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` St.

Jude College
Dimasalang cor. Don Quijote St., Sampaloc Manila

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

Creating a thesis is never easy. There are a lot of hindrances during the making of this which

without the perseverance and interest of the writer this will not come into accomplishment.

First of all, we wish to thank Lord Almighty God for letting them finish this and for giving them

the strength and knowledge in making this thesis.

Also, they would like to thank, theirparents and teachers who help them in all the way they can,

and extend their helping hand.

To the administration of Senior High School St. Jude College for letting themconduct this study.

And to their beloved adviser, Mrs. Marie Rose Jingle L. Dayrit, also their critic teacher for giving

them inspiration and knowledge in making this thesis right and meaningful and also for giving them

meaningful suggestion that helped them in constructing this thesis.

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DEDICATION

This piece of work is submissively dedicated to

Our beloved

PARENTS, FRIENDS, AND CLASSMATES

And to our valued teacher,

Mrs. Marie Rose Jingle L. Dayrit

R.A., J.M.C., L, G., J.A.L., N.O., F.M.P., J.S., J.T.

ii

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Table of Contents

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CHAPTER I

The Problem and Its Background

INTRODUCTION

Information and communications technology (ICT) refers to all the technology used to handle

telecommunications, broadcast media, intelligent building management systems, audiovisual processing and

transmission systems, and network-based control and monitoring functions.

Although ICT is often considered an extended synonym for information technology (IT), its scope is

broader. This allows individuals that have an interest for it to gain options and not be limited or constricted to

just one branch or field. Aspiring students may gain holistic knowledge about all the technology and systems

ICT has to offer, thus better equipping newly graduates for their careers and life goals.

ICT has more recently been used to describe the convergence of several technologies and the use of

common transmission lines carrying very diverse data and communication types and formats. An example of

this is the field of programming, where one can give commands to a machine or object. Fulfilling complex or

back breaking work or to save time and re organize data in a form it can be manipulated for further use.

Learning some if not all of the courses in ICT is challenging but will assure mastery to those whove

taken it. Creativity plays a critical role in ICT, web designers are needed to design a companys website, present

information in an engaging manner. Computer programmers hired to solve problems; they are the problem

solvers, they either create a new program or tend to fix an error.

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Evidence of ICT affecting and helping the modern world can be literally found near you. It can be a

computer, a television set, your appliances, anything technological. ICT plays an important role in our society

that it cannot be taken apart anymore.

Future inventors and ingenious thinkers can be formed and educated in choosing ICT. Think of the

possibilities he or she can create and contribute to the wellness of the human species. We need to better spread

the contributions of ICT in the past decades, help students see its role in the coming years as our technological

advances continue to speed up with no indication of slowing down.

We strive to accomplish our goal of spreading the importance, role and contributions of ICT in the

modern world as a part of the society to our fellow schoolmates here in St. Jude College Manila.

Background of the Study

The way of carrying out business in the world today is changing very rapidly with new technologies

taking center stage. The advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is fundamentally

changing the way governments plan, implement, monitor and evaluate various national development initiatives.

Governments are also promoting ICT as an industry through e-Business, Business Process Outsourcing, ICT

Parks, Hardware and Software Development and Manufacturing. The world is becoming a global village

through ICT networks.

In line with growing evidence of the role that ICT can play in enhancing development, the UN

Millennium Declaration calls on governments to ensure that the benefits of new technologies, especially

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Information and Communication Technologies are available to all. Furthermore, the World Summit on

Information Society (WSIS) was instituted by UN resolution 183/56. The UNs common vision of an

Information Society is:

A highly developed ICT Infrastructure;

Equitable and ubiquitous access to information;

Appropriate content in accessible formats and effective communication;

To enable individuals and communities to achieve their full potential;

To promote sustainable economic and environment development; and,

To improve quality of life and alleviate poverty, hunger and social exclusion.

There is a growing interest in using ICT to support poverty reduction initiatives and strategies to achieve

the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, at the country level, ICT is yet to be effectively

integrated into national development strategies. Development initiatives increasingly incorporate an "ICT

component", but mostly as mere projects without a focus on policy variables that could enhance impact and

sustainability. Analogously, national ICT development strategies incorporate a development focus but do not

necessarily link their implementation with relevant development strategies (e.g. e-Government and public sector

reform and service), such that benefits from ICT use can be effectively reaped.

Many countries are adopting the emerging new technologies in their governance processes, a practice

commonly known as e-governance. Current applications of e-governance cover areas such as e-Government, e-

health, e-commerce, e-education among others. These applications have reformed government service delivery;

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achieving transparency, accountability and credibility; providing effective access to information; broadening

public participation and promoting democracy; facilitating research and development; and enhancing

competitiveness in the global economy. ICT has also improved Government relationship with the countrys

business sector and citizens, and with its own employees.

With the above background, the Government of Ugandan has recognised the important role played by

Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) as a tool for social and economic development. The

Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) 2004/2005 2007/08, the now phasing out countrys development

framework, recognized access to information as a necessary condition for the well-being of a population and

human development. However, ICT was not adequately integrated into the various PEAP pillars. Therefore,

now, this calls for the government to ensure that ICT is firmly embedded in the government development

processes during planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

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Theoretical Framework

To adapt to certain work or study schedules, people often craft ideas or techniques in order to

cope with the demanding requirements of their schedules. Adaptation is greatly observed when it

comes to students deciding on a college course or career. ICT students and teachers find or create

numerous ways to effectively use and balance their time throughout the day. This can also be said to

most people. Being flexible not just in their time but also in their work environment may provide a

huge advantage for the employee in order to boost his productivity and overall work rate as he is able

to work in multiple settings all the while with excellent performance. Students who have the

technological opportunity may out-perform other students the reason being they have a wider source

of information, varying platforms to work and study. They can also maximize the use of technology

with guidance from their teachers, leading to increased productivity and learning on their subjects.

Innovation also plays a huge part in the trends in ICT. As time ever moves forward, new inventions

and creations are built with the intention of improving human life. The studies in ICT also increase,

thus broadening the choices a student can choose. Here is where the trends in ICT take form.

Shaping its courses to be a popular pick for students aspiring to create a career or business.

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Conceptual Framework

Input Process Output

Profile of Distribution of Trends in ICT

Respondents Survey for the Senior

Survey Questions High School

Questionnaire Collection of Students in St.

Survey Jude College

Questionnaire Manila

Tallying of Data

Analysis of Data

Interpretation of

Data

Figure 1: Conceptual Paradigm Showing the Relationship of the

Trends in ICT

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The inputs of the study were those selected ICT Senior High School Students. Included in the

input were the respondents profile in terms of age and gender.

The process of the study includes the distribution of questionnaire, collection of survey

questionnaire, and analysis of data. Lastly, is the interpretation ofdata.

The output of the students was Trends in ICT for them to improve their selves and prepare for

the future.

Statement of the Problem

This study sought to determine the Trends in ICT at St. Jude College, Manila

1. What is the importance of trends in ICT finding a job?

2. What factors affect the students in choosing a trend in ICT?

3. How helpful it can be for students who want to find a job?

4. Can ICT trends be used for future references?

5. Who do you believe will benefit in trends in ICT other than the students who are studying

ICT?

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Purpose of the Study

The purpose of our research is for the students to know the importance of ICT (Information and

Communication Technology). We conduct this research so that we can share our learnings or thoughts to the

people or the students who have the same course ICT, by the help of searching information. We can share to

them what are the current trends in ICT like for gaming, networking, communicating, learning, entertainment,

etc. Our society is forever developing new concepts, ideas and ways to communicate and interact using

technology. It is our responsibility to keep up to date with new ways of communicating and educating others as

part of everyday life, as well as for new career and learning possibilities through the use of these technologies.

