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Louise Kelly, Gayle Kerr, and Judy Drennan
ABSTRACT: Technology has provided consumers with the means to control and edit the information that they receive and share effectively, especially in the online environment. Although previous studies have investigated advertising avoidance in traditional media and on the Internet, there has been little investigation of advertising on social networking sites. This exploratory study examines the antecedents of advertising avoidance on online social networking sites, leading to the development of a model. The model suggests that advertising in the online social networking environment is more likely to be avoided if the user has expectations of a negative experience, the advertising is not relevant to the user, the user is skeptical toward the advertising message, or the consumer is skeptical toward the advertising medium. Keywords: advertising avoidance, online social networking sites, teenagers
Increasing clutter and media fragmentation now expose consumers to thousands of commercial messages every day (Gritten 2007). These messages arrive not only from traditional media, such as television and newspaper, but through guerrilla media campaigns, subviral marketing online, brand installation, and consumer-generated media such as blogs, podcasts, and online social networking sites (Gritten 2007; Schultz 2006a). As a consequence, consumers have increasingly become the editors of information, empowered by technology to avoid both content and advertising messages that do not interest them (Gritten 2007). Although avoidance of advertising is a well-researched topic, it has only recently been studied in the online environment (Cho and Cheon 2004; Grant 2005) and never specifically in online social networking sites. Thus, our purpose is to explore teenagers' attitudes toward advertising in the online social networking environment, whether avoidance tactics are employed, and which tactics are used. This effort is significant because little is known about how advertising, designed as a mass media tool, might reinvent itself in the personal spaces of teenagers. The reaction of teenagers to both the medium and the message is worthy of exploration, owing to their early adopter attitude and behavior (Tufte 2003). For example, in Australia, 70% of girls and 50% of boys, aged 14 to 17 years, have a MySpace site (Australian Communications and Media Authority 2007). Furthermore, an examination of teenagers' usage of such sites and advertising avoidance may provide guidelines for the transformation of advertising in social media.
LITERATURE REVIEW Attitude Toward Advertising and Advertising Avoidance Attitude toward advertising has been a major focus of research across time (e.g., Dutta-Bergman 2006; Homer 2006; Homer and Yoon 1992; Mehta 2000; Shavitt, Lowrey, and Haefner 1998; Speck and Elliott 1997). These studies report consumer distrust of advertising (Shavitt, Lowrey, and Haefner 1998) and strong inclinations toward advertising avoidance. Consumers are well aware that advertising contributes to the cost of purchased products and believe that better value arises from products that are not advertised (Shavitt, Lowrey, and Haefner 1998). More damning, they perceive that products fail to perform as well as portrayed in advertising and that the majority of advertising is more manipulative than informative (Mehta 2000). Based on these consumer attitudes toward advertising, advertising avoidance is a likely consequence. Advertising avoidance can be defined as "all actions by media users that differentially reduce their exposure to ad content" (Speck and Elliott 1997, p. 61) and can occur by cognitive, behavioral, and mechanical means. Examples of advertising avoidance include choosing to ignore a newspaper or magazine advertisement (cognitive method), leaving the room during an advertising break (behavioral method), deleting pop-ups on the Internet, or using a digital video recorder (DVR) to skip advertisements (mechanical means). Mechanical means make advertising avoidance increasingly easier for consumers. Historically, consumers have been able to ignore advertising mentally or avoid it physically by leaving the room or turning the page. Now, new technologies support
Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol 10 No 2(Spring 2010), pp. 16‐27. © 2010 American Academy of Advertising, All rights reserved ISSN 1525‐2019
though the Internet is seemingly more credible than television. Kiousis's (2001) study identifies newspapers as considered the most credible medium. This means offers yet another form of consumer empowerment. Johnson and Kaye 1998. Research shows the believability or trustworthiness of the medium influences how the consumer views the credibility of the information offered (Moore and Rodgers 2005). Doing so leaves consumers free to "pull" the information they desire from the Internet or other media at a time convenient to them. He proposes that consumers erect shields to shut out the increasing clutter and avoid the "push" of the advertising message from marketers. Figure 1 demonstrates this new model of communication. Schultz (2006a) suggests it is a consumer reaction to oversaturation of messages or advertising clutter in both traditional and nontraditional media such as the Internet.17 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 avoidance by providing devices such as remote controls. For example. whose quality is not subject to the same scrutiny exerted over traditional media. Figure 1. if consumers do not trust or believe the media. Schultz's (2008) Push-Pull Model of Marketing Communication Attitude Toward Advertising and Media Characteristics Attitude toward advertising has been a focus of research in a range of traditional and new media (Cho and Cheon 2004. Moore and Rodgers (2005) also find that consumers . Obermiller. DVRs. Yet the Internet represents an unregulated flow of information. The push-pull model of marketing communication shows that consumers control the information flow. the Internet also has been considered a more credible source of news information than traditional media. Moore and Rodgers 2005. Johnson and Kaye (1998) find that online and traditional media sources both appear somewhat credible but that younger people are more likely to view online information as credible. making their attitude toward advertising a critical factor in determining whether a shield is erected and when a message is received (Schultz 2008). Kiousis 2001. and MacLachlan 2005. Notably. In contrast. Several studies profile different media in terms of credibility. and Internet blocking systems so that it becomes automatic. Speck and Elliott 1997). they are less likely to pay attention to either the content or the advertising (Johnson and Kaye 1998). allowing consumers to decide how and when and even if the message will be received (Schultz 2006b). Furthermore. Spangenberg.
