


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9jYfmVcXmghc[Yh\Yf"

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cZg]`jYfXc``Ufg"5W\cfigg]b[]b[Get Out Of My Life Why Dont You Babehc
7\cd]bgDeath March"AYaVYfgcZh\YdfcWYgg]cb[]jYcihg]`jYfXc``Ufg
UbXWUbX`Yg"

BckacfYfYU`]hm"GcaYcbY^iadgcbUWUfk]h\h\YbYkgh\Uhhkc5b[Y`g
kYfYVighYX"7fckX ZibYfU`WcfhY[YUbXZf]YbXgcZh\Y5b[Y`g``h\YghfYYh

148 Art and Social Change 1968


hcaUfW\cbDUf_Dc`]WYGhUh]cb"7cdgWcbZfcbh($$ZfYYVY]b[g.U[fck`]b[
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cVgc`YhYVm]bWcfdcfUh]b[h\Ya"KYUfYVY]b[ZfYYXZfcaaYW\Ub]gh]W
WcbgW]cigbYgg"KYWci`XYjUWiUhYh\YZUWhcf]Yg hifbh\YacjYfhcUbXfc]Xg 
W`YUbidcifdc``ih]cb"Bcfh\5aYf]WUbgWci`X[]jYidgY`Z!f][\hYcigbYgg
hcYldUbXh\Y]fVY]b["

CifWcb]Wh]gk]h\^cV!kUfXYbgUbXWcbgiaYf!_YYdYfgcZUdYfa]gg]jY
`ccbYm!V]b"DfcdYfhm WfYX]h ]bhYfYgh ]bgifUbWY ]bghU``aYbhg dfchUfY
ghid]XWcbWYdhg"A]``]cbgcZ\UjY!bchgUbXXfcd!cihg]bh\YigUfY`]j]b[
cbUbcjYfckcZhYW\bc`c[]WU``mdfcXiWYXZUh"H\YmUfYbh[\h]b[YWc`c[m 
h\YmfYfYgdcbX]b[hc]h"A]XX`Y!W`Ugg`]j]b[fccagUfYZibYfU`dUf`cifgUbX
cb`mibXYfhU_Yfgk]``ghUm]bh\Ya"Cif[\h]gk]h\h\cgYk\ckci`X_]``
igh\fci[\XiaVkcf_ ]bgUbYkUfg Xi``acbYmacfU`]hm"

Give up jobs, so computers can do them!5bm]adcfhUbh\iaUbcWWidUh]cb


WUbVYXcbYZfYY"7Ub]hVY[]jYbUkUm3

The San Francisco Diggers Trip Without a Ticket 149


FYjc`ih]cbg]b5g]U 5Zf]WU Gcih\5aYf]WUUfYZcf\iaUb]gh]W
]bXighf]U`]gUh]cb"H\YhYW\bc`c[]WU`fYgcifWYgcZBcfh\5aYf]WUWUb
VYigYXh\fci[\cihh\Ykcf`X"Gratis"BchUdUhfcb]g]b[[]Zh g\UfYX"

CifWcb]WhVY[]bgk]h\gU`Uf]YgUbXdf]WYg"H\Yhf]d\UgVYYbdU]XZcf
UhUb]bWfYX]V`Ydf]WY]bXYUh\ g`UjYfm dgmW\cg]g"

5bYjYbhZcfh\YaU]bVig]bYggX]ghf]WhcZUbmIGW]hm"=b`hfUhYh\Y`Uf[Ygh
WcfdcfUh]cbcZWYVi]`X]b[k]h\`]ZY!UWhcfgUgbmad\caUb]UWU`gYWfYhUf]Yg 
W`iagmfYdU]faYb VYfgYf_YlYWih]jYg g`cddmgYWif]hm[iUfXg W`Yf_gk]h\
Ub]aU`g]bh\Y]fW`ch\Yg"@ck_Ymibh]`h\YfghWcZZYY!VfYU_UbXh\Yb
dcif]hcb"

GYWfYhUf]YgibVihhcbh\Y]fV`cigYgUbXdfYggg\mW`Yf_gU[U]bghh\YkU``"
FYdU]faYbXfcdhmdYkf]hYfgUbX_bcW_cjYfkUhYfWcc`Yfg"9lYWih]jYgW\Uf[Y
]bhcdf]jUhYcZWYgW`U]a]b[h\Y]fgYb]cf]hm";iUfXgdfcXiWYVccnYVchh`Yg
UbXd`UmZi``m^UaY`YjUhcfXccfg"7`Yf_gdi``cih[c`Xg\ fUVV]hg d][Ycbg 
WUhgcb`YUg\Yg `ccgYXc[g"

5hbccb% $$$ZfYYXVY]b[gg]b[]b[UbXXUbW]b[UddYUfcihg]XYhcdYfgiUXY
Yad`cmYYghchU_YcZZZcfh\YXUm"6UbbYfgfc``XckbZfcacZWYk]bXckg
UbbcibW]b[`]VYfUh]cb"G\]``g]bVig]bYgggi]hgfibcihcZh\YVi]`X]b[ ghf]d
UbXX]jY]bh\YZcibhU]b"9`YjUhcfgUfY`cUXYXk]h\]bWYbgYUbXUd]Y[\h
VfYU_gcih]bh\YWUZYhYf]U"H\YUhfY]gZUWh#UWh]cb"

;]jYid^cVg"6Yk]h\dYcd`Y"8YZYbXU[U]bghdfcdYfhm"

150 Art and Social Change 1968


The arrest of members of the San Francisco San Francisco Diggers Death of Money parade on
Mime Troupe in Lafeyette Park, Haight Street, San Francisco 17 December, 1966
San Francisco, 7 August 1965 Photograph by Gene Anthony; Bill Graham Archives
Photograph Erik Weber LLC/wolfgangsvault.com

151
THE POST-COMPETITIVE,
COMPAR ATIVE GAME OF A FREE CIT Y
TH E SAN FR ANC I SCO DIGG E R S

The Digger Papers, August 1968.

CifghUhYcZUkUfYbYggXYaUbXgh\UhkYid`]ZhcifYZZcfhgZfcaWcadYh]h]jY
[UaYd`Um]b[]bh\YibXYf[fcibXhch\YWcadUfUh]jYfc`YgcZ free families
]bfree cities.

KYaighdcc`ciffYgcifWYgUbX]bhYfUWhcifYbYf[]Yghcdfcj]XYh\YZfYYXca
Zcfcif]bX]j]XiU`UWh]j]h]Yg"

=bYUW\W]hmcZh\Ykcf`Xh\YfY]gU`ccgYWcadYh]h]jYibXYf[fcibXWcadcgYX
cZ[fcidgk\cgYU]agcjYf`Ud Wcb]Wh UbX[YbYfU``mYbYfjUhYh\YXYg]fYX
[cU`cZUihcbcam"6mbckkYU``\UjY[ibg _bck\ckhcigYh\Ya _bck
cifYbYamUbXUfYfYUXmhcXYZYbX"KY_bckh\UhkYU]bh[cbbUhU_Ybc
acfYg\]h"Gc]hgUVcihh]aYkYWUff]YXcifgY`jYgU`]hh`Y\YUj]YfUbX[ch
Xckbhch\YVig]bYggcZWfYUh]b[ZfYYW]h]Ygk]h\]bh\YifVUbYbj]fcbaYbhg
cZh\YKYghYfbkcf`X"

Free CitiesUfYWcadcgYXcZ:fYY:Ua]`]YgY[" ]bGUb:fUbW]gWc.8][[Yfg 


6`UW_DUbh\Yfg Dfcjcg A]gg]cbFYVY`gUbXjUf]cigfYjc`ih]cb]gh[Ub[g
UbXWcaaibYgk\cYghUV`]g\UbXaU]bhU]bgYfj]WYgh\Uhdfcj]XYUVUgY
cZZfYYXcaZcfUihcbcacig[fcidghcWUffmcihh\Y]fdfc[fUaaYgk]h\cih
\Uj]b[hc\Ugg`YZcfZccX df]bh]b[ZUW]`]h]Yg hfUbgdcfhUh]cb aYW\Ub]Wg 
acbYm \cig]b[ kcf_]b[gdUWY W`ch\Yg aUW\]bYfm hfiW_g YhW"

5hh\]gdc]bh]bciffYjc`ih]cb]h]gXYaUbXYXh\Uhh\YZUa]`]Yg WcaaibYg 
6`UW_cf[Ub]gUh]cbgUbX[Ub[gcZYjYfmW]hm]b5aYf]WUWccfX]bUhYUbX
XYjY`cd:fYY7]h]Ygk\YfYYjYfmh\]b[h\Uh]gbYWYggUfmWUbVYcVhU]bYX
ZcfZfYYVmh\cgY]bjc`jYX]bh\YjUf]cigUWh]j]h]YgcZh\Y]bX]j]XiU`W`Ubg"

Every brother and sister should have what they need to do whatever needs to be done.

:fYY7]hm
Ubcih`]bY"""UVY[]bb]b["9UW\gYfj]WYg\ci`XVYdYfZcfaYXVmUh][\h[Ub[
cZVfch\YfgUbXg]ghYfgk\cgYWcaa]haYbhg\ci`XYbUV`Yh\Yahc\UbX`Y

152 Art and Social Change 1968


UbcjYf`cUXcZkcf_k]h\UV]`]hmUbXYbh\ig]Uga"Hf]dghYfggccb[YhVcfYX 
\cdYZi``mVYZcfYh\YmWUigYUbYWcbca]WghfU]b"

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`YZhidhch\YW\ifW\YgcZh\YWcaaib]hm"

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:fYY:Ua]`]YgUbXh\YdccfdYcd`YgcZh\Y[\Yhhcg"9jYfmXUm"<UfXkcf_"
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UbXh\cgYk\c`]jYcbh\YghfYYhg";]UbhgWcfYgg\ci`XVYghcfYX]bU[UfU[Y!
hmdYkUfY\cigYYei]ddYXk]h\ZfYYnYfgUbX]hgk\YfYUVcihg_bckbcb`m
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Y`gYh\Uh\UghcXck]h\ZccX"

:fYY7]hm;UfU[YUbXAYW\Ub]Wg
hcfYdU]fUbXaU]bhU]bU``jY\]W`YgigYX]bh\YjUf]ciggYfj]WYg"H\Y
fYgdcbg]V]`]hmZcfh\YbYWYggUfmhcc`gUbXdUfhgbYYXYX]bh\Y]fkcf_]g
Ybh]fY`mh\Y]fgUbXigiU``mUjU]`UV`YVmaU]bhU]b]b[Zf]YbX`mfY`Uh]cbgk]h\
^ib_mUfXg []UbhUihcach]jYgW\cc`g UbX[YbYfU``mgWfcib[]b[UfcibXh\cgY
UfYUgk\YfYUihcYei]daYbh]gYUg]`mcVhU]bYX"H\Y[UfU[Yg\ci`XVY`Uf[Y
Ybci[\UbXZfYYcZhf]dghYfgk\ccb`mWfYUhYacfYkcf_Zcfh\YYUfbYgh
aYW\Ub]Wg"

:fYY7]hm6Ub_UbXHfYUgifm
h\]g[fcidg\ci`XVYfYgdcbg]V`YZcffU]g]b[acbYm aU_]b[ZfYYacbYm 
dUm]b[fYbhg Zcf[Ugc`]bY UbXUbmch\YfbYWYggUfmYldYbgYgcZh\Y:fYY7]hm
:Ua]`]Yg"H\Ymg\ci`XU`gccf[Ub]gYUbXWfYUhYgaU``fUW_YhgWcc_]YgU`Yg 
YhW"Zcfh\Ydccf_]XgcZh\Y[\YhhcgUbXU]X]bh\YfYdU]fUbXaU]bhYbUbWY
cZh\YaUW\]bYfmfYei]fYX]bh\YdYfZcfaUbWYcZh\YjUf]ciggYfj]WYg"

The San Francisco Diggers The Post-Competitive, Comparative Game of a Free City 153
:fYY7]hm@Y[U`5gg]ghUbWY
\][\!ghm`Y \UfX!bcgYX hcd!W`Ugg`UkmYfgk\cUfYk]``]b[hcXYZYbX
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dfcdYfhm UbXVYUhXckbh\Ydc`]WY\UfUggaYbhUbXVfihU`]hmcZmcifUfYUg"

:fYY7]hm<cig]b[UbXKcf_GdUWY
fYbhcfkcf_XYU`gk]h\h\YifVUb[cjhhchU_YcjYfgdUWYgh\Uh\UjYVYYb
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\cigYg VihXcbh`Yhh\Yahifb]bhcWfUg\dUXg"GYhid\chY`gZcfbYkUff]jU`g
cfhfUbg]YbhgVmkcf_]b[cihXYU`gk]h\gaU``\chY`ckbYfgZcfZfYYfccag
]bYlW\Ub[YZcf`][\h\cigYkcf_ dcfhYfXih]Yg YhW"6][kUfY\cigYgWUbVY
kcf_YXcbVmYbj]fcbaYbhU`Ufh]ghgUbXhifbYX]bhc[]UbhZfYYXUbWY!YghU!
ZYUghdU`UWYg"
5ghfcb[hf]ccZgYf]cigVig]bYgg!cf]YbhYXWUhgg\ci`XXYjY`cdh\]g
`]VYfUh]cbcZgdUWYk]h\]bh\YW]h]YgUbXVYUV`Yhckcf_k]h\h\Y`UkmYfg
hcaU_YXYU`gUbXcihaUbYijYfifVUbVifYUiWfUW]YgUbXg`ia`UbX`cfXg
cbYcZh\YaU]bhUf[YhgZcfgdUWYUfYh\YW\ifW\Ygk\cUfYh\Y\c`XYfgcZ
acghfYU`YghUhYUbXh\Ymg\ci`XVYUddfcUW\YXk]h\Ubc!Vi``g\]h\UfX`]bY"

:fYY7]hmGhcfYgUbXKcf_g\cdg
bch\]b[]bh\YgYghcfYgg\ci`XVYh\fckUkUm]hYaggdUWYg\ci`XVY
UjU]`UV`YZcfW\]W_ghcgYkXfYggYg aU_YdUbhghccfXYf fYWih[UfaYbhg
hch YhW"H\YaUbU[YaYbhg\ci`XU``VY`]ZY!UWhcfgWUdUV`YcZhifb]b[
Vi``g\]hhYfg]bhcaiX"=adcfhUbhh\Uhh\YgYd`UWYgUfYfghW`Ugg
Ybj]fcbaYbhgk]h\bchfUWYcZgU`jUh]cbUfam#gh"j]bb]YXYdUi`W\Uf]hmfch"
9jYfmh\]b[[fccjm"9jYfmh\]b[k]h\ghm`YaighVYfghW`Ugg"Its all free
because its yours!

:fYYAYX]WU`H\]b[
g\ci`XVYYghUV`]g\YX]bU``dcjYfhmUfYUgUbXfibVmdf]jUhYd\mg]W]UbgUbX
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YhW"=adcfhUbhh\Uhh\YXcWhcfgUfY brothersUbXXcbchUg_hcVYgU`Uf]YXcf
UfYbchcihhcaU_YWUfYYfgZcfh\YagY`jYgk]hbYgg8f"8Uj]XGa]h\cZh\Y
<]dd]Y:fYY7`]b]W]bGUb:fUbW]gWck\c]gZUfZfcaUVfch\YfjYfmZUf"

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g\ci`XVYU\cigYWcbjYfhYX]bhcVYXgdUWYUbXdfYZYfUV`mk]h\U[UfXYb
UbXigYXZcfWcbjU`YgWYbWYUbXdYcd`Yk\cgYa]bXg\UjYVYYbV`ckb
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cZUbifVUb]bgh]hih]cb"

154 Art and Social Change 1968


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The San Francisco Diggers The Post-Competitive, Comparative Game of a Free City 155
cbYdfc^YWhcfUbch\Yf"H\YmUfYhcVYfYgdcbg]V`YZcfh\YhfiW_YYhUbX
YgdYW]U``mUkUfYcZh\YYWcbca]WghfU]b]ZhfiW_gUfYa]gigYXVmhf]dghYfg"

:fYY7]hmH]b_YfgUbX;ibga]h\g 9hW"
k]``fYdU]fUbX_YYdh\]b[g[c]b[]bh\Y\cigYgYldYf]YbWYXfYdU]faYb
cZU``gcfhg Y`YWhf]W]UbgUbXWUfdYbhYfg"H\Ymg\ci`XaU]bhU]bUkUfY\cigY
cfkcf_]b[gdUWYZcfh\Y]fcihh"

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hcgYhidmcifckbghUh]cbg/fYbhWcadihYfghcWU``h\YdibW\YgZcf
h\YfYjc`ih]cbcfigYh\Ya]bUbmWcbghfiWh]jYkUmdcgg]V`Y"

156 Art and Social Change 1968


E XPERIENCE 68
TH E AVANT- GAR DE ARTI ST S G RO U P

Letters and statements from


the participants in Experience 68
www.concentric.net/~lndb/padin/
lcptuc.htm

13 May 1968
Open letter sent by the painter Pablo Suarez to the director, Jorge Romero Brest
on the occasion of the exhibition Experience 68 at the Di Tella Institute

8YUfAf">cf[YFcaYfc6fYgh.

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ZYY`amgY`Z]bWUdUV`YcZXc]b[]hVYWUigYcZUacfU`]adcgg]V]`]hm"=VY`]YjY
h\Uh]hkUgigYZi` W`Uf]Zm]b[ UbXh\Uh=kci`X\UjYVYYbUV`YhcW\U``Yb[Y
gcaYcZh\Y]bj]hYXUfh]ghg cfUh`YUghhcWU``]bhceiYgh]cbh\YWcbWYdhgidcb
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g]hiUhYcifgY`jYg]bh\Y`]a]hdcg]h]cb3>ighmYghYfXUm=WcaaYbhYXhcmci Ug
=fYWU`` h\Uhh\Ykcf_kci`X[ccbaUhYf]U``mX]gUddYUf]b[Zfcah\YgWYbY
UbX]hkci`X[ccbUggia]b[Uhh]hiXYgUbXWcbWYdhgh\Uhkci`XcdYbUbYk
YdcW\UbXh\Uhkci`X\UjYUVfcUXYf `YggWcffidhYXY`XcZUWh]cb"
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g][b]YXUgUaUhYf]U`]hm []jYgcjYfh\YbYWYgg]hmcZWfYUh]b[UigYZi`
`Ub[iU[Y"5`]j]b[`Ub[iU[YUbXbchUWcXYZcfY`]hYg"5kYUdcb\UgVYYb
]bjYbhYX"5fYWYbhkYUdcbfYghcfYgaYUb]b[hcUWh]cb"H\YfY]gbcXUb[Yf
]bUghcfYX]gd`Umk]bXck"
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=bgh]hihY\UgXYjY`cdYX hcUWWYdh]hcf^iX[Y]h"HcXUm=XcbchUWWYdhh\Y
=bgh]hihYh\UhfYdfYgYbhgWi`hifU`WYbhfU`]gUh]cb ]bgh]hih]cbU`]gUh]cb h\Y
]adcgg]V]`]hmcZjU`i]b[h\]b[gUhh\YacaYbh]bk\]W\h\YmWc]bW]XYk]h\
h\YaYX]ia VYWUigYh\Y]bgh]hih]cbcb`m`Yhg]bU`fYUXmdfYgh][]cigdfcXiWhg
Zcfh\cgYh\UhigYh\Ya cfh\Ym\UjY`cghif[YbWmcfUfYbchX]gWigg]V`Y[]jYb
h\YXY[fYYcZdfcZYgg]cbU`]gak\]W\dfcXiWYgh\Ya h\Uh]g igYgh\Ya
k]h\cihfibb]b[Ubmf]g_"H\]gWYbhfU`]gUh]cb]adYXYgh\YaUggX]ZZig]cb
cZYldYf]YbWYgh\UhUfh]ghgWUbVf]b[UVcih"H\]gWYbhfU`]gUh]cbaU_YgU``
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k\]W\k]h\h\]gg`][\hW\Ub[Y^igh]YgUg]hgckbh\YZcfY][b`UVcifUbXU``

157
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aYfY[Yc[fUd\]WZUWhcZhfUbei]``mghcdd]b[]bh\Y`Uf[Y\U``cZh\Y\cigYcZ
Ufh"H\YgYdYcd`YXcbh\UjYh\Y`YUghdfYcWWidUh]cbk]h\h\YgYh\]b[g gc
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VYUVgc`ihY`mh\YgUaY"5``]gUfh"H\YgYZcifkU``gYbW`cgYh\YgYWfYhcZ
hfUbgZcfa]b[U``h\Uh]gk]h\]bh\Ya]bhcUfh UbXUfh]gbchXUb[Yfcig
h\YZUi`h]gcifg"
H\Yb3H\Yb h\cgYk\ckUbhhccfbUaYbhh\Y=bgh]hihYkcf_h\YfY"=Xc
bchdfca]gYh\Yah\Uhh\Ymk]``[cZUf"H\Y]"h"X"h"\UgbcacbYmhcd`UWY
Ubmh\]b[cbUb]bhYfbUh]cbU``YjY`"H\cgYk\ckUbhhcVYibXYfghccX]b
gcaYZcfagdYU_cih]bh\YghfYYhcfk\YfYjYfh\YmkcbhVYa]gibXYfghccX"
=fYa]bXh\cgYk\ckUbhhcVYkY``k]h\;cXUbXk]h\h\YXYj]`.k\cYjYf
kci`XVYgUjYXaighVY`cgh"=UggifYh\YgdYWhUhcfgh\Uhk\Uhh\YmUfY
g\ckb]gU`fYUXmc`X gYWcbX!\UbX[ccXg"BccbYWUb[]jYh\YaZUVf]WUhYX
UbXdUW_U[YXk\Uh]g\UddYb]b[bck h\YmUfYdfYgYbh]b[<iaUb]hm
h\Ykcf_.hcXYg][b`]j]b[Zcfag"

Pablo Suarez

H\]gfYbibW]Uh]cb]gUkcf_Zcfh\Y8]HY``U=bgh]hihY"=VY`]YjYh\Uh]hW`YUf`m
g\ckgamWcb]WhUhh\Y]bj]hUh]cb Zcfk\]W\=VY`]YjY=\UjYZi```YX
h\Ydfca]gY"

23 May 1968, Buenos Aires


Artists withdraw works from Experience 68

K]h\dc`]WYUbX^iX]W]U`]bhYfjYbh]cbcbYcZh\Ykcf_gYl\]V]hYX]bh\]g
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XcYgbchWcffYgdcbXhch\Ya.h\YYlYfW]g]b[cZUYgh\Yh]WWYbgcfg\]d"
CVj]cig`mh\Ymhfmbchcb`mhc]adcgYh\Y]fdc]bhcZj]YkcbZUg\]cbUbX
hUghY k]h\UVgifX\U]fWihgUbXUfV]hfUfmXYhYbh]cbgcZUfh]ghgUbXmcih\]b
[YbYfU` VihU`gccbh\Ykcf_cZh\YgYUfh]ghg"6ihh\YUfh]ghgUbX]bhY``YWhiU`g
\UjYbchVYYbh\cgYdf]bW]dU``mdYfgYWihYX.fYdfYgg]cb]gU`gcX]fYWhYX
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h\Ymk]``hfmhcainn`YU``ZfYYWcbgW]YbWY]bcifWcibhfm"5f[Ybh]bYUfh]ghg
fa`mcddcgYh\YYghUV`]g\aYbhcZUdc`]WYghUhY]bcifWcibhfm"

158 Art and Social Change 1968


h\YdUfh]W]dUbhg]bh\YYldYf]YbWY*,Yl\]V]h]cb
k]h\XfUkcifkcf_gUgUg][bcZdfchYgh"

12 June, 1968
Juan Pablo Renzi addresses the Friends of Art Society, Rosario
(an action interrupting a society meeting with Jorge Romero Brest).

@UX]YgUbX;Ybh`YaYb.
KYUfY\YfYVYWUigYmci\UjYWcaYhc\YUfhU`_cbUjUbh![UfXYUfhUbX
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cZUfhUbXU`gcUgUdc]bhcZXYdUfhifYZcfUbYkUYgh\Yh]WOUhh\]gacaYbh]b
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hfUbgZcfa]h"KYVY`]YjY ]bWcbgYeiYbWY h\UhUfhg\ci`XWcbghUbh`meiYgh]cb
h\YghfiWhifYgcZcZW]U`Wi`hifY"KYXYW`UfYh\Uhh\Y`]ZYcZ7\Y;iYjUfUUbX
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hch\YWcbgW]YbWYcZh\Ykcf`X fYjYU`]b[h\Y]bh]aUhYWcbhfUX]Wh]cbgcZh\]g
W`UgggcW]Yhm"

XYUh\hcU``Vcif[Yc]g]bgh]hih]cbg

`cb[`]jYh\YUfhcZh\YfYjc`ih]cb

Translated by Harry Polkinhorn.

The Avant-Garde Artists Group Experience 68 159


Avant-Garde Artists Group Tucumn Arde (Tucuman
is Burning), publicity campaign, Rosario, 1968
Courtesy Graciela Carnevale

160
TUCUMN ARDE
TH E AVANT- GAR DE ARTI ST S G RO U P

The creation of the work Tucumn


Arde www.concentric.net/~lndb/
padin/lcptuc.htm

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161
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UbXXZcibX]b[cZUbYkUYgh\Yh]WUbXYjU`iUh]cb"

Buenos Aires, November 1968


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WcaVUh]jYUbX\cbcifUV`YUWh]j]ghg dihh]b[cifWfYUh]jYa]`]hUbWYUbX
cifa]`]hUbhWfYUh]j]hmUhh\YgYfj]WYcZh\YdYcd`Y Uhh\YgYfj]WYcZh\Y
cf[Ub]gUh]cbcZh\YdYcd`YZcfh\Yghfi[[`Y"KYUfh]ghgaighWcbhf]VihYhc
h\YWfYUh]cbcZUhfiYbYhkcf_cZ]bZcfaUh]cbUbXWcaaib]WUh]cbZfcah\Y
[fUggfcchgh\UhcddcgYgh\YVfcUXWUghbYhkcf_cZh\YgmghYa"=bh\]gdfcWYgg
kYk]``X]gWcjYfUbXXYW]XYidcbh\YacghYZW]YbhaYUbg.h\YW`UbXYgh]bY
`a V]``VcUfXg mYfg dUad\`Yhg fYWcfXgUbXfYWcfXYXhUdYg gcb[gUbX
WcibhYfg][bg h\Yh\YUhfYcZU[]hUh]cb bYkZcfagcZUWh]cbUbXdfcdU[UbXU"
H\YgYk]``VYh\Ykcf_gh\Uhh\YfY[]aYk]``bchVYUV`YhcfYdfYggVYWUigY
h\Ymk]``ghYaZfcah\YdYcd`Y"H\YgYk]``VYh\YVYUih]Zi`UbXigYZi`kcf_g"

162 Art and Social Change 1968


H\Ymk]``g\ckh\YhfiYYbYam/h\Ymk]``]bgd]fYh\YdYcd`Yk]h\\UhfYX
UbXYbYf[mZcfh\Yghfi[[`Y"KYUfh]ghgk]``bc`cb[Yfd`UWYcifhU`YbhUh
h\YgYfj]WYcZcifYbYa]Yg"=hk]``VYgU]Xh\Uhk\UhkYdfcdcgY]gbchUfh"
6ihk\Uh]gUfh3H\YZcfag]bjYgh][UhYXVmdifYYldYf]aYbhUh]cb3CfVYhhYf
h\YZcfagh\UhUfYWU``YXWcffcg]jYVihh\Uh]bfYU`]hmgUh]gZmh\YVcif[Yc]g]Y
h\UhWcbgiaYgh\Ya3=gUfhdYf\Udgh\YkcfXg]bh\Y]fVcc_g]b`]VfUf]Yg3
8fUaUh]WUWh]cbgUbXgWYbYgcb`a]bh\YW]bYaUgUbXh\YUhfYg3=aU[Yg
]bdU]bh]b[g]bUfh[U``Yf]Yg35``ei]Yh U``]bcfXYf ]bUVcif[Yc]g WcbZcfa]gh
gmghYa"5``igY`Ygg"
KYkUbhhcfYghcfYkcfXg XfUaUh]WUWh]cbg ]aU[Yghch\Yd`UWYgk\YfY
h\YmWUbZi```UfYjc`ih]cbUfmfc`Y k\YfYh\YmUfYigYZi` k\YfYh\YmWUb
VYWcbjYfhYX]bhckYUdcbgZcfh\Yghfi[[`Y"5fh]gU``h\UhacV]`]gYgUbX
U[]hUhYg"5fhfUX]WU``mXYb]Ygh\]gkUmcZ`]ZYUbXgUmg.`YhgXcgcaYh\]b[
hcW\Ub[Y]h"

Translated by Harry Polkinhorn.

The Avant-Garde Artists Group Tucumn Arde 163


POSTERS FROM THE REVOLUTION,
PARIS, MAY 1968
ATE LI E R P O P U L A I R E

Extract from Atelier Populaire,


Posters from the Revolution, Paris, May
1968, London: Dobson Books, 1969.

