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NEGERI SABAH. MALAYSIA

JABATAN KERJA RA.YA

TECHNICIAN'S HANDBOOK
FOR
Roao CONSTNUCTION AND MI.NTNNANCE

No.: 1

DRAINAGE

1981
Overseerrs llaldbook No. 1

Drainage

fntrod.uctio}

fhis handbook is one of a series conpilecl with


the assistance of the Kanpsa:c Srrpport Team to
provid.e r ginple guide to the d.esign, planning
ard execution of civil engineering ftrnctions
in road naintenance.
fhe llard.books have been written pri.narily for
the benefit of supe:rrisors who d.o not possess
forsal a,cadenic Eratifications a.rd. the
r
nateria,l is therefore presented. in unooo_
plicated te:ms, excluding: but the
all most
basie technical theory.
DRAINAGE

PART I: GENERAT

1. ScoPe of Drainage

Drainage is defined as "Natural or arti-


ficlal means for the removal by flow-of
water from the surface or sub-soil- of an
arear usually bY gravitationtt'

It has been apprecJ'ated' since hlghways


were flrst constrgcted that their sta-
btllty can only be matntained if the
soil ?oundation remains !n a rel'atlve-
ly dry cpnditlon. Vlet muddy soils ?F
r6ad iraterials' have not the st'rength to
support heavY car and truck wbeels

Investlgations into moisture conditlons


under bitumlnous surface4 hlghways in
tiopfcaf areas have lndicated that the
occurrence of vtet and weak subgrade con-
ditlons where it did occur cou'ld be
attrlbuted in the majorlty of instances
to deficienci-es in the draLnage arrange-
ments which permLtted the accumulation
of surf,ace wlter in the pavement layers'
Had the layers been provided ltlth ade-
q"ut" draiirage outlets to the side
dralns tttgtt iailure of the highvtay would
have been avoLded.
2

A second aspect of drainage is that the


runoff bften causes erosion,whLch is
potentlal damage to the road.

AII of whl,ch merely conflrms the rather


obvLous fact that, a hlghway Ls as good
as lts dralnage system, and, without an
effLcl,ent drainage system a1l or any work
carrled out on the struct'ure of the high-
vtay ls just a waste of tlme, money and
effort.

An efflcient dralnage system includes:

(a) Drainage of the surface of the high-


way by camberr superelevatlont
shoulders and griPs.

(b) Collectlon and removal of the surface


water bY side drains to transfer or
relief pol,nts.

(a) Dt sch659e, at transfer or relief


pglnts'via culverls and outfall
channels into gatural waterwaYs.
Further, sufficient size of culverts
as related to the ru4off from lts
r dralnage area, and gareful location
to ensure continuous servlce.

(d) Sub-soll drainage, where and if re-


qulred.
*i.,

(e)- Catchment dralns for deallng wlt,h


surface water flowing onto the high-
way from outside areas.
(f) Dj-versions to ensure that the water
flows to the culverts and that the
watercourses do not shift.

(g) Control of trr'e erosive power of sur-


face water, by lining, vteirs, gras-
sing or otherwlse.

(h) Regular inspection of all elements


in the system, and

(i) Maintenance and repair when and


where needed.

Every part of the drainage system must


be designed to carry and dispose of the
maximum volume of water that is Ilkely
to flow into tt.

A. Drainage of the Surface of lhe Hichwav

The degree of camb,er is expressed as the


ratio of vertical to the horizontal (see
figure I.), i t s h o u l d b e j u s t s u f f j . c i e nt
to aIlow surface $tater to overcome frlc-
tional resLstance and clear quickl'y to
the drainage system
Figure I - t o measure camber and superele-
vation - x cm i n 1 0 0 c m = x t

I o m eo s u r e c o m b e r o n d s u p e r e l e v c t i o-n x c m I n l 0 0 c m r=' l r

fig. I

Most surfaces will absorb some waterr anrl


the quantity absofbed is partly Propor-
tional to t,he time t,haL the water lies
on the surf ace. Thus the more porous t'he
surface the quicker the water must be
removed. This is achieved by camber. As-
phalt paved surfaces of smooth texture
can be relatively flat (2t) whereas the
more porous and irregular surfaces such
as gravel must have a steeper camber
(4-6r).
Unnecessarily steep camber may be danger
ou6 f o r the traffic, esPeciallY on
smooth surfaces. fhe degree of camber
5

reconmended is given j.n the table below


at figure 2.