Despite positive results regarding online news. Moore and Rodgers 2005). They express hesitation about being required to give credit card details or personal information and only purchase from sites they know and trust (Moore and Rodgers 2005). the demographic that shops online the most. Industry trends also support the Internet's lack of credibility as an advertising medium. . Cho and Cheon's (2004) Model of Advertising Avoidance Online Figure 2 shows that the first antecedent of advertising avoidance online is perceived goal impediment. perceived clutter on Internet sites. do not find Internet advertising trustworthy. The model in Figure 2 further explains these antecedents. Consumers do not feel comfortable surfing online advertisements. Figure 2. consumers may react negatively toward the advertisement or product (Cho and Cheon 2004). and advertisements that require consumer action before they can resume their online activity may encourage them to delete the message immediately and therefore avoid the advertising completely. followed by television advertisements. When advertising reduces or interrupts the speed of data retrieval and processing. studies indicate the Internet is the least credible medium in which to advertise. Newspaper articles suggest that revenues gained through online social networking sites such as Facebook are not as high as anticipated. and radio. and negative past experiences with Internet advertising. distracting advertisements. and college students. Pop-up advertisements. Advertising Avoidance Online Cho and Cheon (2004) propose three antecedents of advertising avoidance online: interruption of task. Kiousis 2001.18 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 consider newspapers the most credible advertising medium. and many marketers view advertising in this area as experimental (Vascellaro 2008). This factor is important because the Internet is considered more goal and task oriented than traditional media such as television. consumers regard it with the highest level of skepticism (Johnson and Kaye 1998. magazines.
This exploratory study asks five important questions: RQ1: What are teenagers' perceptions of advertising on social networking sites? RQ2: Do teenagers avoid advertising on online social networking sites when they believe it disrupts their goals online? RQ3: Do teenagers ignore advertising on online social networking sites when they perceive that there is too much clutter in the medium? RQ4: Do teenagers avoid advertisements on online social networking sites if they have had negative experiences with previous online advertisements? RQ5: Are there other reasons why teenagers avoid advertising in online social networking sites? To address these questions. Speck and Elliott 1997). Delahaye. or incorrectly targeted or leads users to inappropriate sites (Cho and Cheon 2004).. an increase of 155% from the previous year (Sinclair 2008). Globally. forums. The gap that our research aims to fill pertains to attitudes toward advertising on social networking sites and whether advertising is welcomed as a friend or avoided as an unwelcomed guest. Such marketing techniques have led users to believe that that the Internet is a distrustful medium (Grant 2005). branded Web communities. exaggerated. Krishnamurthy and Dou 2008). which can also prove a distraction. Cho. and Lee 2000. Exploratory research is most useful in situations in which limited information is available and the researcher wishes to have flexibility to . and Roberts 2005. Online Social Networking Sites Since their introduction in 2004. Much research in the online environment has focused on generic Internet experiences (Grant 2005. If this perceived clutter is excessive. The "rules" of communication are evolving.2 billion in 2008. Rappaport 2007. Ko. and advertising avoidance likely influence site users' perceptions of the advertisements they view. However. advertising on social network sites was predicted to reach $1. privacy. and commercial Web sites. academic research on social networking sites has struggled to keep pace.19 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 The second antecedent of advertising avoidance online is perceived advertising clutter. Facebook estimates that it has 120 million active users (i. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND METHODOLOGY Our literature review demonstrates the substantial research into consumer attitudes toward advertising. especially in the area of advertising avoidance (boyd and Ellison 2007. Edwards. changing the purpose and functionality of the Internet (Vogt and Knapman 2008). The next section provides some background about this communication avenue. advertising clutter. and limited research is available regarding consumer perceptions of these sites (Krishnamurthy and Dou 2008). and issues of credibility. who have accessed its site in the past 30 days). which could result in disregard of them all (Cho and Cheon 2004). Marketers fear that that they may be intruding into users' personal spaces or even placing their advertisements next to less-than-desirable content (Krishnamurthy and Dou 2008). the growth of online social networking sites has been both rapid and dramatic. With this rapid growth over a short period of time. causing consumers to discriminate and avoid ads that are not relevant or important to them (Ingram 2006). we conducted a qualitative exploratory study. Each of these Internet experiences uses different communication strategies. The third antecedent of advertising avoidance is prior negative experience. and technological devices to avoid advertising. and each exhibits varied and often unique media characteristics. La Ferle. The potential to reach consumers directly and in a personal and social environment has meant that marketers are keen to advertise in this new medium (boyd and Ellison 2007). which includes instances in which Internet advertising is deceptive. It also highlights work on advertising avoidance and how it has escalated with increasing media fragmentation. Namiranian 2006. trust. which is appropriate because online social networking sites are a relatively new phenomenon (Cavana. Zikmund 2003). These sites are funded by sales of advertising specifically targeted to the person (Gangadharbatia 2008) and of statistical data collected from the profiles of site users (Barnes 2006). consumers are likely to have difficulty discriminating messages. and Sekaran 2001. We focus on social networking sites within online media.e. Social networking sites provide people with the tools and opportunity to be part of international communities that share opinions and content and communicate directly with one another or to other large communities. Internet users can communicate through e-mail. The financial viability of these online sites depends on the faith that advertisers have in the effectiveness of the medium.
5 hours-an extraordinary amount of time compared with an Australian Government study that found that 13. the convenience sample consisted of teenagers (male and female. Considering the objectives of the study. who fulfilled all three criteria. to the researchers. If the data collected from the heavy users were not an exaggeration by the teenagers. However. . We used snowball sampling to recruit participants. Delahaye.7 hours per week. the in-depth interviews provided explanation and elaboration of the issues that arose (Cooper and Schindler 2006. we made contacts with acquaintances who had children. we note a major concern in terms of excessive consumption of social networking sites. Whereas the focus groups gathered a wide range of perceptions quickly. Using a multimethod approach. which swelled the focus group average to 11. with a total of 23 teenagers participating in the mixed-gender focus groups. The flexible format of the focus group encouraged free discussion and allowed the group to venture spontaneously into new areas of online social networking (Cavana. together with experience in the social network environment. Hair et al. we combined the benefits of focus groups and in-depth personal interviews. The acceptance rate was high. Some of the participants were known.to 17-year-olds spend on average 49 minutes per day. With their "early adopter" attitude (Tufte 2003). (2) equal representation of male and female. Participant Profile Focus Groups Age Gender Average age 15 years Girls: 12 Boys: 11 MySpace: 17 Facebook: 2 Both: 2 Average 12 months Average 11. That is. which may compensate somewhat for the shorter weekly consumption.5 hours per week In-Depth Interviews Average age 14. 30% of the focus group participants reported spending an average of 23 hours per week on social network sites. and (3) ownership of a social networking profile. and their usage of online social networking has become an important element of their social system (Lee and Conroy 2005). on social networking sites (Australian Communications and Media Authority 2007). but not well known. this age group is the first truly digital generation (Goldgehn 2004). Although the two samples are similar in most respects. It is possible that some participants overstated their hours to impress other members of the focus group. Table 1 provides the full details of the sample. through the researchers' children's friends and friends of friends. 2003). they differ in the amount of time spent on social networking sites. which was 7.25 hours per week. Polonsky and Waller 2005). because this approach is particularly useful for locating informationrich key informants (Patton 1990). For this study. it is also worth noting that the length of involvement in the social networking sites was four months longer in the in-depth interview group. This process involves contacting a few potential respondents to identify whether they know of anybody with the characteristics sought for the research. aged 13-17 years) who had their own social network sites. Davis 1997.We used several criteria to recruit participants in this study: (1) aged 13-17 years of age. This Australian average is more in line with the in-depth interview average of 5 hours per week and the average of the focus groups without heavy users.5 years Girls: 5 Boys: 3 MySpace: 8 Social networking platform Length of involvement in social network site Amount of time per week spent on social network sites Average 16 months Average 5 hours per week We assigned participants into focus groups or in-depth interviews according to their availability. Table 1.20 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 explore areas of research (Cooper and Schindler 2006. or 5. and a further 8 teenagers sharing their thoughts in in-depth interviews. and Sekaran 2001. Zikmund 2003).
