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PREFACE

Practice orientation of management student is must generating competence to


deal with issues at grass root level it is for this reason that Research project study
is prescribed as a part of syllabus for MBA Degree in Mumbai. The main
objective of this project is the Child Education in Aarambh Ngo.

This project was also carried out to understand the future Outlook of Aarambh Ngo
Another motive includes is child education in NGO. The scope of this project is
limited to study of Aarambh Ngo.

Child is age a person is or ceases to be a child is a constant debate in the India. The Census of
India considers children to be any person below the age of 14, as do most government
programmes. Biologically childhood is the stage between infancy and adulthood. According to
the UNCRC'a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless, under the
law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier'

I have tried to put my maximum effort to get the accurate statistical data. However
I would appreciate if any mistakes are brought to me by the reader.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO.

01 INTRODUCTION 03

02 COMPANY PROFILE 28

03 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 38

04 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 45

05 DATAANALYSIS &INTERPRETATION 55

06 FINDINGS 58

07 SUGGESTION 60

08 CONCLUSION 62

09 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ANNEXURE 64

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INTRODUCTION

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Who is a Child?
Defining what age a person is or ceases to be a child is a constant debate in the India. The
Census of India considers children to be any person below the age of 14, as do most
government programmes. Biologically childhood is the stage between infancy and adulthood.
According to the UNCRC'a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years
unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier'. This definition of
child allows for individual countries to determine according to the own discretion the age
limits of a child in their own laws. But in India various laws related to children define
children in different age limits.
The Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860 finds that no child below the age of seven may be held
criminally responsible for an action (Sec 82 IPC). In case of mental disability or inability to
understand the consequences of one's actions the criminal responsibility age is raised to
twelve years (Sec 83 IPC). A girl must be of at least sixteen years in order to give sexual
consent, unless she is married, in which case the prescribed age is no less that fifteen. With
regard to protection against kidnapping, abduction and related offenses the given age is
sixteen for boys and eighteen for girls.
According to Article 21 (a) of the Indian Constitution all children between the ages of six to
fourteen should be provided with free and compulsory education. Article 45 states that the
state should provide early childhood care and education to all children below the age of six.
Lastly Article 51(k) states the parents/guardians of the children between the ages of six and
fourteen should provide them with opportunities for education.

ABOUT CHILD LABOUR

Child labour was employed to varying extents through most of history. Before 1940, numerous
children aged 514 worked in Europe, the United States and various colonies of European
powers. These children worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories,
mining and in services such as newsies. Some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours. With the rise
of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates
of child labour fell.

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In developing countries, with high poverty and poor schooling opportunities, child labour is still
prevalent. In 2010, sub-saharan Africa had the highest incidence rates of child labour, with
several African nations witnessing over 50 percent of children aged 514 working. Worldwide
agriculture is the largest employer of child labour. Vast majority of child labour is found in rural
settings and informal urban economy; children are predominantly employed by their parents,
rather than factories. Poverty and lack of schools are considered as the primary cause of child
labour.

Across the world, millions of children do extremely hazardous work in harmful conditions, that
prevents them from getting an education or is harmful to their health or to their physical, mental,
or social development. Every day, an estimated 215 million boys and girls work as child
labourers, in the farms, fields, factories, homes, streets and battlefields. They face hunger, hard
work , ill-health and poverty.

According to International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 182, the worst forms
of child labour include:

All forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of
children, debt bondage and serfdom, and forced or compulsory labour, including
forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
The use, procuring, or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of
pornography, or for pornographic performances;
The use, procuring, or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the
production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties;
Work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to
harm the health, safety or morals of children.

At least 2 million children are trafficked annually for child labour and sexual exploitation. Most
child labourers are in the informal economic sector, where they are not protected by laws and
regulations. The worst forms of child labour are illegal and must be eradicated immediately.

Child labour involves at least one of the following characteristics:

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Violates a nations minimum age laws
Threatens childrens physical, mental, or emotional well-being
Involves intolerable abuse, such as child slavery, child trafficking, debt bondage, forced
labour, or illicit activities
Prevents children from going to school
Uses children to undermine labour standards

Where does most child labour occur?

Of an estimated 215 child labourers around the globe: approximately 114 million (53%) are in
Asia and the Pacific; 14 million (7%) live in Latin America; and 65 million (30%) live in sub-
Saharan Africa.

CHILDREN IN INDIA
Assuming that a child is any person below the age of eighteen let us exam the demographic state
of children in India. The total Population of India as recorded by UNICEF in 2008 is
1181412000 (1.18 Billion).