CARRIAGEWAYSURFACE DEGREE OF CAIvIBER

Earth Surface 4z 68
Gravel Surface 38 68
Water-bound Macadam 31 4z
Penetration Macadam 2. 5g
Bitumen Macadam 2Z 2.52
Surface Dressed 2. 5r
Premix Surfaces 2* 2.5*

fig.2

Crossfall for superelevation fulfils


functions other than drainage, but the
figures given below in the table at
figure 3 can be used as a general guide.

RADIUS OF CURVE DEGREE OF SUPERELEVATION

15- 200m 7*
250 500 m 6* 3.58
550 - 1000 n 3t 2.5*

fig. 3

Ehe soft or earth shoulders should be


between 150 cm and 250 cm wide with a
cross faII of 5t, the edge of the
6

shoulder should be leve1 with the edge of


the carri.ageway, except perhaps on an
embankment, and should be grassed to pre-
vent erosion.

Sandy materlals with a low content of


fines ( c l a y s ) will erode easily and do
not encourage the growth of grass. Con-
sideration should be given to either
dressing the shoulders with clays which
can be watered in as a slurryr or recoTr-
struction as hard, and perhaps sealed''
shoulders.

Grips, scupPerdrains t ot turnouts, will


be cut or formed where required as an
intermedLate measure across or through
an embankment or shoulder, to divert the
surface rrrater from the edge of the
carriageway into the side drains. They
w111 have a cross fal1 of 6t.

Figure 4 (see next page) Lllust'rat'es the


main features of the hlghway drainage
system.
fig. 4

B. Side Dralns

These should be trapezoidaL Ln cross


section, the mlnimum dimenslons being
130 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm with the side
slope l:1, and on the outslde of the
drain a berm will be cut, or formed from
50 cm to 75 cm wi.de wlth a cross fall
8

into the drain of 5t.

The drains are cut parallel to the


carri-agevray, outside the soft shoulder,
the invert of the drain should not be
less than 65 cm below the crown of the
carriagewdy, and the longitudinal gradient
is normally that of the carriageway.

The longitudinal gradient of side drains


must however be sufficient for free flow-
ing and not so great as to cause erosion.
This, depending on the nature of the soil
will lie between the limits of 0.67t and
5.08. Where the highway runs through a
double cutting on a gradient greater
than 5t the side drain will naturally
have the gradient of the carriageway and
will therefore have to be lined to pre-
vent erosion. This normally done with a
cascade drain. See figure 5.

fig.5
9

Cascade drains can be easily constructed


with half round precast channels or in-
vert sections.

Temporary control of erosion can be


achLeved cheaply by using cut sheets
from asphalt drums in the same type of
construction.

Satisfactory maintenance of open eafth


drains depend entirely on control of the
velocity of the water in them. At velo-
cities in excess of .50 metets/sec.,
water will start to pick up material from
the sides and bottom of the drain. This
t
is eroslon. The table shown in figure'6
gives the maximum safe velocities of
iater in drains constructed in d i f f e rent
soiIs.
PERMITTED VELOCITY
MATERIAI, M./Sec.
Fine Sand 0.45
Sandy Lroam 0. 50
Alluvial Silt 0.60
Flrm Loam 0.75
Ftne Gr:avel 0.75
Stiff CIay I.IO
Coarse Grave1 1.20
Cobbles l. 50

flg. 6
10

C. C u l v e r t s

Culverts are usually sited at, existing


natural r^rater channels, and must be of
sufficient size to handle the maximum
d i s c h a r g e fro m i ts p a rti cu l ar catchm ent
a r e a e f f i ci e n tl y.
(i) Culvert Size
The necessary size of the culverts d,e-
pends on the drainage area whose runoff
is passed through the culvert, and on
the terrain. This may be estimated on
site, but it is far more reliable t o
' Ioeasure on
the map after sketchinq in the
water divides.

Table I has -been computed from the Talbot


Formula which is:

A=c,Wwhere
A = area of waterbray opening in
sguarefeet
D = drainage area in acres
C = a coeffj.cient dependlng on the
slope, shape, and characteris-
tic of the area drained, e.g. s
0.2 for flat areas, where
length is several tLmes width
0.5 for gently rolllng farmland
0.7 for rough hilly areas'wlth
moderate slopes
I.0 for steep barren areas and
mountalnoug areas.
ll

Table I has been converted into metric


units for ease of use.