Learning with ICT has exploded across the country and in most schools/education facilities is used within the

curriculum. The purpose for ICT is support and enhance student learning across all areas of the curriculum.

Students should develop and apply ICT knowledge, skills and appropriate social and ethical protocols and

practices to investigate create and communicate, as well as developing their ability to manage and operate ICT

to meet their learning needs. However, in this fast-moving world of ICT todays trend can easily become

tomorrows failure. It is a standard requirement that for a trend to become truly ingrained in society

consciousness, it must incorporate business potential, whether by producing a useful service to a large

demographic. We are living in a constantly evolving digital world. ICT has an impact on nearly every aspect of

our lives from working to socializing, learning to playing. The digital age has transformed the way young

people communicate, network, seek help, access information and learn. We must recognized that young people

are now an online population and access is through a variety of means such computers, TV and mobile phones.

As technology becomes more and more embedded in our culture, we must provide our learners with relevant
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and contemporary experiences that allow them to successfully engage with technology and prepare them for life

after school. It is very important to know that ICT are not only about computers and the internet, but also about

a big amount of different tools such as mobile phone, tablets, etc. New Technologies have changed the way we

communicate and the way we live and work.The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are more

than ever living in our society and there are important parts of the education. Schooling and teaching is

changing with this new context. ICT have some characteristics that make them an essential tool in our daily life

and, for instance, in our schools. Our purpose is to share to others what are the new trends in Information and

Communication Technology (ICT) examples are Cloud Computing, Smartphones and Tablets, Mobile Wallets,

and Server-Centric Computer. Our purpose also is to share that we people need to be updated in ICT trends. We

believe that all of these current trends are forms of development into global interactivity including teaching and

learning for students and teachers. Although there are some risks associated with these, the overall benefits in

terms of the amount of information available and the many different ways of teaching this information, out

weighs the negative aspects in ICT. This is why it is important to stay up to date with technology and make sure

students experience a wide range of sources to develop their skills and knowledge.Many of the technological

advances we are seeing today will shape our daily life in the future the way we relax, interact, communicate

and conduct business.From virtual worlds, avatar emotions, artificial intelligence, computer generated

storytelling and narrative. ICT will continue to advance, empower and transform every aspect of our life.To

know if there is an advantages and disadvantages about the trends in ICT. We will find out if trends in ICT

become a influencing to the people.

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Significance of the Study

This study is beneficial to the following:

Administration - have greater knowledge on the trends in ICT and allowing students to use their

skills more in terms of technology.

Community - provides support to the school in terms of the use of technology.

Parents - helps their children to reach new level in terms of technology.

Students - maximize our knowledge to explore more in trends in ICT.

Teachers - can be equipped with new knowledge about what are the trends.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study was focused on the Trends in ICT at Saint Jude College, Dimasalang, Manila.Information and

Communications Technology (ICT) is concerned with the storage, processing, presentation and communication

of information by electronic means. This includes the measurement, modeling and control of external events. In

additionknowledge of specific software allows information to be presented at the highest qualitywith the

greatest impact on target audiences. ICT has become an essential andfundamental tool in supporting people of

all abilities in their learning. ICT continues toevolve very quickly and has now become a fundamental tool in

many aspects ofeveryday life, both at home and in the workplace. Because of this, it is essential that all pupils

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gain the confidence and ability within this subject to prepare them for thechallenge of a rapidly developing and

changing technological world. Students developcompetence in using ICT for tasks associated with information

access andmanagement, problem solving, decision making, communicating, creative expression,and empirical

reasoning. It is also essential that students develop knowledge, skills andunderstanding around the fundamental

logic and conventions underpinning ICT use andthe ability to transfer these from one ICT environment to

another (such as from schoolto workplace and to other social contexts). Equally important is the manner in

which ICTis used, based on an understanding of the technologys limitations and its impact onindividuals,

groups, communities and organizations.

Limitations:

Although ICTs can enhance student learning in many ways, there are some limitationsor disadvantages

associated with implementing these sophisticated technologies inschools and universities around the world some

of these limitation include:

*High costs: Implementing ICTs in the education setting can be quite costlyregarding updating existing

infrastructures, training teachers and developing qualitycourse materials. To make matter worse, funding for

such projects is often scarce.

*Teaching training: Many teachers are unfamiliar with using ICTs in theclassroom and are resistant to

incorporating such technologies into their establishedpedagogies. To succeed, the use of ICTs in education

needs to be supported by welltrained teachers.

*Uncertain success: Currently, no large-scale studies have been conducted thatshow whether or not the use

ICTs in an educational setting will result in a measurable increase in individual student achievement, making
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school administrators hesitant to invest in these technologies despite existing research and evidence-based

studies, thefuture of ICTs education remains unclear. Additional research is needed to betterunderstand if a link

exists between the use of ICTs in education and improved student learning.

Delimitation:

As with other technologies that have been implemented in education throughout theyears, ICTs offer a

number of advantages to both students and educators whensuccessfully integrated into a learning environment.

Some of these advantages include:

*Increase access to resources: Unlike the traditional classroom that is locked at

the end of the school day, ICTs allow students to access educational resources fromanywhere at any time. This

increased access to resources especially valuable forstudents with special needs and those students who live in

rural areas or developingcountries.

*Interactive learning experiences: Many educators deliver information to theirstudents in the form of lectures.

ICTs allow students to access information throughvideos, podcasts, and a variety of other interactive media,

which creates a moreengaging learning experience for students.

*Student-Centered learning: In a traditional classroom, students cannot controlhow lessons are planned.

Through the use of ICTs, students take control of theirlearning experiences. Students can decide when class is

in session, as well as how the lesson material will be presented

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Definition of Terms:

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter discusses some articles and researches necessary importance to our study. It

contains statements and extracts from articles and other references, which may add further

information and insights to the study. The previous studies presented in this chapter from other

references presented to the relevance of trending in ICT to encourage the ICT students from St. Jude

College Manila.

RELATED LITERATURE

FOREIGN SOURCE

According to Moore &Kearsley, (1996), ICT increases the flexibility of delivery of education so that

learners can access knowledge anytime and from anywhere. It can influence the way students are taught and

how they learn as now the processes are learner driven and not by teachers. This in turn would better prepare the

learners for lifelong learning as well as to improve the quality of learning. In concert with geographical

flexibility, technology-facilitated educational programs also remove many of the temporal constraints that face

learners with special need. Students are starting to appreciate the capability to undertake education anywhere,

anytime and anyplace. One of the most vital contributions of ICT in the field of education is- Easy Access to
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Learning. With the help of ICT, students can now browse through e-books, sample examination papers,

previous year papers etc. and can also have an easy access to resource persons, mentors, experts, researchers,

professionals, and peers-all over the world. This flexibility has heightened the availability of just-in-time

learning and provided learning opportunities for many more learners who previously were constrained by other

commitments (Young, 2002). Wider availability of best practices and best course material in education, which

can be shared by means of ICT, can foster better teaching. ICT also allows the academic institutions to reach

disadvantaged groups and new international educational markets. As well as learning at anytime, teachers are

also finding the capabilities of teaching at any time to be opportunistic and able to be used to advantage. Mobile

technologies and seamless communications technologies support 24x7 teaching and learning. Choosing how

much time will be used within the 24x7 envelope and what periods of time are challenges that will face the

educators of the future (Young, 2002). Thus, ICT enabled education will ultimately lead to the democratization

of education. Especially in developing countries like India, effective use of ICT for the purpose of education has

the potential to bridge the digital divide. India has a billion-plus population and a high proportion of the young

and hence it has a large formal education system. The demand for education in developing countries like India

has skyrocketed as education is still regarded as an important bridge of social, economic and political mobility