Indicator Total Urban Rural

446960000

(446.96 Million)
Child population 129618400 317341600
37.83% of the total
(129.6184 Million) (317.3416 Million)
population

126642000

Child population (126.642 Million)


36726180 89915820
below 5 years old
10.72% of the total
(36.73 Million) (89.92 Million)
population

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320318000 92892220 227425780
Child population 5-18
years old
(320.318 Million) (92.89 Million) (227.43 Million)

Population below
international poverty
187723200
line of US $ 1.25 per
- -
day
(187.7232 Million)
(42% in 2008)

CIF estimates 40% of


Children are
marginalized due to
poverty, labour,
abuse, disability,
178784000
malnutrition,conflicts,
- -
disasters ,
(178.784 Million)
displacement,
illiteracy, abandoned,
etc

(2006)

Child Labour in India

India continues to host the largest number of child labourers in the world today.
According to the Census 2001, there were 12.7 million economically active children in the age-
group of 5-14 years. The number was 11. 3 million during 1991 (Population Census) thus
showing an increase in the number of child labourers. Workers in general are classified into main
and marginal workers1 by the population census. Census data shows that there is a decline in the
absolute number as well the percentage of children (5-14) to total population in that age group,
classified as main workers from 4.3 percent in 1991 to 2.3 percent in 2001. But there was a

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substantial increase in marginal workers in every category of worker irrespective of sex and
residence. As a result, despite the number of main workers declining from 9.08 million in 1991
to 5.78 million in 2001, the total number of children in the work force increased. A large part of
the increase was accounted for by the increase in marginal workers, which increased from 2.2
million in 1991 to 6.89 million in 2001. The trends between 1991 and 2001 of declining main
child workers along with increasing marginal workers may indicate the changing nature of work
done by children. This is also to be seen in the context of decelerating employment growth in
general in the economy during the last decade.

Poverty and lack of social security are the main causes of child labour. The increasing gap
between the rich and the poor, privatization of basic services and the neo-liberal economic
policies are causes major sections of the population out of employment and without basic needs.
This adversely affects children more than any other group. Entry of multi-national corporations
into industry without proper mechanisms to hold them accountable has lead to the use of child
labour. Lack of quality universal education has also contributed to children dropping out of
school and entering the labour force. A major concern is that the actual number of child
labourers goes un-detected. Laws that are meant to protect children from hazardous labour are
ineffective and not implemented correctly.

A growing phenomenon is using children as domestic workers in urban areas. The conditions in
which children work is completely unregulated and they are often made to work without food,
and very low wages, resembling situations of slavery. There are cases of physical, sexual and
emotional abuse of child domestic workers. The argument for domestic work is often that
families have placed their children in these homes for care and employment. There has been a
recent notification by the Ministry of Labour making child domestic work as well as employment
of children in dhabas, tea stalls and restaurants "hazardous" occupations.

The following are some of the situations in which children are engaged in work:

Agriculture- Children working long hours and under severe hardships on the fields. They are
also exposed to the hazards of working with modern machinery and chemicals.

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Hazardous Industries/ Occupations- Like glass making, mining , construction , carpet
weaving, zari making, fireworks and others as listed under the Child Labour Act.

Small industrial workshops and service establishments.

On the streets- Rag pickers , porters ,vendors etc.

Domestic work- Largely invisible and silent and hence face higher degree of exploitation and
abuse in the home

Magnitude of Child Labour across States


There is across the board decline in the incidence of child labour in the Southern and Western
Indian States and UTs between 1991 and 2001. However, there has been an increasing trend in
the Eastern and North Indian States and UTs. While the Kerala and Tamil Nadu stories are well
known, it is heartening to see that the state of Andhra Pradesh, that had a dubious distinction of
having the largest child labour force in the country, shows very remarkable reduction in work-
force participation, along with a dramatic increase in the enrolment of children in school.
Surprising is the case of Himachal Pradesh, which has shown significant increases in school
attendance and in literacy levels.2 However, there is a dramatic increase in the percentage of
children in the age-group 5-14 years who are classified as workers, both main and marginal

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR

Child labour persists even though laws and standards to eliminate it exist. Current causes of
global child labour are similar to its causes in the U.S. 100 years ago, including poverty, limited
access to education, repression of workers rights, and limited prohibitions on child labour.

Poverty and unemployment levels are high.

Poor children and their families may rely upon child labour in order to improve their chances
of attaining basic necessities. More than one-fourth of the world's people live in extreme poverty,
according to 2005 U.N. statistics. The intensified poverty in parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin
America causes many children there to become child labourers.

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Access to compulsory, free education is limited.