It should be noted, however, that the


design of culverts is a specialized task
for a skilled engJ.neer. The Talbot Formu-
Ia ls a slmple aid to quick design and
should be accurate for small culverts up
to 2 o r 3 1 . 0 0 m e t e r d i a m e t e r p i p e s . )
Tab1e t shows a minimum size of 0.60 m-r
which compares with a plpe with 0.85 m
interior diameter or a rectangular
opening 0.70 x 0.85 m' whLch is recom-
mended as a minimum working sPace for a
m€rn. Whenever possibler use I m,round or
rectangularr ds ii- is less likely to
choke and easier to clean.

(ti) Culvert Location

Culvert location means alignment and


grade with respect t'o both roadway and
stream. Proper locatlon ls important
because it affects the adequacy of the
opening, maintenance of the culvert, and.
p6ssible washout of the roadway. Although
every culvert installatlon is a separate
problem, a few principles apP1y in a ma-
jority of cases.

A direct intet and outletr if not already


existent, can be obtalned in one of three
ways - by means of a channel change, a
skiwed aiignment, or both. The cost of
a channel cnange may be partly offset by
length or decrease 'ln
a saving in culvert
size. A skewed alignment requlres a
greater length of culvert, but ls usuarry
justified by lmprovlng the hydraullc con-
I2

dition and the safety of the roadbed.

An open stream ls not always stable. It


may be cheinging its channel straighten-
ing itself in some, places, and becorning
more crooked in others. It may be
scouring ltself deeper in some places,
silting in others. Change of land use up-
stream by clearing, deforestation or real
estate development may change bolh the
stabillty and the flood flow of a stream.

Because a culvert is a fixed line in a


streamr*- judgrment ls necEFry in proper-
Iy locating the structure. The first
princlple of culvert, location and align-
ment is to give the stream a direct en-
trance and a direct exit. Any abrupt
change in direction at either end wiII
retard the flow and make a larger struc-
ture necessary.

It ls also necessary to give considera-


tlon to abutting property both as to pond-
lng upstream and to safe velocities to
avoid undue scour or slltlng downstream.

Another prlnciple of culvert location is


to use reasonable precautions to prevent
the stream from changing its course near
the ends of the culvert. Otherwise the
culvert may become inadequate, cause ex-
cessive ponding, and possibly wash out
and make expensJ.ve mainterrance of the
roadway necessary. Riprap w111 help pro-
tect the banks from erodlng and changing
the channel, also weirs and other pro-
tections of sides and bottom should be
considered.
13

(fii) C u l ve rt Gra d i e n t

As a general prLnciple the gradient of


the cuLvert should coincl,de with the
average gradient of the stream bed above
and below the culvert location. However,
there is a crj.tical gradient at whlch a
culvert nelther silts-up nor causes ero-
sion, which will depend upon its diameter,
the volume of water flow (or veloclty)
and the nature of soil ln the stream bed.
In general. thts gradlent wlll lle between
0 . 5 t a n d 2 . 0 t. S e e f J.g u re 7 .

flg. 7

Where the culvert is constructed wLth too


shallow a gradient Lt ls llkely to sLlt-
up, as seen Ln ftgure 8.
14

fig.8

Should the lLe of the land be such as to


prevent a steeper gradJ.ent being lmposed
on the structure, or should thls occur on
exlsting small culverts, cleaning work
can be made easler for the maintenance
teams by lnstalllng a stlt trap at the
Lnlet as shown on flgure 9

flg.9
I5

Culverts constructed to too steep a


gradient wiII result in eroslon at the
6ut1et as shown ln figure 10'

fig. L0

This sltuatlon ls easily corrected by


establishing the culvert at the correct
gradlent an6 passlng the resultant slope
lischarge arel in rlp-rap. Aprons-tltl
wel,rs can also be I'nstalled to
"tifffttg
reduce Lhe erosive energy of the water'
See f i g u r e 11.
t5

fig. Il

D . Subsoll Draiqaqe

In general, thls wilL depend on local


condltlons and therefore no hard and
fast rules can be lald down. Whether it
Is required or not can only reaLly be
decid6d by an on the spot survey. Itt il'
case of uirexplained fallures, the dept!
og: ttt" grouniwater table may be located
by dlggtng ..or borlng small diameter
w61ts,-ane the values given in figure L2
wilt serve as a guide.
L7

DEPTH OF
SUB-BASE MATERIAL WATER TABLE

Non-plasti;c sands I.0 meter


Sandy claYs P.I. 20t 3.5 meter
Heavy claYs P.I. 40t 7.0 meter

flg. 12

Water tables of depth less than those


=ttottt in figure 12 will dominate moi'sture
conditions under the pavement' All instal-
iilion" or subsoil drainage must be done
under the supervJ-slon of an enginEQrr. .
after a thorough survey has been carrLeo
out.

