ISSN 2278-4500

Research Updates – Homeopathy

2017 | Volume 6, Issue 3 | Page: 21 - 34

Published in public interest by Dr. Saurav Arora

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A bit of Research in Homeopathy
In this Issue
An Exclusive Interview with Prof. Paolo Bellavite ....................................................................................21
Homeopathic Research Database Update ......................................................................................................... 22
Studies to be Read ..............................................................................................................................................22
Fundamental Research ......................................................................................................................................... 22
Beneficial immunomodulatory and neuro digestive effect in Trypanosoma cruzi infection after
Lycopodium clavatum 13c treatment ........................................................................................ 22
Phosphorus protects cardiac tissue by modifying the immune response in rats infected by
Trypanosoma cruzi. ................................................................................................................. 23
M1 homeopathic complex trigger effective responses against Leishmania (L) amazonensis in vivo
and in vitro.............................................................................................................................. 24
Increased of the hepatocytes and splenocytes apoptosis accompanies clinical improvement and
higher survival in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and treated with highly diluted
Lycopodium clavatum. ............................................................................................................. 25
Homeopathic medicines cause Th1 predominance and induce spleen and megakaryocytes changes
in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum. ................................................................ 25
Metal nanoparticle induced hormetic activation: a novel mechanism of homeopathic medicines .. 26
Reproducibility of the effects of homeopathically potentised Argentum nitricum on the growth of
Lemna gibba L. in a randomised and blinded bioassay ............................................................... 27
Structural and thermal analyses of zinc and lactose in homeopathic triturated systems ................ 28
Differential effects of Zincum metallicum on cell models .......................................................... 29
Could the study of cavitation luminescence be useful in high dilution research? .......................... 29
Clinical Research ................................................................................................................................................... 30
Case Study of Homeopathic Bowel Nosode Remedies for Dysbiotic Japanese Patients. .............. 30
Effectiveness of an add-on treatment with the homeopathic medication SilAtro-5-90 in recurrent
tonsillitis: An international, pragmatic, randomized, controlled clinical trial. ................................ 31
Generalisability of prognostic factor research: further analysis of data from the IIPCOS2 study .. 31
Upcoming Events ...............................................................................................................................................32
Subscribe to Homeopathic Research Updates...........................................................................................32
Be A Research Voice ..........................................................................................................................................33
IPRH YouTube Channel ..................................................................................................................................33
IPRH Sitemap ......................................................................................................................................................33

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An Exclusive Interview with Prof. Paolo Bellavite

Prof. (Dr.) Paolo Bellavite is a medical doctor, graduated from Trieste University (I) in 1976,
specialized in Clinical and Laboratory Haematology. He holds an MPhil in Biotechnology
(Cranfield University, UK) and a Master in Health Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology. Until the
academic year 2016-17 he worked as Professor of General Pathology in the School of Medicine,
Verona University, and at present he works in the same University (Department of Medicine) as
Teaching Assistant and Research Supervisor. He is Professor of General Pathology in the School
of Nursery, University of Ngozi (Burundi), as voluntary in a project of cooperation. Dopo essere
andato in pensione come professore, continua a svolgere ricerca in Patologia generale. His main
areas of research focused on molecular and cellular aspects of inflammation, with particular
regard to the structure, function, and pathology of granulocytes (neutrophils and basophils),
macrophages and platelets. He developed several methods in the clinical laboratory to investigate
pathophysiology and pharmacology of blood cells and free radicals. He carried out scientific
research in the context of complementary therapeutic approaches and, in particular, on herbal
and homeopathic compounds using cellular and murine models. His scientific contribution
includes the study of complex dynamic systems and inverse effects of drugs according to the
dose and the sensitivity of target systems (“similia” principle). In collaboration with homeopathic
doctors, he founded the Observatory of Complementary Medicines and carried out observational
clinical studies and laboratory assays of medicines including Phosphorus, Podophyllum, Gelsemium,
Ignatia, Zincum, and Arnica. Recent studies developed genomic approaches to the investigation of
homeopathic drugs. He published over 250 scientific papers, 145 of which are indexed by
PubMed-Medline, and several books including “The Emerging Science of Homeopathy” (North
Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA) and “Medicina Biodinâmica” (Papirus Editora, Campinas, SP,
Brasil). He was invited as a speaker at the 2015 LIGA International Congress in Rio de Janeiro
and at the 2016 congress of European Committee of Homeopathy.
Website and complete list of publications: http://www.paolobellavite.it/
E-mail address paolo.bellavite@univr.it