16 years). This tactic is different from other parts of the Internet. it's Facebook's fault. I would shut it down straight away. Their main method of advertising avoidance was ignoring the messages. participants indicated that many of the advertisements were not relevant to them. 15 years). but because their time on social networking sites was not specifically task driven. Generally. which suggests some naivety about to the level of privacy these sites offer. sort of kind of ease the transition. ‘No'" (boy. such as "I was doing homework when I ended up on Facebook" and "If I fail my exams. In contrast. Attitude toward Advertising on Social Networking Sites Respondents in the study took little interest in the advertising on their sites: "I don't really notice them" (boy. most respondents did not view them as advertising and would not give out any personal information to receive prizes from these games: "Well. They saw the pop-ups and noisy advertisements as being mildly irritating. "I don't pay any attention to them" (girl. in which a user might download information from a commercial Web site or post new data on a branded community Web site. As a consequence. None of the participants suggested that the advertising on their MySpace or Facebook site slowed down their use of the features on the site or disrupted their time on the site. I just close them straight away. have you ever seen those ads that have like all these emoticons and they talk? They annoy me sometimes" (girl. participants liked advertisements that engaged them. 15 years). 16 years). Although driven there through boredom. 16 years). Like usually if I come home from school and I'm going to get into assignments. the problem is." In terms of online privacy. such as playing games to win ring tones. I'm not sure if it's just me or they were placing those surfing ones [ads] on everyone's MySpace or just mine" (boy. Goal Disruption and Advertising Avoidance Most of the participants indicated that they visited their online networking site to fill time and relieve boredom: "Pretty bored. Throughout the study. advertising recall was minimal. Although they enjoyed playing the interactive games that were displayed on their site. so to tell you the truth. Social networking sites seem to have little task orientation. most of the game ads. with participants only recalling specific brands when prompted by the focus group moderator. they believed that they could not do anything about the ads except avoid them: "I mean yeah. generally pretty bored. After participants entered their home page. I don't even look at them" (girl." no one would be able to access their personal information. their main focus was checking to see if anyone had left any comments. the participants in both the focus groups and the in-depth interviews believed they spent too much time on their online social networking sites. This point is perhaps best evidenced by the names of some of the Facebook groups. Annoyance and Engagement Many participants indicated that they only noticed the advertising when it annoyed them. the distraction was minimal: "Just popping up on the screen and you just have to close them. they're kind of annoying because they're just like always there and they're like. They will ask for my phone number and I'll sort of think. what you do is you finish the game and then the button comes up. The fact that it was a fun and easy way to keep in contact with their friends and provided them with a sense of social inclusion possibly kept them online longer than they intended to be. Overall. I'll log on Messenger and go get on MySpace" (boy.21 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 RESULTS The results combine both focus group and individual interview data collection methods. participants believed that if their sites were classified as "private. the majority of those who played the games also said that they . However. play this game and they make all these noises and like. 14 years). and I've seen ads that come up and actually offer skating and body boarding and surfing. They did not believe that there was a link or did not make the connection between the advertisements appearing on their site and the personal information they had disclosed: "I like skating and body boarding and surfing and stuff. 14 years). all I'll do is I'll just like. they were nonetheless concerned that it represented wasted time that could be more productively spent. citing some advertisements that suddenly popped up or made surprising noises. 15 years). "There's so much dodgy stuff that you can't take any of it seriously" (boy.