Subsoil drains will normally faIl into


flve main catagories:

(1) Aqricultural Drains'

These are drains composed of unsocketed


unglazed earthenware pipesl which are
usially laid direct in the soLl'

( f l) Fr'ench Dral'ns

These are dralns comPo""a of earthenware


Jointed pipes surrounded by filter
"p"t
Gterlal through whlch water, m1y Perco-
late1 or3 - a drain composedof earthen-
rit. or clay pipesr or metal P1-ne3, iD
which, lD tiie- lower quarters of the
pipes, a specified number of holes or per-
?o-ratfons have been drllled to alLow
I8

J.ngress of water, the plPes being sur:


rounded by fllter materLal through whlch
water may Percolate.

(fil) Rubble Dralns

These are dralns constructed by excavating


a trench and fllllng tt wlth selected
rubble or stone through whlch water can
percolate.

1fv) Dralnaqe Blenkets

These are layers of PorouE materialr


usual.Iy lncorporated into the pavement
layers as sub-basesr whtch extend from
drltn to dral.n. See f igure 13.

f19. 13
19

Where construction technlques requlre the


pavement courses to be bullt within the
Lrench left by preconstructed hard
shoulders, fr-enlfr Drains are constructed
through the shoulders at intervals of
5-20 meters either sider Be shown Ln
figure 14.

flg. 14

(v) HorLzontal Relief Dralns

trhese are usually ln the form of Eurall


dLameter ptpes dlrllled or thrust lnto
the face of-a cuttLng to relieve hydro-
statLc pressure whl'ch would othervrl'se
cause a collapse of earth face.
20

E. Catchment Drains

These should be trapezoidal in cross sec-


tion, and are required to cut off the
surface water from the high level catch-
ment area, and so prevent flooding of the
' highway, and the posslbility of blockage
of the carriageway by earth slip' or, the
blockage or sllting up of the sid,e drains.

They'are sometimes required on embank-


ments to assist in preventing erosion.

They should be sited a minimum of 5 meters'


but preferably 20 meters friom the top
edge of any bank or cutting.

The longitudinal gradient should lie be-


tween l.Ot and 2.08, any slope greater
than thts must not be used unless check
dams or cascade drainage is employed, and
the drain must be sited to splll Lnto na-
tural watercourses or led into a culvert.
See flgure 15

I
2L

flg. 15

They should be trapezoidal in cross sec-


tion, the minimum dimensions being
130 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm the side sloPe
being l:I', and the excavated material
being placed on the downhill sj-de of the
slope as an additional aid to contain the
water.

In some types oJ soil the disturbance of


vegetation-rnay lead to instability- and
aamft water to the subsoil; in such
cases banks should be formed to divert
the water instead of cutting a draln'
22

fig.15

An alternative catchwater draln system


for deep cuttlngs is shown in figure 16.
Here tha cutting Ls made in a number of,
steep sided benches to minimise overspill'
The floor of each bench is sloped back at
a 5t gradient to concrete channel or as-
phalt llned dralns which are carried to
the end of each bench and dlscharged
into adjacent waterways by cascade out-
lets. ' i

F. Diversions

DLversLon ditches are dug at a greater


d,lstance from the r o a d , t o c o l l e c t seve-'
raL watercourses into oner or to ensure
that shifting of water from one course to
23

another does not haPPen'

The digging of diversion dltches can con-


duct a-watercourse to that' p l a c e on the.
roadwhereanexistingbridgecanprovaoe
its outlet

The construction of the road through the


land is virtually like making- a d3m' Th:
*il.r in the ditches crossed by the-roacl
p a t i e n t -and forceful to
i= sufficiently
J""Ltoy the roid-if we do not provide,'
;;l;;i" and ditches for it to Pass ofr
road.

G. Erosion Control

The drainage system collects the water


in streams sotnl of which may be dry most
& itr. ti*.. The water in streams has
erosive power, notably when the dj'tch or
stream hls a iongitudinaL slope of more
Lni" 5t dePending on the soil'

sandy and uncornpacted soils are


Sitt,y,
;;;;'sospeclibre to erosion than the
l y p . solls, gravels' and welL
heavier clay
compacted materials.