Read, share and save the exclusive interview of Prof. Paolo Bellavite at
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Homeopathic Research Database Update

The Homeopathic Research Database now indexes 1037 peer-reviewed publications according to
type of study. You may access the database at www.researchinhomeopathy.org/database

Studies to be Read
Abstracts of peer-reviewed studies published during July – Sep 2017. The original links are
provided with each article. For citations original links, authors and journals should be referred.

Fundamental Research
Beneficial immunomodulatory and neuro digestive effect in Trypanosoma cruzi infection
after Lycopodium clavatum 13c treatment

Microb Pathog. 2017 Sep 18;112:1-4.

Abstract
Studies show that highly diluted medications demonstrate benefits in treating infections,
constituting an alternative for their treatment. The present study evaluated the effects of
Lycopodium clavatum, dynamization 13c, in Wistar rats infected with T. cruzi. In this study 42 male
rats were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi - Y strain and allocated into groups: IC
(infected control group) and Ly (treated with L. clavatum 13c). The cytokines dosage (IFN-γ, IL-
12, IL-10, IL-4), quantification and morphometry of myenteric neurons were evaluated. The
treatment with L. clavatum modifies the immune response, with increase of IFN-γ on day 10 a.i.
and IL-12 on day 24 a.i., decrease of IL-10 concentration on day 10 a.i. and subsequent increase
of this cytokine and IL-4 on day 24 a.i., affording a bigger number of myenteric neurons
compared to IC group. Thus, L. clavatum 13c promoted on rats infected with T. cruzi a beneficial
immunomodulatory action reducing the pathogenic progression of digestive Chagas disease.
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Keywords: Chagas disease, Cytokines, Homeopathy, Myenteric neurons

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28923601

Phosphorus protects cardiac tissue by modifying the immune response in rats infected by
Trypanosoma cruzi.

Cytokine. 2017 Jul 27. pii: S1043-4666(17)30217-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.07.017

Abstract
Aim: This study evaluates and correlates the number of myocarditis focuses and production of
cytokines in Rattus norvegicus (Wistar lineage), experimentally infected with T. Cruzi and treated
with Phosphorus.

Methods: In two blind, controlled and randomized trials, 53 45-day-old, male animals were
allocated into groups Control (n=24): Control group infected and treated with 7% hydroalcoholic
solution, the preparation vehicle of the test medication; and Phosphorus (n=24 on days 0, 5, 10
and 24 after infection): group infected and treated with Phosphorus 13cH, diluted 10-26 and
dynamized (test medication). The animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5×106 blood
trypomastigotes of T. cruzi-Y strain. The medication was administered overnight (16 consecutive
hours), diluted in water (1mL/100mL) in amber water bottles. The animals were treated 2days
before and 2, 4, and 6days after infection. Enumeration of inflammatory foci in cardiac tissue
(Hematoxylin-Eosin) and dosage of cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in the serum were performed
on days 0, 5, 10 and 24 after infection, using three animals/group. Mann-Whitney, Friedman
ANOVA, Spearman correlation (p<0.05), and Statistica Single User Software version 13.2 were
used for data analysis.

Results: The animals treated with Phosphorus 13cH had high concentration of INF-ɣ on the 5th
day of infection with significant decrease on the 10th and 24th days (p<0.05), and high
concentration of TNF-α on the 5th and 10th days of infection with decrease on the 24th day
(p<0.05). The treatment with Phosphorus caused a significant increase of INF-ɣ and TNF-α on
the 5th day of infection compared with the Control (p<0.05), with reestablishment on the 24th
day, as well as in the Control group. The group treated with Phosphorus had 52.5% less number
of myocarditis focuses in heart than Control group (p<0.05) on the 10th day of infection. The
significant increase in cytokines on the5th day of infection in the Phosphorus group is related to
a significant decrease in the number of inflammatory foci in cardiac tissue on the 10th day of
infection in this group.

