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ENGLISH FOR PHYSICS

MODALS

BY :

3th Group :

1. DEWI ARISANTI (NIM 8176175003)


2. EVITAMALA SIREGAR (NIM 8176175006)
3. MAULIDAH HAYATI SIMAMORA (NIM 8176175009)

SUBJECT : ENGLISH FOR PHYSICS


DEPARTMENT : PHYSICS EDUCATION
CLASS :A

POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
2017
PREFACE

First of all, give thanks for Gods love and grace for us.Thanks to Godfor helping me
and give me chance to finish this English Paper assignment entitled Modals. And I would
like to say thank you to Prof. Drs. Motlan, M.Sc., Ph.d as the lecture that always teaches us
and give much knowledgeabout how to practice English well.
The writer also wih to express his deep and sincere gratitude for those who have
guided in completing this paper. This English paper contains some example of Modals. I
realized thi assighmentis not perfect.But I hope it can be useful for us. Critics and suggestion
is needed here to make this paper assignment be better.
Hopefully we as a student of postgraduated of Physics Education at State University
Of Medan can work more professional by using English as a second language whatever we
done. Thank you.

Medan, 18 September 2017

Dewi Arisanti
Evitamala Siregar
Maulidah Hayati Simamora
MODALS

After the Present simple, the most common verb forms in scintific English are those,
which contain modals. The most frequent modals are:

Group 1: can, may, might, could

Group 2: will, should, must, have to

Modals are used with the base from of the verb to give extra meaning to the sentence.
In physics modal is frequently used, especially when we discuse about possibility or
presiction.A modal is a type of auxiliary (helping) verb that is used to express: ability,
possibility, permission or obligation. Modal phrases (or semi-modals) are used to express the
same things as modals, but are a combination of auxiliary verbs and the preposition to. The
modals and semi-modals in English are:

Modals Present Modals Past


Can Could
Will Would
Shall Should
May Might
Must Had to
Should -
Ought to -

A. Group 1: can, may, might, and could


The modals in group 1 are frequentlyused to make statements of possibility and
probability.

Can,may,might, and could + Verb base


Examples:
You break your leg if you jump from three story building: (the level of probability is
approximately 90-100%).
1. You can break your leg if you jump from three story building: (the level of
probability is approximately 40-70%).
2. You may break your leg if you jump from three story building: (the level of
probability is approximately 20-40%).
3. You may/might break your leg if you jump from three story building: (the level of
probability is approximately 2-20%).
4. You cannot break your leg if you jump from three story building: (the level of
probability is approximately 0-2%)
Notice:
Cannot is written as one word
Might and could are not past of may and can.

B. Group 2: will, should, must, have to

To express certainty (or to sat that something is certainly true or untrue), we use will,
should, must, have to.

1. For Present and future situation, we use:


Will, should, must, have to + Verb
Base

In which :

a) Will is used when the speaker means that something is certainly true, even though we
cannot see that it is true.
Example:
According to Newtons first law when a body at rest it will remain at rest
unlest there is a net force acts on the body.
We all will die.
b) Must is used when the speaker sees something as necessarily and logically true.

Example:

The magnetic pole must attract the particles since they made of iron.
The device must also attract the glass.
c) Cant is used when the speaker sees it as ogically imposible for something to be true.

Example:

A car cant move if there is no friction force.

2. Continuation of the action


Will,must and cant + be +V-ing

Example:

In general, if our standard body of 1kg mass has an acceleration a we know that the
force F must be acting on it.
The ball cant be moving. It must be at rest because theres no force acting on it.

3. For a perfect situation, we use:


Will, mut and cant + have + PII

Example:

1. The experiment will have been conducted by now.


2. The ball is moving. Some one must have kicked it.
3. Newtonian mechanics cant have worked in that case. The interacting bodies were
on the scale of atomic structure.
C. Perfect
1. We use :
may/might + verb base

To say that something is possibly true or an uncertain prediction.


Example:
1) We may find g by simply weighing a standard weight on a spring balance.
2) There might an error somewhere in the procedures.

2. To lay emphasis on the continuation of the action, we can use

may/might + be+ V-ing

Example:
1) He may/might be doing well in Physics because he has borrowed a lot of
books on Physics from the library.
3. The perfect can be used also:
Example:
1) He may/mighthave made a lot of observations before reacting such a
conclusion.