such as parents and teachers: "Because anyone can really do anything on the Internet. It is like a conditioned response" (girl. so I find it a lot more difficult to relate to the real company ads because they don't really put like food advertising or something like that on MySpace. Teenagers demonstrated great skepticism of these sites and the advertising they carry: "So I . viewing an advertisement that was not specifically targeted to their age group led the participants to believe that all of the advertisements in this medium would not be relevant to them: "Generally. therefore. Other Reasons Why Advertising Is Avoided Participants offered several other reasons for avoiding advertising in online social networking sites. Negative Previous Experiences There was general distrust of advertisers on online social networking sites. They also knew that they could say whatever they liked or be whoever they wanted to be on their social networking site. again on the basis of their own or their friends' experience. 14 years). Because of their own experience. one participant said. licenses and codes and things.g. I really just think they're kind of. However. online social network sites lacked credibility as a medium. as most participants had been warned by parents and teachers about the possibility of catching a computer virus by clicking on an advertisement. the type of sports. 15 years). like just give away your information on the Internet and then bad things happening" (girl. Even though most participants had a strong distrust of the advertisements. the majority had not had a bad experience themselves with online advertising. so I'll try and like. And then I'll just shut the window when I win" (boy. lack of credibility of the medium. just because I'm bored and really have nothing better to do. None of the participants indicated that they avoid the ads because of undue clutter of advertising on the sites: "It doesn't really bother me because I never really notice the advertising" (girl. These included the relevance of product. it's just not the kind of thing I guess" (boy. 15 years). Their beliefs were based on stories that they had heard or warnings from people in authority. they exhibited an inherent lack of trust. 13 years). "I probably have when I was a bit younger [but] because I know about them I don't really click them at all because I just know that they'll either give me a virus or be some sort of scam thing" (girl. "You just don't really take notice of them [the advertisements]. and lack of trust of advertisers. most of the ads that say you will win $100 if you do this game or if you do this or you answer this question. Some participants acknowledged that the advertisements on their site were specifically targeted to them on the basis of information they had provided on their site. they're more real estate. I'll give the computer a head start and just see how long it takes before I lose. Some even believed that if the site was private. These advertisements that engage the participant fit with the concept of online social networking sites being used to fill in time and relieve boredom: "Really what I'll do is I'll just play the game and I'll actually try and make it harder for myself as possible because they have like race games. Relevance of Product. Most of the genuine company ads are real estate companies .22 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 shut them down without giving out the required personal information. Lack of Credibility of Medium. They recognized that there was little regulation. For example. who sell for whatever reason. when asked if she had ever clicked onto an advertisement on her MySpace site. and movies in which they are interested) and the type and brands of advertisements displayed on their site. because it kept the use of the site free of charge.. Just like so many things have happened with those kinds of things. 15 years). yeah. whereas on TV. books. the majority did not see a link between their information (e... and for them. like I don't even touch them because I know what they're all about but I can imagine the people who don't know anything about them like doing it and they're very annoying and it frustrates me" (girl. because they are there all the time. "I just don't trust things that can take your information and just use it" (girl. Advertising Clutter Many of the participants indicated that advertising on their online social networking sites was acceptable. 14 years). have to have like. MySpace could not use the information to target them. 15 years). The relevance of the product being advertised was an important issue for participants. Often. participants knew how easy it was to set up a social network site and that anyone could do it. 14 years). "Well.