Hch\YfYUXYf.
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cZh\Yghfi[[`YUbXUfYUb]bgYdUfUV`YdUfhcZ]h"
H\Y]ff][\hZi`d`UWY]g]bh\YWYbhfYgcZWcb]Wh h\Uh]ghcgUm]bh\YghfYYhg
UbXcbh\YkU``gcZh\YZUWhcf]Yg"
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cZWi`hifYcfhcWcbg]XYfh\YaUgcV^YWhgcZUYgh\Yh]W]bhYfYgh]ghc]adU]f
Vch\h\Y]fZibWh]cbUbXh\Y]fYZZYWh"H\]g]gk\mh\Y5hY`]YfDcdi`U]fY\Ug
U`kUmgfYZigYXhcdihh\YacbgU`Y"
9jYbhc_YYdh\YaUg\]ghcf]WU`Yj]XYbWYcZUWYfhU]bghU[Y]bh\Yghfi[[`Y
]gUVYhfUmU` Zcfh\Yghfi[[`Y]hgY`Z]gcZgiW\df]aUfm]adcfhUbWYh\Uhh\Y
dcg]h]cbcZUbcihg]XYcVgYfjYf]gUWh]cbk\]W\]bYj]hUV`md`Umg]bhc
h\Y\UbXgcZh\Yfi`]b[W`Ugg"
H\Uh]gk\mh\]gVcc_g\ci`XbchVYhU_YbUgh\YbU`cihWcaYcZUb
YldYf]YbWY VihUgUb]bXiWYaYbhZcfbX]b[ h\fci[\WcbhUWhk]h\h\Y
aUggYg bYk`YjY`gcZUWh]cbVch\cbh\YWi`hifU`UbXh\Ydc`]h]WU`d`UbY"

164 Art and Social Change 1968


Atelier Populaire The Start of a Long Struggle, 1968
Poster
Courtesy the International Institute of Social History
( IISH ), Amsterdam

165
POSITION PAPER N1
ON REVOLUTIONARY ART
E MORY DO UG L A S

The Black Panther, Berkeley,


24 January 1970.

Revolutionary Art does not demand any more sacrifice from the revolutionary
artist than what is demanded from a traitor (Negro) who draws for the oppressor.
Therefore, the creation of revolutionary art is not a tragedy, but an honour and
duty that will never be refused.

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UbX`]j]b[dUfhcZh\YdYcd`Yg`]jYg h\Y]fXU]`mghfi[[`Yhcgifj]jY"HcXfUk
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aighWUdhifYh\YhfiYfYjc`ih]cb]bUd]Whcf]U`ZUg\]cb"KYaighZYY`k\Uh
h\YdYcd`YZYY`k\ch\fckfcW_gUbXVchh`YgUhh\YcddfYggcfgch\Uhk\Yb
kYXfUkUVcih]hkYWUbfU]gYh\Y]f`YjY`cZWcbgW]cigbYgghc\UbX[fYbUXYg
UbXXmbUa]hYhcVY`UibW\YXUhh\YcddfYggcf"FYjc`ih]cbUfm5fh[]jYg
Ud\mg]WU`WcbZfcbhUh]cbk]h\hmfUbhg UbXU`gcYb`][\hYbgh\YdYcd`Yhc
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UbXcVgYfjUh]cb"
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WcaYcihj]Whcf]cig"
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FYjc`ih]cbUfm5fhWUbh\YfYVmdfc[fYggUgh\YdYcd`Ydfc[fYggVYWUigY
h\YDYcd`YUfYh\YVUW_VcbYhch\Y5fh]ghUbXbchh\Y5fh]ghhch\YDYcd`Y"
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FYjc`ih]cbUfm5fh]ghaighWcbghUbh`mVYU[]hUh]b[h\YdYcd`Y VihVYZcfYcbY
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Uacb[h\YaUggYgcZh\YdYcd`Y"H\YbUbXcb`mh\YbWUbUFYjc`ih]cbUfm
5fh]ghfYbYkh\Yj]giU`]bhYfdfYhUh]cbcZFYjc`ih]cbUfm5fh]bXYb]hY`mibh]`

166 Art and Social Change 1968


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gW\cc`Xfcdcih h\YghfYYhkU`_YfUbXh\YgYWfYhUfm h\Yd]adUbXh\Y
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WUbibXYfghUbXFYjc`ih]cbUfm5fh"
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gWfYUagk\Ybh\YmUfYVY]b[UhhUW_YXVmh\Yd][g"H\Ymg\UfYh\Y]fWifgYg
k\Ybh\YmZYY``]_Y_]``]b[h\Yd][g VihUfYibYei]ddYX"<YkUhW\YgUbX
\YUfgh\YgcibXgcZZcchghYdgcZ6`UW_DYcd`YhfUad`]b[h\Y[\YhhcghfYYhg
UbXhfUbg`UhYgh\Ya]bhcd]WhifYgcZg`ckfYjc`hgU[U]bghh\Yg`UjYaUghYfg 
ghcad]b[h\Ya]bh\Y]fVfU]bgk]h\Vi``Yhg h\UhkYWUb\UjYdckYfUbX
ZfYYXcahcXYhYfa]bYh\YXYgh]bmcZcifWcaaib]hmUbX\Y`dhcVi]`X
cifkcf`X"
FYjc`ih]cbUfm5fh]gUfYhifb]b[Zfcah\YV`]bX k\YfYkYbc
`cb[Yf`Yhh\YcddfYggcf`YUXigUfcibX`]_YkUhW\Xc[g"

Emory Douglas Position Paper no.1: On Revolutionary Art 167


Emory Douglas Warning to America,
The Black Panther, 27 June 1970

168
Emory Douglas By All Means Available,
The Black Panther, 4 July 1970

169
Emory Douglas I Gerald Ford am the 38th Puppet of
the United States, The Black Panther, 21 September 1974

170
ART FOR THE PEOPLES SAKE
E MORY DO UG L A S

From a lecture at Fisk University,


Nashville, Tenessee, 2 October 1972.
Published in The Black Panther,
Berkeley, 23 October 1972.

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171
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cbh\Y]ggiY ]bfY[UfXhck\Uh]gdf]aUfm"=g]hh\Ydc`]h]WU`g]hiUh]cb cf
h\YUfh]gh]Wg]hiUh]cb35fh]ggiVcfX]bUhYhcdc`]h]Wg"H\Ydc`]h]WU`g]hiUh]cb
]g[fYUhYfh\Ubh\YUfh]gh]Wg]hiUh]cb"5d]WhifYWUbYldfYggUh\cigUbXkcfXg
VihUWh]cb]ggidfYaY"Dc`]h]Wg]gVUgYXcbUWh]cb dc`]h]WgghUfhgk]h\
U\ib[fmghcaUW\ k]h\X]`Ud]XUhYX\cig]b["Dc`]h]WgXcYgbchghUfh]b
h\Ydc`]h]WU`UfYbU ]hghUfhgf][\hXckbh\YfY]bh\YWcaaib]hm k\YfYh\Y
giZZYf]b[]g"=ZUfh]ggiVcfX]bUhY h\Yb hch\Ydc`]h]WU`g]hiUh]cb kci`Xbh
]hVYhfiYh\Uhh\YUfh]ghaighVY[]bhc]bhYfdfYhh\Y\ib[fmghcaUW\ VUX
\cig]b[ U``cZh\YgYh\]b[gUbXhfUbgZcfah\YgYh\]b[g]bhcgcaYh\]b[
h\Uhkci`XfU]gYh\YWcbW]cigbYggcZ6`UW_dYcd`Y3=h\]b_h\Uhkci`XVY
h\Yacgh`c[]WU`h\]b[hcXc"

172 Art and Social Change 1968


=bfY[UfXhcWf]h]W]ga]bUfh.KYdfU]gYU``h\Uhk\]W\\Y`dgig]bcif
fYg]ghUbWY ZcfZihifY`]VYfUh]cb"KYWcbXYabU``h\cgYh\]b[g]bUfhh\Uh
UfYcddcgYXhccif`]VYfUh]cb"
=ZkY UgUfh]ghg XcbchibXYfghUbXciffc`YUbXfY`Uh]cbg\]dhch\Y
gcW]Yhm hch\Ydc`]h]WU`g]hiUh]cbUbXh\Ygifj]jU`cZ6`UW_dYcd`Y h\Yb\ck
WUbkYWfYUhYUfhh\Uhk]``dfc^YWhgifj]jU`3<ckWUbkYVY[]bhcWfYUhYUbUfh
h\Uhg\ckgU`cjYUhfiY`cjYZcf6`UW_dYcd`Y3K\Ybh\YUfh]ghVY[]bghc
`cjYh\YdYcd`Y hcUddfYW]UhYh\Ya \Ycfg\Yk]``VY[]bhcXfUkh\YdYcd`Y
X]ZZYfYbh`m/kYWUbVY[]bhc]bhYfdfYhUbXdfc^YWh]bhccifUfhgcaYh\]b[h\Uh
]gaiW\[fYUhYfh\Ub]hkUgVYZcfY.ZfYYXca ^igh]WY `]VYfUh]cb/U``h\cgY
h\]b[gh\UhkYWci`XbchUdd`mhccifUfhVYZcfY"
<ckXckY^iX[YUfh6mh\YgiV^YWh]jY]bhYbh]cbgcZh\YdYfgcbh\Y
ach]jY3CfXckY^iX[YUfhVmh\YYZZYWh]h\Ug3KY\UjYhchU_YVch\cZ
h\YgYh\]b[g]bhcWcbg]XYfUh]cb"H\Yach]jY]gh\Y]XYU/h\Y]XYUh\Uh=VY`]YjY
UXfUk]b[g\ci`XVYXfUkb]bUdUfh]Wi`UfaUbbYf]gcb`mamdYfgcbU`
h\ci[\h"Gc k\Uh=\UjYhcXc]ghU_Y]bhcWcbg]XYfUh]cb ]Zh\YUfh]g[c]b[
hcWcffYgdcbXhck\Uhg\UddYb]b[]bh\YWcaaib]hm"=Z]h]g[c]b[hcY`YjUhY
h\Y`YjY`cZh\YWcbgW]cigbYggcZ6`UW_dYcd`Y]bh\YWcaaib]hm"H\UhaYUbg
h\Uh=\UjYhc[ccih]bhch\YWcaaib]hmUbX]bjYgh][UhY]bcfXYfhcbX
]Zk\Uh=kUbhhcXfUk]g[c]b[hcWcffYgdcbXk]h\h\YfYU`]hmcZh\Y
Wcaaib]hm"H\Yb=k]``VYhU_]b[]bhcWcbg]XYfUh]cb bchcb`mamach]jY 
k\]W\]gamckbdYfgcbU`ZYY`]b[ Vih=kci`XU`gcVYhU_]b[]bhc
Wcbg]XYfUh]cbh\YYZZYWh/h\YUWhiU` dfUWh]WU`YjYfmXUmUWh]j]hmh\Uh[cYg
cb]bh\YWcaaib]hm"KY\UjYhc`]b_idh\Yhkc
McigYY Ubch\Yfh\]b[h\Uhh\YfYUWh]cbUfmgmghYaXcYg ]ghcWUffmcb
UdUW]WUh]cbdfc[fUaaYVmig]b[Ufh"H\YmhY``igh\UhkYg\ci`XbchXfUk
h\]b[gh\UhXYU`k]h\`]VYfUh]cb h\UhkYg\ci`XbchXfUkh\]b[gh\UhXYU`
k]h\j]c`YbWY"6ihUhh\YgUaYh]aYh\YmdYfdYhfUhYh\Ykcfghj]c`YbWYcbh\Y
d`UbYh9Ufh\k\]`Yh\Ym\UjYigXfUk]b[d]WhifYgcZckYfgUbXVihhYf]Yg"
KYaighibXYfghUbX h\Uhk\Ybh\YfYUfYcjYf&$a]``]cbdYcd`Y]bh\]g
Wcibhfm \ib[fm h\YbkY UgUfh]ghg \UjYgcaYh\]b[kYaighXYU`k]h\

Emory Douglas Art for the Peoples Sake 173


LET TER , APRIL 1968
HAN S H AAC K E

Extract from letter to Jack Burnham


in Kaspar Koenig (ed.), Hans Haacke
Framing and Being Framed
7 Works 19701975, The Press of
Nova Scotia College of Art and
Design, Halifax; New York University
Press, New York, 1975.

@UghkYY_gaifXYfcZ8f"?]b[WUaYUgU[fYUhg\cW_"@]bXUUbX=kYfY
[`ccamZcfXUmgUbX\UjYgh]``bchei]hYfYWcjYfYX"H\YYjYbhdfYggYX
gcaYh\]b[]bhcZcWigh\Uh=\UjY_bckbZcf`cb[VihbYjYffYU`]gYXgcV]hhYf`m
UbX\Y`d`Ygg`m bUaY`m h\Uhk\UhkYUfYXc]b[ h\YdfcXiWh]cbUbXh\Y
hU`_UVcihgWi`dhifY \UgbcfY`Uh]cbhch\Yif[YbhdfcV`YagcZcifgcW]Yhm"
K\cYjYfVY`]YjYgh\UhUfhWUbaU_Y`]ZYacfY\iaUbY]gihhYf`mbU]jY"
AcbXf]UbkUgcbYcZh\cgYbU]jYgU]bhgBch\]b[ VihfYU``mUVgc`ihY`m
bch\]b[]gW\Ub[YXVmk\UhYjYfhmdYcZdU]bh]b[cfgWi`dhifYcf\UddYb]b[
mcidfcXiWYcbh\Y`YjY`k\YfY]hWcibhg h\Ydc`]h]WU``YjY`"BchUg]b[`Y
bUdU`aVcaVk]``bchVYXfcddYXVmU``h\Yg\ckgcZ5b[fm5fhg"5fh]g
ihhYf`mibgi]hYXUgUdc`]h]WU`hcc`"BcWcdk]``VY_YdhZfcag\cch]b[UV`UW_
VmU``h\Y`][\h!Ybj]fcbaYbhg]bh\Ykcf`X"5g=jYgU]X =jY_bckbh\UhZcfU
biaVYfcZmYUfgUbX=kUgbYjYffYU``mVch\YfYXVm]h"5``cZUgiXXYb]hVi[g
aY"=UaU`gcUg_]b[amgY`Z k\mh\Y\Y``Ua=kcf_]b[]bh\]gY`XUhU``"
5[U]bUbUbgkYf]gbYjYfUh\UbXh\Uh]gWfYX]V`Y Vih]hX]XbchdUfh]Wi`Uf`m
X]ghifVaY"=gh]``\UjYbcUbgkYf Vih=Uabc`cb[YfWcaZcfhUV`Y"

174 Art and Social Change 1968


MANIFESTO FOR THE GUERRILL A
ART ACTION GROUP
G U E RR I LL A ART AC TION G RO U P

30 October 1969, New York.

%" KYXYaUbXh\Uhh\YAigYiacZAcXYfb5fhgY``h\YYei]jU`Ybh
 cZcbYa]``]cbXc``Ufgkcfh\cZUfhkcf_gZfcah\Y]fWc``YWh]cbUbX
 h\Uhh\YacbYmVY[]jYbhch\YdccfcZU``fUWYgcZh\]gWcibhfm 
 h\YacbYmhcVYigYXVmh\cgYWcaaib]h]YgUbXZcfh\cgY 
 Wcaaib]h]Yg k]h\cihUbm]bhYfZYfYbWYcfYbhfYbW\YXWcbX]h]cbg"
KYUgUfh]ghgZYY`h\UhUhh\]gh]aYcZgcW]U`Wf]g]gh\YfY]gbcVYhhYfigYZcf
Ufhh\Ubhc\UjY]hgYfjYUbif[YbhgcW]U`bYYX"KYfYU`]gYh\UhcbYa]``]cb
Xc``Ufg[]jYbhch\Ydccfhc\Y`dU``Yj]UhYh\Y]fWcbX]h]cbWUbVYbcacfY
h\UbUgmaVc`]W[YghifY VihUhh\]gh]aYcZgcW]U`Wf]g]gYjYbh\YgaU``Ygh
[YghifYcbh\YdUfhcZUbUfh]bgh]hih]cbk]``\UjYUdfcZcibXYZZYWhhckUfX
W\Ub[]b[h\YUhh]hiXYcZh\YYghUV`]g\aYbhhckUfXh\Ydccf"=bUgYbgY h\Y
XcbUh]cb]gUZcfacZfYdUfUh]cbhch\Ydccf ZcfUfh\UgU`kUmggYfjYXUb
Y`]hY UbXh\YfYZcfY\UgVYYbdUfhcZh\YcddfYgg]cbcZh\YdccfVmh\UhY`]hY"

&" KYXYaUbXh\Uhh\YAigYiacZAcXYfb5fhXYWYbhfU`]gY]hg
 dckYfghfiWhifYhcUdc]bhcZWcaaibU`]gUh]cb"
5fh hc\UjYUbmfY`YjUbWYUhU``hcXUm aighVYhU_YbcihcZh\Y\UbXgcZUb
Y`]hYUbXfYhifbYXhch\YdYcd`Y"H\YUfhYghUV`]g\aYbhUg]h]gigYXhcXUm]gU
W`Ugg]WU`ZcfacZfYdfYgg]cb"Bchcb`mXcYg]hfYdfYggh\YUfh]gh Vih]h]gigYX.
%hcaUb]di`UhYh\YUfh]ghgh\YagY`jYg h\Y]fkcf_UbXk\Uh
 h\YmgUmZcfh\YVYbYhcZUbY`]hYkcf_]b[hc[Yh\Yfk]h\
 h\Ya]`]hUfm#Vig]bYggWcad`Yl"
&hcZcfWYdYcd`YhcUWWYdhacfYYUg]`mcfhcX]ghfUWhh\YaZfca
 h\YfYdfYgg]cbVmh\Ya]`]hUfm#Vig]bYggWcad`YlVm[]j]b[
 ]hUVYhhYf]aU[Y"
'UgdfcdU[UbXUZcfWUd]hU`]gaUbX]adYf]U`]gaU``cjYfh\Ykcf`X"

=h]gbc`cb[YfUh]aYZcfUfh]ghghcg]hUgdiddYhgcfW\cgYbfYdfYgYbhUh]jY
cZ Uhh\YZYYhcZUbUfhY`]hY VihfUh\Yf]h]gh\Yh]aYZcfUhfiYWcaaibU`]gU!
h]cbk\YfYUbmcbY fY[UfX`YggcZWcbX]h]cbcffUWY WUbVYWcaY]bjc`jYX]b
h\YUWhiU`dc`]Wm!aU_]b[UbXWcbhfc`cZh\YaigYia"

175
'" KYXYaUbXh\Uhh\YAigYiacZAcXYfb5fhVYW`cgYXibh]`
 h\YYbXcZh\YkUf]bJ]YhbUa"
H\YfY]gbc^igh]WUh]cbZcfh\YYb^cmaYbhcZUfhk\]`YkYUfY]bjc`jYX]b
h\YaUggaifXYfcZdYcd`Y"HcXUmh\YaigYiagYfjYgbchgcaiW\UgUb
Yb`][\hYb]b[YXiWUh]cbU`YldYf]YbWY Ug]hXcYgUX]jYfg]cbZfcah\YfYU`]h]Yg
cZkUfUbXgcW]U`Wf]g]g"=hWUbcb`mVYaYUb]b[Zi`]Zh\Yd`YUgifYgcZUfhUfY
XYb]YX]bghYUXcZfYjY``YX]b"KYVY`]YjYh\UhUfh]hgY`Z]gUacfU`Wcaa]haYbh
hch\YXYjY`cdaYbhcZh\Y\iaUbfUWYUbXUbY[Uh]cbcZh\YfYdfYgg]jYgcW]U`
fYU`]hm"H\]gXcYgbchaYUbh\UhUfhg\ci`XWYUgYhcYl]ghcfhcVYdfcXiWYX
YgdYW]U``m]bgYf]cigh]aYgcZWf]g]gk\YbUfhWUbVYWcaYUghfcb[k]hbYgg
UbXZcfacZdfchYghcb`mh\YgUbWh]WUh]cbcZUfhg\ci`XWYUgYXif]b[
h\YgYh]aYg"

New York, October 30, 1969

Guerrilla Art Action Group:


Jon Hendricks
Jean Toche

176 Art and Social Change 1968


Guerrilla Art Action Group (Jon Hendricks, Jean Toche)
Demonstration in front of Picassos Guernica at the Museum
of Modern Art, New York, with the The Art Workers
Coalition poster bearing the words Q. And babies?
A. And babies., 8 January 1970; Photograph Jan van Raay

177
A CALL FOR THE IMMEDIATE
RESIGNATION OF ALL
THE ROCKEFELLERS FROM
THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF
THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART
G U E RR I LL A ART AC TION G RO U P

10 November 1969, New York.

H\YfY]gU[fcidcZYlhfYaY`mkYU`h\mdYcd`Yk\cUfYig]b[UfhUgUaYUbg
cZgY`Z![`cf]WUh]cbUbXUgUZcfacZgcW]U`UWWYdhUV]`]hm"H\YmigYUfh
UgUX]g[i]gY UWcjYfZcfh\Y]fVfihU`]bjc`jYaYbh]bU``gd\YfYgcZh\Y
kUfaUW\]bY"
H\YgYdYcd`YgYY_hcUddYUgYh\Y]f[i]`hk]h\[]ZhgcZV`ccXacbYmUbX
XcbUh]cbgcZkcf_gcZUfhhch\YAigYiacZAcXYfb5fh"KYUgUfh]ghgZYY`g
h\Uhh\YfY]gbcacfU`^igh]WUh]cbk\UhgcYjYfZcfh\YAigYiacZAcXYfb
5fhhcYl]ghUhU``]Z]haighfY`mgc`Y`mcbh\YWcbh]biYXUWWYdhUbWYcZX]fhm
acbYm"6mUWWYdh]b[gc]`YXXcbUh]cbgZfcah\YgYkYU`h\mdYcd`Y h\Y
aigYia]gXYghfcm]b[h\Y]bhY[f]hmcZUfh"H\YgYdYcd`Y\UjYVYYb]bUWhiU`
Wcbhfc`cZh\YaigYiagdc`]W]Ygg]bWY]hgZcibX]b["K]h\h\]gdckYfh\Ym
\UjYVYYbUV`YhcaUb]di`UhYUfh]ghg]XYUg/ghYf]`]gYUfhcZUbmZcfacZgcW]U`
dfchYghUbX]bX]WhaYbhcZh\YcddfYgg]jYZcfWYg]bgcW]Yhm/UbXh\YfYZcfY
fYbXYfUfhhchU``m]ffY`YjUbhhch\YYl]gh]b[gcW]U`Wf]g]g"

%"5WWcfX]b[hc:YfX]bUbX@ibXVYf[]b\]gVcc_ The Rich and the Super-


Rich h\YFcW_YZY``Yfgckb*)cZh\YGhUbXUfXC]`WcfdcfUh]cbg"=b%-** 
UWWcfX]b[hcGYmacifA"<Yfg\]b\]gVcc_ Chemical and Biological
Warfare h\YGhUbXUfXC]`7cfdcfUh]cbcZ7U`]Zcfb]Uk\]W\]gUgdYW]U`
]bhYfYghcZ8Uj]XFcW_YZY``Yf7\U]faUbcZh\Y6cUfXcZHfighYYgcZh\Y
AigYiacZAcXYfb5fh`YUgYXcbYcZ]hgd`UbhghcIb]hYXHYW\bc`c[m
7YbhYfihWZcfh\YgdYW]WdifdcgYcZaUbiZUWhif]b[bUdU`a"
&"5WWcfX]b[hc@ibXVYf[ h\YFcW_YZY``YfVfch\Yfgckb&$cZh\Y
AW8cbbY``5]fWfUZh7cfdcfUh]cbaUbiZUWhifYfgcZh\YD\UbhcaUbX
6Ubg\YY^Yh[\hYfk\]W\kYfYigYX]bh\Y?cfYUbKUf"5WWcfX]b[hc
<Yfg\ h\YAW8cbbY``7cfdcfUh]cb\UgVYYbXYYd`m]bjc`jYX]bW\Ya]WU`
UbXV]c`c[]WU`kUfZUfYfYgYUfW\"

178 Art and Social Change 1968


'"5WWcfX]b[hc;Ycf[YH\UmYf]b\]gVcc_ The War Business h\Y7\UgY
AUb\UhhUb6Ub_cZk\]W\8Uj]XFcW_YZY``Yf]g7\U]faUbcZh\Y6cUfX
UgkY``Ugh\YAW8cbbY``5]fWfUZh7cfdcfUh]cbUbXBcfh\5aYf]WUb
5]f`]bYgUbch\YfFcW_YZY``Yf]bhYfYghUfYfYdfYgYbhYXcbh\YWcaa]hhYY
cZh\Y8YZYbgY=bXighfm5Xj]gcfm7cibW]`X]UWk\]W\gYfjYgUgU`]U]gcb
[fcidVYhkYYbh\YXcaYgh]WUfagaUbiZUWhifYfgUbXh\Y=bhYfbUh]cbU`
@c[]gh]WgBY[ch]Uh]cbg]`bk\]W\fYdcfhgX]fYWh`mhch\Y=bhYfbUh]cbU`
GYWif]hm5ZZU]fg8]j]g]cb]bh\YDYbhU[cb"

H\YfYZcfYkYXYaUbXh\Y]aaYX]UhYfYg][bUh]cbcZU``h\YFcW_YZY``YfgZfca
h\Y6cUfXcZhfighYYgcZh\YAigYiacZAcXYfb5fh"

New York, November 10, 1969

Guerrilla Art Action Group:


Silvianna
Jon Hendricks
Poppy Johnson
Jean Toche

Supported by The Action Committee for the Art Workers Coalition

GAAG A Call for the Immediate Resignation of All the Rockefellers from the Board of Trustees of the Museum of Modern Art 179
LET TER TO RICHARD M. NIXON
G U E RR I LL A ART AC TION G RO U P

Hc.F]W\UfXA"B]lcb
DfYg]XYbhcZh\YIb]hYXGhUhYgcZ5aYf]WU
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KUg\]b[hcb X"W"

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AUm* %-+%VmF]W\UfXA"B]lcb DfYg]XYbhcZh\YIb]hYXGhUhYgcZ5aYf]WU.

YUhk\Uhmci_]``

Guerrilla Art Action Group


No.1 White Street
New York, N.Y. 10013

Jon Hendricks
Jean Toche

180 Art and Social Change 1968


INSERTIONS INTO IDEOLOGICAL
CIRCUITS, 197075
C I LDO M E I R E LE S

Extracts from artists notes on Insertions into Ideological


Circuits (1970) and an interview with Antnio Manuel (1975)
from Gerardo Mosquera (ed.), Cildo Meireles, London:
Phaidon, 1999.

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]bhYfYgh]b["=kUgbc`cb[Yfkcf_]b[k]h\aYhUd\cf]WU`fYdfYgYbhUh]cbgcZ
g]hiUh]cbg/=kUgkcf_]b[k]h\h\YfYU`g]hiUh]cb]hgY`Z":ifh\YfacfY h\Y_]bX
cZkcf_=kUgaU_]b[\UXk\UhWci`XVYXYgWf]VYXUgUjc`Uh]`]gYXZcfa"
=hbc`cb[YffYZYffYXhch\YWi`hcZh\Y]gc`UhYXcV^YWh/]hYl]ghYX]bhYfagcZ
k\Uh]hWci`XgdUf_cZZ]bh\YVcXmcZgcW]Yhm"H\]gkUgk\UhcbY\UX]bcbYg
\YUXUhh\Uhh]aY.h\YbYWYgg]hmhckcf_k]h\h\Y]XYUcZh\YdiV`]W"AUbm
6fUn]`]UbUfh]ghgkYfY]bW`iX]b[YjYfmXUmaUhYf]U`gUbXUWh]cbg]bh\Y]fkcf_/
X]fYWh]b[h\Ykcf_hckUfXgU`Uf[Y ]bXYb]hYbiaVYfcZdYcd`Y.k\Uh]g
WU``YXh\YdiV`]W"
HcXUmh\YfY]gh\YXUb[YfcZaU_]b[kcf__bck]b[YlUWh`mk\ck]``VY
]bhYfYghYX]b]h"H\Y]XYUcZh\YdiV`]W k\]W\]gUVfcUX [YbYfcigbch]cb 
\UgVYYbfYd`UWYX h\fci[\UdfcWYggcZXYZcfaUh]cb Vmh\Y]XYUcZh\Y
WcbgiaYf h\UhgYWh]cbcZh\YdiV`]Wk\]W\\UgUWei]g]h]jYdckYf"H\Y
Insertions into Ideological CircuitsUfcgYcihcZh\YbYYXhcWfYUhYUgmghYaZcfh\Y
W]fWi`Uh]cbUbXYlW\Ub[YcZ]bZcfaUh]cbh\UhX]XbchXYdYbXcbUbm_]bXcZ
WYbhfU`]gYXWcbhfc`"H\]gkci`XVYUZcfacZ`Ub[iU[Y UgmghYaYggYbh]U``m
cddcgYXhch\YaYX]UcZdfYgg fUX]cUbXhY`Yj]g]cbhmd]WU`YlUad`YgcZ
aYX]Uh\UhUWhiU``mfYUW\UbYbcfacigUiX]YbWY Vih]bh\YW]fWi`Uh]cb
gmghYagcZk\]W\h\YfY]gU`kUmgUXY[fYYcZWcbhfc`UbXW\UbbY``]b[cZ
h\Y]bZcfaUh]cb]bgYfhYX"=bch\YfkcfXg ]bh\cgYaYX]Uh\Y]bgYfh]cb]g
dYfZcfaYXVmUbY`]hYh\Uh\UgUWWYgghch\Y`YjY`gcbk\]W\h\YgmghYa]g
XYjY`cdYX.hYW\bc`c[]WU`gcd\]gh]WUh]cb]bjc`j]b[\i[YUacibhgcZacbYm
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H\YInsertions into Ideological Circuitshcc_g\UdYUghkcdfc^YWhg.h\YCoca-
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182 Art and Social Change 1968


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Cildo Meireles Insertions into Ideological Circuits, 197075 183


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Cildo Meireles Insertions into Ideological Circuits, 197075 185


Cildo Meireles Insertions into Ideological Circuits:
Cdula Project, 1970
Rubber stamp on banknotes

Zero Dollar, 197884


Litho offset on paper
Courtesy the artist and Galleria Luisa Strina

186
Extracts from Radical Software, vol.1 no.13
Courtesy Ira Schneider, Daniel Giglotti, the authors
and the Daniel Langlois Foundation.