In 2006, approximately 75 million children were not in school, limiting future opportunities
for the children and their communities. A 2009 report by the United Nations estimated that
achieving universal education for the world's children would cost $10-30 billion -- about 0.7% -
2.0% of the annual cost of global military spending.

Existing laws or codes of conduct are often violated.

Even when laws or codes of conduct exist, they are often violated. For example, the
manufacture and export of products often involves multiple layers of production and
outsourcing, which can make it difficult to monitor who is performing labour at each step of the
process. Extensive subcontracting can intentionally or unintentionally hide the use of child
labour.

Constitutional provisions for children in India


Several provisions in the Constitution of India impose on the State the primary
responsibility of ensuring that all the needs of children are met and that their basic human rights
are fully protected. Children enjoy equal rights as adults as per Article 14 of the Constitution.
Article 15(3) empowers the State to make special provisions for children. Article 21 A of the
Constitution of India directs the State to provide free and compulsory education to all children
within the ages of 6 and 14 in such manner as the State may by law determine. Article 23
prohibits trafficking of Human beings and forced labour. Article 24 on prohibition of the
employment of children in factories etc, explicitly prevents children below the age of 14 years
from being employed to work in any factory,
mine or any other hazardous form of employment. Article 39(f) directs the State to ensure that
children are given equal opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in
conditions of freedom and dignity and guaranteed protection of childhood and youth against
moral and material abandonment. Article 45 of the Constitution specifies that the State shall
endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the
age of 6 years. Article 51A clause (k) lays down a duty that parents or guardians provide
opportunities for education to their child/ward between the age of 6 and 14 years. Article 243 G
read with schedule-11 provides for institutionalizing child care to raise the level of nutrition and

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the standard of living, as well as to improve public health and monitor the development and well
being of children in the Country.

Union laws guaranteeing Rights and entitlement to Children


A fairly comprehensive legal regime exists in India to protect the rights of Children as
encompassed in the Countrys Constitution. The age at which a person ceases to be a child varies
under different laws in India. Under the Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986, a
child is a person who has not completed 14 years of age. For the purposes of criminal
responsibility, the age limit is 7 (not punishable) and above 7 years to 12 years punishable on the
proof that the child understands the consequences of the act, under the Indian Penal Code. For
purposes of protection against kidnapping, abduction and related offences, its 16 years for boys
and 18 for girls. For special treatment under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of
Children) Act 2011, the age is 18 for both boys and girls. And the Protection of Women from
Domestic Violence Act
2005 defines a child as any person below the age of 18, and includes an adopted step- or foster
child.

Important Union laws Guaranteeing Rights and Entitlement to Children


1. The Guardian and Wards Act, 1890
2. The Reformatory Schools Act,1897
3. The prohibition of Child Marriage Act,2006
4. The Apprentices Act, 1961
5. The Children (Pledging of Laour) Act, 1933.
6. The Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956
7. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Ac, 1956
8. The Immoral Traffic prevention Act, 1956
9. The Womens and Childrens Institutions (Licensing) Act, 1956
10. The Young Persons harmful Publications Act, 1956
11. The Probation of Offenders Act, 1958
12. Orphanages and Other Charitable Homes (Supervision and Control) Act, 1960
13. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986

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14. The Juvenile Justice ( Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, repealed the Juvenile
Justice Act 1986. The 2000 act also has been amended in 2006 and 2010.
15. The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production,
Supply Distribution) Act, 1992 and its amendment of 2003

Important Schemes for Well- being of Children


1. Integrated Child Development Service Scheme
2. Integrated Child Protection Scheme
3. National awards for child Welfare.
4. National Child Awards for Exceptional Achievements.
5. Rajiv Gandhi Manav Seva Awards for Service to Children.
6. Balika Samriddhi Yojna.
7. Nutrition Programme For Adolescent Girls
8. Early Childhood education for 3-6 age group children.
9. Welfare of working children in need of Care and Protection
10. Childline services
11. Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme for children of working mothers.
12. UJJAWALA : A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of trafficking and Resue,
Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual
Exploitation
13. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
14. National Rural Health Mission
15. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for empowerment of Adolescent Girls SABLA.
16. DhanaLakshami Conditional Cash Transfer for Girl Child with insurance cover
What needs to be done?

Given the magnitude and complexity of the problem and the relative ineffectiveness of the
government, many non-government organizations and collabourative efforts by the government
and non-government agencies are becoming more prevalent in recent years. Though many
organizations are focusing on eradicating child labour by mobilizing community participation
for universal primary education, there is a common attitude prevailing in our country to accept

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child labour as an unavoidable consequence of poverty. There is a need to formulate a holistic,
multi-pronged and concerted effort to tackle this problem. An integrated approach involving
various strategies like poverty eradication programmes, campaigns, budget advocacy,
community action, engaging institutions of governance for the ultimate attainment of the desired
goal.