(Amutabi and Oketch, 2003). There exist infrastructure, socio- economic, linguistic and 5 physical barriers in

India for people who wish to access education Bhattacharya and Sharma, 2007). This includes infrastructure,

teacher and the processes quality. There exist drawbacks in general education in India as well as all over the

world like lack of learning materials, teachers, remoteness of education facilities, high dropout rate etc

(UNESCO,2002). Innovative use of Information and Communication Technology can potentially solve this

problem. Internet usage in home and work place has grown exponentially (McGorry, 2002). ICT has the

potential to remove the barriers that are causing the problems of low rate of education in any country. It can be
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used as a tool to overcome the issues of cost, less number of teachers, and poor quality of education as well as to

overcome time and distance barriers (McGorry, 2002). People have to access knowledge via ICT to keep pace

with the latest developments (Plomp, Pelgrum& Law, 2007). ICT can be used to remove communication

barriers such as that of space and time (Lim and Chai, 2004). ICTs also allow for the creation of digital

resources like digital libraries where the students, teachers and professionals can access research material and

course material from any place at any time (Bhattacharya and Sharma, 2007; Cholin, 2005). Such facilities

allow the networking of academics and researchers and hence sharing of scholarly material. This avoids

duplication of work (Cholin, 2005).ICT eliminating time barriers in education for learners as well as teacher. It

eliminates geographical barriers as learners can log on from any place (Sanyal, 2001; Mooij, 2007; Cross and

Adam, 2007; UNESCO, 2002; Bhattacharya and Sharma, 2007). ICT provides new educational approaches

(Sanyal, 2001). It can provide speedy dissemination of education to target disadvantaged groups (UNESCO,

2002; Chandra and Patkar, 2007).ICT enhances the international dimension of educational services (UNESCO,

2002). It can also be used for non-formal education like health campaigns and literacy campaigns (UNESCO,

2002). Use of ICT in education develops higher order skills such as collaborating across time and place and

solving complex real world problems (Bottino, 2003; Bhattacharya and Sharma, 2007; Mason, 2000; Lim and

Hang, 2003). It improves the perception and understanding of the world of the student. Thus, ICT can be used to

prepare the workforce for the information society and the new global economy (Kozma, 2005). Plomp et al

(2007) state that the experience of many teachers, who are early innovators, is that the use of ICT is motivating

for the students as well as for the teachers themselves. Bottino (2003) and Sharma (2003) mention that the use

of ICT can improve performance, teaching, administration, and develop relevant skills in the disadvantaged

communities. It also improves the quality of education by facilitating learning by doing, real time conversation,

delayed time conversation, directed instruction, self-learning, problem solving, information seeking and
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analysis, and critical thinking, as well as the ability to communicate, collaborate and learn (Yuen et al, 2003). A

great deal of research has proven the benefits to the quality of education (Al-Ansari 2006).Hepp,Hinostroza,

Laval and Rehbein (2004) state that the literature contains many unsubstantiated claims about the revolutionary

potential of ICTs to improve the quality of education. They also note that some claims are now deferred to a

near future when hardware will be presumably more affordable and software will become, at last, an effective

learning tool.

According to Reeves and Jonassen, (1996), ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways,

by increasing learner motivation and engagement, by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by

enhancing teacher training. ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used appropriately, can promote

the shift to a learner centered environment. ICTs, especially computers and Internet technologies, enable new

ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow teachers and students to do what they have done before

in a better way. ICT has an impact not only on what students should learn, but it also plays a major role on how

the students should learn. Along with a shift of curricula from content-centered to competence-based, the

mode of curricula delivery has now shifted from teacher centered forms of delivery to student-centered

forms of delivery. ICT provides motivation to Learn. ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer

software that 7 combine text, sound, and colourful moving images can be used to provide challenging and

authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process. Interactive radio likewise makes use of

sound effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the students to

listen and become more involved in the lessons being delivered. Some of the parents of the respondents opined

that their children were feeling more motivated than before in such type of teaching in the classroom rather than

the stereotype 45 minutes lecture. They were of the view that this type of learning process is much more
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effective than the monotonous monologue classroom situation where the teacher just lectures from a raised

platform and the students just listen to the teacher. ICT changes the characteristics of problems and learning

tasks, and hence play an important task as mediator of cognitive development, enhancing the acquisition of

generic cognitive competencies as essential for life in our knowledge society. Students using ICTs for learning

purposes become immersed in the process of learning and as more and more students use computers as

information sources and cognitive tools, the influence of the technology on supporting how students learn will

continue to increase. Learning approaches using contemporary ICTs provide many opportunities for

constructivist learning through their provision and support for resource-based, student centered settings and by

enabling learning to be related to context and to practice (Berge, 1998; Barron, 1998).The teachers could make

their lecture more attractive and lively by using multi-media and on the other hand the students were able to

capture the lessons taught to them easily. As they found the class very interesting, the teachings also retained in

their mind for a longer span which supported them during the time of examination. More so than any other type

of ICT, networked computers with Internet connectivity can increase learner motivation as it combines the

media richness and interactivity of other ICTs with the opportunity to connect with real people and to participate

in real world events. ICT-enhanced learning is student-directed and diagnostic. Unlike static, text- or print-based

educational technologies, ICT-enhanced learning recognizes that there are many different learning pathways and

many different articulations of knowledge. ICTs allow learners to explore and discover rather than merely listen

and remember. The World Wide Web (WWW) also provides a virtual international gallery for students work

(Loveless, 2003). ICT can engage and inspire students, and this has been cited as a factor influencing ready

adaptors of ICT (Long, 2001; Wood, 2004).

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According to New Media Consortium, (2007), ICT presents an entirely new learning environment

for students, thus requiring a different skill set to be successful. Critical thinking, research, and evaluation

skills are growing in importance as students have increasing volumes of information from a variety of

sources to sort through.ICT is changing processes of teaching and learning by adding elements of vitality to

learning environments including virtual environments for the 6 purpose. ICT is a potentially powerful tool

for offering educational opportunities. It is difficult and maybe even impossible to imagine future learning

environments that are not supported, in one way or another, by Information and Communication

Technologies (ICT). When looking at the current widespread diffusion and use of ICT in modern societies,

especially by the young the so-called digital generation then it should be clear that ICT will affect the

complete learning process today and in the future. Authenticity is an important issue which should be

addressed in the design and development of learning environments (Collins, 1996). Learning environments

need to reflect the potential uses of knowledge that pupils are expected to master, in order to prevent the

acquired knowledge from becoming inert (Bransford, Sherwood, Hasselbring, Kinzer, & Williams, 1990;

Duffy & Knuth, 1990). In addition, teachers should stimulate pupils to engage in active knowledge

construction. This calls for open-ended learning environments instead of learning environments which focus

on a mere transmission of facts (Collins, 1996; Hannafin, Hall, Land, & Hill, 1994; Jonassen, Peck, &

Wilson, 1999). ICT may contribute to creating powerful learning environments in numerous ways. ICT

provides opportunities to access an abundance of information using multiple information resources and

viewing information from multiple perspectives, thus fostering the authenticity of learning environments.