187
R ADICAL SOF T WARE, VOL.1 N1,
THE ALTERNATE TELE VISION
MOVEMENT
PHYLLI S G E R S H U N Y AN D B E RY L KOROT

Editorial, Radical Software,


vol.1 no.1, New York, 1970.

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cf[ccXfY`Uh]jYhcch\YffYU`agcZbUhifU`gY`YWh]cb"H\YUihcacV]`YUg
UgdYW]Yg ZcfYlUad`Y kUgcbWYU[ccXh\]b["6ih]h\UgbckcjYffib]hg
YWc`c[]WU`b]W\YUbXidgYhcifVU`UbWYcfcdh]aia`]j]b["Cb`mVmhfYUh]b[
hYW\bc`c[mUgYWc`c[mWUbkYWifYh\Ygd`]hVYhkYYbcifgY`jYgUbXcif
YlhYbg]cbg"KYbYYXhc[Yh[ccXhcc`g]bhc[ccX\UbXgbchfY^YWhU``
hcc`gVYWUigYh\Ym\UjYVYYba]gigYXhcVYbYhcb`mh\YZYk"
9jYb`]ZYghm`YgUgX]jYfgYUgh\YifVUbdc`]h]WU`UbXh\YfifU`WcaaibU`
fYei]fYWcad`YlhYW\bc`c[]WU`giddcfhgmghYagk\]W\WfYUhYh\Y]fckb
fYU`]h]Yg fYU`]h]Ygk\]W\k]``Y]h\Yf\UjYhcVYWcbg]XYfYXUgdUfhcZh\Y
dfcV`Ya cf VYhhYf dUfhcZh\Ygc`ih]cb Vihk\]W\WUbbchVY][bcfYX"

188 Art and Social Change 1968


7ca]b[cZU[Y]b5aYf]WUaYUbgY`YWhfcb]W]adf]bh]b[k\]W\\UgU`fYUXm
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XYg][bYX]bhccifWi`hifYgWiffYbhgmghYag"
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dUhhYfbgUbXVi]`X]b[XYg][bgWcad`YhY`mghfiWhifYcifYldYf]YbWYfUh\Yf
h\Ubj]WY!jYfgU"H\YdYcd`YVY`cb[hch\YghfYYhg"K\Ybmci[Yh]bhc
aUggWcaaib]WUh]cbggmghYagch\Yfh\Ubh\YhY`Yd\cbYbchcb`m]g
Wcbhfc`WYbhfU`]gYX VihXYW]g]cb!aU_]b[]gUb]bgh]hih]cbU`fUh\Yfh\Ub
UdYcd`YdfcWYgg"
:cfhibUhY`m \ckYjYf h\YhfYbXcZU``hYW\bc`c[m]ghckUfXg[fYUhYf
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j]XYchUdYgmghYag aUmgYYa`]_YDc`Ufc]X\caYacj]Yghch\YhYW\b]WU`
dYfZYWh]cb]ghgk\cVfcUXWUghg]hiUh]cbWcaYX]YgUbXhU`_g\ckg Vihhc
h\cgYcZigk]h\UgZYkdfYWcbWYdh]cbgUgdcgg]V`Yh\YmUfYh\YgYYXgcZ
UfYgdcbg]jY igYZi`Wcaaib]WUh]cbggmghYa"
J]XYchUdYWUbVYhchY`Yj]g]cbk\Uhkf]h]b[]ghc`Ub[iU[Y"5bX
hY`Yj]g]cb ]bhifb \UggiVgiaYXkf]hhYb`Ub[iU[YUgh\Y[`cVYgXca]bUbh
Wcaaib]WUh]cbgaYX]ia"GccbUWWYgg]V`YjhfgmghYagUbXj]XYcWUggYhhYg
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ZcWU`dc]bh dc]bhcZj]Yk giV^YWhaUhhYf hcd]W UggYfh]b[h\Y]fckbdUgg]j]hm 
UbXcifg []j]b[igZYYXVUW_cZZYYXVUW_cZ]bZcfaUh]cbfUh\Yfh\Ub
UggYfh]b[h\Y]ad`]W]h]aaYX]UWmcZj]XYc ]aaib]g]b[ighch\Y]adUWh
cZ]bZcfaUh]cbVmUg_]b[ighcUbh]W]dUhYk\UhU`fYUXmWUbVYUbh]W]dUhYX
h\Yb][\h`mX]bbYfh]aYJ]YhbUafYdcfhghcgYf]U`]gYXg]b[`YZcfaUhg\ckg"
=Z]bZcfaUh]cb]gcifYbj]fcbaYbh k\m]gbhcifYbj]fcbaYbhWcbg]XYfYX
]bZcfaUh]cb3


HcYbWcifU[YX]ggYa]bUh]cbcZh\Y]bZcfaUh]cb]bFUX]WU`GcZhkUfY
kY\UjYWfYUhYXcifckbgmaVc`cZUblk]h\]bUW]fW`Y.l"H\]g]g
UlYfclaUf_ h\YUbh]h\Yg]gcZWcdmf][\h k\]W\aYUbgDOWcdm"

Phyllis Gershuny and Beryl Korot Radical Software, vol.1 no.1, The Alternate Television Movement 189
THE VIDEOSPHERE
G E N E YO U NG B LOOD

Extract from Gene Youngblood


The Videosphere, Radical Software,
vol.1 no.1, New York, 1970.

THE MEDIA MUST BE LIBERATED, MUST BE REMOVED FROM PRIVATE


OWNERSHIP AND COMMERCIAL SPONSORSHIP, MUST BE PLACED IN THE
SERVICE OF ALL HUMANITY. WE MUST MAKE THE MEDIA BELIEVABLE. WE MUST
ASSUME CONSCIOUS CONTROL OVER THE VIDEOSPHERE. WE MUST WRENCH
THE INTERMEDIA NETWORK FREE FROM THE ARCHAIC AND CORRUPT
INTELLIGENCE THAT NOW DOMINATES IT.

190 Art and Social Change 1968


CYBERNETIC GUERRILL A WARFARE
PAU L RYAN

Part 1 of Paul Ryan, Cybernetic


Guerrilla Warfare, Radical Software,
vol.1 no.3, New York, 1971.

To fight a hundred times and win a hundred times is not the blessing of blessings.
The blessing of blessings is to beat the other mans army without getting
into the fight yourself.
The Art of War GibHni

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gUhY``]hYg WmVYfbYh]WWfUZh]bXighf]Yg UbXU`hYfbUhY`]ZYghm`Yg"MYhh\Y[iYff]``U
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kUfZUfY]gVmbUhifY]ffY[i`UfUbXbcb!fYdYh]h]jY"@]_Y]bZcfaUh]cbh\Ycfm]h
fYWc[b]gYgh\UhfYXibXUbWmWUbYUg]`mVYWcaYfYUWh]cbUfmUbXfYgi`h]b
YbhfcdmUbXXYZYUh"H\Y^ilhUdcg]h]cbcZWmVYfbYh]WgUbX[iYff]``UghfUhY[m
gi[[YghgUkUmcZacj]b[h\Uh]gU[Ybi]bYU`hYfbUh]jYhch\Y`agWYbUf]ccZ
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kY[YhcihcZh\YkUm3<ckXckYXYjY`cdbYkkUmg3H\]gg\]dcZghUhY
Wcbh]biYghccgW]``UhY]bhcfibUkUmZfca]hgdYcd`YUbX]hgd`UbYhUfm
fYgdcbg]V]`]h]Yg k\]`YYZZcfhgWcbh]biYhcgYXiWYigcbhcVcUfX]b[h\]g
g]b_]b[g\]dYXiWUh]cbU``cUbg ZY``ckg\]dg `ckYf]b[h\Yjch]b[U[Y"
K\YfYX]XB]lcbWcaYZfcaUbmkUm3<ckX]Xh\Uh`YZhcjYfZfcah\YXUmg
cZ9`j]g[YhhcVY7UdhU]bcZcifg\]d AUghYfcZcifZUhY3
<ckaUbm5aYf]WUbgcbWY\cff]YXVmh\YfacbiW`YUfkUfUfYbck
h\]b_]b[h\Yibh\]b_UV`Y]bYWc`c[]WU`hYfagk]h\UWYfhU]bgd]hYZi`[`YY
cZfY`]YZUhh\YdfcgdYWhcZUk\]hY\Y``ZcfU``3

191
Psychedelic my ass: Children of A-Bomb
6cV@Ybcl

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+&k]``VY[fcgg"FY`Uh]jYhch\YYghUV`]g\aYbhUbX]hgWi`hifU`UihcaUhcbg 
kYbYYXhcacjYZfcadifYKY]bYf!k]gY5i[igh]b]Ub7mVYfbYh]Wg]bhch\Y
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]bZcfaUh]cbYbj]fcbaYbhVm]bg]gh]b[cbkUmgcZZYYX]b[VUW_Zcf\iaUb
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cZdckYfh\fci[\WUd]hU` dgYiXc!amh\c`c[]Ygcfk]h\\Y`X]bZcfaUh]cb"H\Y
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kYaUbU[YhfUbgZcfaUh]cbcZX]ZZYfYbWYgk]h\cihYld`c]hUh]cb ^Uacf
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fYgdcbgYg"GcZcc`gUfYWfYUhYX"

192 Art and Social Change 1968


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mci]bX]fYWhWcb]Whk]h\h\UhgmghYacZdYfWYdhiU`]adYf]U`]gaWU``YX
VfcUXWUghhY`Yj]g]cbh\UhdihgUhYfa]bU`]bmcif\caYUbXh\YfYVmWcbhfc`g
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giW\UggW\cc`gh\UhcdYfUhYh\fci[\k]h\\c`X]b[UbXWcbhfc``]b[h\Yck
cZ]bZcfaUh]cb"
Guerrilla warfareVYWUigYh\YdcfhUV`Yj]XYchcc`cb`mYbUV`Ygmci
hc[\hcbUgaU``gWU`Y]bUb]ffY[i`UfkUmUhh\]gh]aY"Fibb]b[hch\Y
bYhkcf_gk]h\dcfhUV`Yj]XYcaUhYf]U`gYYagfYUf!j]Yka]ffcfUhVYgh 
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gYhidUgdUfhcZh\YdfcWYgg"
Cybernetic guerrilla warfareVYWUigYh\Yhcc`cZdcfhUV`Yj]XYc]gU
WmVYfbYh]WYlhYbg]cbcZaUbUbXVYWUigYWmVYfbYh]Wg]gh\Ycb`m`Ub[iU[Y
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XYjY`cdV]c`c[]WU``mj]UV`Y]bZcfaUh]cbghfiWhifYgcbUd`UbYhUfmgWU`Y"
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U\ibXfYXckYfgaighV`ccaZfcah\YVY[]bb]b["=bcfXYfhck]b]b
WmVYfbYh]W[iYff]``UkUfZUfY X]ZZYfYbWYgaighVYW\Yf]g\YX bchhYadcfUf]`m
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gdc]`gcZWcb]Whk]h\h\YYbhfcd]WYghUV`]g\aYbh]Y" ibXYfghUbX]b[
h\Yg][b]WUbhX]ZZYfYbWYgVYhkYYbigUbXh\Ya]bgiW\UkUmUghcUjc]X
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Zfcah\Y9[mdh]Ubg h\YYlcXig]gWmVYfbYh]W"
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h\YWi`hifY"<ckXcYgdckYfZibWh]cb\YfY3<ck]gh\]ggmghYacZ

Paul Ryan Cybernetic Guerrilla Warfare 193


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hU_YWUfYcZh\Yd`UbYh]bhUWh"
H\YhfUX]h]cbU`WcbWYfb]gbX[ccX[YbYfU`g"K\UhgXYg]fUV`YZcfig]g
ad hoc\YhYfUfW\]YgcZdckYfk\]W\\UjYh\Y]f`c[]gh]WgXckb"7mVYfbYh]Wg
ibXYfghUbXgh\UhdckYf]gX]ghf]VihYXh\fci[\cihh\YgmghYa"FY`YjUbh
dUh\kUmgg\]ZhUbXW\Ub[Yk]h\h\YWcbX]h]cbg"H\YbUjm\UgXYjY`cdYX
kUfd`Ubgk\YfYh\YWcaaUbX]bUYYhacjYgZfcag\]dhcg\]dYjYfm
%)a]bihYg"=h]gbYUf]adcgg]V`Yhc_bcW_cihh\YWcaaUbXjYggY`"
H\YhfUX]h]cbU`hf]W_gcZ[iYff]``UkUfZUfYUfYfYaUf_UV`mgi]hYXZcf
WmVYfbYh]WUWh]cb]bUb]bZcfaUh]cbYbj]fcbaYbh"HcgWUbVf]Ym.
A]l]b[ghfU][\hacjYgk]h\ZfYU_acjYg"Ig]b[ghfU][\hacjYg
hcYb[U[Yh\YYbYam ZfYU_acjYghcVYUh\]aUbXbch`Yhh]b[h\YYbYam
_bckk\]W\]gk\]W\"
Fibb]b[UkUmk\Yb]hg^ighhcc\YUjm"@YUjYh\YYbYamgghfcb[
d`UWYgUbXgYY_h\YkYU_";ck\YfYmciWUbaU_YUX]ZZYfYbWY"
G\Ud]b[h\YYbYamgZcfWYgUbX_YYd]b[cifckbibg\UdYX 
h\YfYVmVYUh]b[h\YaUbmk]h\h\YZYk"
:U_]b[h\YYbYamcih"Gifdf]gYUhhUW_g"
H\YVig]bYggcZXYWYdh]cb]b[iYff]``UkUfZUfY]gUhifb!cZZZcfacgh
dYcd`Y]bh\]gfY`Uh]jY`mcdYbWi`hifY"H\]g]gg]ad`mUbUfYUh\UhbYYXVY
VYhhYfibXYfghccX ]ZkYUfYhcVYgiWWYggZi`"DYcd`YZYY`h\UhWcbWYU`]b[
]gibYh\]WU`"MYhcjYfYldcgifYaYUbgibXYfXYjY`cdaYbh"AUbmdfc^YWhgX]Y
cZhccaiW\diV`]W]hm"H\YfY]gUgYbgY]bk\]W\kYUfY]bZcfaUh]cb^ib_]Yg
ZYYX]b[cZZYUW\ch\Yfgib`]jYX\cdYg"H\YaYX]UfYdYUhYX`mghibhgh\Y
[fckh\cZU`hYfbUhYWi`hifY]bh\]gWcibhfmh\fci[\gUhifUh]cbWcjYfU[Y"
=h]g\UfXZcfUb5aYf]WUbhc^igh_YYd\]gacih\g\ihUbX[YhgcaYh\]b[
Wcc_]b["MciUfYk\UhmcifYjYU`"H\YghUfgmghYafYbXYfg]adchYbhVm
cjYfYldcgifYUbX_YYdgch\Yfg]adchYbhh\fci[\bcYldcgifY"GYYa]b[
X]ZZYfYbh]gacfY]adcfhUbhh\UbaU_]b[UX]ZZYfYbWY"8YWYdh]cb]b
[iYff]``UhUWh]Wg]gUbUWh]jYkUmcZUjc]X]b[Wcbhfc`VmUbU`]Yb U`]YbUh]b[
]bhY``][YbWY"K\YbUdc`]WYaUbhU_YgmcifbUaY \YhU_YgcjYf"=_bck
U[imk\c]g]bjYbh]b[Ubch\Yf]XYbh]hmZcfh\YWcadihYf"H\YfY]gUj]fhiY
cZa]ghfighUbXk]gXca]b_bck]b[g][b]WUbh`macfYUVcihmcifgY`Zh\Ub
mcifYjYU`"Love thy label as thyself"

We retreat in space, but we advance in time"


AUc

194 Art and Social Change 1968


7cibhh\YWcgh"KYbYYXhcXYjY`cdUb]bZcfaUh]cbUWWcibh]b[gmghYa 
UWi`hifU`WU`Wi`ig"

IgYh\YYbYamggidd`m"K]h\dcfhUV`Yj]XYccbYWUbhU_Yh\Y5aYf]_Ub
amh\c`c[mf][\hcZZh\YU]fUbXigY]hUgdUfhcZUbYkdYfWYdhiU`Wc``U[Y"

6YYl]V`Y"=bWmVYfbYh]Wg Yl]V]`]hm h\YaU]bhYbUbWYcZU[ccX[iYgg]b[


kUm]gWf]h]WU`"

DUh]YbWY"7mVYfbYh]Wg]g]b\YfYbh`mWcbWYfbYXk]h\h]a]b[UbXh]aYXYg][b"
=h]gUdfchfUWhYXkUf"

Do not repeat a tactic which has gained you victory, but shape your actions in an
infinite variety. Water sets its flow according to the ground below; set your victories
according to the enemy against you. War has no constant aspect as water has no
constant shape.
GibHni

Paul Ryan Cybernetic Guerrilla Warfare 195


PROCL AMATION OF
THE OR ANGE FREE STATE
TH E K A BO UTE R S

5 February 1970, Amsterdam Gnome City.


From Peter Stansill, David Zane Mairowitz
(eds.), BAMN: Outlaw Manifestos and
Ephemera 196570, Penguin, 1971.

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=bh\YbYkgcW]Yhmh\YWi`hifU`[bcaYk]``\UjYhcfYgc`jYh\YWcb]WhgcZ
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hcgifacibhh\YhYbg]cbVYhkYYbkYU`h\UbXdcjYfhmVmh\YWc``YWh]j]gUh]cb

196 Art and Social Change 1968


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cbh\YYWcbcam d`Ubb]b[ XYZYbWY Ybj]fcbaYbhU`\m[]YbYUbXU``ch\Yf
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Wcbhfc`cZjchYfgk\c[]jYh\Yaghf]Wh]bghfiWh]cbg"H\YbYkgcW]Yhm]g

The Kabouters Proclamation of the Orange Free State 197


gcW]U`]gh]WVYWUigY]h\UgUVc`]g\YXdYfgcbU`ckbYfg\]dcZh\YaYUbgcZ
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]bh\Yfgh[bcaYW]hm h\YfghWcaaibYcZh\YCfUb[Y:fYYGhUhY h\Y
dfcjchUf]UhdfcdcgYgh\YZc``ck]b[aYUgifYghcYghUV`]g\UgY`Z![cjYfb]b[
]bXYdYbXYbhgcW]Yhm.

%"H\YZcibX]b[cZdYcd`YgXYdUfhaYbhg jc`ibhUfm ibgU`Uf]YXghYYf]b[


Wcaa]hhYYg"5``h\Y]fXcWiaYbhgUfYdiV`]W"H\YmUfYUWWcibhUV`YhckYY_`m
aYYh]b[gk\YfYYjYfmcbYWUbjc]WYWf]h]W]gag"H\YfYUfY%&dYcd`Yg
XYdUfhaYbhg.

UPeoples Department for Public Works" :cfh\Yh]aYVY]b[]hk]``d`Ubh


 bYk[fYYbYfmUbXVfYU_idachcfkUmg"
VPeoples Department for Social Affairs" :]fghhUg_.YghUV`]g\aYbh
 cZkcf_YfgUbXbY][\Vcif\ccXWcibW]`g"Ghf]j]b[ZcfYeiU`dUm"
WPeoples Department for Environmental Hygiene"
FYghcfUh]cbcZV]c`c[]WU`VU`UbWY"
X6ifcXY?fU_Yf1k]``VYgcW]U`]gYX]bhch\Y
 Peoples Department for Peoples Housing"
YPeoples Department for Traffic and Waterways"
6i]`X]b[cZfUd]XZfYYdiV`]WhfUbgdcfh"
Z Peoples Department for the Satisfaction of Needs" 6i]`X]b[cZUbU`hYfbUh]jY
 YWcbcamk\]W\XcYgbh\UjYdfchUg]hg[cU` Vihh\YgUh]gZUWh]cb
 cZ\iaUbbYYXg"
[Peoples Department for the Spiritual Health of the People"
H\]gfYgYUfW\YgUbXWifYgh\YWUigYgcZWf]a]bU`]hmUbXh\ighU_Yg
 cjYfh\Ykcf_cZh\Yc`XA]b]ghfmcZ>igh]WY"
\Peoples Department for Agriculture" H\YbYkU[f]Wi`hifY]gVUgYXcb 
 V]c`c[]WU``mUWWYdhUV`YaYh\cXg"6fYU_]b[h\fci[\h\Yj]W]cigW]fW`Y
 cZcjYf!dfcXiWh]cbUbXXYghfiWh]cbcZgifd`igYg k\]W\]gWUigYX
 Vmh\YigYcZ]bgYWh]W]XYg"
] Peoples Department for Education" 9ghUV`]g\aYbhcZUbh]!Uih\cf]hUf]Ub
 bifgYf]YgUbXdf]aUfmgW\cc`g"9bWcifU[YaYbhcZdfc^YWhYXiWUh]cb"
 5XjUbWYaYbhcZh\YcbY!aUb!cbY!jchYdf]bW]d`Y]b\][\YfYXiWUh]cb 
 ]Y"gW\cc`UbXib]jYfg]hmWcibW]`g"
1 Amsterdam squatting
organisation.

198 Art and Social Change 1968


^ Peoples Department for Sub-Culture and Creativity" HU_YgcjYfh\Y^cV
 cZh\YA]b]ghfmcZ7i`hifY FYWfYUh]cbUbXGcW]U`Kcf_"
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 ]bhch\YPeoples Department for Sabotage of Power and Force hcfYd`UWY
 h\YA]b]ghfmcZ8YZYbWY"
` Peoples Department for International Coordination" Ghf]jYgZcfYldUbg]cb
 cZh\YbYkgcW]YhmUbXh\YZcibX]b[cZUb]bhYfbUh]cbU`gUVchU[Y 
 Wcaaib]hm"

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cZ<YfYb[fUW\h'), 5aghYfXUa"

'"H\Yhckb\U``cZh\Yc`XWcaaib]hmcbh\YCiXYN]^XgJccfVif[!kU`
k]``UWhUg9aVUggmZcffY`Uh]cbgk]h\h\Yc`XgcW]Yhm"H\YDfcjcWcibW]`
aYaVYf]gUddc]bhYXUaVUggUXcf"

("H\YdiV`]WUh]cbcZUState Journal cZh\YCfUb[Y:fYYGhUhYUbX


UMunicipal Journal cZh\Y;bcaY7]hm 5aghYfXUa"BYkaYUgifYg
k]``VYUbbcibWYX]bh\Ya"

)"D`Ubh]b[cZUbYkNational Monument on the Dam. UbcfUb[YhfYY 


gmaVc`cZh\YbYkgcW]Yhm"8UbW]b[UfcibXh\YcfUb[YhfYYk\]`Yg]b[]b[
h\YbYkDYcd`YgUbh\Ya H\Yck`gUh]bh\YY`ag"

The Kabouters Proclamation of the Orange Free State 199


CALL TO THE ARTISTS
OF L ATIN AMERICA

Casa de las Americas, La Havana, 27 May 1972.


From Henry A. Millon and Linda Nochlin (eds.),
Art and Architecture in the Service of Politics,
Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1979.

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bcacXY` YghUV`]g\YgbcdfYXYhYfa]bYXghm`Y Vih]g]aViYX UgAUflgUmg 
k]h\h\YhYbXYbh]cigbYggcZhfiYWfYUh]j]hm hch\YYlhYbhh\Uh]hUZfagUbX
XYbYgh\YdYfgcbU`]hmcZUdYcd`YUbXUWi`hifY"
H\Y@Uh]b5aYf]WUbUfh]ghWUbbchXYW`UfY\]agY`ZbYihfU` bcfWUb
\YUVghfUWh\]gfc`YUgUbUfh]ghZfca\]gXih]YgUgUaUb"FYjc`ih]cbUfm
WcbgW]cigbYgggdf]b[g ]bUbUfh]gh Zfcah\YfYWc[b]h]cbcZh\YU`]YbUh]cb
UbXaih]`Uh]cb\YgiZZYfg]bh\YYlYfW]gYcZ\]gWfYUh]jY[]Zhg k\]W\\Y
cjYfWcaYgk\Yb\YWcaa]hg\]agY`ZUWh]jY`mhch\YfYjc`ih]cbUfmghfi[[`Y 
kU[]b[]hZfcak]h\]bUbXk]h\h\YUfagcZ\]gWfYUh]j]hm":cfh\]gfYUgcb
h\Ya]`]hUbhUhh]hiXYcZh\Y@Uh]b5aYf]WUbUfh]gh]gUg]adcfhUbhUg\]gkcf_"
H\YcbY]g]XYbh]YXk]h\h\Ych\Yf"H\]gUhh]hiXY]gaYUgifYXVm\]gUV]`]hm
hc]bjYbhh\YbYWYggUfm]bghfiaYbhgZcfWcaaib]WUh]b[k]h\h\YdYcd`YUbX
hcfYg]ghU``ZcfagcZ]adYf]U`]ghdYbYhfUh]cb"<YaighXYbcibWY fY^YWh 
UbXXYghfcmU`kUmgUWWcfX]b[hch\YgdYW]WdYWi`]Uf]h]YgcZh\Yghfi[[`Y
]bYUW\WcibhfmU``h\YaUb]ZYghUh]cbgcZWi`hifU`cddfYgg]cbcbh\YdUfh
cZ]adYf]U`]ga VY]hj]UdfchYghg UVghYbh]cbg VcmWchhg cfk\UhYjYfhUWh]W
aUmVYUddfcdf]UhY ]bW`iX]b[k\YfYbYWYggUfmh\Yj]c`YbhfYgdcbgYhch\Y
Wc`cb]U`]ghj]c`YbWYcZh\YgmghYa"H\YFYjc`ih]cb]gUdfcWYggh\UhVY[]bg
`cb[VYZcfYh\YgY]nifYcZdckYfUbXWcbh]biYgZUfVYmcbX]h"6mYb[U[]b[
\]agY`Z]bh\Yghfi[[`Y h\YUfh]ghbchcb`mWcbhf]VihYghch\YfYU`]gUh]cbcZ
h\UhgY]nifYcZdckYfVihU`gc\Y`dgUZhYfkUfXghcUWh]jUhYUbUih\Ybh]WU``m
fYjc`ih]cbUfmWi`hifU`dfc[fUaaY`YUX]b[hch\YZcfaUh]cbcZh\YbYkaUb"

200 Art and Social Change 1968


KYh\igXYbcibWYh\YYl]ghYbWYcZ.
]adYf]U`]gh]XYc`c[]WU`dYbYhfUh]cb]b@Uh]b5aYf]WU 
k\YfYVmWi`hifY]gigYXUgUbU`]YbUh]b[kYUdcb/

Ufh]gh]WXYdYbXYbWYcbh\Y]bhYfbUh]cbU`WYbhfYg
h\UhdfcdU[UhYVcif[Yc]g]XYc`c[m/

Yld`c]hUh]cbcZUfhVm`cWU`Vcif[Yc]g]Yg hfUbgZcfa]b[
]h]bhccbYcfacfYaYUbgcZcddfYgg]cbcZh\YdYcd`Y/

h\Ygc!WU``YXbYihfU`]hmcZUfh/

h\YXYdYbXYbWYcZh\YUfh]ghgcbh\Yf][]XaYW\Ub]ga
cZh\YWcaaYfW]U`aUf_Yh cbh\Y]adcg]h]cbcZ
ZUg\]cbgUbXh\YUYgh\Yh]W]gaYaUbUh]b[Zfcah\Ya/

h\Ygc!WU``YXUYgh\Yh]WfYjc`ih]cbgdfYgYbhYXUggiVgh]hihYg
ZcfgcW]U`fYjc`ih]cb/

h\YaUb]di`Uh]cbcZgc!WU``YXWi`hifU`cf[Ub]gUh]cbg
hch\YdfchcZVcif[Yc]g]XYc`c[m/

h\YWi`hifU`giddcfhWYfhU]bUfh]ghgcZZYfhc[cjYfbaYbhg
aU]bhU]b]b[h\YWUd]hU`]ghgmghYa/

h\Y]bX]j]XiU`WcadYh]h]cbhck\]W\h\YUfh]gh
]ggiV^YWhYXUg\YgYUfW\YgZcfdYfgcbU`hf]iad\g/

h\YigYcZUfhUgU`]VYfU`gWfYYbhcWcbWYU`h\YYld`c]hUh]cb
UbXfYdfYgg]cbcZh\YdYcd`Y"

Call to the Artists of Latin America 201


WOMENS ART: A MANIFESTO
VA LI E E X P ORT

Written on the occasion of the exhibition MAGNA .