Erosion may cause shiftlng of the stream


;;a;-";tanted deposits -of .the eroded ma-
t"riaf and new unwant'ed dltches or ero-
;i;;" on the of cuts and embank-
"toP"s
ments.
24

To p.revent erosion t,he following rnay be


consldered:

construction clf ditches with


r
slopes less
Iining
than the critical
of ditches .
- wej-rs, which provide firm point"s
"
in t,he ditch
- cascades which concentrate the
fall of water in points which
are then protected and destroy
its energy
- grassing shoulders, slopes and
drains.

Grassing is the cheapest and most advan-


.tageous of these.

H. fnspection

Each rainfall is a test of the drainage


system, and surprises often occur. If
Ieft alone, minor surprises may pile up
to become major catastrophies, ancl there-
fore the following inspection schedule
must be adhered to by the foreman.
Rout,ine Check road surface for ponding"
inspec- Check shoulders and grips.
t,ion. Check all side drains.
Aftbr Check bri.Jges for obstacles ln
small riverbed.
rains or Check all culverts in- and out-
once a lets.
month
25

Major inspec- Check all sl"opes.


tion. Check all diversions.
In addltion to Look fsr soft spots in
the above, carrJ,agelray.
during or after Check all catchment
storms or twice drains.
a year. Inspect r.ivers for shif-
ting course and
obstacles.
Check aII culverts
through.

All damage that cannot be repaired by the


foreman's own powers withLn the month
should be reported to the engLneer at
once; the engineer shall then take action
as he deems necessary.

All bridges should be checked annual.ly at


Iow water for erosion and damages together
with the engineerr
26

2.

fn his monthly reportn the foreman shall


state the result of his inspections, the
larger works undertaken, and that work repor:
ted earlLer as being beyond his means.to re-
pair within the month.

He shall plan his work schedule and include


major items for the coming 3 months in his
report,- and progress on the works presently
in hand.

After inspection he wi1l divert available


means to the immediat,e repairs deemed neces_
sary.

When consldering the works to be carrled out


the foreman is responsible for the i"iiii.
and must take necessary steps to ensure
that,
the road renders adeguite servlce at all
times. He shall infoim the public and tfre
pollce of obstacles ro the irnrri;;*;; ii"*
of trafflc.

TIr"_foreman, af ter the above preparations,


shall tlen proceed to determLne lhe reso,rr_
ces'needed to carry thru hls plani
sfep-s to get those men, nachlires ana-maieri* "na-tafe
a 1 s h e ne e d s, w h e re h e 'n e eds them , on- ir r ."
27

DRAINAGE

panr Ir: qqNSTRUCTION

1 . C o n s t r u cti o n fo r S ma l 1 C ulver ts
On most old highways there
are insuffi_
cient culverts to eater for the needs
of the highway. The iUsence o.f frequent
run off polnts forces the
side arains-to
carry surface_ water for longer - v 5 l u m elengths,
sr";;e'
resulting in larger flow
consequently an increased risk
of'eiosio*
and subsequent ponding. The more i;;:--
quently water can be lappea
of into-ii_
vers and streams the beiler.
et each
sggh point a culvert must exist to
able both sicle_ drains to eiscfrarge en-
flow. their
-In gently undulating land an ave_
rage of five culverts per kilo*"t.i
normal. i"-
In mountanino-us country the
rage can easily ave:,
-
be double. rneirttably
therefore the lore*"r, *fii be faced - with--'
the negessity of constr.r-iirrg
. ,r"*
verts to correet faults found in his ""i_
drainage, system.

Obvi.ously any major culverts


and severe
problems must be-referred-to
engineering
specialists for detailed survey and de_
sign. However in the interest
of economy
it is normat ro devetop siina"ril=;;-;;J
signs for small structirres-ana
to en_
trust the routine maintenance staff
the collection with
of data supervision oi
of construction after "rrA- proposals
ttreir
have_been checked at ofsirict
Engineer
Ieve1.
28

2. Stan*lrd, DesiEns

A wide range of standard designs has been


d.eveloped. for culverts, fal.ling basically
into three groupss

A. F r e c a s t C o n cre te P i p e s

fig. 17

These can be eit'her spun reinforced


precast pipes, usually manufactured
lnd marketed commerciali-y , ot rein-
forced and unreinforced locally cast
on slte. The unreinforced plpe must
by necessity be of small diameter
and h e a v y w a t f thickness. It require's'
r':areful handlLnc and conslderable
care in laying and backfil-llng'
29

B. Corrugated S t e e l Pipes

fig. 18

These pipes are commerclally manufact-


ured in a wide range of sizes, wall
thlcknesses (gauges) and types. They
may be.round, ellipticalr oE in p ipe.
arlhes. They may be fu1ly made up' in
haLf round sections or panel lengths.
The sectional PiPes are fitted to-
gether on site with either bolts or
metal clips. Their great advantage is
lightness of weight and freedom from
ne-essity of heavy structural support'
They require greal care in inst'allation '
30