ICT may also make complex processes easier to understand through simulations that, again, contribute to

authentic learning environments. Thus, ICT may function as a facilitator of active learning and higher-order

thinking (Alexander, 1999; Jonassen, 1999). The use of ICT may foster co-operative learning and reflection
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about the content (Susman, 1998). Furthermore, ICT may serve as a tool to curriculum differentiation,

providing opportunities for adapting the learning content and tasks to the needs and capabilities of each

individual pupil and by providing tailored feedback (Mooij, 1999; Smeets&Mooij, 2001). As Stoddart and

Niederhauser (1993) point out, ICT may fit into a spectrum of instructional approaches, varying from

traditional to innovative. Another aspect which may of course influence the use of ICT is access to

technology (Kennewell, Parkinson, & Tanner, 2000; OTA, 1995). This refers not only to the number of

computers, but also to the placement of the equipment, e.g. in the classroom or in a computer room.

Kennewell et al. (2000) feel it is essential that computers be placed in the classroom, in order to maximize

the opportunities for curriculum activity. ICT environment improves the experience of the students and

teachers and to use intensively the learning time for better results. The ICT environment has been developed

by using different software and also the extended experience in developing web based and multimedia

materials. ICTs have an important role to play in changing and modernizing educational systems and ways

of learning.

According to Valasidou and Bousiou, (2005), Based on the extensive usage of ICTs in education

the need appeared to unravel the myth that surrounds the use of information and communication technology

(ICT) as an aid to teaching and learning, and the impact it has on students academic performance. ICTs are

said to help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital

workplace, and raise educational quality. However, the experience of introducing different ICTs in the

classroom and other educational settings all over the world over the past several decades suggests that the

full realization of the potential educational benefits of ICT. The direct link between ICT use and students

academic performance has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. ICT helps
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students to their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors. The analysis

of the effects of the methodological and technological innovations on the students attitude towards the

learning process and on students performance seems to be evolving towards a consensus, according to

which an appropriate use of digital technologies in 8 education can have significant positive effects both on

students attitude and their achievement. Research has shown that the appropriate use of ICTs can catalyze

the paradigmatic shift in both content and pedagogy that is at the heart of education reform in the 21st

century. Kuliks (1994) meta-analysis study revealed that, on average, students who used ICT-based

instruction scored higher than students without computers. The students also learned more in less time and

liked their classes more when ICT-based instruction was included. Fuchs and Woessman (2004) used

international data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), they showed that while

the bivariate correlation between the availability of ICT and students performance is strongly and

significantly positive, the correlation becomes small and insignificant when other student environment

characteristics are taken into consideration. Attwell and Battle (1999) examined the relationship between

having a home computer and school performance, their findings suggest that students who have access to a

computer at home for educational purposes, have improved scores in reading and math. Becker (2000) found

that ICT increases student engagement, which leads to an increased amount of time students spend working

outside class. Coates et al. (204) showed that students in on-campus courses usually score better than their

online counterparts, but this difference is not significant here. ICTs especially computers and Internet

technologies enable new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow teachers and students to do

what they have done before in a better way. ICT helps in providing a catalyst for rethinking teaching

practice (Flecknoe,2002; McCormick & Scrimshaw, 2001) developing the kind of graduates and citizens

required in an information society (Department of Education, 2001); improving educational outcomes


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(especially pass rates) and enhancing and improving the quality of teaching and learning (Wagner, 2001;

Garrison & Anderson, 2003). ICT can help deepen students content knowledge, engage them in

constructing their own knowledge, and support the development of complex thinking skills (Kozma, 2005;

Kulik, 2003; Webb & Cox, 2004).Studies have identified a variety of constructivist learning strategies (e.g.,

students work in collaborative groups or students create products that represent what they are learning) that

can change the way students interact with the content. Albert Bandura, Girasoli and Hannafin (2008) urge

the use of asynchronous CMC tools to promote student self-efficacy and hence academic performance.

Fister et al (2008) also depict the power of tablet PCs to improve mathematics instruction. ICTs have the

potential for increasing access to and improving the relevance and quality of education. The use of ICT in

educational settings, by itself acts as a catalyst for change in this domain. Students using ICTs for learning

purposes become immersed in the process of learning and as more and more students use computers as

information sources and cognitive tools (Reeves and Jonassen, 1996), the influence of the technology on

supporting how students learn will continue to increase.

According to Windschitl, (2002), In order to conclude we will try to proceed to synthesize from a

general viewpoint the results obtained, taking into consideration the relevant aspects of the literature. The

results provided by both the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the literature obtained will be exposed

especially regarding those aspects which are related to ICTs for Education and ICTs in Education. ICTs for

education refers to the development of information and communications technology specifically for

teaching/learning purposes, while the ICTs in education involves the adoption of general components of

information and communication technologies in the teaching learning process. This literature review has

sought to explore the role of ICT in education as we progress into the 21st century. In particular ICTs have
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impacted on educational practice in education to date in quite small ways but that the impact will grow

considerably in years to come and that ICT will become a strong agent for change among many educational

practices. Extrapolating current activities and practices, the continued use and development of ICTs within

education will have a strong impact on: ICT and teaching learning process; quality and accessibility of

education; learning motivation, learning environment and ICT usage and academic performance. The

adoption and use of ICTs in education have a positive impact on teaching, learning, and research. ICT can

affect the delivery of education and enable wider access to the same. In addition, it will increase flexibility

so that learners can access the education regardless of time and geographical barriers. It can influence the

way students are taught and how they learn. It would provide the rich environment and motivation for

teaching learning process which seems to have a profound impact on the process of learning in education by

offering new possibilities for learners and teachers. These possibilities can have an impact on student

performance and achievement. Similarly wider availability of best practices and best course material in

education, which can be shared by means of ICT, can foster better teaching and improved academic

achievement of students. The overall literature suggests that successful ICT integration in education.

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LOCAL SOURCE

According to UN Population Division, (2014), Asia is not only the largest region by land mass; it is

also the largest by population being home to approximately 60% of the worlds population. It extends from

relatively small countries surrounding the Black and Caspian Seas in Central Asia, moving eastward to

include the Indian subcontinent and still further spreading towards East Asia and the Pacific, including

Indonesia and the Philippines. Given the absolute size, Asia more than any other region varies broadly in

terms of history, culture, language and ethnicity. Especially noteworthy for integrating and sustaining ICT

across several domains, including education, Asia also exhibits significant economic disparity. Given high

levels of investment in their national networks, some OECD Member States in Asia have matched or

outperformed international standards in the field of ICT-assisted instruction (OECD, 2011), while in other

countries upgrades to national networks, teledensity improvements, enhanced national connectivity, and the

introduction of new Internet Provider (IP) delivery technologies are creating a more favorable environment

for the uptake of ICT. Nevertheless, much progress remains to be made, and this is more true for some

countries than others. In several least-developed countries (LDCs), Internet-based forms of teaching and

learning and the essential infrastructure to support it are limited except for but a privileged few, driving

countries to consider other forms of ICT. Beyond sub-regional differences, the internal digital divide of

developing countries has also increased significantly as urban centres quickly adopt ICT while it remains out

of reach for rural and remote regions. Bearing these caveats in mind, ICT in education in Asia can be viewed

from two very different perspectives. The first reflects a development discourse that stresses the role of ICT

in eliminating the digital divide by reaching the unreached and providing support to those who cannot access

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essential infrastructure, trained teachers and other quality educational resources. The second perspective

adheres to an e-learning paradigm and is a response to the emerging knowledge society where ways of

teaching and learning are evolving at a rapid pace to foster learner-centric educational environments, which

encourage collaboration, knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. While countries are admittedly at

different stages of integrating ICT in education, ultimately both perspectives will be increasingly relevant

for countries in Asia.