Feminism: Art and Creativity, Vienna, 1972. From Peter
Selz, Kristine Stiles (eds.), Theories and Documents of
Contemporary Art. A Sourcebook of Artists Writings, Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1996.

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UWWYgghch\YaYX]U"

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VihZcfaYb W\]`XfYb ZUa]`m W\ifW\]bg\cfhZcfh\YghUhY"

kcaYbaighaU_YigYcZU``aYX]UUgUaYUbgcZgcW]U`ghfi[[`YUbXgcW]U`
dfc[fYgg]bcfXYfhcZfYYWi`hifYcZaU`YjU`iYg"]bh\YgUaYZUg\]cbg\Yk]``
Xch\]g]bh\YUfhg_bck]b[h\UhaYbZcfh\cigUbXgcZmYUfgkYfYUV`Yhc
YldfYgg\YfY]bh\Y]f]XYUgcZYfch]W]ga gYl VYUihm]bW`iX]b[h\Y]famh\c`c[m
cZj][cif YbYf[mUbXUighYf]hm]bgWi`dhifY dU]bh]b[g bcjY`g `ag XfUaU 
XfUk]b[gYhW" UbXh\YfYVm]biYbW]b[cifWcbgW]cigbYgg"]hk]``VYh]aY"

202 Art and Social Change 1968


UbX]h]gh\Yf][\hh]aY

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WcbgW]cigbYggcZU``cZig `Yhcif]XYUgck]bh\YgcW]U`WcbghfiWh]cbcZ
fYU`]hmhcWfYUhYU\iaUbfYU`]hm"gcZUfh\YUfhg\UjYVYYbWfYUhYXhcU`Uf[Y
YlhYbhgc`Y`mVmaYb"h\YmXYU`hk]h\h\YgiV^YWhgcZ`]ZY k]h\h\YdfcV`Yag
cZYach]cbU``]ZYUXX]b[cb`mh\Y]fUWWcibhg UbgkYfgUbXgc`ih]cbg"bck
kYaighaU_YcifckbUggYfh]cbg"kYaighXYghfcmU``h\YgYbch]cbgcZ`cjY 
ZU]h\ ZUa]`m ach\Yf\ccX WcadUb]cbg\]d k\]W\kYfYbchWfYUhYXVmig
UbXh\igfYd`UWYh\Yak]h\bYkcbYg]bUWWcfXUbWYk]h\cifgYbg]V]`]hm 
k]h\cifk]g\Yg"

hcW\Ub[Yh\YUfhgh\UhaUbZcfWYXidcbigaYUbghcXYghfcmh\YZYUhifYg
cZkcaUbWfYUhYXVmaUb"h\YbYkjU`iYgh\UhkYUXXhch\YUfhgk]``Vf]b[
UVcihbYkjU`iYgZcfkcaYb]bh\YWcifgYcZh\YW]j]`]g]b[dfcWYgg"UfhWUb
VYcZ]adcfhUbWYhckcaYbg`]VYfUh]cb]bgcZUfUgkYXYf]jYg][b]WUbWY
cifg][b]WUbWYZfca]h.h\]ggdUf_WUb][b]hYh\YdfcWYggcZcifgY`Z!
XYhYfa]bUh]cb"h\YeiYgh]cb k\UhkcaYbWUb[]jYhch\YUfhgUbXk\Uhh\Y
UfhgWUb[]jYhckcaYb WUbVYUbgkYfYXUgZc``ckg.h\YhfUbgZYfYbWYcZh\Y
gdYW]Wg]hiUh]cbcZkcaUbhch\YUfh]gh]WWcbhYlhgYhgidg][bgUbXg][bU`g
k\]W\dfcj]XYbYkUfh]gh]WYldfYgg]cbgUbXaYggU[YgcbcbY\UbX UbX
W\Ub[YfYhfcgdYWh]jY`mh\Yg]hiUh]cbcZkcaYbcbh\Ych\Yf"

h\YUfhgWUbVYibXYfghccXUgUaYX]iacZcifgY`Z!XYb]h]cbUXX]b[bYk
jU`iYghch\YUfhg"h\YgYjU`iYg hfUbga]hhYXj]Uh\YWi`hifU`g][b!dfcWYgg 
k]``U`hYffYU`]hmhckUfXgUbUWWcaacXUh]cbcZZYaU`YbYYXg"

h\YZihifYcZkcaYbk]``VYh\Y\]ghcfmcZkcaUb"

Translated by Regina Haslinger.

VALIE EXPORT Womens Art: A Manifesto 203


NOTES ON STREET ART
BY THE BRIGADAS R AMONA PARR A
MON E GONZ LE Z

Brigadas Ramona Parra Review, Santiago, ca.1973.

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YeiU``mc`XkU``g ciffYgcifWYgUfYh\Yh]aYkY\UjY h\YdUfh]W]dUh]cbcZh\Y
brigadistasUbXh\YVfig\YgZcfdU]bh]b[h\YUhWc`cifgUbXV`UW_WcbhcifgcZ
`Uf[YaifU`g YUW\Vf][UXY\Uj]b[gcaYfYgdcbg]V]`]hmZcfhfUW]b[cih`]bYgUbX
ch\Yfghc``h\Ya"6f][\hUbXdifYWc`cif g]ad`YUbXX]fYWh]aU[Yg]bgd]fYX
Vmg`c[Ubg"5``h\YgYW\UfUWhYf]gh]WgXYhYfa]bYUVfdghm`Yh\Uh]gfYWc[b]gUV`Y
YjYfmk\YfY"H\YfY]gU`chhcgUmUVcihh\YVf][UX]ghaifU`"GiV^YWhgZcf
X]gWigg]cb]bW`iXYWc`cif Zcfa hYW\b]eiY h\YacjYaYbhcZh\YUiX]YbWY 
h\YigYcZgdUWY k\]W\`cWUh]cbgUfYWcbjYb]YbhZcfdU]bh]b[UbXk\m
H\YaifU`gcZh\Y6f][UXUgFUacbUDUffU\UjYU[Ybi]bY`mdcdi`Ufghm`Y.
h\YdYcd`YaUb]ZYghh\YagY`jYgcbh\YkU``gcZh\YghfYYhg ]``ia]bUh]b[
g`c[Ubgk]h\]aU[Yg"H\]g]gh\Ycb`mWcibhfm]bh\Ykcf`Xk\YfYUfhYb^cmg
h\Y_]bXcZaUgg]jYUbXg\UfYXYldfYgg]cbkYUfYdihh]b[]bhcdfUWh]WY"
FYWYbh`m U^cifbU`]ghZfcaU`YZh]ghIfi[iUmUb^cifbU`WUaYhc]bhYfj]Yk
h\YVf][UXYg hchU`_UVcihdU]bh]b[UbXh\YaifU`]ghacjYaYbh.\YUg_YX
UVcih\UfacbmUbXch\Yf]ggiYgh\Uhh\YaU^cf]hmcZVf][UX]ghg\UjYbh
ghcddYXhch\]b_UVcih UgcifaU]bWcbWYfb]ghcdU]bh"H\YUbgkYfhch\]g
eiYgh]cbUVcihh\Y\UfacbmcZWc`cifgkUgh\UhYUW\Vf][UX]ghhcc_WUfYcZ
cbYWc`cif UbXh\Y]ffYgdcbg]V]`]hmkUgh\Uhh\YfYVYX]jYfg]hm h\Uhh\YfYbch
VYacbchcbm VYWUigYWc`cifgfYdYUhYXhk]WYcfacfYk]h\]bh\YgUaYkU``
`cc_VUX YhW"H\YIfi[iUmUb^cifbU`]ghWcafUXYWci`XbhibXYfghUbX\ck
kYWci`XVYfYgdcbg]V`YZcfgiW\Ub]adcfhUbhUfh]gh]WacjYaYbhUbXUhh\Y
gUaYh]aY\UjYgiW\g]ad`Yh\Ycf]Yg"=bZUWh h\]g]gbchXiYhc][bcfUbWY 
VihVYWUigYh\YfYUfYch\YfZUWhcfgkYUfYdfciXcZk\YbkYUfYdU]bh]b[.
kYh\YdU]bhYfgUfYmcib[dYcd`Yk\c\UjYVYYbVfci[\hid]bh\Yghfi[[`Y 
kY\UjY`YUfbhhcfYgc`jYh\YgYdfcV`YagX]fYWh`mcbhcYjYfmkU``"KY_bck 
UbXh\]g]gjYfmW`YUf h\UhkYbYYXhcdfYdUfYcifgY`jYg hcghiXm\ckkYWUb
aU_YcifaifU`gVYhhYf \ckhchU_YacfYUXjUbhU[YcZWc`cif \ckhcaU_Y
cifXfUk]b[gacfYVYUih]Zi` UbXkYk]``hU`_UVcihh\]g]bZihifYVi``Yh]bg"

Translated by Pablo Lafuente.

204 Art and Social Change 1968


New York artists re-create a Chilean mural in SoHo,
20 October 1973, to protest against the overthrow of
Allendes Popular Unity Government by the military junta
Photograph Eva Cockroft

205
RESOLUTIONS OF THE THIRD WORLD
FILMMAKERS MEETING IN ALGIERS

Algiers, December 1973. From Gabriel Teshome (ed.),


Third Cinema in the Third World, Ann Arbor: UMI Research
Press, 1982.

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UdfYhYbWYcZUihcbcam/

206 Art and Social Change 1968


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Resolutions of the Third World Filmmakers Meeting in Algiers 207


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H\]g]g\ckgcW]c`c[]WU`ghiX]Yg\UjYUhhYadhYXhcYld`U]bgcW]U`
d\YbcaYbUVmZUhU`]gh]WXYhYfa]b]ga ZcfY][bhch\YWcbgW]YbWYUbXh\Y
k]``cZaUb"=bh\YYh\bc`c[]WU`Y`X h\YYbhYfdf]gY\UgWcbg]ghYXcZfcch]b[
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5gZcfUfW\Yc`c[m ]hgfc`Y]bWi`hifU`U`]YbUh]cb\UgWcbhf]VihYXhc
X]ghcfh]b[\]ghcfmVmdihh]b[Yad\Ug]gcbh\Y]bhYfYghgUbXYZZcfhgcZ
fYgYUfW\UbXh\YYlWUjUh]cbgcZ\]ghcf]WU`jYgh][Ygk\]W\^igh]Zmh\YXYb]hY
dUhYfb]hmcZ9ifcdYUbW]j]`]gUh]cbgiV`]aUhYXUbXdfYgYbhYXUgVY]b[
YhYfbU``mgidYf]cfhcch\YfW]j]`]gUh]cbgk\cgYg`][\hYghhfUWYg\UjY
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K\YfYUg ]bWYfhU]bWcibhf]Yg h\YbUh]cbU`Wi`hifY\UgWcbh]biYX
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]bch\YfWcibhf]Yg []jYbh\Y`cb[dYf]cXcZX]fYWhXca]bUh]cb ]h\UgVYYb

208 Art and Social Change 1968


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`YjY`cZbUh]cbU`UbX]bhYfbUh]cbU`dfcXiWh]jYZcfWYg"
=hg\ci`XVYghUhYX \ckYjYf h\Uhh\YWi`hifYcZh\YWc`cb]gYf k\]W\
U`]YbUhYgh\YWc`cb]gYXdYcd`Yg XcYgh\YgUaYhch\YdYcd`YgcZh\Y
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]bh\YWc`cb]g]b[Wcibhf]YgUgkY``Ug]bh\YWc`cb]gYXWcibhf]Yg"
=adYf]U`]ghYWcbca]W dc`]h]WU` UbXgcW]U`Xca]bUh]cb ]bcfXYfhc
giVg]ghUbXhcfY]bZcfWY]hgY`Z hU_Ygfcch]bUb]XYc`c[]WU`gmghYaUfh]Wi`UhYX
h\fci[\jUf]cigW\UbbY`gUbXaU]b`mh\fci[\W]bYaU k\]W\]g]bUdcg]h]cb
hc]biYbWYh\YaU^cf]hmcZh\Ydcdi`UfaUggYgVYWUigY]hgYggYbh]U`
]adcfhUbWY]gUhcbYUbXh\YgUaYh]aYUfh]gh]W UYgh\Yh]W YWcbca]WUbX
gcW]c`c[]WU` UZZYWh]b[hcUaU^cfXY[fYYh\YhfU]b]b[cZh\Ya]bX"7]bYaU 
U`gcVY]b[Ub]bXighfm ]ggiV^YWhYXhch\YgUaYXYjY`cdaYbhUgaUhYf]U`
dfcXiWh]cbk]h\]bh\YWUd]hU`]ghgmghYaUbXh\fci[\h\YjYfmZUWhh\Uhh\Y
Bcfh\5aYf]WUbYWcbcam]gdfYdcbXYfUbhk]h\fYgdYWhhckcf`XWUd]hU`]gh
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]bjUX]b[h\YgWfYYbgcZh\YWUd]hU`]ghkcf`XUbXWcbgYeiYbh`mh\cgYcZ
h\YH\]fXKcf`X k\YfY]hWcbhf]VihYghc\]X]b[]bYeiU`]h]Yg fYZYff]b[
h\Yahch\Y]XYc`c[mk\]W\[cjYfbgh\Ykcf`X]adYf]U`]ghgmghYa
Xca]bUhYXVmh\YIb]hYXGhUhYgcZ5aYf]WU"
K]h\h\YV]fh\cZh\YbUh]cbU``]VYfUh]cbacjYaYbh h\Yghfi[[`YZcf
]bXYdYbXYbWYhU_YgcbUWYfhU]bXYdh\ ]ad`m]b[ cbh\YcbY\UbX h\Y
fYjU`cf]gUh]cbcZbUh]cbU`Wi`hifU`\Yf]hU[Y]baUf_]b[]hk]h\UXmbUa]ga
aUXYbYWYggUfmVmh\YXYjY`cdaYbhcZWcbhfUX]Wh]cbgUbX cbh\Ych\Yf
\UbX h\YWcbhf]Vih]cbcZdfc[fYgg]jYWi`hifU`ZUWhcfgVcffckYXZfca
h\YY`XcZib]jYfgU`Wi`hifY"

Resolutions of the Third World Filmmakers Meeting in Algiers 209


Solvognen US Independence Day demonstration,
Rebild, Denmark, 1976
Courtesy Scanpix, Copenhagen

210
PRESS RELE ASE, SEPTEMBER 1976
SO LVOG N E N

Extract translated from a press release dated 22 September


1976 (also reproduced in Danish in Solvognen, Rebild Bogen,
Copenhagen: Demos, 1976).

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=h]gU`gccifcd]b]cbh\Uh]h]gdcgg]V`YhcU]Xh\Yghfi[[`YU[U]bgh
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=hkUgh\igbchcifU]ahcidgYhh\YdiV`]WcfXYf"H\YU`UfafU]gYX ]b
cifcd]b]cb kUgck]b[hch\YXfUgh]Wdc`]WYfYUWh]cbhccifdYUWYZi`YjYbh"
HcghUfhcifYjYbh =bX]UbgcZVch\gYlYgg`ck`mUbXWUfYZi``mkYbhXckb
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k]h\VUhcbg""""
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k\YfYh\Y[fcid[UjYUb=bX]UbdYUWYgU`ihY""""

211
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5hU`acghh\YgUaYh]aYh\Y;fYYb`UbXYfgWUaYXckbh\Y\]`` Vihh\Ym
kYfYei]W_`m_bcW_YXXckb UffYghYXUbX\UbXWiZZYX"
8ckbh\Y\]``WUaYUbUWhcfXfYggYXUgIbW`YGUakYUf]b[UXYUh\aUg_"
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VUbbYffYUX]b[AUggYgib]hY h\YZihifY]gfYXUbXVf][\hUbX^c]bYXIbW`Y
GUa""""
H\Ybh\Y\cfgYgkYfYWUi[\hVmh\Ydc`]WYUbXWcbgWUhYX"""UbX
h\YVU``ccbg k\]W\kYfY]b5aYf]WUbWc`cifg kYfYWcbgWUhYXVYWUigY
h\Ydc`]WYXYW]XYXh\Uhh\YmkYfYhccV][""""
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UbXhfih\aUmmYhZcfcbWYcjYfWcaYWh]cb"

Translated by the editors.

212 Art and Social Change 1968


INVISIBLE THE ATRE
AUG U STO BOA L

Boal founded the Theatre of the Oppressed in


the mid-1970s. Extract from Jan Cohen Cruz,
Radical Street Performance, London: Routledge,
1998. Courtesy Taylor & Francis Books UK .

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ghUm]b[hc[Yh\Yfk]h\($$ch\YfdYcd`Yh\YUWhcfgg]hUhgYdUfUhYhUV`Yg"
H\YkU]hYfgghUfhhcgYfjY"H\YdfchU[cb]gh]bUacfYcf`Ygg`ciXjc]WYhc
UhhfUWhh\YUhhYbh]cbcZch\YfX]bYfg Vihbch]bUhcccVj]cigkUm]bZcfag
h\YkU]hYfh\Uh\YWUbbch[ccbYUh]b[h\YZccXgYfjYX]bh\Uh\chY` VYWUigY
]b\]gcd]b]cb]h]ghccVUX"H\YkU]hYfXcYgbch`]_Yh\YfYaUf_VihhY``gh\Y
WighcaYfh\Uh\YWUbW\ccgYgcaYh\]b[ la carte k\]W\\YaUm`]_YVYhhYf"
H\YUWhcfW\ccgYgUX]g\WU``YXbarbecue la pauper"H\YkU]hYfdc]bhgcihh\Uh
]hk]``Wcgh\]a+$gc`Yg hck\]W\h\YUWhcfUbgkYfg U`kUmg]bUfYUgcbUV`m
`ciXjc]WY h\Uhh\Uh]gbcdfcV`Ya"A]bihYg`UhYfh\YkU]hYfVf]b[g\]ah\Y
VUfVYWiY h\YdfchU[cb]ghYUhg]hfUd]X`mUbX[YhgfYUXmhc[YhidUbX`YUjY
h\YfYghUifUbh k\Ybh\YkU]hYfVf]b[gh\YV]``"H\YUWhcfg\ckgUkcff]YX
YldfYgg]cbUbXhY``gh\YdYcd`YUhh\YbYlhhUV`Yh\Uh\]gVUfVYWiYkUgaiW\
VYhhYfh\Ubh\YZccXh\YmUfYYUh]b[ Vihh\Yd]hm]gh\UhcbY\UghcdUmZcf]h"
1 ALFIN stands for Operacion
Alfabetizacion Integral, or Integral
Literacy Operation.

213
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UbX=a[c]b[hcdUmZcf]h"6ihh\YfY]gUdfcV`Ya.=aVfc_Y"
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hcdUmZcfambarbecue la pauper k\]W\hchY``h\Yhfih\ kUgfYU``mXY`]W]cig
aiW\VYhhYfh\Ubh\YZccXmcigYfjYhch\cgYdccfgci`g"
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\YUbXh\Y[UfVU[YaUb\UjY[chhYbhcVYZf]YbXgUbXh\Uhh\Y`UhhYf\Ughc`X
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5h\]fXUWhcf UhUbch\YfhUV`Y Yld`U]bg\]gZf]YbXg\]dk]h\h\Y[UfXYbYf 
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h\Ygib \Ughckcf_gYjYb`cb[\cifghcVYUV`YhcYUhh\YVUfVYWiY]bhYb

214 Art and Social Change 1968


a]bihYg3<ckWUbh\]gVY Af"<YUXkU]hYf39ld`U]b]hhcaY
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]ghfUbgZcfaYX]bhcUdiV`]WZcfia"H\YdfchU[cb]ghUg_gh\YkU]hYf\ck
aiW\\Y]gdU]XhcgYfjYh\YVUfVYWiYUbXcZZYfghcfYd`UWY\]aZcfh\Y
bYWYggUfmbiaVYfcZ\cifg"5bch\YfUWhcf cf][]bU``mZfcaUgaU``j]``U[Y]b
h\Y]bhYf]cf [YhgidUbXXYW`UfYgh\UhbcVcXm]b\]gj]``U[YaU_Yg+$gc`Yg
dYfXUm/h\YfYZcfYbcVcXm]b\]gj]``U[YWUbYUhh\Ybarbecue a la pauper"H\Y
g]bWYf]hmcZh\]gUWhcf k\ckUg VYg]XYg hY``]b[h\Yhfih\ acjYXh\cgYk\c
kYfYbYUf\]ghUV`Y"
:]bU``m hcWcbW`iXYh\YgWYbY Ubch\YfUWhcf]bhYfjYbYgk]h\h\YZc``ck]b[
dfcdcg]h]cb.
Friends, it appears as if we are against the waiter and the headwaiter and this does
not make sense. They are our brothers. They work like us, and they are not to blame
for the prices charged here. I suggest we take up a collection. We at this table are
going to ask you to contribute whatever you can, one sol, two soles, five soles,
whatever you can afford. And with that money we are going to pay for the barbecue.
And be generous, because what is left over will go as a tip for the waiter, who is our
brother and a working man.
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Ch\YfgZif]cig`mWcaaYbh.
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UgU\UddYb]b[cfgc!WU``YX[iYff]``Uh\YUhfY"=bh\Y`UhhYfkYUfYW`YUf`m
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gdYWhUhcfg]aaYX]UhY`mUf]gYg fYXiW]b[h\YgdYWhUhcfhc]adchYbWY.
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dUhhYfbg"H\Yh\YUhf]WU`YbYf[m]gWcad`YhY`m`]VYfUhYX UbXh\Y]adUWh
dfcXiWYXVmh\]gZfYYh\YUhfY]gaiW\acfYdckYfZi`UbX`cb[Yf`Ugh]b["

Augusto Boal Invisible Theatre 215


FOR SELF-MANAGEMENT ART
ZOR AN P O P OV IC

October 75, Belgrade. From Peter Selz, Kristine Stiles


(eds.), Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art.
A Sourcebook of Artists Writings, Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1996.

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Vcif[Yc]g]XYc`c[m]bdfUWh]WY"

216 Art and Social Change 1968


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Zoran Popovic For Self-Management Art 217


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218 Art and Social Change 1968


THE SWORD IS MIGHTIER
THAN THE SWEDE ?
S TU RE JO H AN N E S SON

On the occasion of the exhibition


Om Tyskland i Tiden (On
Germany In Time) at Kulturhuset
in Stockholm, 1976.

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UbbcibWYaYbh.
The new West German law which affects the freedom of speech and opinion will
in the long term deprive people of control over their own lives. There are only two
ways to react, through self-censorship or through the creation of a new underground
literature. An underground literature in the middle of Europe is a fantastic idea for
exactly through this is violence conveyed. The violence that various groups in the
world and also West Germany have committed has outraged us in the same way
as other people. But from this to setting up a law that forbids the citizens an open
discussion of political violence is more than just a big step. From our point of view
these are not comparable measures.
Xb+AUfW\ %-+*

219
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220 Art and Social Change 1968


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It goes to show that we have a paragraph 88a in Sweden, even if it has not been
inscribed in the law. But there is no need for it. Instead, guards of the constitution
have been placed in charge of all the bigger galleries. Those guards see to it that only
what is suitable appears. Artistic freedom is thwarted and instead of hiring artists
to create posters for exhibitions, advertising agencies are hired. This way, one can be
sure to get a product that does not offend.

222 Art and Social Change 1968


7i`hifY\cigYX]fYWhcfg diV`]WUfh[U``YfmX]fYWhcfg W\]YZWifUhcfgUbX
WifUhcfgUfYUddc]bhYXdc`]h]WU``m";]jYbh\Uhh\YDUfhm`]bYgh\YGcW]U`
8YacWfUh]WDUfhm]gYggYbh]U`UbXcZhYbgYYaghcVYh\Ycb`meiU`]WUh]cb
cZh\YWi`hifYX][b]hUf]Yg kY\UjYhccjYf`cc_h\YZUWhh\UhkYUfYUWWigYX
cZVY]b[hYffcf]ghgmadUh\]gYfgk\c[`cf]Zmj]c`YbWY"H\YgUaYUfhYldYfhg
kci`XdfcVUV`mU`gcW`U]ah\Uh5bXmKUf\c`]gU7\]bYgYAUc]ghVYWUigY
\YaUXYUdcfhfU]hcZAUc"
World leaders from the Assyrian king Sargon II to Adolf Hitler have always known
that art is amongst the most powerful trumpets. That is why the leaders have been
afraid of art, and at the same time eager to make it their servant.
H\]g]gk\Uh6c@]bXVYf[kf]hYg]bUbYl\]V]h]cbWUhU`c[iYZcfh\YUfh]gh
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h\]g]bg][\h"=hUddYUfgh\Uh[U``YfmX]fYWhcfgUfY\]fYXcbh\Ydf]bW]d`Yh\Uh
h\YV][[Yfh\Y][bcfUaig h\YacfYVYbh\Y]g"H\Uh]g\ck]h]gXcbY]b
KYgh;YfaUbmUbXh\Uh]g\ck]h]gXcbY]bGkYXYb H\YmcdYfUhYUbUWh]jY
dfcZYgg]cbU`dfc\]V]h]cbU[U]bghZfYY[fcidgVmhfm]b[hcghUfjYh\Yacih Uh
h\YgUaYh]aYUgh\YmdUadYfXYg]fUV`YUfh]ghgk]h\diV`]WWcaa]gg]cbg"
H\YfYUfYYlUad`YgcZW`iagmWfUZhgaYb k\cgYdfcXiWhgbcXYWYbh[U``Yfm
]bh\Ykcf`Xkci`XkUbhhcfYdfYgYbh VYWca]b[a]``]cbU]fYg]bdc`]h]WU``m
XYW]XYXWcadYh]h]cbg"
=h]gYj]XYbhh\Uh]h]gh\YKYgh;YfaUbgcW]U`XYacWfUh]WdUfhmh\UhVYUfg
h\YfYgdcbg]V]`]hmZcfh\cgYZUgW]gh`Ukgh\Uhbc<]h`Yf]bh\Ykcf`Xkci`X
kUbhhcW\Ub[Y"<ckYjYf ]b;YfaUbm]h]gaU]bhU]bYX]bUbUaYbXaYbh
h\UhUfhUbXgW]YbWYUfYYlYadhYXUbXg\ci`XVYhf]YX]bUWcifh"7UbcbY
XUfYhcVY`]YjYh\Uhh\YGkYX]g\Vfch\YfdUfhm]gYeiU``mhc`YfUbhUbXkci`X
U``ckZcfU`Y[U`hYgh]b[cZ?i`hif\igYhgibkUffUbhYXUbX[fcggj]c`Uh]cb
cZXYacWfUh]Wf][\hgUbXZfYYXcag3H\Y]bhYfjYbh]cbbUhifU``mU`gc]ad`]Yg
Uj]c`Uh]cbcZh\Y]bhY[f]hmcZh\Y]bjc`jYXdUfh]Yg"

:fYY<UbXgK]h\<UbXWiZZg
6YZcfYh\YYl\]V]h]cbkUghchU``mWYbgcfYX W\]YZWifUhcf;ghU@]`^U
]bhYfjYbYXVmdfc\]V]h]b[Zifh\YfX]ghf]Vih]cbcZUmYf"Gj8%%>ibY 
%-+*"<Ug\YbchYlWYYXYX\]gdckYfgVmUWh]b[UgUgc`Y^ifcfcjYfh\Y
ZfYYXcacZh\Ydf]bhYXkcfXUbXdfc\]V]h]b[h\YX]ghf]Vih]cbcZdf]bhYX
aUhhYf3H\YmYfkUgUbUfh]gh]WWc``U[Y k]h\]aU[YgcZhkcKYgh;YfaUb
kcaYbUacb[ch\Yfh\]b[gUbXk]h\UbUih\Ybh]WUXjYfh]g]b[hYlh.Bc
dYfgcb]g`]_YUbmch\Yf"H\]gg`c[UbkUgZcfai`UhYXVmMcib[7cbgYfjUh]jYg
Ib[UAcXYfUhYfUbXg]bWYh\Y]f]b]h]U`gkYfY]bWcffYgdcbXYbWYk]h\h\cgY
cZI`f]_YAY]b\cZ [fYUha]gibXYfghUbX]b[gUbXU[[fYgg]cbgUfcgY"
FYdfYgYbhUh]jYgcZMcib[7cbgYfjUh]jYgUddYUfYX]b[fcidgcZ+,dYcd`Y
UVcihcbWYYjYfm\cifUbX]ggiYXh\fYUhgUbXXYaUbXg hcc_d\chcgUbX
[Uh\YfYXYj]XYbWYh\Uh]ghcgUm WcbgWUhYXmYfgUgkYkYfYdihh]b[
h\Yacih"=hkUgghfUb[Yhck]hbYgg\ckh\YgY[fcidg j]Uh\Ydcg\`UX]Yg
]bh\YfYWYdh]cbcbY[YhgUk\]ZZcZh\Ydcg\kcf`XU`fYUXmk\YbcbYYbhYfg