C. Box Culverts

flg. 19

The most simpJ.e form of box culvert


is that, lllustrated in flgure 19,
whlch conslsts of a mass concrete
g.ast Ln-sltu base wlth brick or mason-
ry waIls, and a pre-cast relnforced
concrete deck stAb. Table 3 in
Part III of thls hand book shows the
general layout of one euch box cul-
vert. Tables 4-T inqluslve glve ttre
detall drawlngs for a range of four
standard deslin deck slabi whlch can
31
be pre-cast in a central yard from
one conmon set of shutters The
weJ.ghts are more than man-handling
sLze but well withln the range of the
3 ton crane fitted to standaia ftat
trucks, for both loadlng and placlng.

The followlng pages cover the opera-


tions requl-red to locate, selecl, and
lnstall one such standard box culvert.

3. Measurement

Durlng the course of hls day to day du-


tLes, and durlng hJ.s rnonthly tnspeltions,
the foreman will have identlfled local
tlons subject to spot floodlng and over-
sptll where new culverts are requlred.
For each such l_ocatlon the followlng
steps w111 be taken ln conJuctlon wlttr
completLon of a measurement form, a
sarnple of whlch is lncluded at table g.

A. Record the locatlon - road and kllo-


meter and meters on the measurement
form.

B. Measure the full formatlon width and


pavement type

C. I'leasure the angle of skew. Rlvers do


not_ always cross the road at right
angLes. The greater ttre angle of
skew, the greater the length of cul-
.-vef,t, and hence lts cost. It may how-
ever be necessary to cross on a skew
to avold excesslve risk of erosLon on
a sharp corner on inletr of, to obtaln
32

the necessary gradient for self


cleansing.

D. Measure overall culvert length along


the skew ang1e.

E. Measure the level of stream, drain


bed at inlet and outlet. Attempt to
get I8-2E gradient.

F. Measure the area of catchment. Pre-


ferably request your engineer to dq
this from plans.

\Jr Record from visual lnspect,ion the


nature of the catchment.

H. Record all this information on the


Measurement Form.

4. Planning

The task of pl,anning should be carrled


out by the engineer with the assistance
of the bridge foreman. The sequence
of operations is as follows:

A. From the area and, nature of catch-


ment recorded on the Measurement
Form, determine from tabLe 1 the
required waterway opening ln square
meters.

B. From the recorded angle of skew on


the Measurement Form, end with Fhe
calculated waterway openi-ng above,
select on table 2 the type of culvert
and (if necessary) the number of
unlts required.
33

D . Equipment: The job wlll definitelY


requlre most of the equipment listed
on the Measurement Form. If the road
surface is bituminous paved, macad'am
or waterbound macadam then a portable
compressor and pavement breaker wil}
be required before the back-hoe can
operate. If no suitable water is
available during the construction
season a water tanker is required for
concrete and mortar manufacture, and
for back-fiIling.

E . Labour: Once the eguipment list has


been determined the labour llst can
be completed. Four labourers w111 be
required. to assist the Concrete Mixer,
and two masons will be required to
handle buildtng construction.

F. Materials: With the known tyPe, length'


and skew of design the material re-
quirements can now be detailed. Do
not forget the sand and cement re-
quired ior rnortar ln brLckwork and
masonry.

G . T o o l s r e tc.3 E n su re th at sufficient
barriers are available not onIY to
protect the work site, but also to
denrarkate the half road wldth avail-
abl.e to trafflc through the glte.

5. Pfeparatlon
Preparation ls subdtrvlded into two sec-
tors. The flrst Preliminary Works covers
avallabiltty of Equipnent, materials'
34

labour, and funds. fhe second Orga-


nisation covers the work plan and de-
tailed planning of operations.

A. Preliminarv Works

(i) Check from the completed Measurement


Form the list of equlpment requj-red.
and make a provisonal booking well
in advance.

(ii) Check materials can be made available


on the date selected.

(iii) Check that funds are available to meet


all costs

(iv) Check that labour requirements are


available.

(v) Check that an experienced foreman is


. available, and introduce him to the
design.