According to Gartner (2015), Information and communications technologies (ICT) has been a game

changer in our ways of doing things, especially in accessing and sharing information, connecting with one

another, as well as in doing business and providing services. Tools on ICT, i.e., desktops, laptops, tablets,

mobile phones, and other gadgets, as well as the internet and social media (facebook, twitter, instagram,

youtube, dubsmash, spotify, etc.), have provided us the means to transmit and exchange data much faster,

whether these data are in the form of sound, text, visual images, signals or any other form or any

combination of those forms. Today, we are awash with data as a result of tools in ICT that have made data

more easy to collect, store, analyze, share, re-share and re-analyze. We live in a world where everything is

just a click away, all because of ICT. There is also now discussion about the next big ICT revolution: the

Internet of Things (IOT). Imagine what we see in Star Trek movies, objects all networked, everything

becomes linked with everything else, and objects giving us feedback Entering your house and the

entire room light up and have a temperature that you want and automatically open your television to your

favoritetv show; or having your sofa buzz your phone to tell you that you have left your wallet behind; or

having your refrigerator order your groceries online without you having to make a shopping list. All these

requires putting chips in your tv, lights, air conditioner, sofa, your wallet and your refrigerator to enable
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them to talk to the rest of the world. The IOT roughly means connecting any device with an on and off

switch, and a chip to the internet (and/or to each other). This includes everything from cellphones,

refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, cars, jet engines of an airplane, etc. The analyst firm

estimates that by 2020 there will be about 21 billion connected devices, which means for every person, there

will be three devices connected to the internet by then. The relationship of connections from the IOT will be

between people-people, people-things, and things-things. This is already starting. In a world of vastly

changing economic transactions, the ICT sphere is undoubtedly important to sustain economic activity. Both

the public and private sectors are challenged to keep up with the pace of changes in ITC. Quiang (2009)

estimates that for every 10 percent increase in high speed internet connections, economic growth increases

by 1.3 percent (1.38 percent for high income economies, and 1.21 percent for low to middle income

economies). As the Philippines has developed a new economic growth trajectory, it requires reliable,

accessible and affordable ICT services for Philippine participation in the information economy. It is

important for the Philippines to maximize the digital dividends resulting from the wider use of ICT in the

country. It is crucial that policies are formulated and implemented to underscore the positive effects of ICT

to economic growth, particularly in promoting a more sustained and inclusive economic growth. The

provision of accessible and affordable ICT services to Philippine society can be achieved through the proper

implementation of existing regulatory frameworks, the formulation of better laws, rules and regulations,

increased investments in upgrading ICT infrastructures that can be shared by all, and improvements in the

capacity and accountability of institutions that administer and manage the ICT sector. ICT statistics need to

be examined carefully in order to see the landscape. In 2000, the world committed to the Millennium

Development Goals (MDGs), a set of 8 poverty and related goals by 2015. Given the importance of ICT in

development, three ICT statistics have been monitored for the MDGs, viz., fixed telephone subscriptions per
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100 inhabitants mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, and number of internet users per 100

inhabitants.

According to Lyman and Varian (2003), We have an enormous amount of digital data being

created and shared, especially with the availability of smart phones, the internet, social media, sensors and

other tools of ICT. This 2016 alone, in a span of minute, there have been 700 thousand facebook logins, 350

thousand twits, 2.8 million videos viewed on youtube and 2.4 million google searches, and 150 million

emails sent more than a decade ago, a study from UC Berkeley that was supported by IMB, suggested that

from the beginning of time until 2003, we were only able to create five exabytes (i.e. five billion gigabytes)

of data. Further, between two and three exabytes of that information was generated in 1999. Most of that

data (about 92 per cent) was stored on magnetic media, primarily hard drives. Dave Turek (2012) of IBMs

exascale computing suggested that in 2011, five exabytes were then being created every two days; and IBM

predicted that by 2013, this amount of information would be created every ten minutes. Every time, we

make use of our mobile phones, it sends out its Global Positioning System (GPS) location, every time we

use the internet and purchase something online, every time we click the Like button on Facebook, or upload

photos on Instagram, or do a search on google, we are essentially creating digital information. And this in

only part of the bigger picture: business develops databases from customer records, ATM transactions, and

they security camera videos and images. Google has become a buzz-word because of its search facility.

Even students in school would probably be going less to the library these days to seek information, and

would instead google it. When Google was founded close to two decades ago in September 1998, it was

serving ten thousand search queries daily; a year after being launched, Google was already answering as

much as 3.5 million search queries per day. (Battelle, 2005). internet Live Stats, a website that consolidates
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internet statistics from across several sources, estimates that today, Google now processes globally over 3.5

billion searches per day, equivalent to 1.2 trillion searches per year. Google established in 2008 a real-time

flu tracker called Google Flu Trends by watching where people searched for terms relating to illness and

mapping that data with the US Center for Disease Control. An article in Nature (Ginsburg et al. 2009)

reported that flu incidence estimate from Google correlates strongly with the official statistics released by

the US Center for Disease Control (CDC). What was astonishing here was that while the Google statistics

on flu incidence were aggregates with a delay of just one day, official statistics from the CDC took a week

to put together based on administrative reports from hospitals. What was also astounding was that the flu

tracker was rather quick, accurate, and cheap to generate, while official statistics were not as timely and

involved huge costs.

According to Albacea, (2009), Trends in poverty conditions have been traditionally obtained through

an examination of results of household surveys on living conditions that collect either income, expenditure,

or other nonmonetary indicators of welfare. However, in small areas, such as districts, cities, or villages,

there are sparse poverty data as household surveys are designed to get aggregate pictures at national or

regional levels. While work has been conducted on performing regression models on survey data to predict

welfare conditions of households, and on applying these regressions to census data to yield estimates of

poverty status of households in a census, this has been computer intensive, and requires results from rather

infrequently collected census. A rather promising approach to developing data on poverty incidence at small

areas in realtime involves the use of call detail records (CDR) as well as information on mobile customer

behavior (to proxy poverty status of mobile users). This was tried out in Cte dIvoire (Smith et al. 2013).

Since the 1990s, no full survey of the countrys population has been published owing to the civil war that
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Cte dIvoire came out of. Smith et al. (2013) used anonymized CDRs of five million telecommunications

customers between December 2011 and April 2012 to assess both the level of activity among subscribers

and the locations where subscriber calls were made. Higher levels of mobile communication, expenses for

top-ups and a wider range of calls are used to proxy welfare of mobile users. Using these mobile data,

poverty incidence across eleven regions of Cte dIvoire were quantified, and the results were validated with

a multidimensional poverty index created by University of Oxford, which uses indicators such as poor

health, lack of education, inadequate living standard and threat from violence among other factors. Aside

from poverty mapping, various researches have also been conducted socio-economic indicators in the UK

(Eagle et al., 2010) and in Latin America (Frias-Martinez V, Virsesa, 2012). Studying transportation

networks have also been looked by way of monitoring peoples travel routes (Berlingerio et al., 2013) using

mobile data.