Discussion and Conclusion: Treatment with Phosphorus 13cH promotes beneficial effects in
T. cruzi infection in Wistar rats by modulating the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with decreased
inflammation in cardiac tissue. These results reinforce the importance of considering the use of
homeopathy for establishing new therapeutic approaches in the management of patients with
Chagas disease.

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Keywords: Cytokines, IFN-γ, Phosphorus, TNF-α, Trypanosoma cruzi

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28757361

M1 homeopathic complex trigger effective responses against Leishmania (L)
amazonensis in vivo and in vitro.

Cytokine. 2017 Jul 21;99:80-90. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.07.001.

Abstract
Leishmaniasis is a term referring to a range of clinical conditions caused by protozoan parasites
of the genus Leishmania, Trypanosomatidae family, Kinetoplastida order that is transmitted by
the bite of certain species of mosquitoes Phlebotominae subfamily. These parasites infect hosts
wild and domestic mammals, considered as natural reservoirs and can also infect humans.
Leishmania are obligate intramacrophage protozoa that have exclusively intracellular life style.
This suggests that the amastigotes possess mechanisms to avoid killing by host cells. Cutaneous
leishmaniasis, the most common form of the disease, causes ulcers on exposed parts of the body,
leading to disfigurement, permanent scars, and stigma and in some cases disability. Many studies
concluded that the cytokines profile and immune system of host have fundamental role in
humans and animals natural self-healing. Conventional treatments are far from ideals and the
search for new therapeutic alternatives is considered a strategic priority line of research by the
World Health Organization. A promising approach in the field of basic research in homeopathy
is the treatment of experimental infections with homeopathic drugs prepared from natural
substances associations highly diluted, which comprise a combination of several different
compounds considered as useful for a symptom or disease. Therefore, this study aimed to
evaluate the effect of M1, a complex homeopathic product, in macrophage-Leishmania
interaction in vitro and in vivo. It was used RAW cells lineage and BALB/c mice as a host for the
promastigotes of L. amazonensis (WHOM/BR/75/Josefa). Several biochemical and
morphological parameters were determined. Together, the harmonic results obtained in this study
indicate that, in general, the highly diluted products trigger rapid and effective responses by living
organisms, cells and mice, against Leishmania, by altering cytokines profile, by NO increasing
(p<0.05), by decreasing parasitic load (p<0.001), and modifying classical maturation and
biogenesis of parasitophorous vacuoles (p<0.001). M1 complex decreased endocytic index
(p<0.001), and the % of infected macrophages (p<0.05), preventing the development of lesions
(p<0.05) caused by L. amazonensis by increasing Th1 response (p<0.05). Therefore the
M1complex can be a good candidate for a complementary therapy to conventional treatments,
since all the parameters observed in vitro and in vivo improved. It could be an interesting clinical
tool in association to a classical anti-parasitic treatment, maybe resulting in better quality of life to
the patients, with less toxicity.

Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Cytokines profile, Parasitophorous vacuole, Th1 answer

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28738234

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Increased of the hepatocytes and splenocytes apoptosis accompanies clinical
improvement and higher survival in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and treated
with highly diluted Lycopodium clavatum.

Microb Pathog. 2017 Sep;110:107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.06.027.

Abstract
Recent evidence includes apoptosis as a defense against Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which
promotes an immune response in the host induced by T cells, type 1, 2 and 17. Currently, there is
no medicine completely preventing the progression of this disease. We investigated the
immunological and apoptotic effects, morbidity and survival of mice infected with T. cruzi and
treated with dynamized homeopathic compounds 13c: Kalium causticum (GCaus), Conium
maculatum, (GCon), Lycopodium clavatum (GLy) and 7% alcohol solution (control, vehicle
compounds, GCI). There was significant difference in the increase of apoptosis in the treated
groups, compared with GCI, which might indicate action of the compounds in these cells.
Infected animals treated with Lycopodium clavatum presented better performance compared
with other groups. GLy showed a higher amount of hepatocytes and splenocytes undergoing
apoptosis, higher number of apoptotic bodies in the liver, predominance of Th1 response,
increased TNF-α and decreased IL-6, higher survival, lower morbidity, higher water
consumption, body temperature, tendency to higher feed intake and weight gain compared with
GCI. Conium maculatum had worse results with increased Th2 response with increased IL-4,
worsening of the infection with early mortality of the animals. Together, these data suggest that
highly diluted medicines modulate the immune response and apoptosis, affecting the morbidity
of animals infected with a highly virulent strain of T. cruzi, being able to minimize the course of
infection, providing more alternative approaches in the treatment of Chagas disease.

