vectors and scalars

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vectors and scalars

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1. A VECTOR is a quantity having both magnitude and direction, such as displacement,

velocity, force, and acceleration.

magnitude of the vector being indicated by the length of the arrow. The tail end O

of the arrow is called the origin or initial point of the vector, and the head P is

called the terminal point or terminus.

3. Analytically a vector is represented by a letter with an arrow over it, as A i and its

magnitude is denoted by A or A. In printed works, bold faced type, such as A, is

The vector OP is also indicated as OP or OP; in such case we shall denote its

magnitude by OP , OP , or OP .

4. A SCALAR is a quantity having magnitude but no direction, e.g. mass, length, time,

temperature, and any real number. Scalars are indicated by letters in ordinary type

as in elementary algebra. Operations with scalars follow the same rules as in

elementary algebra.

5. VECTOR ALGEBRA

The operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication familiar in the algebra of

numbers or scalars are, with suitable definition, capable of extension to algebra of

vectors.

6. Two vectors A and B are equal if they have the same magnitude and direction

regardless of the position of their initial points.

7. A vector having direction opposite to that of vector A but having the same

magnitude is denoted by A

the initial point of A and then joining the initial point of B. This sum is written A + B,

i.e. C = A + B.

The definition here is equivalent to the parallelogram law for vector addition

9. The difference of vectors A and B, represented by A-B, is that vector C which added

to B yields vector A. Equivalently, A-B can be defined as the

Sum A+ (-B)

10. If A=B, then A-B is defined as the null or zero vector and is represented by symbol 0

or simply 0. It has zero magnitude and no specific direction.

11. A vector which is not null is a proper vector. All vectors will be assumed proper

unless otherwise stated.

12. The product of a vector A by a scalar m is a vector mA with magnitude m times the

magnitude of A and with direction the same as or opposite to that A, according as m

is positive or negative. If m=0, mA is a null vector.

If A, B and C are vectors and m and n are scalars, then

A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C Associative Law for Addition

mA = Am Commutative Law for Multiplication

m (nA) = (mn) A Associative Law for Multiplication

(m+n) A= mA + nA Distributive Law

m (A+ B) =mA + mB Distributive Law

These laws enable us to treat vector equations in the same way as ordinary algebraic

equations. For example, If A +B = C then by transposing A = C - B.

Note however that in these laws only multiplication of a vector by one or more

scalars is used. Products of vectors will be defined in subsequent notes..

14. A UNIT VECTOR is a vector having unit magnitude. If A is a vector with magnitude

A =/ 0, then A/A is a unit vector having the same direction as A.

15. Any vector A can be represented by a unit vector a in the direction of A multiplied

by the magnitude of A. In symbols, A = Aa.

An important set of unit vectors are those having the directions of the positive x, y,

and z axes of a three dimensional rectangular coordinate system, and are noted

respectively by i, j, and k

17. We shall use a right-handed rectangular coordinate system unless otherwise stated.

Such a system derives its name from the fact that a right threaded screw rotated

through 900 from Ox to Oy, will advance in the positive z direction.

18. In general, three vectors A, B and C which have coincident initial point and are not

coplanar, i.e. do not lie in or are not parallel to the same plane, are said to form a

right- handed system or dextral system if a right threaded screw rotated through an

angle less than 1800 from A to B will advance in the direction C .

Any vector A in 3 dimensions can be represented with initial point at the origin 0 of a

rectangular coordinate system.

Let (A1, A2, A3) be the rectangular coordinates of the terminal point of vector A with

initial point at 0.

The vectors A1i, A2j, and A3k are called the rectangular component vectors or simply

component vectors of A in the x, y and z directions respectively.

A1, A 2 and A3 are called the rectangular components or simply components of A in

the x, y and z directions respectively.

20. The sum or resultant of A1i, A2j, and A3k is the vector A so that we can write

21. In general, the position vector or radius vector r from initial 0 to the terminal point

(x, y, z) is written:

r = xi + yj + zk

22. SCALAR FIELD

If to each point (x, y, z) of a region R in space, there corresponds a number or a

scalar ( x, y, z ), then is called a scalar function of position or scalar point function

and we say that a scalar field has been defined in R.

For example, the temperature at any point within or on the earths surface at a

certain time defines a scalar field.

scalar field.

If to each point (x, y, z) of a region R in space there corresponds a vector V(x, y, z),

then V is called a vector function of position or vector point function, and we say

that a vector field V has been defined in R.

For example, if the velocity at any point (x, y, z) within a moving fluid is known at a

certain time, then a vector field is defined.

vector field.

Illustrative Examples:

using r = xi + yj + zk

r = 2(i ) + 3( j ) + (4)k

r = 2i + 3 j 4k

V = 32 + (4) 2 + 52

= 7.07

3. Find the vector whose initial point is P(7,8,9) and terminal point at Q(1,2,3)

r1 + PQ = r2

PQ = r2 - r1

r1 = 7i + 8j+ 9k

r2 = 2i + 3j+ 4k

PQ = (2i + 3j+ 4k) - (7i + 8j+ 9k)

PQ = -5i - 5j - 5k

PQ = -5(i + j + k) answer

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