According to Thomas et al., (2013), In the Philippines, there has been a lot of concern about the

effects of climate change, both in terms of warmer temperatures and heavier rainfall associated with climate

hazards. In consequence, government has made huge investments in making use of climate sensors data,

launching a project called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (NOAH) in June 2012 under

the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). This project aims to provide a 6-hour lead-time

warning to vulnerable communities against impending floods and to use advanced tools of ICT to enhance

current geo-hazard vulnerability maps. This appears to have yielded some successes, for normal climate

disasters. Some local governments, e.g. Albay, have developed excellent disaster preparedness and have

generally met targets for zero casualties also with the use of project NOAH information. Some areas in

Mindanao that were previously unprepared for climate disasters have improved preparedness. For instance,
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while there were 676 deaths in Cagayan de Oro (CDO) due to typhoon Sendong in 2011, yet there was only

1 death in CDO due to typhoon Pablo a year later. However, for extreme climate events, rising tolls and

costs continue. The supertyphoon Yolanda was reported to have yielded 8201 deaths, 0.9Billion USD in

damages, 18 million persons affected, 1.1 million houses affected. The massive costs were in part because

there was lack of understanding among LGUs and communities affected about the impending disaster

despite repeated warnings from national government based on project NOAH assessments. The possibilities

of examining population movement, especially most devastated, with digital traces from mobile phone usage

as has been done in other countries would be important to explore. While there may be much promise in

getting information from Big Data sources, there are a host of issues also about conducting research on Big

Data, how much promise it actually offers, and how it needs to be communicated (to maximize the

informations leverage). The reliability of Big Data will partly depend on whether information from internet

users can 9 proxy for information of the larger population. Further, Big Data holdings are typically in the

hands of private corporations who do not necessarily make these tsunami of data available for research. If

they do make this available, it will either be for a cost, and those that are publicly available are a minute

portion of the actual data. For instance, only a very small subsample of twitter data is available publicly for

free, and there may be questions on whether the sample made available by twitter is representative. Thus

issues of availability for exploration of the use of Big Data can create new digital divides (Fan &Bifet 2012).

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RELATED STUDIES

LOCAL SOURCE

Sen. Tessie Aquino Oreta announced yesterday that students at public schools can now keep up with

the usage of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) towards different subjects in 1,000 schools

within the country.

Sen. Oreta, signed a memorandum of agreement with the Department of Education (DepEd) under the project

GabaysaPagtuturo for the act of modernizing the education of public schools.

Oreta also stated that the teachers in those schools can use ICT for the subjects English, Math, Science,

Technology and Livelihood Education.

She also added that the government launched the computer laboratories but the percentage of ICT application to

its subjects in public schools is still low based on the studies done by the DepEd and DOST.

Oreta explained that computer aided instruction software will be used in multi media capable high schools

in major academic subjects within public schools.

Oreta will help the project GabaysaPagtuturo by using her priority development assistance fund or pork barrel

for the sake of students in public schools in order for them to become experts in ICT.

The beginning of the project will start with the production of computer aided instruction software in English

which will be used on 4th year students that will be recommended by the Bureau of Secondary Education.

(http://www.philstar.com/bansa/226580/ict-sa-public-schools-isinusulong-ni-oreta)

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The Department of Education has announced that all public schools in the country will acquire

internet-ready computer laboratories in the next two years.

The launching of Global Filipino Schools (GFS) with the cooperation of DepEd and Globe Telecom,

Undersecretary for the Administrative Services Alain Del Pascua assured to provide internet - ready computer

packages to public elementary and secondary schools beginning in 2017, according to Manila Bulletin.

By next year or the next two years, the aim is to provide computer laboratories that are ready to be connected

to the Internet, Pascua explained.

The data of the DepEd Information and Communications Technology Service (ICTS) shows that 46,752 of all

public schools within the country, only 7,804 elementary and 4,359 secondary schools are connected to the

Internet; equating to 26%.

The remaining 74% or ten million students, especially in very far areas, are still offline.

The GFS is the initiative of DepEd - Globe in select public schools in order to maximize the usage of ICT.

DepEd chose Globe as an official partner for the Adopt-A-School; a program that aims to give quality and
meaningful studies to the Filipino youth by the participation of private sectors

.(http://balita.definitelyfilipino.com/posts/2016/10/pampublikong-paaralan-sa-bansa-nais-gawing-online-ng-
deped/)

Technology plays a huge part in effectively showing the lessons to be taught inside the classroom. Many

technologies have been invented in the past century. An example of this is the practical telescope in the 17th

century. This serves as an important instrument for those who study astronomy. After this, the typewriter that

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gave way to effective changes in teaching where books and text are produced quickly. In a few decades, the

computer became the primary instrument in teaching within the 21st century.

Various classes of technology is used within the class depending on what subject or topic they are studying. In

the late half of the 20th century, simple projectors are being used inside classrooms and meetings. This enlarges

images to better show the examples of the teacher. However, in these modern times, the most widest and

primary instrument used is the computer that can access the internet.

Most schools here in the Philippines especially private ones use computer that have access to the internet. They

have computer laboratories where all computers are gathered. Because of this, the search for information

became enjoyable and easy. Teachers effectively share their lectures because of the Internet.

We can all agree that technology gave a big part in advancing our different aspects of knowledge and education.

Nonetheless, we need to remember that we must use it in order. We must not let ourselves abuse technology.

This can cause harmful effects to us if not used in the proper way.

(https://colombierebears.jimdo.com/2011/01/31/teknolohiya-tulong-sa-edukasyon/)

The computer is one of the digital gadgets in these times. Maybe youre already familiar with it because its

popular with the youth. Isnt this used in our studies?

Teenagers use the computer in order to find or search anything that can help in their studies. This digital device

has many uses, How can this help in our studies?

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This has many good uses to us teenagers. Take for example when we search something in the internet, this

proves to be very useful. Instead of searching in piles of books you can just search it and then ta-da! It shows

what you were looking for! Do you use it to sometimes that helps in your research?

Isnt it, so sweet to use modern technology? Do you see a photograph of the modern tools today? Isnt it so very

modern? Here its possible to just keep on searching for anything that will help in your studies. We are truly

lucky that we received this technology.

Vast information and being rich in knowledge, those are our benefits of technology. Is the information were

getting here enough for us? Have you experienced using a digital device like a computer? How did this help you

in your learning? What are the good and bad effects of it to your education? Is modern technology really helping

us?

Use technology for good purposes and do not abuse it so it cannot affect us. We must take care of technology

for the future. Let us enrich it because it was passed onto us as a gift. We will not be using it forever though.

This is only an instrument to help further advance our knowledge and information.

Technology has helped us many times. Like our assignments, we just need to print it out. We can also translate

it to better understand our assignment and also find pictures too.

This has caused many helpful things for us in our daily lives. An example is whenever you search for a job and

need to research what it is; you can also search it here. This also has numerous effects to teenagers like me.

When we get addicted to games and such at the computer, our grades get lower and absences occur. They do not

fully understand what they were learning because of this.

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(http://cjefo1.blogspot.com/2011/12/makabagong-teknolohiya-tulong-sa.html)

Times like these, many gadgets have been made. Different brands and models of cellphones, laptops, and so on

continue to capture the interests of people. This causes happiness and joy. Academic and professional work

have become easy and organized. Communications became more effective and information has been much more

accessible. Therefore, we Filipinos can keep up with the modernization, such an example are the schools.

Because of technology, schoolwork became easy and effective especially for those who seek quality education.

Schools are trying their best to teach students and to improve further the abilities and intellectual capabilities of

their students. With the help of netbooks, projectors and most of is the internet, the search for information

became quick and accurate for their assignments, research, and reports. They attain new knowledge and

reflection because of the internet.

In spite of these advantages, there are still some things that cannot be avoided and still disturb their studies. The

popularity of Facebook and other social networking sites are a part of a student's life. Time for their studies is

instead wasted on Facebook. This also becomes a reason for a student to lose focus on learning. They just

depend on the internet for their research and most works are just "copy - paste" The intellectual capability of the

student becomes limited. When class starts, some dont listen to the teacher and prioritize "texting" while some

waste their money on internet cafes playing all day. Other go home very late because they were watching

movies.