Sture Johannesson The Sword is Mightier than the Swede? 223


h\Yghfcb[\c`XcZWi`hifY\UX]aaYX]UhYUWWYgghch\YW\]YZWifUhcf k\c
UZhYfUZYka]bihYgWUaYXckbZfcah\YZh\ccf\]agY`ZhcdfYgYbhaY
k]h\h\YgUaYXYaUbXgUbXh\fYUhgh\Uh=\UXU`fYUXmfYWY]jYX"H\]g
\UddYbYXbchcb`mcbWY VihgYjYfU`h]aYg"=bWcbhfUghkY Ug]bj]hYX
Yl\]V]hcfg YbWcibhYfYX[fYUhX]ZWi`h]Yg]b[Yhh]b[YjYbUhY`Yd\cbY
WcbbYWh]cbhch\YW\]YZWifUhcf"8if]b[\]gkUbXYf]b[gVYhkYYbh\YZh\
UbXh\Y[fcibXccf UbXh\Yj]g]hghch\Ydc`]h]W]UbgUbX?i`hif\igX]fYWhcf
6Yb[hGW\Y`]b]bh\Y\][\f]gYcbh\Ych\Yfg]XYcZGidYfghU_Yb \YkUg
igiU``mUWWcadUb]YXVmUbaide-de-campk\cU`kUmgkU`_YXUghYdVY\]bX Ug
]Zhc`YbXh\]gdiddYhUbXaYggYb[YfVcmcZh\YgkcfXgcaYZcfacZX][b]hm"
5acb[ch\Yfh\]b[g h\YYl\]V]h]cbWcbhU]bYXUaYggU[YZfca
9f]W\:f]YX Ubc`XYf;YfaUbUih\cfk\ckUgcbWYZcfWYXhcYgWUdY
Zfca<]h`YfgH\]fXFY]W\.
To mourn Ulrike is to fight the minions and mercenaries of alienation
and dehumanisation.
Gch\UhkUgk\UhkY\UXhcXc ]bUXciV`YgYbgY Xif]b[h\Yhkc
XUmgcZh\YYl\]V]h]cb"=kci`X`]_YhceichYh\YZc``ck]b[ghUhYaYbh[]jYb
VmWcibW]``cf7ifh6cfY XYdihmgdc_YgaUb k\Ybh\YXYW]g]cbcZhchU`
WYbgcfg\]dkUgaUXY.H\YfY]gbcWcbbYWh]cbUhU``VYhkYYbh\Y7i`hifU`
7caa]hhYYUbXh\Y:cfY][bA]b]ghfm"Xb>ibY%& %-+*"H\YeichUh]cb
WUbigYZi``mVYdiV`]g\YXUgUWUdh]cbhch\Yd\chccZAf"FUaY`Zfcah\Y
:cfY][bA]b]ghfm WcibW]``cf6fYUbXW\]YZWifUhcf@]`^Uh\UhkUghU_Yb
Xif]b[cbYcZh\YaUbmUbX`Yb[h\mWcbgi`hUh]cbgh\Uhhcc_d`UWY]bh\Y
WcfbYfgcZh\YYl\]V]h]cbgdUWY"=\UjYdfYj]cigYldYf]YbWYcZWYbgcfg\]d 
UfY^YWhYXdcghYfWcaa]gg]cbZfcah\YX]fYWhcfcZAU`a?cbgh\U`` 9^Y
<c[YghUhh k\cghUhYX.KY\UXUWcadihYf]aU[Y]ba]bX bchUg\Yf!
aUb"5bXbckW\]YZWifUhcf;ghU@]`^UgUmgh\Uhh\YYl\]V]h]cbXcYgbch
WcffYgdcbXhccifYldYWhUh]cbg"7cbW`ig]cb.h\YhUg_cZh\YUfh]gh]ghcbX
cihk\Uhh\YdckYfgh\UhVY\UjY]ba]bXcfYldYWh"=ZcbYWUbbchbX
cihZcfcbYgY`Z]h]gU`kUmgUdcgg]V]`]hmhcWU``UbXUg_.<Y``c;U``Yfm
8]fYWhcf =Uahcm]b[k]h\h\Y]XYUcZdU]bh]b[Ud]WhifY k\Uhg\ci`X]h
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;bh\YfKU``fUZZkcf_YXibXYfWcjYfhcfYjYU`h\Ykcf_]b[WcbX]h]cbgcZ
]aa][fUbhg]b;YfaUbmUbXh\YaYh\cXgcZh\YmY``ckdfYgg"

GY`Z7Ybgcfg\]dcfIbXYf[fcibX@]hYfUhifY3
HcfYhifbhch\YghUhYaYbhcZh\YIb]cbcZKf]hYfg.h\YfYUfYcb`mhkckUmg
hcfYUWh h\fci[\gY`Z!WYbgcfg\]dcfh\fci[\h\YWfYUh]cbcZUbibXYf[fcibX
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ghfi[[`YZcfXYacWfUh]Wf][\hgUbXZfYYXcag Zcf Ugh\YZUacig;YfaUb
gcW]c`c[]gh>Ub!7Uf`FUgdYkfchYhkcXUmgUZhYfh\YXYUh\cZI`f]_YAY]b\cZ.

224 Art and Social Change 1968


Freedom is only possible in the struggle for liberation.
=ZkYUfYUkUfYcZh\Y`]a]hUh]cbg h\YbkY`]jY]bUdf]gcb"
FYWYbh`m UVcc_h\UhkUggYeiYghYfYX]bKYgh;YfaUbm How It All Began
(Wie Alles Anfing), \UgVYYbfY!diV`]g\YXVm')$Wi`hifY!X][b]hUf]Yg]b9ifcdY 
Uacb[h\YgYUZYkGkYXYg UgUdfcjcWUh]cbUbXUgUghYdd]b[ghcbYZcfh\Y
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hc?i`hif\igYhhcfYcdYbh\YYl\]V]h]cbCaHmg_`UbX]H]XYb"H\YfYUfY
;YfaUb]bgh]hih]cbgh\UhUfYhcXUmUV`Yhc[iUfUbhYYUdfYgYbhUh]cbcZh\Y
Yl\]V]h]cbVYWUigY]hXcYgbch[`cf]Zmj]c`YbWYcfYbWcifU[YWf]aY"K]h\h\]g
]ba]bX kYg\ci`XhU_YUW`cgYf`cc_UhcifckbXcaYgh]WW]fWiaghUbWYg"

%-''
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bchWcbgh]hihYU[iUfUbhYYh\Uh]bYjYfmWUgYh\Ymk]`` k]h\cihXciVh 
fYaU]b`cmU`hch\YbUh]cb WUb\UjYh\Y]fgYfj]WYhYfa]bUhYX"
DUfhcZ(cZh\Y`UkZur Wiederherstellung eines nationalen Berufsbeamtentums
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Vmh\Y;YfaUbFY]W\+5df]` %-''"

%-+*
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cb%*>UbiUfm %-+*"

Sture Johannesson The Sword is Mightier than the Swede? 225


Sture and Ann Charlotte Johannesson Ulrike Meinhof, 1976
View of the exhibition at Kulturhuset, Stockholm

Flyer for the exhibition

226
POSITION PAPER : CROSSROADS
COMMUNIT Y ( THE FARM )
BON N I E S H E R K

Extract from a presentation at the First International


Symposium of the Center for Critical Enquiry,
San Francisco Art Institute, November 1977.

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Uhf]VihYhc\iaUb]hmUbXUWY`YVfUh]cbcZaU[]W h\ci[\hcZUgUfh"
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cZh\Y]bhYfWcbbYWh]cbVYhkYYbgYYa]b[`mX]gdUfUhY]XYUg Uhh]hiXYg UbX
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]b]hgY`ZUbXU`gcUgUjY\]W`YZcfW\Ub[Y"5bif[YhcYldUbXh\Y]XYUcZUfh
UbX]hgUiX]YbWY"5dUgg]cbUhYWcbWYfbZcfWi`hifU`acjYaYbhUbX
hfUbgZcfaUh]cb"5bibYUgYk]h\hfUX]h]cbU`UbXgc!WU``YXfYjc`ih]cbUfm
f\Yhcf]WUbXacXYgk\]W\hYbXhcU`]YbUhYUbX]bW]hYfUh\Yfh\UbZibWh]cb
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]bgd]hYcZh\Yf]g_g""""

The Farm]gUgcW]U`Ufhkcf_"=h\]b_cZ]hUgU`]ZY!gWU`YYbj]fcbaYbhU`
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UWhiU`g]hiUh]cbg"=gYY]hUgUfh UgkY``Ug]bWcfdcfUh]b[h\YX]jYf[Ybh
Y`XgcZU``h\YUfhgUbX`]hYfUhifY YXiWUh]cb Wcaaib]hmgYfj]WY diV`]W
\YU`h\ h\YYbj]fcbaYbh W]hmd`Ubb]b[ `cWU`dc`]h]Wg UbXfYU`YghUhY"
H\YbUa]b[cZThe FarmUgUfh]gdYf\Udgh\YacghdYfd`Yl]b[UbX
dfcV`YaUh]W]XYUZcfh\YYghUV`]g\aYbhhcUWWYdh VYWUigYh\Y]bjc`jYX
Y`YaYbhgUfYX]ZZigYUbXhch\YWcbjYbh]cbU`YmYUbXa]bXX]ZWi`hhc
[fUgd"H\Y:Ufa]gUjUbh![UfXYUbXdYf\UdggdYU_ghch\YZihifYcZUfh"
=h]gU`]ZYZfUaYU`]ZYh\YUhfY UbXh\UhU`kUmg[Yhgig]bhchfciV`Y
k\YbkYUfYhU`_]b[UVcihUfh"

227
Bonnie Sherk Documentation of Crossroads Community
(The Farm), 19741981
Making a Sundial, 1975
Next page:
Freeway and Farmhouse, 1975
Farm and Freeway, 1975

228
229
ART HYSTERICAL NOTIONS
OF PROGRESS AND CULTURE
VA LE R I E JAU DON AN D JOYC E KOZLOF F

Heresies, no.4, 1978. From Hilary Robinson (ed.), Feminism


Art Theory: An Anthology 19682000, Oxford: Blackwell
Publishing, 2001.

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230 Art and Social Change 1968


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Valerie Jaudon and Joyce Kozloff Art Hysterical Notions of Progress and Culture 231
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232 Art and Social Change 1968


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Valerie Jaudon and Joyce Kozloff Art Hysterical Notions of Progress and Culture 233
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234 Art and Social Change 1968


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AYmYfGW\Ud]fc The Social Bases of Art %-'*.5kcaUbcZh\]gW`UggOiddYfQ
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]bhYfYgh]b\Yf]aaYX]UhYYbj]fcbaYbh ]bh\Yb]g\YXdfcXiWh ]bh\Y
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cZWcbghfiWh]cbcf[fckh\ Zcfh\YigYZi` h\Y[YbYfU` UbXh\YUVghfUWh"
@YcHc`ghcm What is Art? %,-,.FYU`Ufh `]_Yh\Yk]ZYcZUbUZZYWh]cbUhY
\igVUbX bYYXgbccfbUaYbhg"6ihWcibhYfZY]hUfh `]_YUdfcgh]hihY 
aighU`kUmgVYXYW_YXcih"

Valerie Jaudon and Joyce Kozloff Art Hysterical Notions of Progress and Culture 235
<]YfUfW\mcZ<][\!@ck5fh
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h\UbXcdU]bh]b[UbXgWi`dhifY h\Y]fdifdcgY Ugh\YbUaYgi[[Yghg 
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5aYXYYCnYbZUbh Foundations of Modern Art %-'%.=ZkY[ccbU``ck]b[
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VY\U]`ZY``ckhcU``gcfhgcZXcaYgh]WZifb]hifY"9UW\hc\]gd`UWYH\Y
XYWcfUhcfghch\YV][g\cdg h\YUfh]ghgcbh\YbYlhccfid gYjYfU`ccfg
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]bh\YUfhg.XYWcfUh]jYUfhUhh\YVchhca UbXh\Y\iaUbZcfaUhh\Yhcd"
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hch\]g`UghaUb]ZYghUh]cbcZh\YibXm]b[9Ugh"
6UfbYhhBYkaUb The Ideographic Picture %-(+cbh\Y?kU_]ih`Ufh]gh.
 H\YUVghfUWhg\UdY\YigYX \]gYbh]fYd`Ugh]W`Ub[iU[Y kUgX]fYWhYX

236 Art and Social Change 1968


VmUf]hiU`]gh]Wk]``hckUfXgaYhUd\mg]WU`ibXYfghUbX]b["H\YYjYfmXUm
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dUhhYfbhch\YkcaYbVUg_YhkYUjYfg"
Ifgi`UAYmYf Conceptual Art %-+&.=bh\YgUaYgYbgYh\UhgW]YbWY]gZcf
gW]Ybh]ghgUbXd\]`cgcd\m]gZcfd\]`cgcd\Yfg Ufh]gZcfUfh]ghg"
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UiX]YbWYgY]h\Yf"

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7Ua]``YAUiW`U]f La Reforme de lart decoratif en Francecbh\Y=adfYgg]cb]ghg 


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FiXc`Z5fb\Y]a Art and Visual Perception %-)(.DU]bh]b[gcfgWi`dhifYUfY
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<]`hcb?fUaYf The Splendors and Chill of Islamic Art %-+).Zcfh\cgYcZigk\c
gYY_]bUfhgcaYh\]b[VYg]XYgUVUh\cZd`YUgifUV`YgYbgUh]cb gcaiW\
cZk\Uh]hOh\YAYhfcdc`]hUbAigYiag=g`Ua]Wk]b[Q\cigYg]g ZfUb_`m
gcU`]Ybhch\YYldYWhUh]cbgcZKYghYfbgYbg]V]`]hm"
DYf\Udgk]h\h\YdUggU[YcZh]aY =g`Ua]WUfhk]``WcaYhc`cc_`Ygg
U`]Ybhcigh\Ub]hXcYghcXUm"=ZfUb_`mXciVh]hh\YfYUfYhccaUbm
ZibXUaYbhU`X]ZZYfYbWYgcZgd]f]hhcVYcjYfWcaY"
H\YfY]ggaU``d`UWY]bXYYX[]jYbhck\Uh`ccaggc`Uf[Y]b
h\YKYghYfb]aU[]bUh]cb.h\Y]bX]j]XiU`]gUh]cbcZYldYf]YbWY"

Valerie Jaudon and Joyce Kozloff Art Hysterical Notions of Progress and Culture 237
G]fH\caUg5fbc`X Painting in Islam %-&,.h\YdU]bhYfkUgUddUfYbh`m
k]``]b[hcgdYbX\cifgcZkcf_idcbh\YXY`]WUhYjY]b]b[cZh\Y`YUjYgcZ
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g][b]Zm]b[ZU]`YX\iaUb]ga"5fh]ghggiW\Ug;`Y]nYgUbX?UbX]bg_m Ubl]cig
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Ugd]fUh]cbg"

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ZYYV`Y dfcZigY`mXYWcfUhYX fcaUbh]WWUfdYh"
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<UbgGYX`aUmf Art in Crisis: The Lost Center %-(,.K]h\AUh]ggY h\Y\iaUb
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8f5`VYfh7"6UfbYgUbXJ]c`YhhYXYAUn]U The Art of Cezanne %-'-.DUhhYfb 
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bcW`U]ahcUbmghUhig\][\Yfh\UbXYWcfUh]cb"
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k\]W\kci`Xch\Yfk]gYVY]adcgg]V`Y"

238 Art and Social Change 1968


KUgg]`m?UbX]bg_m Uber das Geistige in der Kunst %-%&.=ZkYVY[]bUhcbWY
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Valerie Jaudon and Joyce Kozloff Art Hysterical Notions of Progress and Culture 239
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240 Art and Social Change 1968


IDEOLOGY, CONFRONTATION AND
POLITICAL SELF-AWARENESS
ADR IAN PI PE R

High Performance, Los Angeles,


Spring 1981.

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241
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242 Art and Social Change 1968


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VYhU_YbgYf]cig`m"

Adrian Piper Ideology, Confrontation and Political Self-Awareness 243


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giWWYgg"=Zbch h\Yb=k]``^igh\UjYhchfmU[U]b ZcfamckbgU_Y":cf
cZWcifgY=UahU`_]b[bch^ighUVcihmci VihUVcihus"

244 Art and Social Change 1968


THE DOCKL ANDS PHOTO-MUR ALS
PE TE R DU N N AN D LORR AI N E LE E SON

Docklands Community Poster Project, 198285


www.cspace.org.uk/cspace/archive/docklands/
dock_arch.htm

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kYfYh\Yacgh]adcfhUbh"AcghdYcd`YkYfYibUkUfYcZk\UhkUg[c]b[
cb UbXcb`m_bYkh\Ya]`YgcZWcffi[UhYX]fcbbckgiffcibX]b[k\Uh
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\cig]b[k]h\ZYkZUW]`]h]Yg"
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V]``VcUfXg U]aYXUhWcaaib]WUh]b[Ug]ad`YVfUbXbUaY hYbXhcVY
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H\Y]aU[Ygh\YagY`jYgkYfYXYjY`cdYXk]h\h\Yai`h]d`Yd\chc!aifU`
g]hYg]ba]bX"H\YmkYfYXYg][bYXhcW\Ub[Y[fUXiU``mh\fci[\fYd`UWYaYbh
cZ]bX]j]XiU`gYWh]cbg hcXYjY`cdUbUffUh]jYfUh\Yf`]_YUg`ckach]cb
Ub]aUh]cb"=bdfUWh]WU`hYfagh\]gaYUbhh\Y]aU[YgWci`XVYhfUbgZYffYX
ZfcacbYg]hYhcUbch\Yf YbUV`]b[h\YghcfmcZ8cW_`UbXghcibZc`Xh\fci[\
h]aYUbXgdUWY"
=bgd]fUh]cbZcfh\YZcfaUhcZh\Yd\chc!aifU`gWUaYZfca7\]bYgYkU``
dcghYfg k\]W\\UXVfci[\h]bZcfaUh]cbhch\YdYcd`YXif]b[h\Y7i`hifU`
FYjc`ih]cb"H\YbUaYd\chc!aifU`kUgWc]bYXVmUfhWf]h]WF]W\UfX7cf_2 
k\YbgYUfW\]b[ZcfkcfXghcXYgWf]VYh\]gUgdYWhcZh\Ykcf_"AYggU[Yghc
1 Formed by artists Peter Dunn then PA to Tony Banks at the GLC ,
and Loraine Leeson. but that it was indeed Richard Cork
2 Peter Dunn notes that this term that first used it in a publication.
was in fact coined by Alan Thompkins,

245
Loraine Leeson and Peter Dunn The Changing Picture
of Docklands Community Photo-Mural, 198285
5.49 m 3.66 m
First sequence of 8 photo-murals
Whats Going On Behind Our Backs? (1/8)
Big Money is Moving In (3/8)
Next page:
The Scrap Heap (5/8)
Shattering The Developers Illusions (7/8)

246
247
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8cW_`UbXg7caaib]hmDcghYfDfc^YWhghYYf]b[[fcid"H\Y`UhhYfkUg
Wcadf]gYXcZfYdfYgYbhUh]jYgZfcah\YhYbUbhgUbXUWh]cb[fcidg]bh\Y
8cW_`UbXgUfYU k\caYhcbWYUacbh\hcZYYXVUW_cbWiffYbh]ggiYgcZ
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cbh\Yg]h]b[cZh\Yd\chc!aifU`gUbX]ggiYgZcfWcaaib]WUh]cb"DYhYf8ibb
UbX@cfU]bY@YYgcbh\Ybkcf_YXcbh\YfYdfYgYbhUh]cbcZh\YgYh\YaYg 
Vf]b[]b[]aU[YfmVUW_hch\Y[fcidZcfZifh\YfX]gWigg]cbcZ]hgaYUb]b[ 
h\ci[\h\Yj]giU`fYdfYgYbhUh]cbkUgYbh]fY`mh\YfYa]hh\YUfh]ghg"=bh\]g
kUmh\Y8cW_`UbXg7caaib]hmDcghYfDfc^YWhkUgUV`YhcVi]`Xcbh\YacXY`
cZh\YghYYf]b[[fcidacXY`XYjY`cdYXZcfh\Y9Ugh@cbXcb<YU`h\Dfc^YWh 
k\]W\U``ckYXYUW\aYaVYfcZh\YWc``UVcfUh]jYhYUahcigYh\Y]fVYghg_]``g
UbXUjc]XYXU`ckYghWcaacbXYbca]bUhcfUddfcUW\"H\]gdfcWYggcZ
XYW]g]cb!aU_]b[YbUV`YXUai`h]d`]WUh]cbcZg_]``gUbXYldYf]YbWYUbX
dfcj]XYXU\iVcZWfYUh]jYYbYf[mh\UhgighU]bYXh\Ydfc^YWhZcf]hg
hYb!mYUfXifUh]cb"

248 Art and Social Change 1968


DISPATCHES FROM
AN UNOFFICIAL WAR ARTIST
PE TE R KE N N ARD

Extract from Dispatches from


an Unofficial War Artist, London:
Lund Humphries, 2000.

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h\Uh=g\ckYX6fiWY?YbhUbXUZYkch\Yfgamd\chcacbhU[YgUbXgU]X
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hcVYUbUWWYdhUV`Y]aU[YhcdihidcbVYXfccakU``g"=gh]``\UjYh\YdU[Y
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idhfiW_g U```]ghYXibXYfH\YHkYbh]Yh\7Ybhifm.DckYfUbX9bYf[m"
AmY`XYfgcbcbWYWUaY\caYk]h\UVcc_WU``YXDiscover the World of
Weapons"Cb]hgWcjYfkUgh\Yd\chccZUbYbcfaciga]gg]`Ydc]bh]b[
g_mkUfXgUhh\Yh]h`Y"H\Yk\c`YVcc_kUgXYg][bYXk]h\dgmW\YXY`]W%-*$g
[fUd\]Wg"H\]gkUgWcbg]XYfYXgi]hUV`YfYUX]b[aUhhYfZcfY][\hmYUf!c`Xg"
5bXh\YmWU``YXig]bgUbY"=ZY`hh\Uhh\YgY]aU[Yg\UXhcVYVfc_Yb \UX
hcVYhU_YbcihcZh\YgiddcgYX`mfUh]cbU`X]gWcifgY]bk\]W\h\YmWci`X
VYWcaYXcaYgh]WXYWcfUh]cb"

249
Peter Kennard
CND demonstration, London, 1981
Photograph Peter Kennard

Crushed Missile (photomontage), 1980

250
TEN ITEMS OF THE COVENANT
L A I B AC H

Nove Revija, no.2, Ljubljana, 1983.

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gmghYa]WX]gWifg]jYbYgg"H\YjYfmbUaYUbXh\YYaV`YaUfYj]g]V`Y
aUhYf]U`]gUh]cbgcZh\Y]XYUcbh\Y`YjY`cZUWc[b]h]jYgmaVc`"H\YbUaY
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acXYfbgcW]YhmUggiaYgh\Yfc`YcZh\Ydc`]h]W]gYXgiV^YWhVmUW_bck`YX[]b[
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UbXh\Ygd]f]h"

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cZh\YUih\cfgUfYUbbi``YX YjYfmhfUWYcZ]bX]j]XiU`]hmYfUgYX"H\Y
hYW\bc`c[]WU`dfcWYgg]gUaYh\cXcZdfc[fUaa]b[ZibWh]cb"=hfYdfYgYbhg
XYjY`cdaYbh ]Y"difdcgYZi`W\Ub[Y"Hc]gc`UhYUdUfh]W`YcZh\]gdfcWYgg
UbXZcfa]hghUh]WU``maYUbghcfYjYU`aUbgbY[Uh]cbcZUbm_]bXcZYjc`ih]cb
k\]W\]gZcfY][bhcUbX]bUXYeiUhYZcf\]gV]c`c[]WU`Yjc`ih]cb"
`U]VUW\UXcdhgh\Ycf[Ub]gUh]cbU`gmghYacZ]bXighf]U`dfcXiWh]cbUbX
h\Y]XYbh]WUh]cbk]h\]XYc`c[mUg]hgkcf_aYh\cX"=bUWWcfXUbWYk]h\h\]g 

251
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fY`Uh]cbg\]dVYhkYYbh\YdUfh]Wi`UfZcfacZdfcXiWh]cbgmghYaUbX]XYc`c[m
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cZgiV!cV^YWhgXYdYbX]b[cbbYYX"
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aYaVYfUbX]gg]ai`hUbYcig`mWcbXYabYXZcf\]gcV^YWh]j]gUh]cb"

*"H\YVUg]gcZ`U]VUW\gUWh]j]hm`]Yg]b]hgWcbWYdhcZib]hm k\]W\
YldfYggYg]hgY`Z]bYUW\aYX]iaUWWcfX]b[hcUddfcdf]UhY`Ukg
Ufh aig]W `a""""
H\YaUhYf]U`cZh\Y`U]VUW\aUb]di`Uh]cb.HUm`cf]ga Vfi]h]ga 
Nazi Kunst X]gWc"""
H\Ydf]bW]d`YcZkcf_]ghchU``mWcbghfiWhYXUbXh\YWcadcg]h]cbU`
dfcWYgg]gUX]WhUhYXfYUXm!aUXY.]bXighf]U`dfcXiWh]cb]gfUh]cbU``m
XYjY`cdaYbhU` Vih]ZkYYlhfUWhZfcah\]gdfcWYggh\YY`YaYbhcZh\Y
acaYbhUbXYad\Ug]gY]h kYU`gcXYg][bUhYhc]hh\Yamgh]WU`X]aYbg]cbcZ
U`]YbUh]cb k\]W\fYjYU`gh\YaU[]WU`WcadcbYbhcZh\Y]bXighf]U`dfcWYgg"
FYdfYgg]cbcZh\Y]bXighf]U`f]hiU`]ghfUbgZcfaYX]bhcUWcadcg]h]cbU`
X]WhUhYUbXh\Ydc`]h]W]gUh]cbcZgcibXWUbVYWcaYUVgc`ihYhcbU`]hm"

+"`U]VUW\YlW`iXYgUbmYjc`ih]cbcZh\Ycf][]bU`]XYU.h\Ycf][]bU`WcbWYdh
]gbchYjc`ih]cbUfmVihYbhY`YW\]WU` UbXdfYgYbhUh]cb]gcb`mU`]b_VYhkYYb
h\]gghUh]WUbXh\YW\Ub[]b[XYhYfa]bUbhib]h"KYhU_Yh\YgUaYghUbX
hckUfXh\YX]fYWh]biYbWYcZh\YXYjY`cdaYbhcZaig]Wcbh\Y`U]VUW\
WcbWYdh/cZWcifgY h\]g]biYbWY]gUaUhYf]U`bYWYgg]hmVih]h]gcZgYWcbXUfm
]adcfhUbWYUbXUddYUfgcb`mUgU\]ghcf]WU`aig]WU`ZcibXUh]cbcZh\Y
acaYbhk\]W\ ]b]hgW\c]WY ]gib`]a]hYX"`U]VUW\YldfYggYg]hg
h]aY`YggbYggk]h\h\YUfh]ZUWhgcZh\YdfYgYbhUbX]h]gh\igbYWYggUfmh\Uh
Uhh\Y]bhYfgYWh]cbcZdc`]h]WgUbX]bXighf]U`dfcXiWh]cbh\YWi`hifYcZUfh 
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kUbhghcVYVch\"H\]gk]XYfUb[YU``ckg`U]VUW\hccgW]``UhY WfYUh]b[
h\Y]``ig]cbcZacjYaYbhXYjY`cdaYbh"

252 Art and Social Change 1968


,"`U]VUW\dfUWh]WYgdfcjcWUh]cbcbh\YfYjc`hYXghUhYcZh\YU`]YbUhYX
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=hUWhgUgUWfYUh]jY]``ig]cbcZghf]Wh]bgh]hih]cbU`]hm UgUgcW]U`h\YUhfY
cZdcdi`UfWi`hifY UbXWcaaib]WUhYgcb`mh\fci[\bcb!Wcaaib]WUh]cb"

-"6Yg]XYg`U]VUW\ k\]W\WcbWYfbg]hgY`Zk]h\h\YaUbbYfcZ]bXighf]U`
dfcXiWh]cb]bhchU`]hUf]Ub]ga h\YfYU`gcYl]ghhkcch\Yf[fcidg]bh\Y
WcbWYdhcZ`U]VUW\KUNST UYgh\Yh]Wg.GERMANAghiX]Ygh\YYach]cbU`g]XY 
k\]W\]gcih`]bYX]bfY`Uh]cbhch\Y[YbYfU`kUmgcZYach]cbU` Yfch]W UbX
ZUa]`m`]ZY `UiX]b[h\YZcibXUh]cbgcZh\YghUhYZibWh]cb]b[cZYach]cbg
cbh\Yc`XW`Ugg]W]ghZcfacZbYkgcW]U`]XYc`c[]Yg"DREIHUNDERT TAUSEND
VERSCHIEDENE KRAWALLE]gUfYhfcgdYWh]jYZihif]gh]WbY[Uh]jYihcd]U"
H\YYfUcZdYUWY\UgYbXYX"

%$"`U]VUW\]gh\Y_bck`YX[YcZh\Yib]jYfgU`]hmcZh\YacaYbh"=h]g
h\YfYjY`Uh]cbcZh\YUVgYbWYcZVU`UbWYVYhkYYbgYlUbXkcf_ VYhkYYb
gYfj]hiXYUbXUWh]j]hm"=higYgU``YldfYgg]cbgcZ\]ghcfmhcaUf_h\]g
]aVU`UbWY"H\]gkcf_]gk]h\cih`]a]h/;cX\UgcbYZUWY h\YXYj]`
]bb]hY`maUbm"`U]VUW\]gh\YfYhifbcZUWh]cbcbVY\U`ZcZh\Y]XYU"

Translated by members of Laibach.