they were reluctant to click on any advertising. Another added. 15 years). 14 years). advertising dollars are wasted. This effort demands exploring the dynamics of this evolving medium. advertisers seem to make matters worse through poor targeting and uninteresting messages. that if you see one that looks real. it forms a virus on your page. 16 years). this study revealed more important reasons for advertising avoidance in online social network sites. such as getting a computer virus or receiving incorrect information. contravenes the most basic rules of advertising. they'll send. as our study suggests. These messages are displayed in an environment that is designed and controlled by the receiver of the message and is considered a personal space. such as advertising pension plans to teenagers. advertising in the online social networking environment should be an attractive proposition for marketers. Then there is the MySpace job [advertisements] and I don't really need a job" (boy. As a result. Spangenberg. Participants were reluctant to give out personal details to companies: "I don't trust them. though there is a thin line between personal space and police state. neither the medium nor the message can be considered credible. most of the participants had not personally had a negative experience but knew someone who had or were warned by someone in authority. and participants become skeptical. and MacLachlan (2005). These two factors are related.23 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 don't really take it seriously because it's a MySpace ad and it's usually for the same stuff. Perhaps clearer rules of communication might improve the credibility of the site. and participants stated that they did not trust the posts or those people posting them. "They get your email address and your password and then they make bulletins from your space and it just has a random heading and you click on it and just shows you the ad" (boy. and Johnson and Kaye (1998). if the advertising message is ignored or dismissed. 15 years). Like the company sends it through comment. like to every person on your list. whose study suggests that consumers are not motivated to process information when they are skeptical of the message. "So many people post dodgy bulletins. However. Little control occurs. considering it a cost of a free social network site. Evidence in our study shows that social networking sites represent an "anything goes" communication channel. Advertising agencies could also improve perceptions of advertising by improving the quality of the messages. you don't bother clicking on it because you know it's probably going to be a spam. most teenagers ignored the advertising. DISCUSSION On the surface. In this "friend space. There was further distrust when brands sent advertisements as comments to users of MySpace sites. like spam bulletins. because if advertising is perceived as not being relevant. who confirms that people are most likely to avoid advertisements that are of no interest to them. and therefore. in our study. Our results indicate that previous negative experiences or stories of negative experiences had some impact on advertising avoidance." Why should social network users trust advertising? The participants in this study were distrustful of the motivations and the information behind advertising online. In case you gave them your mobile number and they could send you heaps of stuff and you'd have to pay for it and everything" (girl. Advertising messages can be sent to specific targets on the basis of their disclosed interests and demographics. The lack of credibility of online social network sites transferred to the advertising on these sites. "Sometimes ads get sent through comments. So you sort of lose your trust in it" (boy. developing a better understanding of social . and the future of online social networking sites as an effective advertising medium is in question. This finding supports Cho and Cheon's (2004) theory that consumers avoid advertising because of previous negative experiences. whom they often described as "dodgy. Lack of Trust. In addition. such as relevance and credibility. These findings are supported by Ingram (2006)." not knowing the target market and bombarding recipients with irrelevant messages. However. The receiver is generally in a relaxed frame of mind and has chosen to be in the online networking environment to relieve boredom or socialize. 16 years). anyone can post anything. We found limited support for Cho and Cheon's (2004) model that online advertising was avoided because it was disruptive or cluttered. who find that advertising has less credibility when it is viewed in a medium that is not perceived as trustworthy. not realizing they had clicked on an advertisement. Advertising avoidance due to skepticism also is supported by Obermiller. Many felt tricked by advertisers. Providers of advertising on social networking sites should provide better user profiles or targeting information. However. so it's all the ads and stuff" (girl. Most of them had heard of people who had negative experiences.
24 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 network users as "friends. They believe that online social networking sites lack credibility and perceive that there is little policing of advertising claims in this medium. • • Figure 3. A Revised Model of Advertising Avoidance in the Online Social Networking Environment We used Cho and Cheon's (2004) research in advertising avoidance on the Internet as a starting point to develop a model for advertising avoidance in the online social networking environment. not specifically the online social networking environment. It asserts that perceived goal impediment and advertising clutter are significant antecedents to advertising avoidance. Skepticism of advertising message claims: If consumers are skeptical of the claims made by the advertisement or if these claims are not appropriate to the media environment. the information is likely to not be processed." and creating advertisements that engage people who are bored and wasting time. Skepticism of online social networking sites as a credible advertising medium: Consumers do not trust the information gained from online social networking sites. including that received from those in authority. We have found that other factors have a greater influence and identify four antecedents of advertising avoidance in the online social networking environment (as outlined in Figure 3): • Expectations of negative experiences: This expectation of advertisements in the online social networking • environment can be as a result of prior negative experiences or the expectation of negative experiences due to word of mouth. they are likely to ignore the message and potentially disregard other messages in this medium. Cho and Cheon's (2004) research investigates advertising avoidance in the general Internet environment. Perception of relevance of advertising message: If the advertising message is not of interest to the receiver of the message. Model of Advertising Avoidance in the Online Social Networking Environment . As discussed previously.