Keywords: Apoptosis, Cytokine, Homeopathy, Lycopodium clavatum, Trypanosoma cruzi

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28645772

Homeopathic medicines cause Th1 predominance and induce spleen and
megakaryocytes changes in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum.

Cytokine. 2017 Jul;95:97-101. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.02.010.

Abstract
The prevalence of Th1/Th2 response, spleen changes and megakaryocytes were investigated in
BALB/c mice (n=138) infected with Leishmania infantum, and treated with Leishmania
infantum 30× (10-30) biotherapy - BioLi30×. We performed controlled experiments using 8-to-
12-week-old mice, infected with 5×107L. infantum promastigotes, divided into eight groups: G1
(healthy), G2 (infected with L. infantum), G3 (BioLi30× pre-treated), G4 (BioLi30× pre/post-
treated), G5 (BioLi30× post-treated), G6 (Water 30× post-treated), G7 (Antimonium crudum
30× post-treated) and G8 (Glucantime® post-treated). G3-G7 groups were orally treated with
their respective drugs diluted in filtered water (1:10), and G8 received Glucantime®
(0.6mg/100µl of PBS), intraperitoneally. Spleen fragments were submitted to double blind
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histopathological evaluation and the number of megakaryocytes was counted. Besides, animals'
serum was measured after 49days of infection, and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12), as well
as the Th1/Th2 correlation (IFN-γ/IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-10), were analyzed. Spleen histological
parameters were classified as: healthy appearance (G1); discreet (G3-G7), moderate (G2) and
moderate to severe (G8) white pulp hyperplasia; proliferation of megakaryocytes (G2-G8), and
intense disruption (G2-G8). All groups, except for G7, showed higher percentages of
megakaryocytes per field ranging from 87% to 15%, when compared to healthy animals (G1).
Th1 predominance in IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (comparing to G2) was detected in G4, G5, G6 and G7.
Finally, pre/post (BioLi30x) and post-treatment (Antimonium crudum 30x) presented reduction
of megakaryocytes/spleen changes due to immunomodulation animal process, controlling the
infection process, probably by the Th1 cytokine predominance.

Keywords: Antimonium crudum, BALB/c, Biotherapy, Leishmania infantum, Megakaryocytes,
Th1/Th2 response

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254560

Metal nanoparticle induced hormetic activation: a novel mechanism of homeopathic
medicines

Homeopathy 2017, 106(3):35 – 44

Abstract
Background: High-potency homeopathic remedies, 30c and 200c have enormous dilution
factors of 1060 and 10400 respectively. Therefore, the presence of physical entities in them is
inconceivable. As a result, their efficacy is highly debated and often dismissed as a placebo.
Despite several hypotheses postulated to explain the claimed homeopathic efficacy, none have
satisfactorily answered the qualms of the sceptics. Against all beliefs and principles of
conventional dilution, we have shown that nanoparticles (NPs) of the starting metals are
unequivocally found in the 30c and 200c remedies at concentrations of a few pg/ml. In this
paper, our aim was to answer the important question of whether such negligible metal
concentrations elicit a biological response.

Methods: Metal-based homeopathic medicines (30c and 200c) were analysed at doses between
0.003%v/v and 10%v/v in in-vitro HepG2 cell-line. Upon treatment, cell response was estimated
by MTT assay, FACS and total intracellular protein. Experiments were performed to discern
whether the hormesis was a cell-activation or a proliferation effect.