Laibach Ten Items of the Covenant 253


Laibach on Jalta (Nato), 1994
Photograph Diego Andrez and Tandar

254
FLYER FOR THE REV-REVUE
OF SOC-FASHION
OR ANG E A LTE RN ATIV E

Flyer for the Rewia Soc-Mody,


distributed by the Pomaranczowa
Alternatywa (Orange Alternative)
in Warsaw, 1988.

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Wc]bW]XYbhU`UbX\UfXhc[fUgd"

255
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Vmh\Yacfb]b[dfYgg"

KYk]``aYYh*"%%#GibXUm#
5h%("$$]bh\Yj]W]b]hmcZ
k]hc^Ug_UGhfYYh#C`XHckb#"

The O. Alternative of Warsaw

Translated by Weronika Szczawinska.

256 Art and Social Change 1968


OPER ATING MANUAL
FOR LESZEK MAJ
OR ANG E A LTE RN ATIV E

Leszek Maj Instrukcja Obsugi,


a flyer distributed by the
Pomaranczowa Alternatywa (Orange
Alternative) in Warsaw, ca.1988.

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Zc``ck]b[mYUfg]bh\YUfYUcZDUf]g7caaibYGeiUfYD`UW?caibm
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hcWcbhfc`h\YZib"IbW`YAU^]gWYfhU]b`mkY``!X]gdcgYXhckUfXgig Vih
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WcbgW]YbWY]bcfXYfhcYbgifYh\YdYfaYUV]`]hmcZh\YdYXYghf]UbUbX
hfUbgdcfhdfYW]bWhg"5[fYUhZf]YbXcZmcib[dYcd`Y \YWUbVYk]hhm 
gaUfh Y`ceiYbh gcaYh]aYg\Yk]``fYdf]aUbXmci]bUZUh\Yf`maUbbYf 
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acaYbhgk\YbkYUfYfYU``mZfYY"
FYaYaVYfh\YkcfXgcZAU^cfOKU`XYaUf:mXfmW\ ZcibXYfcZh\Y
CfUb[Y5`hYfbUh]jYQ ]b\]gManifesto of Socialist Surrealism.9jYbUg]b[`Y
a]`]h]UaUb]gUkcf_cZUfh"H\]g]g\ckkYg\ci`XhfYUhcifUgg][bYX
ncac!aUbUgUkcf_cZUfh bchUgUdUfhbYf]bh\YX]gWigg]cb"

h\Ycf[Ub]gUh]cbaYbh

Translated by Weronika Szczawinska.

257
PART IV

RETROABSTRACTION;
ART IS NOT ENOUGH;
ELECTRONIC CIVIL DISOBEDIANCE;
THE ARTICULATION OF PROTEST;
THE FUTURE IS SELF-ORGANISED

1989

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the rise


of the Net. In Cuba, artists withdraw from
producing or exhibiting artwork in protest against
state restrictions; community art turns to artists
involvement in community activism; new forms
of practice emerge at the intersection of art,
technology and political activism; self-institution
becomes a primary strategy; the manifold discourse
of the anti-globalisation movement offers a context
which encompasses diverse oppositional practices.
GEOMETRIC RETROABSTR ACTION
DE S I DE R IO N AVARRO

La Gaceta de Cuba, Havana, June 1989.

:fca&'8YWYaVYf%-,,hc&,>UbiUfmO,-Qh\YYl\]V]h]cbcZWiffYbh7iVUb
UVghfUWhUfh=h=g>ighK\UhMciGYYcdYbYXhch\YdiV`]W]bgYjYfU`[U``Yf]Yg
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K\mh\]ggiXXYbg\]ZhcZU[fYUhdUfhcZ7iVUbUfhhc[YcaYhf]WUVghfUWh]cb3

260 Art and Social Change 1989


;YcaYhf]WfYhfc!UVghfUWh]cb.
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   ]h]g^ighk\UhmcigYY

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heart that doesnt feel
 Dcdi`Uf

Why look afar?!


Stay put
And wait for the communication.
You and I,
says he,
dont need to think,
if
the leaders do
 J`UX]a]fAU]U_cjg_]

   1

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textos crticos GUbhUAcb]WU.DYfWYjU`DfYgg &$$* dd"'''-/8Yg]XYf]c
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Desiderio Navarro Geometric Retroabstraction 261




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GcW]U`]ga\UgYlhYfbU`UbX]bhYfbU`YbYa]Yg"Cbh\Y]fckb]b]h]Uh]jY 
k]h\cihkU]h]b[Zcf]bghfiWh]cbgcf``]b[]bZcfag mcib[dYcd`YVcfb
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YbYa]Yg"H\fci[\h\YXYjY`cdaYbhcZUfhgdcgg]V]`]h]Yg h\Y]fkcf_gdih
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ghfYYhgYjYfmXUm"=b7iVU d`Ugh]WUfhXYgWYbXYXh\Y`UghghYdZfca]hg]jcfm
hckYf UbXh\Yb[chghfU][\hcbhcUVig"H\YfY]hgkYUhg dig\Yg gkYUfg 
`Ui[\g UXjUbWYg WUffm]b[k]h\]hUjYfmgYf]cigWf]h]WU`eiYgh]cb]b[cZ
dfcV`YagZfcaciffYU`]hmh\Uh h\ci[\h\YmUfYgcaYh]aYgUXXfYggYX]b
h\YWcff]Xcfg \UjYfUfY`mYgWUdYXh\]g]bZcfaU`Zcfai`Uh]cbUbXVYYb
X]gWiggYXdiV`]W`m]bXYdh\"6UW_YXVm:]XY`gghUhYaYbhdfcW`U]a]b[h\Y
Y`YjUh]cbcZWfYUh]jYZfYYXcaVch\]bWcbhYbhUbXZcfaUgcbYcZgcW]U`]gag
ZibXUaYbhU`df]bW]d`Yg ]h]gfYgi`h]b[]bUbibdfYWYXYbhYXWfYUh]jYWf]h]eiY"
<ckYjYfghfcb[h\]ggcibXg ]h]gUdfcWYggcZeiYgh]cb]b[k]h\]bgcW]U`]ga
UbXVmgcW]U`]ga]b7fh]WUmWcbg][bUg La Gaceta de Cuba <UjUbU.
BcjYaVYf%-,, d"&*"

262 Art and Social Change 1989


      2

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UbXh\Ybcb!ibXYfghUbX]b[cZhYlhg"GiW\Wcb]WhgWUbYaYf[YgdYW]U``m
Ugh\YfYgi`hcZWcbWfYhYgcW]U`]``g cfhYlhiU`]``gWcbX]h]cbYXVmh\YZcfaYf"
CbYcZh\YgYhYlhiU`]``g]ghcWcbg]ghYbh`mWU``V`UW_k\]hYUbXj]WYjYfgU"
5bch\Yf]gZcfX]ZZYfYbhhYlhghcW\UfUWhYf]gYg]a]`Ufd\YbcaYbU]bcddcg]b[
kUmg cfhc]XYbh]Zmd\YbcaYbUk\]W\UfYW`YUf`mX]ZZYfYbh"5dcgg]V`Y
fYgi`hcZh\Y^c]bh]biYbWYcZfYU`]hmUbXh\YgYhfciV`YXhYlhgcbh\Y
]bX]j]XiU`]gdYfd`Yl]hmVYWUigYcZh\YWcbhfUX]Wh]cbVYhkYYbfYU`]hmUbX
h\YhYlhgcfVYhkYYbh\YhYlhgh\YagY`jYg"5bch\Yfdcgg]V`YfYgi`h]gh\Y
d\YbcaYbcbcZUddUfYbhibXYfghUbX]b[ `]b_YXhch\YUggiadh]cbh\Uh
hYlhgZfcaUWYfhU]bgcifWYZcfYlUad`Y h\YhYlhgdiV`]g\YXVmU[]jYb
bYkgdUdYf\UjYUdUfh]Wi`Uf]bg][\hcfUih\cf]hm/h\YfYUXYfh\]b_g\Y
ibXYfghUbXgUhYlhh\Uh]gaYUb]b[`Yggcf\Ug]bhYfbU`WcbhfUX]Wh]cbg cf\Y
XcYgbhgYYh\YWcbhfUX]Wh]cbgVYhkYYbh\YhYlhUbXfYU`]hmcfVYhkYYbh\Y
hYlhgUbXVY`]YjYg cbYUW\cWWUg]cb k\Uh\YdYfWY]jYgUhU[]jYbacaYbh"
=if]="@Yj]b HYn]gm_dfcV`YaYbYdcb]aUb]]UhY_ghU Semeiotik bc"%& 
HUfhi.%-,% dd"-)-*"

Desiderio Navarro Geometric Retroabstraction 263




  3

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H\YcfmcZ8]gW]d`]bYX5fhUbXh\YGhiXmcZ8]gW]d`]bYUgUb5Ygh\Yh]W
7UhY[cfmQ Teora y Praxis bc"( <UjUbU.%-,, dd"%%*/FUab6YfaY^c 
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9lWYgg]jY5hhYbh]cbhcBY[Uh]jYD\YbcaYbUUbX]hg7cbXYabUh]cbcb]hg
Ckb]b]h]Uh]jYQ Plstica de hoy bc") <UjUbU.%-,, dd"&+')"
4 H\]gU`hYfbUh]jYkUgU`fYUXmW`YUf`mZcfai`UhYX]b\Ufg\fYaUf_g`]_Yh\Y

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dfcV`Yag ]Zh\YmWUbhaU_Ykcf_ZcWigYXcbWY`YVfUh]b[U``h\Uh]g[ccX 
h\Yb]h]gdfYZYfUV`Yh\Uhh\cgYVfUhgghUfhdU]bh]b[`UbXgWUdYg gh]```]ZYgcf
YjYbUVghfUWhg"5bXYjYbVYhhYfh\Uhh\YmXcbhdU]bhUhU``h\YkcfXgcZ
DYfZYWhc9ghUV`Y U[YX*$ fYh]fYX ]bhYfj]YkYXcb&+CWhcVYf%-,,]b;U`YfU
<UVUbU"

264 Art and Social Change 1989


       5

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&8YWYaVYf%-,,UfYYb`][\hYb]b[.5bXk\UhXcYgh\]gU``Y[YXUfh]ghaYUb
k]h\h\]gd`UghYf\YUXcZAUfhk]h\cihUVcXm3H\Uhh\YFYjc`ih]cbUfm
;cjYfbaYbhW\cddYXAUfhg\YUXcZZ 37`UfU@]bWY &) gW]YbWYghiXYbh"
=_bYkh\YfY\UXhcVYgcaYh\]b[hch\UhWUbjUgk]h\gUZYhm[`UggYgUbXh\Y
kcfXgigU`cgWcbhfU`UXYg]bZcfaUW]bOIgYH\YaZcf
8]g]bZcfaUh]cbQ"=h]ggcW`YUf]hgUmgigU`cgWcbhfU`U
XYg]bZcfaUW]bOigU5[U]bgh8]g]bZcfaUh]cbQ cfigU`cgWcbhfU
`UXYg]bZcfaUW]bOIgYh\Y7cbhfUg 8]g]bZcfaUh]cbQ cf6yfVUfc
[i]`U () ^iXc]bghfiWhcf"=bZfcbhcZUbch\Yfkcf_ ]bUWUfhccbh\Uh
fYdfYgYbhYXUghYfYchmd]WU`9ifcdYUbYld`cfYfkYUf]b[U\UhUVcjYk\]W\Ub
UVcf][]bU`\UhW\Yh\ib[ aYbUW]b[`m Uj]g]hcfgUkU7iVUba]WfcVf][UX]gh
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Wcaaib]ga"
6 H\]g]gh\YVUg]gcZ8U`gZUacigWf]h]WU`dUfUbc]U UaYh\cXcZd]Whcf]U`

dfcXiWh]cbh\UhigYgXY`]f]cig]bhYfdfYhUh]cb]bh\YfYUX]b[cZdfY!Yl]gh]b[
]aU[Yg]bW`iX]b[d]Whcf]U`kcf_gaUXYVmch\Yfg"8U`gdUfUbc]Xghm`YcZ
fYUX]b[kUgYld`U]bYXVmh\Y:fYbW\giffYU`]ghWf]h]W>cgD]YffYh\]gkUm.=b
UgbckW`ciXdfcXiWYXVmgcaYg_]Yfg \YX]gWcjYfYXUZUa]`mcZgaU``k\]hY
Xc[g/Ud\chc[fUd\cZUb5Zf]WUb\ihUbXgYjYfU`_bYY`]b[6`UW_aYb k\Yb
hifbYXidg]XYXckb VYWUaYUh\]bZUWY"Le Surralisme DUf]g.%-** d"*$

Desiderio Navarro Geometric Retroabstraction 265


  

   7

7 5bU[fUaaUh]WfYUX]b[\UgUZUacigdfYWifgcf]b:YfX]bUbXXYGUiggifY"
<YaU]bhU]bYXh\Uh@Uh]bdcYhg\]XUbU[fUagcZdfcdYfbUaYg]bh\Y]fjYfgYg
`YhhYfgX]gdYfgYXU`cb[h\YhYlh ]bh\Yf][\hcfXYfcfk]h\UbU`hYfbUhYcbY 
]gc`UhYXcf]bWcid`Yg [fcidgcZh\fYY YhW"":cfYlUad`Y ]bh\Y@Uh]bjYfgY
Taurasia Cisauna Samnio Cepit\YgUkUbUbU[fUaaUh]W`]bYh\UhWcbhU]bg
GW]d]cgZi``bUaY]bh\Ygm``UV`Ygcipiio VYg]XYgh\YSZfcaSamnio cepit 
k\]W\]gh\Yfgh`YhhYf]bU[fcid]bk\]W\h\YkcfXScipioUddYUfgU`acgh]b
Zi``"8Ygd]hYh\YZUWhh\Uhh\YGk]gg`]b[i]ghVY`]YjYXh\Ycb`mWcbj]bW]b[
WUgYgcZ]bhYbh]cbU`UbU[fUag]ad`]YXUfYdYh]h]cbcZkcfXgh\UhUddYUfYX
U`fYUXmYld`]W]h`m]bh\YhYlh \]ggYUfW\Zcf\]XXYbUbU[fUag\UgVYYb
fYZYffYXhcUgGUiggifYgaUXbYgg"H\YfY]gYjYbacfYfYUgcbhchU`_UVcih
UhfiYdUfUbc]Xghm`YcZUbU[fUaaUh]WfYUX]b[k\Ybh\YgiV^YWhcZh\Y
fYUX]b[^ighhf]YghcYlhfUWhWcaV]bUh]cbgcZ`YhhYfgh\UhWcadcgYkcfXgh\Uh
UfY\cgh]`YcfcZZYbg]jYhc\]a ]bXYdYbXYbh`mcZh\Y]fUWhiU`UVgYbWYZfca
h\YhYlh"

266 Art and Social Change 1989


        8

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cZh\YUWWigYX ]h]gYbci[\hcgUmhcUbmcbYh\Uh\Y]g\YfYh]W h\]gghUhYaYbh
VY]b[jU`]XYjYbk\Ybh\Yhkck]hbYggYg\UjYbh\YUfXUbmVUX!gcibX]b[
kcfXgZfcah\Yacih\cZh\YUWWigYX"
=Zh\Yk]hbYggYgXYW`UfYh\Uhh\YUWWigYX\UgUfYdihUh]cbUg\YfYh]W UbX
UfYUg_YXk\Uhh\]gfYdihUh]cbWcbg]ghgcZ]h]gbchbYWYggUfmZcfh\Yahc
[]jYUXYhU]`YXYld`UbUh]cb ]h]gYbci[\Zcfh\YahcgUmh\UhdYcd`YVY`]YjY
gc"Manual de inquisidores hfUbg"Zfca:fYbW\hcGdUb]g\Vm8cb>"AUfW\Yb 
AUXf]X.=adfYbhUXY8">"XY`7c``UXc %,&& dd")*"
cZhYbh\Y]bei]g]hcfgh\YagY`jYgWfYUhYh\Y\YfYh]Wg"5bXbchcb`m]bh\Y
gYbgYh\Uhh\Ym]aU[]bYh\Yak\YfYh\YmUfYbch VihU`gcVYWUigYh\Ym
fYdfYggk]h\giW\jY\YaYbWY\YfYh]WWcffidh]cbh\Uh VmXc]b[gc h\Ym]bW]hY
aUbmhc[Yh]bjc`jYXk]h\]h VYWUigYcZ\UhfYXhckUfXgh\cgYk\ck\]d]h"
5XgcXYAY`_ UgeichYXVm5VUhYJU``Yh Le manuscript de Dom Adson de Melk,
traduit en franais daprs ledition de Dom J. Mabillon DUf]g.DfYggYgXY`5VVUmY
XY`UGcifWY %,(& d"'&"
9 GYY8Yg]XYf]cBUjUffc 5`hYfbUh]jUUdc`c[h]WUXY`]f]cXY]bhYfdfYhUW]b.

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O5dc`c[Yh]W5`hYfbUh]jY=bhYfdfYhUh]jY8Y`]f]ia.D`Ugh]W5gYaUbh]gaUgU
Dcgh!5fh]gh]W GcW]c`c[]WU`UbX9h\]WU`FYUWh]cbQ La Gaceta de Cuba <UjUbU 
>UbiUfm%-,- dd"%%%&"GYYU`gc;YfUfXcAcgeiYfU @UfYhfcUVghfUWW]b.
ibUgc`iW]bc`UfYXiWW]bU`UVgifXcWcacU`UfaU3OFYhfcUVghfUWh]cb.5
gc`ih]cb cfh\YFYXiWh]cbhch\Y5VgifXUgUb5`Ufa3Q El Caimn Barbudo 
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Desiderio Navarro Geometric Retroabstraction 267


   10

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11 =bZfcbhcZUbcV^YWh gcaYh]aYgcbYWUbUggiaYUgYaUbh]WUhh]hiXYVm

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WcbWYdh]cb UbXfYU`cfWh]h]cigcV^YWhg"A]YWnmgUkKU``]g Sztuki iznaki 
JUfgcj]U.d]k %-,& d"%$,"

268 Art and Social Change 1989


   12

        13

12 H\YUVghfUWhUfhkcf_gU!gYaUbh]W]adchYbWY]bh\YZUWYcZUbYlhfYaY
gYaUbh]W]g]b[UddfcUW\ dUfUbc]Xcfbch \UgVYYb]XYbh]YXVmA]W\UY`
?]fVm]bThe Art of Time. Essays on the Avant-GardeBYkMcf_ %-*-.H\Y
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YjYfmh\]b[ ]bUWYfhU]b`YjY`cZ]bhYfdfYhUh]cb aUmUWei]fYUd\]`cgcd\]WU`
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]bhYbh]cbU`fYZYfYbWYg h\YmUfY^ighV`chg/\ckYjYf h\fci[\h\YaUfY
dYfWY]jYXaUbmX]jYfgYaYggU[Yg"6YWUigYcZh\Uh h\YaYggU[YeiU`]hm
cZYldYf]YbWYWUbVYgYYb Uh`YUghhcUWYfhU]bYlhYbh UgZibWh]cbU``m
XYdYbXYbhcbh\YfYWYdhcfgX]gdcg]h]cbhcdYfWY]jYUaYggU[Y"<Yk]``
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9UW\kcf_ ]bUWYfhU]bkUm ]gUbcdYbaYhUd\cf.h\Ykcf_ ]bgcaY`YjY`
cZfYWYdh]cb U`kUmgreminds ofgcaYh\]b[ gcaYh\]b[kYkUbhhcWcadUfY
]hk]h\"5bUVghfUWhdU]bh]b[a][\hZcfYlUad`YVYUggcW]UhYXhcUdUfh]Wi`Uf
YjYbh hcYach]cbgYldYf]YbWYX]bUWYfhU]bacaYbh hch\YghfiWhifYcZ
h\Ykcf`Xcf g]ad`m hc`]ZY.k]h\YjYfmh\]b[h\UhaYacfmUbX]aU[]bUh]cb
fYZYfhc"
13 GYYh\YUbcbmacighYlhBiYjUg]bg]biUW]cbYg]ffYjYfYbhYg U\cfU

[YcaYhfUaYX]UbhYBYk]ffYjYfYbh]bg]biUh]cbg bckk]h\aYX]Uh]b[
[YcaYhfm hcacffck cfh\YXUmUZhYf ]bcbYcZh\YbUh]cbU`dUdYfg"

Translated by Pablo Lafuente.

Desiderio Navarro Geometric Retroabstraction 269


The Border Art Workshop/Taller de Arte Fronterizio
Border Sutures, 1990
Courtesy Davidson Library CEMA ,
University of California; Centro Cultural de la Raza

270
THE BORDER ART WORKSHOP/
TALLER DE ARTE FRONTERIZO
G U I LLE R MO GO M E Z- PE N A AN D E M I LY H IC KS
I NTE RV I E WE D BY COCO F U SCO

Third Text, no.7, London, Summer 1989.


Courtesy Taylor & Francis Books UK .

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Ukcfh\k\]`Yd`UWYZcfWfYUh]cb"
1 The Border Art Workshop/Taller
de Arte Fronterizo, San Diego/Tijuana
(19851990)

271
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272 Art and Social Change 1989


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Guillermo Gomez-Pena and Emily Hicks The Border Art Workshop/Taller De Arte Fronterizo 273
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GGP9jYfmaYaVYfcZh\Ykcf_g\cd\UgUWcbWfYhYX]fYWh]cb"=UaU
dYfZcfaUbWYUfh]ghUbXUkf]hYfUbXh\Uh]gamZibWh]cbk]h\]bh\Ykcf_g\cd"
GcaYh]aYgUV]``VcUfXa][\hVYacfYYZZYWh]jYh\UbUdYfZcfaUbWYd]YWY"
KY\UjYXcbYjYfmYZZYWh]jYkcf_fYWcbhYlhiU`]g]b[]aU[YfmUbXhYlhg"GcU
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5bXUacbh\`UhYf]h]gdUfhcZUdYfZcfaUbWYd]YWY cfU`a"

EHKYUfYdYfZYWh]b[U`Ub[iU[Yh\UhWUbVYYl]V`YYbci[\hcXYU`k]h\
UWcbghUbh`mW\Ub[]b[dc`]h]WU`g]hiUh]cb"Gch\YfY]gUgYbgYcZWfUZh]bU``
cZh\]g"=h\UghcXck]h\h\YUV]`]hmhcfYWmW`YaUhYf]U` hcfYgdcbXei]W_`m 
hc\UjYUXUhUVUgYfYUXm gch\UhkYWUbWcaYidk]h\gcaYh\]b[Zcfh\Y
acaYbhh\Uh]gUddfcdf]UhYZcfh\Uhg]hiUh]cb"
KYfYXYU`]b[f][\hbckk]h\dYgh]W]XYgUbXkcaYb k]h\ghYf]`]hmUbX
V]fh\XYZYWhgXiYhcYldcgifYhcgcaYdYgh]W]XYg"=hhU_YgU`cb[h]aYhc
XYjY`cdUbUddfcdf]UhYUfh`Ub[iU[YhcX]gWiggh\Uh"6YfhU>chhUfX]XUd]YWY
]bBYkMcf_h\UhkUgh\YfghUddfcl]aUh]cb"H\YbFcVYfhGUbW\Ynhcc_
6YfhUg]XYUgUbXX]XUbch\Yfd]YWY]bGUb>cgYh\UhkUg dYf\Udg acfY
giWWYggZi`]b]bhY[fUh]b[h\Yj]giU`]bZcfaUh]cb\YUXXYXacfYhYlhg"

274 Art and Social Change 1989


CFKci`XmciW\UfUWhYf]gYh\Ykcf_UgdfYXca]bUbh`mfYUWh]jY 
cffYYWh]jY cfVch\3

GGP=h]g]adcfhUbhhcX]gh]b[i]g\hkcdUfU``Y`dfcWYggYg"H\YdfcWYgg
cZh\Y]bX]j]XiU`]gU`cb[dfcWYgg UbX]h]bjc`jYgfYYl]j]hm"9UW\cZig]g
kcf_]b[cb\Yfcf\]g`Ub[iU[Y]bUjYfmWUfYZi`UbX]bhYbg]jYkUm"K\Uh
WfYUhYXh\YbYYXZcfU[fcidkUgh\YX]ggUh]gZUWh]cbk]h\cb`mcdYfUh]b[
k]h\]bh\YUfhkcf`X"5bX=h\]b_h\Uhh\YbYYXhc\UjYUbYlhfU!Ufh]gh]Wjc]WY 
hc\UjYUdiV`]Wjc]WYcihg]XYcZh\YUfhkcf`X \UgVfci[\highcWfYUhYh\]g
ch\Yf_]bXcZkcf_ kcf_]bUWcbhYlhcZ]aaYX]UWm"GcaYh]aYgh\YacfY
fYYWh]jYkcf_VYWcaYgdUfhcZh\UhUgkY``"6cfXYf6fi^cWUbVYdfYgYbhYX
UgUb]g\YXd]YWY]bUh\YUhfYZYgh]jU`cfUaigYia UbXWUbU`gcVYdUfhcZ
h\Y6cfXYf5fhKcf_g\cdUhUfU``m"5bXGUbhU:f]XUUbXh\YKfYgh`]b[6f]XY
WUbgiXXYb`mVYdUfhcZuna manifestacin estudiantil en el centre de Tijuana
UghiXYbhdfchYgh]bh\Ya]XX`YcZH]^iUbU"

Guillermo Gomez-Pena and Emily Hicks The Border Art Workshop/Taller De Arte Fronterizo 275
Gran Fury With 42,000 Dead Art is Not Enough, 1988
Poster
Image above and text opposite courtesy Gran Fury
Records, Manuscripts and Archives Division,
The New York Public Library, Astor, Lennox
and Tilden Foundations

276
A PRESENTATION
G R AN F U RY
( TO M K A LI N , M IC H A E L N E S LI N E AN D JO H N LI N DE LL)

Edited from an audio recording


of a slide presentation made on the
occasion of the exhibition Pour la suite
du monde, Musee dart contemporain,
Montreal, 1992.

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UbXdfcjc_YX]fYWhUWh]cbhcYbXh\YU]XgWf]g]g"KYbUaYXcifgY`jYgUZhYf
h\YUihcacV]`YbcfaU``migYXVmibXYfWcjYfdc`]WYU[Ybhg]bBYkMcf_ UbX
kY\UjYdfcXiWYXUbiaVYfcZdfc^YWhg dcghYfg gh]W_Yfg h!g\]fhg mYfg 
df]bhYXUXg V]``VcUfXg giVkUmUbXVigg][bgUbXj]XYcg";fUb:ifm
fYWc[b]gYgh\UhX]fYWhUWh]cbUbXWi`hifU`UWh]j]gaUfYYldfYgg]cbgcZ
X]ZZYfYbhWcaaib]h]YgX]ZZYf]b[bYYXg"
;fUb:ifmYaYf[YXcihcZU[fcidWU``YXUWhid]bBYkMcf_h\UhkUg
ZcfaYX]b%-,+ UbXdf]cfhch\UhUWc``YWh]jYWU``YXh\YG]`YbWY18YUh\
Wc``YWh]jY"H\YdcghYfh\YmVYWUaYVYgh_bckbZcf]gh\YSilence = Death dcghYf 
k\]W\UWhiU``mdfYWYXYXh\YZcfaUh]cbcZUWhidBYkMcf_"=hkUgUb
UhhYadhcbh\Y]fdUfhhcj]Ykh\YU]XgWf]g]gUgUdc`]h]WU`gWUbXU`cbh\YgWU`Y
cZKUhYf[UhY"K\m]gFYU[Ubg]`YbhUVcihU]Xg3K\Uh]gfYU``m[c]b[cbUh
h\Y7YbhYfZcf8]gYUgY7cbhfc`3=bU`chcZkUmgh\]gdcghYfVYWUaYU`cWUh]cb
ZcfdYcd`Yk\c\UXU`chcZfU[YcfUgYbgYcZXYgdU]fUVcihh\YU]XgWf]g]g 
UbXh\]g]bhifb`YXhch\YZcfaUh]cbcZUWhid"
;fUb:ifmkUgZcfaYX]b>UbiUfm%-,,cihcZUWhid ]bgcaYgYbgYUh
h\Y]bgh][Uh]cbcZ6]``C`UbXYf"6]``\UXWcaYhcUWhidBYkMcf_hccZZYfh\Y
k]bXckUhh\YBYkAigYiaZcfUdfc^YWhh\UhVYWUaY@Yhh\YFYWcfXG\ck
U`Uf[Yd\chcaifU`cZh\YBifYaVif[hf]U`g UbX]bh\YZcfY[fcibXUgYf]Yg
cZ5aYf]WUb]bX]j]XiU`gYUW\k]h\\]gcf\YfeichUh]cbUVcihU]XgWUgh]b
WcbWfYhY"6]``C`UbXYfkfchYUbYggUmUhh\Yh]aY UbX=``fYUXUeichY
Zfca]h.

The point is a simple one not all works of art are as disinterested as others, and
some of the greatest have been created in the midst of, or as a result of, a crisis. Many
of us believe were in the midst of a crisis today. Let the record show that there are
many in the community of art and artists who chose not to be silent in the 1980s.