13 (1). Goldgehn." International Journal of Educational Advancement. 21 (5/6). (2006). Researchers could also consider the issue that teenagers raised regarding the lack of advertising regulation on online social network sites. Applied Business Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. J. Joseph F. Arthur H. --. Finally. (May). 19-33. "Relationships Among AdInduced Affect. Cavana. "Cruising Is Believing? Comparing Internet and Traditional Sources on .25 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 This model is of importance to both academics and practitioners because it provides a starting point to understand why advertising in the online social networking environment is not as successful as originally anticipated.. Challenge of Ad Johnson. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Joel J. many of the findings may not be generalizable to all online social networking users or to teenaged online social networking users internationally." Journal of Advertising." First Monday. 49 (1). Leslie A. Dutta-Bergman. 33 (4). NJ: Prentice Hall. Ingram.php/fm/article/view/1394/1312 (accessed July 20. and Pamela S. By understanding the reasons consumers avoid advertising. Adele (2007). and Cognition. If social networking sites do not become a profitable proposition for advertisers. "Media and Communications in Australian Families. Need to Belong. and Attitudes: Another Look. Brisbane. Cooper. and Phillip Samouel (2003). boyd.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_31089 3 (accessed May 3. Australia: John Wiley & Sons. "Social Network Sites: Definition. Harsha (2008). there are limitations as to the generalizability and reliability of these findings. Schindler (2006). Hair. M. Barry Babin. (2006). Beliefs. Further research could widen the frame of reference by drawing on larger samples nationally and internationally and addressing users of different ages and demographic profiles. 11 (9). 210-30. LIMITATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH As with any qualitative study. Money. Business Research Methods.acma. this research presents a new model for advertising avoidance in the online social networking environment. 5 (1). 46 (1). 472. "Message Framing and the Interrelationships Among Ad-Based Feelings." available at http://www." International Journal of Market Research. Advertising Research: Theory and Practice. 8 (2). Barnes. Ellison (2007). and Barbara K. Homer. REFERENCES Australian Communications and Media Authority (2007)." Admap. and Uma Sekaran (2001)." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. History and Scholarship. Gangadharbatla. (2004). 35-51.jiad. Kaye (1998). 607-623." Journal of Advertising. (2006). available at http://www. Because this study is exploratory. Thomas J. Grant. Susan B." Journal of Interactive Advertising." Journal of Advertising Research.. danah m. Upper Saddle River. Y? What You Need to Know About Generation Y. 2009). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Essentials of Business Research Methods. 35 (1). 2009).gov. and Nicole B. 21 (1). marketers can develop strategies to lessen this possibility. Andrew. "A Privacy Paradox: Social Networking in the United States. Therefore. Chang-Hoan and Hongsik John Cheon (2004). (2005). and Internet Self-Efficacy as Predictors of the iGeneration's Attitudes Toward Social Networking Sites. 2008). "The Demographic and Psychographic Antecedents of Attitude Toward Advertising. Cho. further research is needed to define social network sites as an advertising medium and address their relevance and credibility to their target market. The future success of online social networking sites as an advertising medium depends on its acceptance as an advertising vehicle that can deliver a message to a micro-target in a manner that will be well received and that increases the likelihood of interaction. Robert Y. available at http://firstmonday. (1997). Brian L.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/ index. Ian C. Davis. Further investigation into this model could clarify and confirm its importance in developing advertising in the online social networking environment.org/article100 (accessed February 10. teenagers (and other online users) may find that charges associated with the use of their online social networking sites. 89-97. 102-112. What. "The Avoidance. "Young Peoples' Relationships with Online Marketing Practices: An Intrusion Too Far?" Journal of Marketing Management. "Why Do People Avoid Advertising on the Internet?" Journal of Advertising. Pamela Miles (2006). "Facebook Me: Collective SelfEsteem.and Sun-Gil Yoon (1992). 15-23. 24-34. Delahaye. "Generation Who. "Forum-Media Proliferation and Demands for New Forms of Research. Affect. Donald R. Gritten.