Results: Remedies at doses containing a few femtograms/ml levels of the starting metals
induced a proliferation-independent hormetic activation by increasing the intracellular protein
synthesis. The metal concentrations (at fg/ml) were a billion-fold lower than the studies with
synthetic NPs (at μg/ml). Further, we also highlight a few plausible mechanisms initiating a
hormetic response at a billion-fold lower dose.

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Conclusions: Hormetic activation has been shown for the first time with standard homeopathic
high-potency remedies. These findings should have a profound effect in understanding these
extreme dilutions from a biological perspective.

Keywords: Homeopathy, Hormesis, Nanoparticles

Link to study: http://www.homeopathyjournal.net/article/S1475-4916(17)30045-
0/abstract

Reproducibility of the effects of homeopathically potentised Argentum nitricum on the
growth of Lemna gibba L. in a randomised and blinded bioassay

Homeopathy. 2017 May;106(3):145 -54

Abstract
Background: A previous study reported a significant statistical interaction between experiment
date and treatment effect of Argentum nitricum 14x–30x on the growth rate of duckweed
(Lemna gibba L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of the test system
and intra-laboratory reproducibility of the effects found.

Methods: Duckweed was treated with A. nitricum potencies (14x–30x) as well as succussed and
unsuccussed water controls. The outcome parameter area-related growth rate for day 0–7 was
determined by a computerised image analysis system in two series of independent randomised
and blinded experiments. Systematic negative control (SNC) experiments were carried out to
investigate test system stability. Statistical analysis was performed with full two-way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) and protected Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test.

Results: In the first repetition series we found a significant treatment effect (p = 0.016), while in
the second series no effect was observed. The negative control experiments showed that the
experimental system was stable. An a posteriori subgroup analysis concerning gibbosity revealed
the importance of this growth state of L. gibba for successful reproduction of the statistically
significant interaction in the original study; flat: no interaction (p = 0.762); slight gibbosity: no
interaction (p = 0.356); medium gibbosity: significant interaction (p = 0.031), high gibbosity:
highly significant interaction (p = 0.005).

Conclusions: With the original study design (disregarding gibbosity status of L. gibba) results of
the original study could not be reproduced sensu stricto. We conclude that the growth state
gibbosity is crucial for successful reproduction of the original study. Different physiological states
of the test organisms used for bioassays for homeopathic basic research must carefully be
considered.

Keywords: Homeopathy, Plants, Duckweed, Silver nitrate, Reproducibility

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Link to study: http://www.homeopathyjournal.net/article/S1475-4916(17)30027-
9/fulltext

Structural and thermal analyses of zinc and lactose in homeopathic triturated systems

Homeopathy. 2017, 106(3):160 – 70

Abstract
Background: A series of different experimental approaches was applied in Zincum metallicum
(Zinc met.) samples and lactose controls. Experiments were designed to elucidate the effect of
zinc trituration and dynamization on physicochemical properties of homeopathic formulations,
using lactose as excipient.

Methods: Zinc met. potencies (Zinc met 1–3c) were triturated and dynamized using lactose as
excipient, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Lactose samples (LAC 1–3c)
were also prepared following the same protocol and used as controls. The samples were analyzed
structurally by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission
Electron Microscopy (TEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Scanning
Electron Microscopy (SEM), and thermodynamically by Thermogravimetry (TG) and Differential
Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).

Results: AAS analysis detected 97.0 % of zinc in the raw material, 0.75 % (Zinc met 1c) and
0.02% (Zinc met 2c). XRD analysis showed that inter-atomic crystalline spacing of lactose was
not modified by dynamization. Amorphous and crystalline lactose spheres and particles,
respectively, were observed by TEM in all samples, with mean size from 200 to 800 nm. EDX
obtained with TEM identified zinc presence throughout the amorphous matter but individualized
zinc particles were not observed. SEM images obtained from dynamized samples (LAC 1c and
Zinc met 1c) with electron backscattering could not identify zinc metal grains. The dynamization
process induced Derivatives of Thermal Gravimetric (DTg) peak modification, which was
previously centered near 158°C to lactose, to a range from 140 to 170°C, suggesting the
dynamization process modifies the temperature range of water aggregation. Thermal phenomena
were analyzed and visualized by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component
Analysis (PCA) statistics. Both indicated that fusion enthalpy of dynamized samples (DynLAC 1-
3c; DynZn 1-3c) increased 30.68 J/g in comparison to non-dynamized lactose (LAC; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our results suggested no structural changes due to the trituration and
dynamization process. However, TG and DSC analyses permit the differentiation of dynamized
and non-dynamized groups, suggesting the dynamization process induced a significant increase in
the degradation heat. These results call for further calorimetric studies with other homeopathic
dilutions and other methodologies, to better understand the dynamics of these systems.