277
6]``X]YXcZU]Xg]b,,UbXkYfYjYfmh\Ub_Zi`UbXh\]b_jYfmghfcb[`m
cZ\]a]bhYfagcZ\]gYUf`mYZZcfhgUfcibXU]XgUWh]j]ga"
CbYcZh\Y]adcfhUbhghfUhY[]YgcZUWhidkUg\iacifUbXd`Um"H\YfY
kUgUbUh]cbU`WUadU][b]bh\YYUf`mdUfhcZ,,hcUfh]Wi`UhYW`YUf`mcbU
bUh]cbU`gWU`Yh\YdfcV`YagcZh\YU]XgWf]g]g"DcghYfgkYfYaUXY YUW\cbY
hcUXjYfh]gYUX]ZZYfYbhXUm"CbYUWh]cbh\]gXUmkUghUf[YhYXhcXYU`k]h\
h\Y]ggiYcZU]XgUbX\cacd\cV]UkUgUaUgg]jY_]gg!]b"5\i[YbiaVYf
cZdYcd`YaUfW\YX]bhch\YKYghJ]``U[YUbXh\YaUfW\Yfg aiW\hch\Y
WcbZig]cbcZh\Ydc`]WY U``VY[Ubhc_]gg]bghYUXcZ\c`X]b[g][bgidcf`m]b[
Xckb]bh\YghfYYh"=hkUgUbUhhYadhhcaU_YgYl!dcg]h]jY]aU[YgUjU]`UV`Y
hcdYcd`Yk\ca][\hbchgYYh\Yach\Yfk]gY UbXU`gchc\UjYU_]bXcZ
diV`]WWY`YVfUh]cb UW`U]a]b[cZdiV`]WgdUWY"
Cif]aU[YgUbXh\Y]bZcfaUh]cbW]fWi`UhY]bUjUf]YhmcZZcfag"KYfYWmW`Y
UbXWUbb]VU`]gYcifckbkcf_]bUbYZZcfhhcdig\]hgUWWYgg]V]`]hmVYmcbX
h\cgYk\ca][\h^ighgYY]hcbh\YghfYYh"
H\]g]gUeichYZfcaJ]hcFiggck\]W\Yld`U]bgcfWcbhYlhiU`]gYg
OgcaYcZk\UhkYXcQ ZfcaUgdYYW\[]jYbUh5`VUbm]b%-,,"J]hc
kUgUjYfmUfh]Wi`UhYaYaVYfcZUWhid"

If Im dying from anything, its from homophobia. If Im dying from anything, its
from racism. If Im dying from anything, its from indifference and red tape. If Im
dying from anything, Im dying from Jessie Helms and Ronald Reagan. If Im dying
from anything, Im dying from the sensationalism of newspapers, magazines and
television shows which are interested in me as a human interest story only as long as
Im willing to be a helpless victim, not if Im fighting for my life. If Im dying from
anything, its the fact that not enough rich white heterosexual men have gotten AIDS
for anyone to give a shit.

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dYcd`Y ]g]hW]j]`kUf3H\Yig[cjYfbaYbhWcbg]XYfgh\Y(+ &)(XYUXZfca
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=hg]adcfhUbhhcbchYh\Uh]b5aYf]WUUhh\]gdc]bhcjYf%%$ $$$dYcd`Y\UjY
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cZh\YbiaVYfg]bZYWhYXk]h\\]jUbXk\c\UXX]YXcZU]Xg f][\hVYZcfYh\Y

278 Art and Social Change 1989


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biaVYfgUgYWcbca]WUbXdc`]h]WU`"KYhcc_Oh\YQgmaVc`cZh\YfYX\UbX 
k\]W\\UgVYYbigYXVmaUbmch\Yfdc`]h]WU`ghfi[[`YgOh\YUWWcadUbm]b[
hYlhfYUXg.h\Y[cjYfbaYbh\UgV`ccXcb]hg\UbXg"CbYU]XgXYUh\YjYfm
\U`Z\cifQ UbXdih]hdfYhhmaiW\YjYfmk\YfYdcgg]V`YUbXWfYUhYXUh!g\]fh
cihcZ]h"=hkUgUVY[]bb]b[cZciffYWc[b]h]cbcZh\YkUmg]bk\]W\
UWh]j]gaWci`XigYh\YaYX]UhcdihcifU[YbXUZcfkUfX ]ZkYdfYgYbhYX
UXYacbghfUh]cbh\UhkUg`Y[]V`Y]bUWcadUWhZUg\]cb"5eichYZfca
>UaYg6U`Xk]b.

The victim who is able to articulate the situation of the victim has ceased
to be a victim he or she has become a threat.

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Gran Fury A Presentation 279


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VifbcihUbXh\cgYdYcd`Ykci`XX]YUbXh\YbiaVYfgkci`X`YjY`cZZUbX

280 Art and Social Change 1989


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8ci[`Ug7f]adUbX5XUaFUk`ghcb AIDS DemographicsO6UmDfYgg%--$Q.

Gran Fury A Presentation 281


We dont claim invention of the style or the techniques, we have no patent on
the politics or the designs. There are AIDS activist graphics wherever there are AIDS
activists. But ours are the ones we know and can show to others, presented in
a context we can understand. We want others to keep using our graphics and
making their own.

5bXh\]gZfca@iWm@]ddUfX.
Yet racism, sexism and classism are not invisible in this society. The question of
why they should be generally invisible in visual art is still a potato too hot to pick
up. Because it is so embedded in context, activist art often eludes art critics, who are
neither the intended audience nor as knowledgeable about the issues and places as the
artists themselves have become. The multiple drawn-out forms can also be confusing,
because innovation in the international art market is understood as brand-name,
stylistic and short-term, geared to the markets short attention-span. Conventionally
artists are not supposed to go so far beneath the surface as to provoke changed
attitudes. They are merely supposed to embellish, observe and reflect the sights
and systems of the status quo.

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GYhh`YaYbh]bBYkMcf_"=h\]b_]hgdYU_gZcf]hgY`Z"

5``DYcd`YK]h\U]Xg5fY=bbcWYbh"

282 Art and Social Change 1989


REBELLION ON LEVEL P
C H R I S TO PH SC H F E R AN D C ATHY S K E N E
WITH TH E H A F E N R AN DV E R E I N

First published in A.N.Y.P. 1995/96,


revised January 98 by the Park Fiction
working group.

Acting from a subordinate position, residents organised through the <UZYbfUbXjYfY]b


(Harbour Edge Association) prevented the development of the ObankQ along the Elbe
River in St. Pauli, which was to consume millions; they caused the local development
plan to be chopped and succeeded in having a self-organised park with a view to the Elbe
realised instead. With Park Fiction, a radically participatory planning procedure could
be carried through, the first part of which the phase of collective production of desires
has been financed since 1997 by funds from the municipal culture departments
programme for art in public space. This urban practice is discussed here within an
expanded urban-theoretical frame. This text is part of the social, political and artistic
Park Fiction process, opening up perspectives for further activities in the urban field.

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fY]bVmh\YghUhY`YjY`;"

284 Art and Social Change 1989


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Christoph Schfer and Cathy Skene with the Hafenrandverein Rebellion on Level p 285
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UX]ZZYfYbhZcfa"

286 Art and Social Change 1989


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YWcbca]WU``mach]jUhYXYldi`g]cbcZdYcd`Y fYghf]Wh]cbgcZUWh]j]h]YgUbX

Christoph Schfer and Cathy Skene with the Hafenrandverein Rebellion on Level p 287
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h\YdfcWYgg"H\YaU]b]ggiY]ghcXYjY`cdghfUhY[]YgZcfg\Ud]b[Ud`Ubb]b[

288 Art and Social Change 1989


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d"g"
5fh6ig]bYgg
H\YHafenrandverein\UgVYYbUWh]jYZcfmYUfg"DfchYghgU[U]bghh\Y
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]bUWh]j]hmUbXdUgg]j]hmUbXfYdfcXiW]b[]hUgYadhmUWh]cb"

Translated by Karl Hoffmann.

Christoph Schfer and Cathy Skene with the Hafenrandverein Rebellion on Level p 289
POPOTL A
R E V A RTE

Statement on RevArtes collaboration


with the fishing community of Popotla
to protest the construction of the
maquiladora studio in which
Twentieth Century Fox Studios
1997 film Titanic was shot.

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290 Art and Social Change 1989


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j]g]hhchcifh\YkU``bckhiaV`]b[VUW_]bhchfUg\ ]bhc]hgcf[Ub]WZcfa"

RevArte Popotla 291


Documentation of the Popotla project by RevArte
and the Popotla community, 1997
Photographs James Blienser, Luz Camacho
and Jim Hammond of RevArte

292
STATEMENT BY THE FEMINIST
ARTIST COLLECTIVE IP GIM

Issued on 30 September, 2000.

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294 Art and Social Change 1989


Ip Gim Documentation of the Abanggung
Occupation Project at Jongmyo, 2000

295
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Translated by Hyunjin Kim.

296 Art and Social Change 1989


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298 Art and Social Change 1989


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Tiqqun How To? 301


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302 Art and Social Change 1989


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304 Art and Social Change 1989


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Tiqqun How To? 305


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306 Art and Social Change 1989


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Tiqqun How To? 307


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308 Art and Social Change 1989


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Tiqqun How To? 309


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310 Art and Social Change 1989


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Tiqqun How To? 311


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312 Art and Social Change 1989


POLITICISING SADNESS
CO LEC TIVO S ITUAC ION E S

Colectivo Situaciones, Buenos Aires,


13 February, 2007.

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313
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314 Art and Social Change 1989


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Colectivo Situaciones Politicising Sadness 315


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316 Art and Social Change 1989


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cZVYWca]b[Ug]hiUh]cbU`]bhYfZUWY]bh\Ykcf`X"

Colectivo Situaciones Politicising Sadness 317


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`cgh]blYX UbXh\YfYZcfY]``igcfm V]bUf]gag k\]W\WcbZfcbhigUgj]Whcfm!
XYZYUh"DUc`cJ]fbcgiaaUf]gYXk\Uh]gcdYb]b[]bZfcbhcZigh\]gkUm.
VYmcbXh\Yj]h]UhYXcgW]``Uh]cbVYhkYYbWccdhUh]cbUbXaUf[]bU`]gUh]cb 
k\Uh]gUhghU_Y]gh\Ydcgg]V]`]hmcZUbYkaUhif]hm"

Translated by Nate Holdren and Sebastian Touza.

318 Art and Social Change 1989


MAYAN TECHNOLOGIES AND
THE THEORY OF ELECTRONIC
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
RIC ARDO DO M I NG U E Z I NTE RVI E WE D BY
B E N JA M I N S H E PAR D AN D STE PH E N DU NCO M B E

Benjamin Shepard and Ronald Hayduk (ed.), ACT UP to the


WTO Urban Protest and Community Building in the Era of
Globalization, London; New York: Verso, 2002.

RICARDO DOMINGUEZ =kUgVcfb]b@UgJY[Ug BYjUXU &AUm %-)-"@Ug


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Ricardo Dominguez Mayan Technologies and the Theory of Electronic Civil Disobedience 331
THE ARTICUL ATION OF PROTEST
H ITO STE YE R L

Republicart web journal,


September 2002, www.republicart.
net/disc/mundial/steyerl02_en.htm

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1 Independent Media Center, Deep Dish Television, USA , 1999,
Showdown in Seattle: Five Days That 150 min.
Shook the WTO,

334 Art and Social Change 1989


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Wf]h]W]gYXU`cb[k]h\h\YWcbWYdhcZh\Yjc]WYcZh\YdYcd`Y]hgY`Z"

Ici et Ailleurs
H\YX]fYWhcfg cffUh\Yfh\YYX]hcfgcZh\Y`aIci et Ailleurs 3 ;cXUfXUbX
A]Yj]``Y hU_YUfUX]WU``mWf]h]WU`dcg]h]cbk]h\fYgdYWhhch\YhYfagcZh\Y
dcdi`Uf"H\Y]f`aWcbg]ghgcZUgY`Z!Wf]h]eiYcZUgY`Z!dfcXiWYX`a
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\Yfc]g]b[dfcdU[UbXU`aV`ighYfgUVcihh\YdYcd`YgVUhh`Y kUgWU``YX
Until VictoryUbXkUgbYjYfb]g\YX"=hWcbg]ghgcZgYjYfU`dUfhgk]h\h]h`Yg
giW\Ug.h\YUfaYXVUhh`Y dc`]h]WU`kcf_ h\Yk]``cZh\YdYcd`Y h\Y
YlhYbXYXkUfibh]`j]Whcfm"=hg\ckgVUhh`YhfU]b]b[ gWYbYgcZYlYfW]gYUbX
g\cch]b[ UbXgWYbYgcZd`cU[]hUh]cb ZcfaU``m]bUbU`acghgYbgY`YggW\U]b
cZYei]jU`YbW]Yg ]bk\]W\YjYfm]aU[Y Ug]g`UhYfdfcjYX ]gZcfWYX]bhch\Y
Ubh]!]adYf]U`]gh]WZUbhUgm":cifmYUfg`UhYf ;cXUfXUbXA]Yj]``Y]bgdYWhh\Y
2 This is not intended to imply that a film could insist that this cannot be 3 Jean-Luc Godard, Anne-Marie
there is any film that could take over replaced by simple adjurations. Mieville, Ici et Ailleurs, France, 1975,
this work of mediation. However, 52 min.

Hito Steyerl The Articulation of Protest 335


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4 And what does Here and
Elsewhere mean now, if synagogues
are burning in France?

336 Art and Social Change 1989


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Hito Steyerl The Articulation of Protest 337


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aUbmacjYaYbhgh\UhWU``h\YagY`jYgdfchYghacjYaYbhg k\]W\
g\ci`XVYWU``YXfYUWh]cbUfm ]Zbchcihf][\hZUgW]gh cfk\]W\Uh`YUgh
]bW`iXYgiW\Y`YaYbhgYUg]`m"H\YacjYaYbhgh\]g]bjc`jYgUfYh\cgY
]bk\]W\Yl]gh]b[WcbX]h]cbgUfYfUX]WU`]gYX]bVfYUh\`YgghfUbg[fYgg]cb 
gWUhhYf]b[ZfU[aYbhYX]XYbh]h]Yg`]_YVcbYgd`]bhYfgU`cb[h\YkUm"
H\YYbYf[mcZh\YacjYaYbh[`]XYggYUa`Ygg`mZfcacbYY`YaYbhhc
h\YbYlhhfUjYfg]b[h\Y\cac[YbYcigYadhmh]aY`]_YUkUjYacj]b[
h\fci[\h\YWfckX"=aU[Yg gcibXgUbXdcg]h]cbgUfY`]b_YXk]h\cih
fYYWh]cb]bh\YacjYaYbhcZV`]bX]bW`ig]cb"5hfYaYbXcigXmbUa]W
ibZc`Xg]bh\YgY[ifYgcb`mhc`YUjYYjYfmh\]b[Ug]hkUg"

338 Art and Social Change 1989


K\]W\acjYaYbhcZdc`]h]WU`acbhU[Yh\YbfYgi`hg]bUbcddcg]h]cbU`
Ufh]Wi`Uh]cb]bghYUXcZUaYfYUXX]h]cbcZY`YaYbhgZcfh\YgU_YcZ
fYdfcXiW]b[h\YghUhigeic3Cfhcd\fUgYh\YeiYgh]cbX]ZZYfYbh`m.K\]W\
acbhU[YVYhkYYbhkc]aU[Yg#Y`YaYbhgWci`XVY]aU[]bYX h\Uhkci`X
fYgi`h]bgcaYh\]b[X]ZZYfYbhVYhkYYbUbXcihg]XYh\YgYhkc k\]W\kci`X
bchfYdfYgYbhUWcadfca]gY Vihkci`X]bghYUXVY`cb[hcUX]ZZYfYbhcfXYf
fci[\`mh\YkUmgcaYcbYa][\hhYbUW]cig`mdcibXhkcXi``ghcbYghc[Yh\Yf
hcWfYUhYUgdUf_]bh\YXUf_bYgg3K\Yh\Yfh\]ggdUf_ k\]W\cbYWci`X
U`gcWU``h\YgdUf_cZh\Ydc`]h]WU` WUbVYWfYUhYXUhU``]gUeiYgh]cbcZ
h\]gUfh]Wi`Uh]cb"

Hito Steyerl The Articulation of Protest 339


A CONCISE LE XICON OF/FOR
THE DIGITAL COMMONS
R AQS M E DIA COLLEC TIV E

Extract from Raqs Media Collective,


Sarai Reader 03: Shaping Technologies,
Delhi: The Sarai Programme Centre
for the Study of Developing Societies,
2003.

5WWYgg
H\YZUW]`]hmhc`c[cbUbX`c[]bhcUgdUWYcfUbYhkcf_k\YfYdYcd`YUbX
aYUb]b[g[Uh\Yf"HcVYdfYgYbh hc\UjYh\YUV]`]hm h\Y_Ym hcXYWcXYU
g][bU` hccdYbXccfg hcVYUV`YhcXckb`cUX#id`cUXcbhcUbmgmghYacZ
g][bgUbXg][bU`gVY]hh\Y=bhYfbYh UVcc_ UbUfhkcf_ cfUX]bbYfdUfhm"
H\YfYWUbVYbcYlWYggcZUWWYgg"

6UbXk]Xh\
8YgWf]VYgh\YX]aYbg]cbgh\UhUfYbYWYggUfmZcfaYggU[Yg g][bU`gUbX
Wcaaib]WUh]cbghc[Yhh\fci[\"H\Y[fYUhYfh\YVUbXk]Xh\cZUgmghYa 
h\Y\][\Yfh\YbiaVYfcZaYggU[Yg UbX\][\Yfh\YeiUbh]hmcZ]bZcfaUh]cb
h\Uh]hWUbUWWcaacXUhYUhUbm[]jYbh]aY"=hZc``ckgZfcah\]gh\UhUWWYgg
]gUZibWh]cbcZVUbXk]Xh\"AcfYdYcd`YWUbaU_Yh\YagY`jYg\YUfXk\Yb
h\YfY]gfccaZcfh\YahcgdYU_UbXVYgdc_Ybhc"6UbXk]Xh\hfUbg`UhYg]bhc
WcbhYbh!f]W\]bZcfaUh]cb ghfYUagcZj]XYc UiX]c UbXhYlhck]b[]bhcYUW\
ch\Yf"=hU`gchfUbg`UhYgUhh\YacaYbh]bhcWUg\"H\Y\UfXWUg\UbXWcbhfc`
h\UhWcaYgZfcagY``]b[d]WhifYgUbXgcibXgUbXbiaVYfghcacfYUbX
acfYdYcd`Y"

7cXY
H\Uhk\]W\WUff]YgYaVYXXYXk]h\]b]hUg][b"5WcXY]gU`kUmgUkUmcZ
gUm]b[gcaYh\]b[hcaYUbgcaYh\]b[ch\Yfh\Ubh\Uhk\]W\]gaYfY`mgU]X"
5WcXYWUbVYcdYbYX ]bh\YgYbgYh\Uh]hWUbVYUWWYggYXUbXYbhYfYX Ug
cddcgYXhcVfc_Yb"5bcdYb!UWWYggWi`hifYcZWcaaib]WUh]cbfYjYU`gh\Y
gcifWYcZ]hgWcXYg"5W`cgYXWi`hifYcZWcaaib]WUh]cbV`cW_gUWWYgghc]hg
WcXYg":fYYWcXY]gWcXYk\]W\kY`WcaYgYbhfm UbX]gcdYbhcW\Ub[Y"
:fYY7cXYbYYXghcVYg\UfYXZcf]hhc[fck"7cXYWcbbchYgWcaaib]hm 
UWcaaib]hmcZYbWcXYfg XYWcXYfgUbXWcXYg\UfYfg"@]_YY[[g WcXY]g
gcaYh]aYgVYgh\UXgWfUaV`YX"

340 Art and Social Change 1989


8UhU
=bZcfaUh]cb"7UbaYUbUbmh\]b[ZfcabiaVYfghc]aU[Yg Zfcak\]hYbc]gY
hcbc]gYhcgcibX"5kYUh\YffYdcfh UdcfhfU]h Ug\UXck]bgifjY]``UbWY
ZcchU[Y UgU`UfmghUhYaYbh V]fh\UbXXYUh\ghUh]gh]Wg U\YUXWcibh]bU
[Uh\Yf]b[cZZf]YbXg df]jUhYY!aU]` i`hfU\][\ZfYeiYbWmg][bU`g gU`YUbX
difW\UgYhfUbgUWh]cbgUbXh\YdUhhYfbgaUXYVmdYXYghf]UbgUgh\YmkU`_
]bUW]hmU``cZh\]gWUbVYUbX]gXUhU"8UhU `]_YWcU` ifUb]iaUbXch\Yf
a]bYfU`gj]hU`hch\Yfibb]b[cZh\Ykcf`XYWcbcam]ga]bYX dfcWYggYX 
fYbYXUbXgc`XUhU\][\df]WY"6Uhh`YY`Xg YUf`mhkYbhm!fghWYbhifm]bhYf!
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]b8Y`\]"H\Ya]bYfg`YUXjYfmei]YhXUmg UbXgdYbX`cb[b][\hgWcX]b[
]b`ckhYadYfUhifYncbYgWU``YX8UhUCihgcifW]b[7YbhfYg"
7cbhfUf]`m h\YkcfX8UhUdt]b<]bX]#GUbg_f]h]ghU_YbhcaYUb
[]jYf k\]W\gi[[Yghgh\UhcbYaighU`kUmgVY[YbYfcigk]h\]bZcfaUh]cb 
UbXaU_Y[]ZhgcZcifWcXY ]aU[YgUbX]XYUg"HcVYgh]b[mk]h\XUhU]ghc
j]c`UhYUb]bghUbWYcZh\YgYWfYhUbXgUWfYXWcadUWhgcZ\cacd\cb]WkcfXg
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h\YmaYYh]bh\Y`]a]bU`ncbYVYhkYYb`Ub[iU[Yg ]bh\Yh\]W_YhcZh\YgcibX
cZeich]X]Ubg`]dgcZh\Yhcb[iY"9ffcfg]bhfUbga]gg]cbUbXibXYfghUbX]b[
hccWUffm[]ZhgUbXXUhU"

9bgYaV`Y
H\YWcbWY]hcfXY`][\h]bhc[Yh\YfbYgg]bUb]bWfYUg]b[`mUbca]W 
ZfU[aYbhYXkcf`X"D`Um]b[cfkcf_]b[hc[Yh\YfhcWfYUhYb]g\YXcf
ibb]g\YXkcf_g"7\UaVYfaig]W]Ubg Wf]a]bU`g WcXY!\UW_YfgUbX
XcWiaYbhUf]ghgZcfaYbgYaV`Yg"5fh]ghghfmhc"9ZZYWh]jYYbgYaV`YgUfY
\][\VUbXk]Xh\UggYaV`]Ygh\UhVi]`X]bhch\Y]fckbUfW\]hYWhifYdcfhU`gZcf
fUbXcaUWWYgg]bhch\YagY`jYg"H\YmUfY k\Ybh\YmUfYUhh\Y]fVYgh cdYb
gmghYagh\Uhd`UWYUdfYa]iacbg\UfYX]bZcfaUh]cbk]h\]bh\Ya"H\YmWUb
Uhh]aYgaU]bhU]b\][\`YjY`gcZgYWfYWmk\]`YgYYa]b[`mUddYUf]b[hcVY
hfUbgdUfYbh"<YfY WcbXYbh]U`]hm]gUb]bXYlcZdfUWh]WYg]b[YghUh]cb"
A]bYXXUhU]g gcaYh]aYg fYghcfYXhcbUhifU`ghUhYgcZ]bZcfaUh]cbYbhfcdm
]bXUhUX]ggYaV`]b[YbgYaV`Yg k\]W\\UjYVYYbZcibXhckcf_VYghUhb][\h
]baYX]U`UVg"H\YFUegAYX]U7c``YWh]jY]gUbYbgYaV`YUbXYjYfmh\]b[
]hXcYg]gUbYbgYaV`YcZYl]gh]b[cfUbh]W]dUhYXdfUWh]WYg"

:fUWhU`
H\YgY`Z!cf[Ub]g]b[XYg][bcZfYdYUh]b[ fYd`]WUh]b[ghfiWhifYg cZhYbZcibX
]bgbckU_Yg hfYYVfUbW\[fckh\dUhhYfbg ac`YWi`UfghfiWhifYgUbXZfYY
WcXY"9jYfmdUfhcZUZfUWhU`dUhhYfbWUff]Ygk]h\]b]hh\Yg][bUhifYcfh\Y
YaVcggcZh\Yk\c`Y"5g]b[`YZfUWhU`]hYfUh]cbWUff]Ygk]h\]b]hh\Y_YfbY`g
cZU``ch\YfgcZ]hg_]bX"9jYfmZfUWhU`]gUfYgWYbg]cbcZYjYfmch\YfZfUWhU`h\Uh
\Ug[fckbZfcak]h\]b]h"=bh\YgUaYkUmUZfU[aYbhcZZfYYWcXY cfZfYY

Raqs Media Collective A Concise Lexicon of / for the Digital Commons 341
Wi`hifU`WcXY WUff]Ygk]h\]b]hUamf]UXdcgg]V]`]h]YgcZ]hgckbfYdfcXiWh]cb
UbXX]gdYfgU`k]h\]bUg\UfYXgmaVc`]Wcf]bZcfaUh]cbgdUWY":fUWhU`gVYgh
XYgWf]VYh\Y[YcaYhfmcZh\YaUhf]WYgh\UhUfYZcfaYXk\YbXUhU]gg\UfYX
]bghYUXcZVY]b[^igha]bYXUbXg\]ddYXVmUWcaaib]hmcZWcXYfg":fUWhU`g
UfYh\YZfi]hhfYYgcZh\YibWcbgW]cigXYg][b]b[a]bX"

;]Zh
GcaYh\]b[ZfYY`m[]jYb UbXhU_Yb Ug]bZfYYWcXY";]Zh[]jYfgUbX[]Zh
hU_YfgUfYVcibX]bbYhkcf_gcZfUbXcacfdfY!aYX]hUhYXUWhgcZgmaVc`]W
YlW\Ub[Y"H\YWcXYVY[Yhgh\Y[]ZhUgh\YZcfacZ]hgckbgifj]jU`cjYfh]aY"
=bh\]gkUmU[]Zh]gUei]YhaYaY"FYW]dfcW]hmVY[YhgfYW]dfcW]hm"H\Y
df]bW]d`YcZh\Y[]ZhXYaUbXgh\Uhh\Yh\]b[gVY]b[[]jYbVYdf]WY!`Ygg 
]bch\YfkcfXggcjU`iUV`YUghcVY]adcgg]V`YhceiUbh]Zm]bhYfagcZh\Y
dcgg]V]`]h]YgcZUVghfUWh[YbYfU`]gYXYlW\Ub[Y"H\Y[]ZhaighUhh\YgUaY
h]aY VYYUgmhcVYUfUbX_YYd YUgmhcigYUbXh\YfYaighVYbc[i]`h
]bjc`jYX]b]hgXYghfiWh]cbcfX]gdYfgU`k\Yb]hgigYjU`iYY]h\YfW\Ub[Ygcf
XYaUbXgfY!X]ghf]Vih]cb]bcfXYfhcVYYZZYWh]jY";]ZhgcdYbXccfghccifckb
dcgg]V]`]h]YgcZ[YbYfcg]hm"=bh\]gkUmh\YmZUW]`]hUhYUWWYgghch\Yh\]b[gkY
X]XbchYjYb_bckkY\UX"5bX h\YfY]ggiW\Uh\]b[UgUZfYY`ibW\ 
U`h\ci[\]hfYei]fYgh\Ydifgi]hcZUgdYW]U`fYW]dY"

<YhYfc[YbYcig
H\Uhk\]W\VY[]bg]baUbmd`UWYg `]_Yh\YghcfmcZUdYfgcbg`]ZY"8]jYfgY 
X]gdYfgYX X]ghf]VihYX Ug]bh\YUih\cfg\]dcZWi`hifY UbX]bh\YhfU^YWhcf]Yg
cZdYcd`Yk\cWcaYhcUg]hY"=bhYfdfYhUh]cbgUbX]XYUgYaVfUWY[fYUhYf
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`UmYfgh\Ym\UjY"

=hYfUh]cb
5bUfh]Wi`Uh]cb k\YbgYYbUgUbYjYbh ]gUb]hYfUh]cb"IhhYfUbWYg k\]gdYfg 
aUb]ZYghcg [fUZh] ghcf]Yg fiacifgUbXZfU[aYbhgcZdcYhfmZcibX]bh\Y
ghfYYhgYUW\cZh\YgYUfY]hYfUh]cbg"H\Ycf[Ub]gYXfYbX]h]cbcZUghfYhW\
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UbXUWWYgghch\YaYUbgcZgUm]b[]h UbXUh]aY]bk\]W\]hWUbVYgU]X"9jYfm
]hYfUh]cbfYgcbUhYgh\fci[\cfV]h]b[aYaYgh\UhUfYgYhcZZcbh\Y]fjYWhcfg
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hcVYgU]X UbXh\YbgU]XU[U]b"

>cifbU`
5fYWcfXcZh\YYjYfmXUm"5bbU`gcZaUhhYfgjUf]YXUbXeich]X]Ub"8UhU
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V]bUfmWcXY cfUWcaV]bUh]cbcZh\YgUaY UbXh\Y^cifbU`aUmhfUbgac[f]Zm

342 Art and Social Change 1989


ZfcaVY]b[Uk]hbYgg hcUdUfh]W]dUbh]bh\Uhk\]W\]gVY]b[fYWcfXYX"H\Y
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?YfbY`
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UVcih]hgY`Z"