(vi) Ensure that aII maj-ntenance work,


reinstatement to portholes, repairs
to shoulder etc. has been completed
for 200 m on either side of the slte.
35

6. O r g a n i s a ti o n

\ffi
llz
L./

flg. 20
35

(1) Plan the layout of the work site,


see figure 20. Locate on slte every
p l e ce o f e o u l g rn e n t, a ll mater lals,
tools, and aLds. Ensure that there
is room to work, room for stordger
room for stockpiling spoil, and room
f o r tra ffi c. Id e a l l y excavation,
stoclnile of spoil and backfiUlnq
should be handled from one side oi
the culvert. AI1 constructlon se:
quences should be handled from thd
o t h er si d e .
(1i) When you are satisfied that the en-
tire plan is workable order all ma-
terlals at least 14 days ahead of the
workLng date.
(lfi) Order aII_ equipment for delivery to
slte on the evening prlor to coir-
mencement.
(fv) Order the requlsite nurnber of deck
sLab unLts frcm the costlng yard,
for dellvery on the second dly and
fourth day of the operation.

- 3 davs

(1) Final check on slte for routlne root


repalrs.
(ff1 Final check on contXnued availabiLity
of, equJ.pment, materLals, laboil:--
-ldav

(f) Check materlals delLvered to slte for


guantlty and guallty.
37

(ii) Check equipment delivered to site for


servlcing and fuel.
(f 1 1 ) C h e c k to o l s, w a rn i -n g b oar dsr etc.

7 . Executi.on

Dav I

(i) Lay out signs, barrlers etc.

(if) Set up concrete mixer.

(ifi) Set up sight boards and

(tv) Rip pavement and stockplle material.

(v) Excavate half formation width trench


to foundatlon wldth + 50 cm either
side and to invert level 20 crrr.

(vi) Trim and level wlth sand to base


soffit level

(vil) Set up base formwork.


(vili) Mtx and pour most concrete to base
vlbrate with poker vibrator. Cover
for curlng. It ls advlsable under
a fast sequence of events to use rapid
hardening cement for this type of
work.

(ix) Set up red warning 119hts and brief


watchman.

(x) C1ean all machin6s ready for next dayrs


operatlon.
38
Dav 2

(i) C1ean base and roughen surface


to take brlckwork or masonry.
(ii) Construct side walks and end
waLls.
(iil) Deck in with slabs loaded direct
off flatbed truck.
(rv) gackfill outside of excavation
in 15 cm layers, water, and com-
pact with vibratlng plate com-
pactor. Siml,Iarly construct side
sl o p e co n e s.
(v) Transfer equlpment, stockpiles,
barriers to second half roadway.
(vt) Spread surpJ.us spoil outside of
sL d e d ra L n .
(vl1) Set up red lamps.
(vttl) CLean all machLnes ready for next
days vtork.
Davl Repeat Day I work on second sLde.
Dav 4 Repeat Day 2 work on second slde.

I . Cornpletion

On completlon of Day 4 work carry out the


f o l l o w l ng ta sks:

A. Clean slte of ell excess stockplled ma-


terial.
39

B. Assemble and clean aII equlpment for


transport to next worklng sLte.

C . C o l l e c t a n d cl e a n a l l to ols, signs,
barrLers ready for next job, or re-
turn to store.

D. Ensure that dralns, both inlet and out-


let are clear of all materlal and fre5
f o r d r a tn a g e .

E. Reopen the road to normal traffLc.

9. Reportlnq

Complete the Report Form, a sample of


w h L c h i s en cl o se d a t T a b l e 9.
TABLE }

VIATERI{AY OPENINGS

CATCHMENT TYPE OF CATCHMENTAREA


AREA FLAT ROLLING HILLY MOUNTAINOUS
(HECTARES)

upto 5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6


,10 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0
20 0.6 0.9 L.2 L.7
50 0.7 L.7 2,4 3.4
100 L.2 2.9 4.1 5.8

The above table gives culvert openlng tn U2


(computed from the Talbot Formula).

100 Hectares = I square kllometer.


For longer areas of catchment the Englneer
should rnake a separate study.
TABLE 2

CULVERT AREAS

CUI,VERT TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV

SLAB
I,ENGTH (M) 1r 10 1. 30 1. 60 1.80

BEARINGS
(M) 2 x0 .2 2 x0 .2 2xQ.2 2xQ.2

CLEAR SPAN
(M) 0. 70 0.90 1. 20 l. 40

SKEW

00 0.70 0. 90 L.20 I .40


A
R 1.19 r.38
r00 0. 69 0.89
E
A 1.13 I.32
200 0. 66 0.85
(u2) 300 0. 61 0.78 1.04 L.2L

400 0. 54 0.69 0.92 r.07


TABLE3
G E N E R A LL A Y O U T

SLAB CULVERI,LOTIG]TUDINAL
SECTTON

PtAN

EltD WALL,sECrloN 3-3


TABLE1
OECKSLAB

P'

l-t

50

#-,-q
G
t--s,
IYPE I
0.t0? mt
260 k9
ifll
iil TABLE5
rfli
riflr
Itir DECKSLAB
{ii
rl.