Yes, technology has given us a huge help for us students. However, we must also consider the time and effort

we use it for other important tasks or work. Responsibility is found when acquiring new gadgets and proper

usage of it. The needs, work, or life a student do not solely rely or is based on it. Technology isn't the only thing

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making our lives run. Focusing our attention and efforts on more important things is a delight and responsible

management of our lives and the things that alleviate and quicken our work.

Modern technology naturally contributed and helped a lot and lastly a reminder to always use technology

in a good, productive and responsible way. We mustn't abuse it.

(http://sccbloggers.blogspot.com/2013/03/makabagong-teknolohiya-nakakatulong-nga.html)

FOREIGN SOURCE

European

-In this report we present the results from interviews and document analysis of current and planned Information

and Communication Technology (ICT) projects with policies forces from 10 European countries and from

interviews with technology vendors in the field o ICT in policing. Based on a cross-country, cross-

organisational analysis, we present theme that describe major trends in ICT in European.

Trends

Integrating system

-it was the increased connection of various systems and data sources in order to enhance intelligence and

increase efficiency. Standards and new interfaces between systems are being developed so that previously

unrelated information can be combined and used to support information-led policing. Linking systems helps the

police to increase overall efficiency and to minimize the need to enter data more than once. It also helps police

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forces to overcome organisational boundaries between states and countries, as well as separated responsibilities

for types of crimes; boundaries that do not exist for offenders. Additionally, combining data and intelligence

across organisational boundaries may dramatically enhance investigative capabilities and provide support in real

time. The combination of intelligence requires different police forces or departments to share sensitive data.

Beyond a search for design methods that fit these challenges, future research could provide answers to the

challenge of how to balance disparate organisational goals such as catching-up with criminals and how to

sustain the trust of the general public.

Increasing Mobility

-The second common trend was a need to increase mobile capabilities. Here, we found a broad overlap in

mobile ICT solutions across countries. Adapting digital radios, computing in cars and mobile and handheld PCs

stretches the boundaries of what police officers can do in the field without returning to the police station.

Technology vendors describe these developments in terms of intelligence led policing: In any location, real

time information and intelligence support police officers in their work. Sensor information is fed in real-time

into police systems and processes. For future socio-technical research, the drive for mobility changes the

organisation of police work. Given that the police are traditionally a hierarchically structured organisation, the

question arises as to how empowerment of officers by mobile devices interacts with the identity and current

structure of the police.

Bhutan

-Since the start of planned development in 1961, Bhutan has followed its own unique development path.

Inspired by his Majesty the Kings vision of enhancing Gross National Happiness, Bhutan has always placed
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people at the mid of its development efforts. One of countrys major priorities is to build an Information and

Communications Technology (ICT) system that will serve both national and local development needs. The

foundations for ICT development was prepared in the 1980s when the Royal Government drew on UNDP to

prepare a plan that led to the establishment of Bhutans first digital telecom network.

Trend

Radio

-Radio is the most common and effective ICT in Bhutan. It reaches the largest audience. The Bhutan

Broadcasting Service estimates that about 400,000 people, or 60 percent of the population, listen to the radio. It

was started by a group of young volunteers called the National Youth Association of Bhutan (NYAB) and the

first broadcast was made on 11 November 1973. It was taken over by the Ministry of Communications in 1986

and became a full-fledged radio station with daily broadcasts in Dzongkha, English, Nepali and Sharchhop. For

the rugged terrain and steep slope of the country BBS is still the mostpenetrating communication service. BBS

radio now broadcasts 82 hours a week on bothshortwave and FM. The FM service reaches the western region

and certain areas incentral Bhutan, and the station is working towards reaching FM radio to Trashigang by the

end of 2003. Established with Danida assistance, the FM service will be furtherextended to reach pocket areas in

2004. (Source: Media Study 2003). The media survey shows that 40 percent of households have radio sets, and

23 percent have music sets, which often include a radio. It is generally believed that radio, neglected after the

introduction of television, has not achieved its full potential both in audience numbers as well as content. While

the urban audience is turning to other media, there is still great need to strengthen radio broadcasts to reach the

rural population. It is also important to increase local news through regional news bureaus and stringers.

(Source: Media Study 2003).


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Australia

-In discussing the trends in ICT in Australia, it is almost impossible not to focus globally because of the reach of

the internet and its services like the WWW. The development of the social web and its many variations such as

intelligent networking, personal and social networking all have communications in common. The early

iterations and services provided by the web were largely content and information centric. In fact, one of the

features of the WWW was an information overload which spurred the development of search engines leading to

services that enabled information to be discovered more quickly and easily. A number of national ICT bodies

between 2003 and 2008 have reviewed the trends in ICT in education as part of their monitoring of emerging

technologies. They include bodies such as the British Education and Communications Agency (BECTa),

Education.au Limited (Australia) and the US Consortium of School Networks (CoSN) as well as EDUCAUSE

and the New Media Consortium (NMC) in the US who have gathered the 2007 and 2008 Horizons reports.

However, in reviewing trends In ICT there is a need to consider Zittrains (2008) comments when he says,

peoples experiences with the Internet (sic) are shaped at least as much by the devices they use to access it.

Trend

Open source & open education resources

-The open source movement began with Richard Stallman who founded the GNU Project to develop a free

operating system in 1983 and went on to initiate the Free Software Foundation. In1985. Then at the University

of Helsinki, in 1996, Linus Torvalds presented the Linux Operating System as part of a thesis. Torvalds (1996)

work is now embodied in the Open Source Initiative (2008) and is about open source software. Open source
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software is described on the site as a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed

peer review and explicitness of process. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more

flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in (OSI, 2008). This initiative culminated in open

source software where the user could modify the kernel of the code but had an obligation to contribute that

modification back to the open source community.

Trending in Taiwan

Surveillance Technology

-Surveillance technologies, especially video recording systems are being developed to support police work.

Currently, there are initiatives to introduce video systems for the observation of public spaces, but police also

implement systems with automatic image processing algorithms that are used, among others, for number plate

recognition. Evidence of the effect on subjective and objective safety and security is mixed and case dependent.

Ingeneral, police forces regard the use of this type of technology as helpful. While technological issues still need

to be resolved, especially with complex image processing algorithms, another issue of these surveillance

technologies is its social implication. Depending on the respective country, policy makers and police forces

need to balance the need for providing safety with the citizens rights for privacy.

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Trends in United Kingdom

ICT is integral to UK life. The average UK adult spends more time consuming media or communications than

sleeping (8h 41m versus 8h 21m).2 Social media use has risen from 22% of UK adult internet users in 2007 to

72% in 2015.3 The Government identifies telecommunications as part of the UKs Critical National

Infrastructure.4 The UKs ICT sector is worth an estimated 58bn per year,5 with the highest annual average

labour productivity growth of all UK sectors (1998-2013).6 The European Commission says ICT is key for

growth, and its 2015 Digital Single Market strategy aims to lift barriers to online trade.

Trends

Computing Capability

- Processing Power The miniaturisation of transistors (components of computer chips), has been a key driver for

computers becoming more powerful, cheaper and smaller. However, future improvements are likely to require

new types of transistor, which may take longer to develop, slowing future progress. Quantum computers, which

store and process data using the unique characteristics of very small-scale systems, could dramatically improve

capability. Many predict large-scale quantum computing to be over 15 years away.

-Analytics The ability to analyse large and unstructured datasets is growing as new tools are developed. These

can identify patterns in data and simulate complex systems. Advances in robotics and artificial intelligence

(computer systems able to conduct tasks that otherwise require human intelligence) are enabling machines to

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perform increasingly complex, non-routine tasks. The trend for publicly accessible and modifiable software may

foster innovation and speed up problem solving.