Email: lm. Birgitte (2003).edu. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane Australia. Sharon." Journal of Advertising. 69-76. January 1. 10. "Children. and Shelly L. Lee. Marketing and Public Relations. and Marilyn S. "Integration's New Role Customers. MacLachlan (2005)." presentation made at Queensland University of Technology. Carl." Young Consumers. Obermiller. "Socialisation through Consumption: Teenagers and the Internet. "The Changing Role of Integrated Marketing Communication. Hanjun. Business Research Methods. 61-76. Edwards. Jensen J. Conroy (2005). 35. Thousand Oaks. 7-17. Michael Jay and David S. Marketing and Public Relations." Market Leader. Mehta. 2009). Chang-Hoan Cho. "Teens' Use of Traditional Media and the Internet." Journalism Communication Quarterly. 46-51. advertising management and strategic research. "Lessons from Online Practice: New Advertising Models. 34 (2).D. and James Haefner (1998). Namiranian. (2003). --. Roberts (2005). "An Examination of Advertising Credibility and Skepticism in Five Different Media Using the Persuasion Knowledge Model. Rappaport. 55-65. 13 (1). 722. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Louise Kelly (Masters by Research. 7. 135-41. Newbury Park.. Queensland University of Technology. "Ad Skepticism: The Consequences of Disbelief. "Facebook Aims to Expand Social Advertising Share." paper presented at Esomar Annual Congress. London (January). 40 (3). "IMC Is Do or Die in New Pull Marketplace. 34 (3). 381-403. La Ferle. "Public Trust or Mistrust? Perceptions of Media Credibility in the Information Age. Jessica E." Journal of Advertising. 40 (15). 26 (3). Vogt. Stephen D. "Internet Uses and Gratifications: A Structural Equation Model of Interactive Advertising. Christina K. Waller (2005). 4 (4).(2008). 40 (13). and Vascellaro. Krishnamurthy." Mass Communication & Society. Media Consumption. Paul Surgi and Michael T. Carrie.C." Journal of Advertising Research. Michael Quinn (1990). (2006a). Sinclair. Shavitt. Moore. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods." American Academy of Advertising Conference Proceedings. Designing and Managing a Research Project: A Business Student's Guide. Sandeep and Wenyu Dou (2008). 47 (2). Her areas of research interest include advertising ethics and self-regulation. 5 (1). "Brand Engagement: Teenagers and Their Brands in Emerging Markets. 8 (2). 67-72." Journal of Advertising Research. Australia (March 5). Elliott (1997).org/article99 (accessed February 12. Zikmund.26 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 Media Credibility Measures. Polonsky. March 13. Focuses on Kiousis. 40 (3)." Marketing News. and Denise M." Marketing News. She worked in the creative side of advertising before joining academia more than a decade ago to teach and research in advertising and integrated marketing communication. Ko. and Douglas L. Queensland University of Technology) is an Associate Lecturer of Advertising in the School of Advertising. 8-19. --. "The Anatomy of Social Networks. Abhilasha (2000). Leyla (2006)." Journal of Interactive Advertising. available at http://www. Don E. "Internet Ads Are No Quick Road to Riches. "Predictors of Advertising Avoidance in Print and Broadcast Media. Caroline and Stuart Knapman (2008)." Australasian Marketing Journal. "Public Attitudes Toward Advertising: More Favorable Than You Might Think. "Advertising with User-Generated Content: A Framework and Research Agenda." Journal of Advertising. Tufte. 75 (2). 57-70. William G. (2007). (2008). Speck. Queensland. Her research interests include online social networking. 38 (4). Patton. 8." The Australian. Lara (2008). integrated marketing communication . 35. Steven M. and Mass Schultz. sponsorship and new media. CA: Sage Publications. Pamela Lowrey. Mason. (Spring). OH: Thomson/South Western. and Wei-Na Lee (2000).(2006b).au Gayle Kerr (Ph. Google Admits." Journal of Advertising Research.jiad.kelly@qut. 325-40. "Advertising Attitudes and Advertising Effectiveness. CA: Sage Publications. Rodgers (2005)." Journal of Advertising Research. Spiro (2001). Queensland University of Technology) is an Associate Professor in Advertising and IMC in the School of Advertising. Eric Spangenberg. advertising." The Australian.
Deakin University) is a Professor and Leader of the Services Innovation Research Program at the Queensland University of Technology. E-mail: j.27 Journal of Interactive Advertising Spring 2010 and educational issues in both advertising and international marketing communication. She is a distinguished academic with numerous best paper and teaching awards.drennan@qut. She considers teaching vitally important in her profession and also publishes research in the field of education. Her research direction has extended from her doctoral dissertation.edu.edu. her research has expanded to include mobile phone marketing (m-marketing) and social marketing.au . E-mail: gf.au Judy Drennan (Ph. Since 2002..D.kerr@qut. with two key research themes emerging from this study: emarketing and entrepreneurship.