Keywords: Physicochemical, Homeopathy, Zincum metallicum, Lactose, Trituration

Link to study: http://www.homeopathyjournal.net/article/S1475-4916(17)30046-
2/fulltext

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Differential effects of Zincum metallicum on cell models

Homeopathy. 2017, 106(3):171 – 81

Abstract
Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for life. Traditional and
complementary medicines use zinc-based formulations to treat different classes of diseases. Basic
research on homeopathic preparations of zinc are rare and there are a few published clinical cases
describing its effects on patients. The use of cell-based models in drug screening is a reliable
source of evidence.

Methods: We sought to investigate experimental end-points using cell-based models to
determine the effects of dilutions of Zincum metallicum prepared according to the Brazilian
Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and melanoma B16-F10 cell
lines were cultured according to standard procedures. Cells were treated with either 5c, 6c or 30c
Zincum metallicum and control cells with its respective vehicle (5c, 6c, or 30c Lactose).
Macrophage activation by CD54 immunolabeling and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)
using DCFH-DA (2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) were detected by flow cytometry.
Phagocytic capacity (endocytic index) was quantified by light microscopy. Features of melanoma
cells were analyzed by colorimetric assays to determine melanin content and cell proliferation
rate. All obtained data were submitted to normality test followed by statistical analysis.

Results: Zincum metallicum 6c shifted high ROS-producing macrophages to a low ROS-
producing phenotype. Macrophage CD54 expression was increased by Zincum metallicum 5c.
No changes in endocytic index were observed. Melanoma cells were not affected by any
treatment we tested.

Conclusions: Differing responses and non-linearity were found on macrophages challenged with
Zincum metallicum at high dilutions. No changes in melanoma cells were observed. Customised
assays using target cells can be useful to investigate high-dilution effects. Other cell types and
conditions should be explored.

Keywords: Homeopathy, Highly diluted compounds, Macrophages, Melanoma, Zincum
metallicum

Link to study: http://www.homeopathyjournal.net/article/S1475-4916(17)30025-
5/fulltext

Could the study of cavitation luminescence be useful in high dilution research?

Homeopathy. 2017, 106(3):181 – 90

Abstract
Cavitation in agitated liquids has been discussed for over five decades as a phenomenon that
could play a role in the appearance of structural changes in the solvent of potentised dilutions.
However, its lack of specificity as well as the absence of experimental confirmation have so far
confined the idea to theory. The light emission associated with cavitational bubble collapse can
be used to detect and study cavitation in fluids. The phenomenon has been extensively studied
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when driven by ultrasound, where it is called sonoluminescence. Sonoluminescence spectra
reflect extremely high temperature and pressure in the collapsing bubbles and are parameter
sensitive. This article tries to examine whether, despite objections and difficulties, the detection
or the study of cavitational luminescence in solutions during potentisation could be useful as a
physical tool in high dilution research.

Keywords: Cavitation, Hydrodynamic luminescence, Sonoluminescence, High dilution,
Potentisation

Link to study: http://www.homeopathyjournal.net/article/S1475-4916(17)30043-
7/fulltext

Clinical Research
Case Study of Homeopathic Bowel Nosode Remedies for Dysbiotic Japanese Patients.

J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Aug 14.

Abstract
Background: The composition of intestinal microbiota is very important in human health.
Gastrointestinal disturbances are among the symptoms commonly reported by individuals
diagnosed with chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, autism, and chronic fatigue
syndrome. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics for dysbiosis have been reported in many
studies. Bowel nosodes are homeopathic remedies made from human gut microbiota.