-Cloud Computing Cloud computing involves the remote use of shared computing resources. This can lower the

investment needed to use such facilities and allows more flexible, resilient and efficient use. The Cloud Industry

Forum estimates that 84% of UK organisations use cloud-based services, up from 48% in 2010. The proportion

of data passing through the cloud is rising, from under 20% globally in 2013 to a predicted 40% in 2020.13

Some raise security and privacy concerns with cloud computing, especially if it crosses jurisdictions.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the research design used, the respondents of the study, procedure used in order to

answer in a systematic way the questions that were enumerated in chapter 1. Specifically, it discussed the

methods of research used and the statistical treatment of the data. This was necessary in order to facilitate

accurate data-gathering and better results.

Research Design

A descriptive study is one in which information is controlled without changing the environment.

Sometimes these are referred to as correlation or observational studies. In human research, a descriptive

study can provide information about the naturally occurring health status, behaviour, attitudes or other

characteristics of a particular group. Descriptive studies are also conduct to demonstrate associations or

relationships between things in the world around you.

Descriptive studies can involve a one-time interaction with groups of people cross-sectional study, a

research study in which information is collected at one point in time. Or a study might follow individuals over

time longitudinal study, a research study that takes place over a significant period of time.

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This research is a Descriptive research; it is a kind of cross-sectional study which information is

collected at one point in time. This study can give some clarification and ideas to the readers how important the

technology is, when the teachers use it as a strategy in teaching.We can collect all the data through the existing

records, after collecting the data we can now conclude if the technology is useful as a teaching strategy in

teaching.

Population and Sample

The respondents of the study were twenty (20) selected ICT students of Senior High School at St. Jude

College, Manila batch 2016-2017.

Sampling Technique

Purposive sampling was used in these cases. The researcher employs all those selected ICT students as

the chosen respondents in this research. Purposive sample was used where the speciality of an authority can

select a more representative sample that can bring more accurate results than by using other probability

sampling techniques.

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Research Instruments

The researcher utilized the survey questionnaire as the main tool for gathering data needed for the

research. The research instruments are composed of two parts. The first part consisted of items designed to

asked personal data such as age, civil status, gender, nature, of employment, years of experience and educational

background.

The second part of the questionnaire deals with the degree of the relevance of Trends in ICT in the

enhancement of finding jobs among ICT students of St. Jude College Manila.

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CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the results of chapters of III will be dissected and analyzed in order to form a concrete and

sufficient evidence for the interpretation and outcome in chapter V. This chapter also proves to become an

answer towards chapter I. Twenty students who are currrently studying ICT were chosen to become the

samples. The research design used is a descriptive design, one that interprets and analyzes the data given by the

samples in finding a pattern or relationship between the samples. Most of the respondents ages range from 16

to 18.

The choice of research instrument is a questionnaire that focuses on the respondents prior knowledge about the

trends in ICT and their relevancy to the course. 19 out of 20 questionnaires were collected and all are worthy for

usage. The questionnaire of composed mainly of two parts, the first part asking for their personal information

such as age, sex, and other personal preferences. The second part is focused solely on the trends in ICT although

most are answered scarcely and did not give further explanation for their answers for some questions. Most just

gave a yes or no answer. The following table will illustrate the pattern of the respondents answers to each other.

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ICT 1 No. of respondents: 9


Questions Yes No Question: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 ///// //// Yes: 5 4 8 3 3 4 5 2 7 7
2 //// ///// No: 4 5 1 6 6 5 4 7 2 2
3 //////// /
4 /// //////
5 /// //////
6 //// /////
7 ///// ////
8 // ///////
9 /////// //
10 /////// //

ICT 3 No. of Respondents: 10


Questions Yes No Question: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 ////// //// Yes: 6 4 10 5 5 5 7 4 5 9
2 //// ////// No: 4 6 0 5 5 5 3 6 5 1
3 //////////
4 ///// /////
5 ///// /////
6 ///// /////
7 /////// ///
8 //// //////
9 ///// /////
10 ///////// /

Based on these results, we can establish a pattern from the respondents that most of their answers reflect one

another. We can see that they agree on certain questions while variation is little. We can conclude that our

respondents possess the same ideas and similar understanding of the topic at hand. One respondent has

answered that the trends can gain your interest and can be helpful for her upcoming courses. The majority chose

that the effects of ICT Trends are beneficial to all students.

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS

In this chapter, the researcher summarized the findings together with the conclusions derived

upon analyzing and interpreting the information underlying the results. With these, they were able to

formulate some recommendations for those concerned individuals.

The descriptive method of research was used in this study and the fact-finding was used to

come up with accurate interpretation of findings. Since this study is about the Trends in ICT for Senior

High School Students of Saint Jude College, Manila. The researchers find this method to be the most

appropriate to use.

After gathering and organizing data, the researchers selected the appropriate statistical

methods that will be the basis for making interferences.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the importance of trends in ICT finding a job?

2. What factors affect the students in choosing a trend in ICT?

3. How helpful can it be for students who want to find a job?

4. Can ICT trends be used for future references?

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5. Who do you believe will benefit in trends in ICT other than the students who are studying

ICT?

A total of 20 ICT Students were selected as respondents of this study. The large number of

population was constituted by females who covered a total of 10 or 50%. Male respondents were also

10 or 50%. In addition, all of them are currently studying computer programming at St. Jude College,

Manila.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

1. What is the importance of trends in ICT for finding a job?

It shows that most of the ICT students are having a hard time to know what the

importance of trends in ICT is in finding a job. Trends can be the defining factor when applying for an

ICT related job or career as such these direct or steer the focus of the ICT business. If you cannot

adapt to whats popular or fad, you will lose a lot of potential in both exerting your skills and

generating income.

2. What factors affect the students in choosing a trend in ICT?

The number one factor affecting the students is their interest for the trend. It is

mostly evident within chapter 4 how multiple times theyve said how interested they are in what

theyve chosen. The second factor is the difficulty of their chosen trend or course, many have

expressed that ICT is hard but still goes for their interest of it.

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3. How helpful can it be for students who want to find a job?

The trends can serve as a guide or hint for students whove just graduated and in

need for a job. They have the advantage of what is in demand and by that can go with the demand

without having to risk losing time or effort compared to job hunting or post counting. It can also serve

as a reminder as to what the general population is in need of. Most businesses conduct surveys and

widespread interviews to know what the people want or need.

4. Can ICT Trends be used for future reference?

Yes they can, upcoming generations will need to learn as to what was developed

in their past in order to create new ICT Trends for their current generation to enjoy or past technology

that they can further innovate for the betterment of mankind. Without a source to reference from,

people in the future will have no idea what was formed in the past, what technology was in need and

popular from the people.

5. Who do you believe will benefit in trends in ICT other than the students who are

studying ICT?

Everyone can benefit from ICT as long as they persevere and have the passion

for it. ICT is such a wide field that most aspects of our daily life have ICT integrated within it, making

the trends ever more important to master. Having something as a guide will help you follow and

understand what the situation is calling for. Whether it be a new breakthrough for healthcare or a

scientific discovery, its best to have a guide to help guide you through it.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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APPENDICES

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CURRICULUM VITAE

PERSONAL DATA

Name: Carpo, Jan Michael I.

Date of birth: October 2, 1998

Place of birth: Manila

Status: Single

Present Address: 705 A S.Trinidad St. Juan Luna- GagalanginTondo, Manila

Name of Mother: Elizabeth C. Ileto

Name of Father: Alejandro L. Carpo

Siblings: NONE

Skills: Singing

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:

Tertiary:

Secondary:

Primary:

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