@]a]bU`
=bhYfgh]h]U` jYgh]Vi`UfUbXdYf]d\YfU`":UfZfcah\YWYbhfY W`cgYhch\Y
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Raqs Media Collective A Concise Lexicon of / for the Digital Commons 343
cZhYbh\YacghWcbXiW]jYYbj]fcbaYbhgZcfh\YWi`hifYcZaYaYg"H\]g]g
VYWUigYYl]`YX]aU[Yg ]XYUgUbXaYUb]b[gZfcagYjYfU`ghUV`YghfiWhifYg
a]b[`Y]bh\YWcff]XcfgVYhkYYbh\Ya"<YfY VYfYZhcZ]XYbh]h]YgUbXch\Yf
WYfhU]bh]Yg h\YmUfYZfYYhcVYdfca]gWicigUbXfYdfcXiWY"H\Ym]bZYWhYUW\
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344 Art and Social Change 1989


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Raqs Media Collective A Concise Lexicon of / for the Digital Commons 345
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WcadihYfg WcbjYfgUh]cbg WcadihYfg g]`YbWYg WcadihYfg"
H\Yeich]X]Ub]gh\Uhk\]W\aU_YgU^cifbU`hifb cjYfh]aY ]bhc
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Fcih]bY mYhfUbXca h\Yeich]X]UbbUhifYcZUbmh\]b[XYaUbXgYYh]b[
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346 Art and Social Change 1989


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Raqs Media Collective A Concise Lexicon of / for the Digital Commons 347
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k\mmUfbgUfY[ccX_YfbY`g"

348 Art and Social Change 1989


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Vihhk]`][\h`]b[Yfg`cb[Yf]bh\YncbYcZh\YkYV"

Raqs Media Collective A Concise Lexicon of / for the Digital Commons 349
THE REVENGE OF THE CONCEPT:
ARTISTIC E XCHANGES,
NET WORKED RESISTANCE
B R IAN HO LM E S

Lecture delivered at the symposium of the exhibition


Geography and the Politics of Mobility, Generali
Foundation, Vienna, 18 January 2003 and published in
Confronting Capitalism: Dispatches from a Global Movement,
Brooklyn: Soft Skull Press, 2004.*

] 5acb[h\YYjYbhgcZfYWYbh\]ghcfm ZYk\UjYVYYbUggifdf]g]b[ UgZi``


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hcghf]_YUhh\Y[fYUhYghWcbWYbhfUh]cbgcZdckYf"K\Uh]gh\YghfYb[h\cZ
giW\acjYaYbhg3H\Yib`]_Y`mUddYU`hcUXc!]h!mcifgY`Z[Ycdc`]h]Wg.
UW\UbWYZcfdYfgcbU`]bjc`jYaYbh]bh\YhfUbgZcfaUh]cbcZh\Ykcf`X"
H\YgY_]bXgcZUWh]cbgUfYUVcihUgZUfUgcbYWci`X]aU[]bYZfcaU
aigYia/mYhk\YbmciUddfcUW\h\Ya mciWUbZYY`gcaYh\]b[X]gh]bWh`m
Ufh]gh]W"H\YmVf]b[hc[Yh\Yfh\Yai`h]d`]W]hmcZ]bX]j]XiU`YldfYgg]cbUbX
* Thanks to participants of the Keith Hart, for critiques of an initial 1 There is as yet no history
WorldInfo Con in Amsterdam, written version circulated on the of these ongoing movements,
December 2002, for ideas; and electonic mailinglist Nettime. but information and stories
to Felix Stalder, Ken Wark and can be found at www.apg.org

350 Art and Social Change 1989


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2 This is the thesis of Negri and http://multitudes.samizdat.net/ Further quotes are from this
Hardts Empire, Harvard University article.php3?id_article=54 article and Culture Clubs,
Press, 2000; also see Yoshihiko 3 Anthony Davies and Simon Ford, www.infopool.org.uk/cclubs.htm
Ichida, Questions dEmpire, Art Networks, www.societyofcontrol.
Multitudes 7, December 2001, com/research/davis_ford.htm

Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 351
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4 Manuel Castells, The Rise described at www.darpa.mil/iao/ techniques, see the report of the
of the Network Society, Oxford: TIASystems.htm, has since been International Campaign Against
Blackwell, 1996. defunded by the US Congress. Mass Surveillance, at www.i-cams.org
5 The Terrorism Information For comprehensive information on
Awareness System, formerly the pursuit of mass surveillance

352 Art and Social Change 1989


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Udc`]h]WU`d\]`cgcd\mghfYhW\]b[VUW_hch\YY][\hYYbh\WYbhifm"CbYWUb
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Kcf_Yfgghfi[[`Yg U[U]bghZU``]b[kU[Yg kcfgYb]b[`UVcifWcbX]h]cbg 
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h\Ydf]jUh]gUh]cbcZaYX]WU`UbXgW]Ybh]W_bck`YX[Y U[U]bghh\YWcbhfc`
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ghfi[[`YgU[U]bghh\YdfYdcbXYfUbWYcZh\YbUbW]U`gd\YfY]bh\YhU_]b[
cZXYacWfUh]WXYW]g]cbg"H\]g`]ghcZX]ZZYfYbhY`XgcZghfi[[`YfYZYfgig 
6 See David Harvey, The Condition Zagreb: Arkzin, 2003, online at
of Postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell, www.u-tangente.org
1990, pp.14148.
7 See Brian Holmes, The Flexible
Personality, Hieroglyphs of the Future,

Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 353
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gdYW]U`UhhYbh]cbhch\YX]fYWh]jYfc`Yh\Uh]bXYdYbXYbhVUb_Yfgd`UmYX]bh\Y
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kUfZUfY"=hkUgh\Y[fUXiU`UVUbXcbaYbhcZh\Y]bhYfbUh]cbU`[c`XghUbXUfX
ibXYfh\YdfYggifYcZfYdYUhYXbUbW]U`VfYU_Xckbgh\Uh`YX ]bh\Y%-'$g 
hch\YfYWcbgh]hih]cbcZghf]Wh`mbUh]cbU`YWcbca]Yg W`cgYX]bcbh\YagY`jYg
UbXgiV^YWhhcjUf]cigZcfagcZWYbhfU`d`Ubb]b[fUb[]b[Zfcah\YfY`Uh]jY`m
VYb][bBYk8YU` hcBUn]gaUbXGhU`]b]ga"6ihDc`Ubm] kf]h]b[]b%-(( 
8 See Bob Jessop, The Future of the money circulates as national money, up toxic waste on land that companies
Capitalist State, Cambridge: Polity, the state has a key role in securing a had used as free dumping grounds.
2002, pp.1214. In specific relation to formally rational monetary system; Since 1995 corporate taxation for this
money (which is sold massively as a conversely, its increasing circulation fund has been stopped, and since 2002
commodity on international currency as stateless money poses serious the Bush administration, hostile to the
markets, Jessop notes: Moneys ability problems regarding the re-regulation expense, is curtailing Federal funding.
to perform its economic functions of monetary relations. (p.14). As though the ecological balance
depends critically on extra-economic 9 For example, a government were at once priceless and impossible
institutions, sanctions and personal Superfund programme was deemed to pay for.
and impersonal trust. Insofar as necessary in the US in 1980, to clean

354 Art and Social Change 1989


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Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 355
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10 See Jessops treatment of 11 Colectivo Situaciones, 19 y 20
the Schumpeterian postnational Apuntes sobre el nuevo protagonismo
workfare state, in The Future of social, Buenos Aires: De Mano en
the Capitalist State, op. cit. Mano, 2002.

356 Art and Social Change 1989


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]gg]ad`mZU`gY"12
AcfY]bhYfYgh]b[]gh\YX]j]XYVYhkYYbh\YdcggYgg]jY

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]hgVY[]bb]b[g]bUWcbWYdhcZgc`]XUf]hmUf]g]b[Zfcah\YNUdUh]ghUghfi[[`Yg 
k\]W\\UjYZibXUaYbhU``mhcXck]h\eiYgh]cbgcZ`UbX"6ihh\YaYUb]b[
cZh\YgYgifj]jU`ghfi[[`YgcZh\YAUmUbdYcd`YgWci`Xcb`mfYUW\h\YgiV^YWhg
cZh\YXYjY`cdYXkcf`Xh\fci[\h\Y=bhYfbYh k\YfYh\YWcaacX]WUh]cb
cZWi`hifU`UbXgW]Ybh]W_bck`YX[Y]gUhghU_Y"<YfYh\YYggYbh]U`ghfi[[`Y
]ghccjYfhU_YUbXX]ggc`jYh\Y`Ub[iU[YcZ bchh\fci[\UfYhifbhch\Y
12 The opposition structures The Rise of the Network Society, op. cit.,
Manuel Castellss three-volume work pp.128, and returns throughout the
on the information age; it is discussed second volume, The Power of Identity,
in the prologue to the first volume, Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.

Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 357
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gmghYa]WWf]g]g"

]]] =h]gkY``_bckbh\Uhh\Y@]bilcdYfUh]b[!gmghYa_YfbY` UbXZfYY


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]ffYXiW]V`Yhch\YWU`Wi`Uh]cbcZh\YjU`iYcZaUhYf]U`cV^YWhg UbXU`gccZ
h\Y]bX]j]XiU`]bhYfYghcbYa][\h\UjY]bdcggYgg]b[h\Ya"5g6UfVfcc_
dc]bhgcih h\Y\Yf]hU[YcZAUiggkUgjYfmaiW\U`]jY]bU`hYfbUh]jYW]fW`Yg 
\]g]XYUg\Uj]b[]bgd]fYXh\YG]hiUh]cb]ghg k\cdUggYXh\Yacbhch\YXc!]h!
mcifgY`ZaYX]UYh\]WcZh\YDib_acjYaYbh"6ihacgh`mk\UhZiY``YXh\Y
X]gWigg]cbcZh\Y=bhYfbYh[]ZhYWcbcamkUgbchh\Ycfm Vihh\Yg]ad`Y
dfUWh]WYcZUXX]b[]bZcfaUh]cbhch\YbYh"5gF]g\UV5]mYf;\cg\Yld`U]bYX 

the economy of the Net begins to look like a vast tribal cooking-pot, surging
with production to match consumption, simply because everyone understands
instinctively, perhaps that trade need not occur in single transactions of barter,
and that one product can be exchanged for millions at a time. The cooking-pot
keeps boiling because people keep putting in things as they themselves, and others,
take things out.14


6md`UW]b[h\YUWWYbhcbh\YcjYfck]b[UVibXUbWYUbXZfYYbUhifY
cZh\YUjU]`UV`YWcbhYbh ;\cg\fYgdcbXYX]ad`]W]h`mhccbYcZh\Yacgh
WcbhYghYXh\YaYg]bAUigggYggUm k\]W\WUghYUW\[]ZhUgh\YXY`]VYfUhY
]adcg]h]cbcZUXYVhcbh\YfYWY]jYf ]bghUh]b[\]YfUfW\]Ygk\]W\kYfYei]hY
ZcfY][bhch\YdfUWh]WYcZbYhkcf_YX]bZcfaUh]cbYlW\Ub[Y"
HcXUm k]h\h\Ydcdi`UfYld`cg]cbcZ;bihY``UUbXch\YfdYYf!hc!dYYf`Y!
g\Uf]b[gmghYag h\YgYbch]cbgcZh\Y\][\!hYW\[]ZhYWcbcam\UjYVY[ibhc
ZcfadUfhcZWcaacbgYbgY"=hgYYaghcUXa]hUh`YUghUZYkbYkh\]b[g.h\Uh
h\YWcXYXWfYUh]cbgW]fWi`Uh]b[cbh\Y=bhYfbYhUfYbYjYfWcbgiaYX`]_YU
13 Richard Barbrook, The Hi-Tech 14 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, Cooking
Gift Economy, in ReadMe, Filtered by Pot Economy, in ReadMe, op. cit.,
Nettime, New York: Autonomedia, online at www.firstmonday.dk/issues/
1999, online at www.firstmonday.dk/ issue3 _ 3/ghosh/index.html # SEC5
issues/issue3_12/barbrook

358 Art and Social Change 1989


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fY`UhYXaYX]UXYj]WYg":cifh\ ]haighVYdcgg]V`YhcVfcUX`mX]ghf]VihY
h\YfYgi`hg Zcf]bghUbWY cjYfUhY`YWcaaib]WUh]cbgbYh"IbXYfh\YgY
WcbX]h]cbg ei]hYWcad`YlhUg_gWUbVY]aU[]bYX X]j]XYX]bhcgaU``
acXi`Yg UbXh\fckbcih]bhch\YdiV`]WfYU`ak\YfY]bX]j]XiU`gk]``gY`Z!
]XYbh]Zmh\Y]fWcadYhYbWmhcaYYhUbm[]jYbW\U``Yb[Y"H\Ycb`mfYaU]b]b[
fYei]fYaYbhZcf`Uf[Y!gWU`YdfcXiWh]cbcZWi`hifU`UbX]bZcfaUh]cbU`[ccXg
]ghcVYUV`YhcdYfZcfaeiU`]hmW\YW_gUbX]bhY[fUhYU``h\Y]bX]j]XiU`
acXi`Ygk]h\fY`Uh]jY`m`ckYZZcfh]bhcUWcad`YhYXk\c`YVihh\YgYhUg_g 
15 See, for example, the Budapest 16 Yochai Benkler, Coases Penguin,
Open Access Initiative, www.soros. or Linux and the Nature of the Firm,
org/openaccess www.benkler.org/CoasesPenguin.
html

Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 359
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360 Art and Social Change 1989


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hc[Yh\Yf]bUgmghYacZWcad`YlUbX]bX]j]g]V`YfY`Uh]cbg"K\cYjYfgUkh\Y
YlhfUcfX]bUfmgmaVc`]WhfUbgUWh]cbgVYhkYYbdUW]ghg YWc`c[]ghg ib]cb]ghg 
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dc`]h]W]UbgUhh\Y;,giaa]h]b;YbcU ]b>i`mcZ&$$% WUbbXUfYU`
fYgcbUbWY]bk\UhAUigggUmgUVcihh\YAY`UbYg]Ub[]Zh![]j]b[WYfYacb]Yg 
h\Y5aYf]WUb=bX]Ubdch`UhW\f]hiU`g UbXh\YaUf_Yh!ZYgh]jU`gcZh\Y=bXc!
9ifcdYUbkcf`X.
17 Alternatives for the Americas
www.web.net/comfront/
alts4americas/eng/eng.html

Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 361
All these phenomena are at the same time juridical, economic, religious, and even
aesthetic and morphological, etc. They are juridical because they concern private and
public law, and a morality that is organised and diffused throughout society; they
are strictly obligatory or merely an occasion for praise and blame; they are political
and domestic at the same time, relating to social classes as well as clans and families.
They are religious in the strict sense, including magic, animism, and a diffused
religious mentality. They are economic. The idea of value, utility, self-interest,
luxury, wealth, the acquisition and accumulation of goods all these on the one
hand and on the other, that of consumption, even that of deliberate spending for its
own sake, purely sumptuary: all these phenomena are present everywhere, although
we understand them differently today. Moreover, these institutions have an
important aesthetic aspect... the dances that are carried out in turn, the songs and
processions of every kind, the dramatic performances... everything, food, objects,
and services, even respect, as the Tlingit say, is a cause of aesthetic emotion. 18

H\YfY]gbcbcghU`[]UZcfUdf]a]h]jY`]ZY]bh\YZUWhcZeich]b[AUigg 
bcfUbmZUW]`YUXa]fUh]cbZcfh\YfYjc`ih]cbUfmfte"H\]b[gUfYaiW\acfY
Wcad`Yl"Cbh\YcbY\UbX h\YWcbhYadcfUfmeiYghZcfX]fYWhUWh]cb Zcf
X]fYWhXYacWfUWm bXgUb]b]h]U`fYU`]gUh]cb]bh\YWc``YWh]jY WccdYfUh]jY
dfcXiWh]cbcZh\YgYdiV`]WYjYbhg k\]W\Vf]b[hc[Yh\YfU``h\Yf][cfcig`m
gYdUfUhYXUgdYWhgcZacXYfbgcW]U``]ZY"=bXYYX h\YjYfmU]acZgiW\YjYbhg
]ghcWf]h]W]gYWYfhU]bZibXUaYbhU`gYdUfUh]cbg `]_Yh\YcbYh\UhUadihUhYg
UbmVUg]WWcbWYfbZcf`]ZYZfcah\Y`UkgcZacbYhUfmUWWiai`Uh]cb"6ihh\Uh
XcYgbhaYUbh\Uhh\YYjYbh h\YYWghUh]WWcbjYf[YbWY ]gUhchU`gc`ih]cb.
]bghYUX]h]gUXYdUfhifYdc]bhZcfUZfYg\eiYgh]cb]b[cZh\YgcW]U`h]Y Uh
h]aYgk\Yb]hgXYUX`mUgdYWhgVYWcaYj]g]V`Y Ugh\YmUfYhcXUm"H\Y
dfchYghcfgW`U]a bch^ighhch\YcWWidUh]cbVihhch\YcreationcZdiV`]W
gdUWY k]h\U``h\YWcb]Whg]hVf]b[g]b]hgkU_Y cZZYfggcW]YhmUbcWWUg]cb
hch\YUhf]WU`]gYh\YfYU` ]bcfXYfhcfYd`Umh\YaYUb]b[cZUVghfUWh]cbgh\Uh
UfYbc`cb[YfUXYeiUhYhch\YbYYXgUbXdcgg]V]`]h]YgcZ`]ZY"H\YhchU`gcW]U`
ZUWhcZh\YWcbhYadcfUfmXYacbghfUh]cb]g Uh]hgVYgh UW\UbWYhcfY`YUfb
UbXfYWfYUhYU`Ub[iU[YZcfdc`]h]WU`XYVUhY k\]W\]gbh^ighUVcihacbYm 
UbXXcYgbhcb`m\UjY]b]hgjcWUVi`Ufm"5bXh\YbYhkcf_YXdfchYghg
kYUfYgdYU_]b[cZ ]bW`iX]b[h\cgYcZh\YdYUWYacjYaYbh]b&$$' \UjY
dfcXiWYXh\YfghW\UbWYghcXch\]gUhh\YgWU`YcZh\Y[`cVU`]gYXYWcbcam
UbXcZ[`cVU`[cjYfbUbWY"
5fh]gh]WdfUWh]WY\UgVYYbcbYcZh\Y_Ymghch\YYaYf[YbWYcZh\YgY
[`cVU`gcW]U`ZUWhgbch`YUghVYWUigYUfh]gh]WdfUWh]WY\UgU`gcVYYbcbY
cZh\YkUmghc\c`XcZZ[fcidj]c`YbWY hccdYbidUh\YUhf]WU`gdUWYh\Uh
XcYgbh]aaYX]UhY`mVYWcaYUkUfncbY"H\]g]gcVj]cig`mgcaYh\]b[h\Uh
WcbhYadcfUfmgcW]Yhmf]g_gZcf[Yhh]b[ UbXh\UhdUfh]Wi`Uff]g_]gfYUgcb
18 Marcel Mauss, The Gift: Routledge, 1990/French trans.
The Form and Reason for Exchange 192324), p.79.
in Archaic Societies, London:

362 Art and Social Change 1989


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]j GcbckkYfYhifbhch\Y`Ub[iU[YcZUfh UbXhcUbUfhk\cgYjYfm
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ghfUhY[]Ygh\Uh@iWm@]ddUfXhU`_gUVcih]b\YfZUacigVcc_cbh\Y
XYaUhYf]U`]gUh]cbcZh\YUfhcV^YWh kYfY]bhYbXYXhcZfYYUfh]ghgZfca
XYdYbXYbWmcbh\Y[U``Yfm!aU[Un]bY!aigYiaW]fWi]h"=hkUgh\ci[\hh\Uh
Ufh]ghgWci`Xach]jUhYdYcd`YhcigYh\Y]f]aU[]bUh]cb]bWcad`YhY`mbYk
kUmg Vm[]j]b[h\Ya`]b[i]gh]Wgi[[Ygh]cbg j]fhiU`dfcdcgU`gh\Uhh\YmWci`X
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hcc_dfYWYXYbWYcjYfh\Y]bb]hYdYfaihUh]cbcZh\Ykcf_g]bh\Y`]jYgcZ
h\Yj]YkYfg#igYfg"H\YbYWYggUfmWcfc``UfmkUgh\Uhh\YWcbWYdhg\ci`XfYZYf

Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 363
df]aUf]`mhc]hgY`Z Ug]bUZUacigd]YWYWcadcgYXcZUW\U]f Ud]WhifYcZ
UW\U]f UbXUX]Wh]cbUfmXYb]h]cbcZh\YkcfXW\U]f>cgYd\?cgih\ 
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fYei]fYXbchfUbgZcfaUh]jYUWh]j]hmZfcah\YdiV`]W Wci`XYUg]`mVYdfYgYbhYX
k]h\]bh\YYl]gh]b[gmghYa"H\igh\YWcbWYdhiU`YgWUdYUhhYadhcb`m`YX
ZfcaaUf_Yh!cf]YbhYXBYkMcf_hch\YaigYiagcZ9ifcdY h\YbbU``m
VUW_hch\YaUf_Yh"=b%-+' GYh\G]Y[Y`UiVgU]X]bUb]bhYfj]Yk.

Conceptual art, more than all previous types of art, questions the fundamental
nature of art. Unhappily, the question is strictly limited to the exclusive domain
of the fine arts. There is still the potential of it authorising an examination of all
that surrounds art, but in reality, Conceptual artists are dedicated only to exploring
avant-garde aesthetic problems. The economic pattern associated with Conceptual
art is remarkably similar to that of other artistic movements: to purchase a work
cheap and resell it at a high price. In short, speculation.19 

@iWm@]ddUfX Zcf\YfdUfh kfchY]b%-+'h\Uhh\Y[\YhhcaYbhU`]hm


dfYXca]bUbh]bh\YbUffckUbX]bWYghicigUfhkcf`Xk]h\]hgfY`]UbWYcb
UjYfmgaU``[fcidcZXYU`Yfg WifUhcfg YX]hcfgUbXWc``YWhcfgk\cUfYU``
hccZfYeiYbh`mUbXcZhYbib_bck]b[`mVcibXVm]bj]g]V`YUdfcbghf]b[ghc
h\YfYU`kcf`XgdckYfghfiWhifYgaU_YOgQ]hib`]_Y`mh\Uh7cbWYdhiU`
Ufhk]``VYUbmVYhhYfYei]ddYXhcUZZYWhh\Ykcf`XUbmX]ZZYfYbh`mh\Ub 
cfYjYbUgaiW\Ug ]hg`YggYd\YaYfU`WcibhYfdUfhg"20

H\YgYUXa]gg]cbgcZXYZYUhUfYkY``_bckb"21 6ih]bWYfhU]bfYWYbh
diV`]WUh]cbg Ubch\Yf\]ghcfmcZ7cbWYdhiU`Ufh\UgVYYbWca]b[VUW_hc
`][\h"=h]gU\]ghcfmh\UhibZc`Xg]b@Uh]b5aYf]WU UbXdUfh]Wi`Uf`m]b
5f[Ybh]bU ]bh\YW]h]YgcZ6iYbcg5]fYgUbXFcgUf]c"=hkci`XgYYah\Uh\YfY 
]bh\YWcbhYlhcZUbUih\cf]hUf]Ub[cjYfbaYbhUbXibXYfh\YdfYggifYcZ
5aYf]WUbWi`hifU`]adYf]U`]ga 7cbWYdhiU`UfhWci`Xcb`mVYfYWY]jYXcf
]bjYbhYXUgUb]bj]hUh]cbhcUWhUbhU[cb]gh]WU``mk]h\]bh\YaUgg!aYX]U
gd\YfY"7YfhU]b5f[Ybh]bYDcdUfh]ghgWcbg]XYfYXh\Uhh\YWcaaYfW]U`bYkg
aYX]UWci`XUWhiU``mVYUddfcdf]UhYXUgUbUfh]gh]WaYX]ia `]_YUWUbjUgcf
U[U``YfmgdUWY"HcXch\]g FcVYfhc>UWcVmUbX9XiUfXc7cghUWfYUhYXUb
Ufh]W]U`\UddYb]b[ cbYh\UhbYjYffYU``m\UddYbYX UbXh\Ymgh]ai`UhYXh\Y
aYX]Uk]h\]bZcfaUh]cbUVcih]h gcUghcUW\]YjYgdYW]WWh]cbU`YZZYWhg"22 

6ihh\]gUhhYadhkUgcb`mUfghghYdhckUfXgUZi``mdc`]h]WU`Uddfcdf]Uh]cb
19 Michel Claura and Seth 21 See E. Costa, R. Escari, transformed into absolute farce.
Siegelaub, Lart conceptuel, in R. Jacoby, A Media Art (Manifesto), Conceptual Art 19621969, October,
A. Alberro and B. Stimson (eds.), in Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology, Winter 1990, p.143.
Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology, op. cit., pp.23.
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 22 For the classic example, see
1999, pp.28990. Benjamin Buchlohs assertion that
20 Lucy Lippard, Postface, Conceptual art failed to liberate
Six Years: The Dematerialization of the world from mythical forms of
the Art Object from 1966 to 1972, perception and hierarchical modes
New York: Praeger, 1973, p.264. of specialised experience, and was

364 Art and Social Change 1989


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UbXgcW]c`]c[]ghgZfca6iYbcg5]fYgUbXFcgUf]cVY[UbfYgYUfW\]b[h\Y
gcW]U`UbXYWcbca]WWcbX]h]cbg]bh\Ydfcj]bWY WUffm]b[cihUbUbU`mg]g
cZU``h\YaUgg!aYX]UWcjYfU[YcZh\YfY[]cb UbX[c]b[cihh\YagY`jYg
hc[Uh\Yffgh!\UbX]bZcfaUh]cbUbXhcXcWiaYbhh\Yg]hiUh]cbig]b[
d\chc[fUd\mUbX`a"H\Ymh\YbghU[YXUbYl\]V]h]cbh\UhkUgYld`]W]h`m
XYg][bYXhcZYYXh\Y]fkcf_VUW_]bhch\YbUh]cbU`XYVUhY gcUghcWcibhYf
h\YaYX]Ud]WhifY"MYhh\Ydfc^YWh U`h\ci[\]hX]Xbchg\mUkUmZfca
UXjYfh]g]b[hYW\b]eiYg Wci`XbchVYfYXiWYXhcWcibhYf!dfcdU[UbXU"
5g5bXfYU;]ibhUkf]hYg.

In many of its characteristic traits such as the exploration of the interaction


between languages, the centrality of the activity required from the spectator,
the unfinished character, the importance of the documentation, the dissolution
of the idea of the author, and the questioning of the art system and the ideas
that legitimate it HiWiayb5fXY maintains a relation with the repertory
of Conceptual art. But not with the tautological and self-referential form of
Conceptualism, in which, from a certain viewpoint, one finds a reconfirmation of
the modernist paradigm. Language does not refer back to language, to the specificity
of the artistic fact; instead, the contextual relations are so strong that in this case
that reality ceases being understood as a space of reflection and comes to be conceived
as a possible field of action oriented toward the transformation of society.24

Tucumn Arde]gYlhfYaY`m]bhYfYgh]b[hcWcbg]XYfZfcah\YWcbhYadcfUfm
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ib]cb UbXh\YYl\]V]h]cbkUgg\ckb]bUib]cb\U``"=bch\YfkcfXg hc
23 A description of Tucumn Arde Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology, been discussed in the Next 5
(including the relation to Jacobys op. cit., pp.7679. Minutes festivals, www.n5m.org.
work) can be found in Mar Carmen 24 Andrea Giunta, Vanguardia, Today, http://indymedia.org is
Ramrez, Thriving on Adversity: internacionalismo y poltica: arte considered (by some) as the broadest
Conceptualism in Latin America, argentino en los aos sesenta, expression of tactical media.
19601980, in Global Conceptualism: Buenos Aires: Paids, 2001.
Points of Origin, 1950s1980s (exh. 25 See D. Garcia and G. Lovink,
cat.), Queens Museum of Art, 1999, The ABC of Tactical Media, www.
pp.6667. Also see M.T. Gramuglio waag.org/tmn/abc.html. Also see the
and N. Rosa, Tucumn Burns, in wide variety of projects that have

Brian Holmes The Revenge of the Concept: Artistic Exchanges, Networked Resistance 365
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26 See Friday June 18th 1999: London, online at www.eco-action.org/ 27 See www.corporatewatch.org.
Confronting Capital and dod/no8/j18.html uk/magazine/issue8/cw8glob6.html
Smashing the State! in Do or Die 8,

366 Art and Social Change 1989


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The proposal is to encourage as many movements and groups as possible to organise


their own autonomous protests or actions, on the same day ( June 18th), in the same
geographical locations ( financial/corporate/ banking/business districts) around the
world. Events could take place at relevant sites, eg. multinational company offices,
local banks, stock exchanges. Each event would be organised autonomously and
coordinated in each city or financial district by a variety of movements and groups.
It is hoped that a whole range of different groups will take part, including workers,
peasants, indigenous peoples, women, students, the landless, environmentalists,
unwaged/unemployed and others. ... everyone who recognises that the global
capitalist system, based on the exploitation of people and the planet for the profit
of a few, is at the root of our social and ecological troubles.27

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