Objective: Bowel nosodes made from the intestinal bacteria of European patients from the
1900s were administered to Japanese patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, such as
constipation and diarrhea, to determine their therapeutic efficacy.

Methods: Twenty-eight outpatients from Yoko Clinic (11 males, 17 females; age range, 4-72
years) were enrolled in this study. One nosode remedy was selected for each case. Patients took
six pills for 2 days. After a month, the effect of each treatment was evaluated using the Glasgow
Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Scale (grade +4 to -4).

Results: Patient number of each grade was +4 (N = 2), +3 (N = 4), +2 (N = 7), +1 (N = 3), 0
(N = 7), with no negative grades. Of the 23 patients analyzed, 69.6% showed some type of
improvement, and no harmful effects from taking bowel nosodes were observed; 26% of patients
showed major improvement or were "cured."

Conclusion: It is difficult to find correct constitutional remedies as they often require high-level
techniques and time. Since there are only 11 main bowel nosode remedies, they are easier to
choose from and cheaper to use and develop than classical constitutional remedies. Herein,
69.6% of dysbiotic patients taking bowel nosodes showed improvements, and no harmful effects
were reported by any patient. These results suggest that the homeopathic bowel nosodes are a
useful method for controlling gastrointestinal disturbances.

30
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Keywords: bowel nosodes, dysbiosis, homeopathy

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28805460

Effectiveness of an add-on treatment with the homeopathic medication SilAtro-5-90 in
recurrent tonsillitis: An international, pragmatic, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017 Aug;28:181-191. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.05.005. Epub 2017 May
22.

Abstract
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic product SilAtro-5-90
in recurrent tonsillitis.

Methods: In this international, pragmatic, controlled clinical trial, 256 patients (6-60 years) with
moderate recurrent tonsillitis were randomized to receive either SilAtro-5-90 in addition to
standard symptomatic treatment, or to receive standard treatment only. The primary outcome
was the mean time period between consecutive acute throat infections (ATI) within 1 year
(analyzed via repeated events analysis).

Results: During the evaluation year, the risk of getting an ATI was significantly lower (hazard
ratio: 0.45, proportional means model, p = 0.0002, ITT) with SilAtro-5-90 compared to control.
Tonsillitis-specific symptoms were significantly reduced (p < 0.0001, ITT) and the need of
antibiotics to treat acute throat infections (p = 0.0008; ITT) decreased. 3 non-serious adverse
drug reactions were reported for SilAtro-5-90.

Conclusion: An integrative treatment approach where SilAtro-5-90 is given alongside
mainstream symptomatic treatment may bring therapeutic benefit to patients suffering from
recurrent tonsillitis.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry: Registration number ISRCTN19016626, registered 23
January 2013.

Keywords: Acute throat infection, Homeopathy, Randomized controlled trial, Recurrent
tonsillitis, SilAtro-5-90, Tonsilotren

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779928

Generalisability of prognostic factor research: further analysis of data from the IIPCOS2
study

Homeopathy 2017, 106(3):155 – 59

Abstract
Prognostic factor research is important as it helps in refining diagnosis, taking clinical and
therapeutic decisions, enhances the design and analysis of intervention trials and helps to identify

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targets for new interventions that aim to modify the course of a disease. Prognostic factor
research in homeopathy can be done by applying Bayes' theorem. This paper considers Bayes'
theorem; Likelihood Ratio, conditional probability and research in subpopulations of a condition
with examples. We analysed the likelihood ratios for 11 homeopathic medicines for the symptom
‘cough’ and other upper respiratory tract symptoms, based on data from the IIPCOS2 study. This
yielded useful information since several medicines, including Belladonna, had LR >1 for cough,
indicating that cough is not an indication for this medicine. The implications for improving
homeopathic prescribing are discussed.

Keywords: Prognostic factors, Bayes' theorem, Likelihood Ratio, Conditional probability,
Condition confined assessment, IIPCOS2, Cough, Belladonna

Link to study: http://www.homeopathyjournal.net/article/S1475-4916(17)30044-
9/abstract

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