{;ii
liii
iil
ii

sEcrfoil2-2

TYPET
0 1 2 5m r
JiD*s
9oo
TAELE 6
sgeK $1,{ffi

e i-*3
I

:===:-:::=T;;
.;;;:;E"=<l$J I

K
==#
ffi
\__ LJiJ
-i-i{+
-:4'gL
I
4l3€) \@3rl!tul?(9 t
160
l*
IL - i ) 1

l!4!-
I E
l---*---
"
-r
i.l
: .l
U-T. t-Krl
\tl3_
@ i \,.",@
50 -_-- *r
l-

sECTrO{ 3 - 3

t{t sb ox I wr.
L of DossrlPlion
ilo m. n m kg

5 0 1 2 t.t5 5 0.25 0.?


llS

a7 l 2 t.t0 2 7.60 3.8

F;1

5t l2 0.{5 5 2.25 2t
# TYP€ IItr
t--tL*- 0.150rns
So fig
Yotct t

t
T A B L E7
DECKSLAB

P'

Lt,

s€cflolt t-{

tlc
af
n

,. tzin ,l
IYPE If,
0.16?mt
O0 Kg
TABLE8
FORM
MEASUREMENT

0r Yroix
DtvrsroN IIYPE
OISTRrcT
ROAONO.A.-MME
ROAOFROX IO
KII. EXT TYPE
PAYEM
FORIIAIIONWIDTH tl. A NGLE OF SI(E
cuLvERT tElcrlt . M.
IIIYER' TEVEL: INLET OU?LEI

AiEA OF CATCHHE}IT N€CTARE


IIAIURE OF CATCHHEXT
/ HtLtY' RO[LtilO' F t AT
HOIJI{TA|iOU3
WA?ERWAY
OPEXIild AiEA 12
O€SlGll: TYPE
RECOIIIIEXOED NO. OF Uilll3
xuHlEi of oEcr 3LAl3 REOUIiEO

EOUIPTE}I' NO. IAAOUR ]to.


COI{CRETEHIXER FOREIIAX
IRACTOR,IACX HOE OFERATOR/ORIVER
F[AIEEO, CRA]C MASOX
YIIRATIf,O PIATE LABOURER, CONCREIE
YIIRAIIilO FOTER LABq'RER. GE}IERAI
coa?RE530R wAlcHt|At{
WAISR TAI|XER

llAT.EETAtjT IOOXLEIL
AOGREGA'E II,'- X IEYET
sAr{D rd wARNtilo Stcfas
CEHEXT UO lAeRreRi
BRTCKnaASOT{RY gt RED tAt{'S
FoitawoRt( pr WHEET BARROUS

oArE. SqrAruRE A?PiOVED


T A B L E9
RSPORTFORM
I

i
I TYFE.OF WORK
0lvtsroN
l orstRrcl
I
ROADNO.&
ROAD FiOH .TO
KM. FIOH ..TO
?lUMf:ign OF S A U A R € M E T R E S

DAY**---l REHARKS
gourFHEHr
ROLLgRS
ASPH. DtstRt6uttsqg
AWFI. HEAIERS
WHEET IOADERS
EHIP IPREAOEfiIS
AI?H. I(E'TLSE
G{U{OFRts
coHPr?gs90n$
TRUCHS
Plcx - uPt

MAIERIA!3
A6CREOATEB

AsPHAII
OTHERs

tAtoui
FOEE}{lX
e{itRATo*lsr'sntv{il$
tABOUf,ERS

WEAIHER gUN / CLOUOY/ RAI'| ' HOT / COTO


TABLE10
MONTHLYREPORT

lrour t
REPORI
MONTHLY

DtsIRtcT sEcTloll

.TO. fu TI.

ilot{tHtY KTI. I RETARXS

og.EEgts.:
PAVEIlENT

SHOULOERS

SIDE DRAINS

CIT.VERIS

II enrooes
II FLOOD PONT3

I
OUAR'ERI-Y
sroPEs

CATCruIETT

DIYERSION

RIYERS

fi

t NATE. sFNAruR€ OAIE t I