D. Past Perfect Tense

Had+PII
Past perfect tense is used to express an action or state before a past time reference.

Example:

1) Everything had been good before he put his nose in.before quantum physics, the
interacting bodies on the scale of atomic structure had not been able to explain.

A. Can, Be able to

Can, could and be able to are used to express a variety of ideas in English:
1. Ability/Lack of Ability
Present and Future:

can/cant + base form of the verb


Examples:

a) Tom can write the formula of physics very well.


b) Momentum can be defined as Mass in motion.

Be able to

am / is / are / will be + able to + base form of the verb


am not/ isnt / arent/ wont be + able to + base form of the verb

Examples:

1. Mike is able to solve complicated physics equations.

2. The support team will be able to help you in about ten minutes.

3. I wont be able to study force on Sunday.

2. Possibility / Impossibility

can / cant + base form of the verb

Examples:

1. You can catch that train at 10:43.

2. Hecant see her physics homework right now. She is a stingy.

3. Ask Permission / Give Permission

Can + Subject + base form of the verb (informal)

Example:

Can you lend me Kinetic Energy Books ?

Can + base form of the verb (informal


Example:

You can borrow my physics books.

Could + subject + base form of the verb (polite)

B. May, Might

1. Formal Permission / Formal Prohibition

may / may not + base form of the verb

a) You may start your physics exam now.

b) You may not wear sandals to school.

2. Polite Request

May + subject + base form of the verb

a. May I help you to study the Kirchoof Theorem?

3. Possibility / Negative Possibility

may/ might + base form of the verb

1. We may study analysis vectors tonight. Do you want to join us?

may not / might not + base form of the verb

1. Adam and Sue may not buy that Haliday Book. Its very expensive.

4. To Make a Suggestion (when there is no better alternative)


may as well / might as well + base form of the verb

1. You may as well come inside.Evi will be home soon.

C. Shall, Should, Ought to

1. To Offer of Assistance or Polite Suggestion (When you are quite sure of a


positive answer)

Shall + subject + base form of the verb


Shall I go for a walk to campus?

Note: Shall is only used with I or we. It is used instead of will only in formal English

2. To Offer of Assistance or Polite Suggestion (When you are not sure of a positive
answer)

Should + subject + base form of the verb

Should I call a doctor?

3. A Prediction or Expectation that Something Will Happen

should/shouldnt + base form of the verb

a) The proposal should be finished on time.

b) I shouldnt be late. The train usually arrives on time.

4. To Give Advice

should / ought to + base form of the verb

You should check that physics schools exercise before you go to campuss.

5. To Give Advice (about something you think wrong or unacceptable)


shouldnt + base form of the verb

1. Dewi shouldnt teach her words like those.

D. Must, Have to, Need to, Dont have to, Neednt

1. Necessity or Requirement

Present and Future:

must / have to / need to + base form of the verb

a) You must have a passport to cross the border.

b) Elisabeth has to apply your abstract to her at 19th September.

c) I need to drop by his room to pick up a Math book.


2. Almost 100% Certain

must + base form of the verb

a) Thomas has lived in Paris for years. His French must be very good.

3. To Persuade

must / have to + base form of the verb

a) You must read this Physics books . Its excellent and make you clever.

b) You have to visit the Optic laboratory while youre in this campus.

4. Prohibited or Forbidden

must not / mustnt + base form of the verb

a) You must not drive over the speed limit.

b) You mustnt leave medicines where children can get to them.

5. Lack of Necessity

dont /doesnt /didnt + have to + base form of the verb

a) You dont have to park the car. The hotel valet will do it for you.

b) Tim doesnt have to go to school today. Its a holiday.

c) You didnt have to shout. Everyone could hear you.

neednt + base formof the verb

1. You neednt worry about me. Ill be fine.

E. Modals: Will / Would

will / wont + base form of the verb


a) I will to try study Laplace theorem now.

b) Beth wont be happy with the results of the exam.

1. Polite Request or Statement

Will / Would + base form of the verb


a) Will you please take the trash out?

b) Would you mind if I built the power station of energy in here??

c) Id (I would) like to sign up for your workshop.


References

Sirait Motlan;2012, English For Physics, Cetakan 1, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu
Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Negeri Medan.