1. Poverty Eradication Programmes:


Poverty has an obvious relationship with child labour, and studies have "revealed a positive
correlation - in some instances a strong one 11 - between child labour and such factors as
poverty" (Mehra-Kerpelman 1996, 8). With the growing gap between haves and have-nots,
poverty eradication programmes occupy a central position. The poor and needy should get
their share in the development process. There is need to create and implement pro-poor,
inclusive policies with strong political will. Caste is also an important determinant on child
labour. When analyzing the caste composition of child labourers Nangia (1987) observes
that, "if these figures are compared with the caste structure of the country, it would be
realised that a comparatively higher proportion of scheduled caste children work at a younger
age for their own and their families economic support" (p. 116). Scheduled caste (lower
caste) children tend to be pushed into child labour because of their familys poverty. Nangia
(1987) goes on to state that in his study 63.74% of child labourers said that poverty was the
reason they worked (p. 174). The combination of poverty and the lack of a social security
network form the basis of the even harsher type of child labour. For the poor, there are few
sources of bank loans, governmental loans or other credit sources, and even if there are
sources available, few Indians living in poverty qualify. Here enters the local moneylender,
for an average of two thousand rupees, parents exchange their childs labour to local
moneylenders (Human Rights Watch 1996, 17). Since the earnings of bonded child labourers
are less than the interest on the loans, these bonded children are forced to work, while interest
on their loans accumulates. A bonded child can only be released after his/her parents make a
lump sum payment, which is extremely difficult for the poor (Human Rights Watch 1996,
17). Even if bonded child labourers are released, "the same conditions of poverty that abused
the initial debt can cause people to slip back into bondage" (International Labour
Organization 1993, 12). Even though poverty is cited as the major cause of child labour, it is

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not the only determinant. Inadequate schools, lack of schools, or even the expense of
schooling leaves some children with little else to do but work. The attitudes of parents also
contribute to child labour; some parents feel that children should work in order to develop
skills useful in the job market, instead of taking advantage of a formal education. This
abhorred practice is accepted as being necessary for poor families to earn an income. Thus,
an 12 extensive reform process is necessary to eliminate the proliferation of child labour in
India which strives to end the desperate poverty in the nation. Changing the structure of the
workforce and hiring the high number of currently unemployed adults in greatly improved
work conditions is only the first step in this lengthy process. Emergency relief should give
attention to the rehabilitation of agriculture, live stock and fisheries. New labour standards
and wages must be adopted and medical examinations and minimum nutrition requirements
must be established in India.

2. Campaign for strict implementation of Legislations:


NGOs and voluntary organisations can do an intensive campaign to spread across the civil
societyorganisations through networking to draw the attention of the policy makers,
implementators and the community. The organisations working on any issues should involve
in the campaign by putting the problem of child labour on the prime agenda. The campaign
should focus on the effective implementation of the various legislations. The strategies
should be aimed at change at the local, provincial, national and/or international levels. NGOs
can play a pivotal role in the process of universalisation of education by adopting innovative
approaches to quality education. Effective implementation of National Rural Employment
Guarantee Act (NREGA) would translate the Right to Workas envisaged in the Article 41 of
Indian Constitution to a statutory legal right. The NREGA heralds a promising era in poverty
alleviation. Poverty is not just income deficiency; the need for enabling environment both
physical and psychological needs to be addressed. The works are necessary for the rural
agriculture economy that has the potential to get this poor deprived community out of
poverty. Hence there is a need to get active during the implementation of the various
legislations.

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3. Budget Advocacy:
The organisations need to take up the issue of budget analysis and advocacy for budget
allocation for the implementation of the policies. Most of the time the policies are
formulated without proper budget allocation which affect the process of implementation.
Budget analysis is an advocacy tool for developing public understanding on policy
priorities of the Government which will have a greater impact on those who have little
political influence (poor and marginalized). It is important to scrutinize the Government
Budgets from the perspective of child development. Mere analysis of the 13 Budgets
alone cannot influence the policy making unless it is supported by proper public action or
advocacy to promote the findings in public forums so as to influence the common
mindset. This would eventually empower the people to seek Governments
accountability. It will give widespread information about the performance of the
Government and can also become a ground for creating public pressure on the issues that
affect the children. There is a need to establish a strong lobby body or platform to work
with Government to increase allocation of budget for children. Coordinated and
collective effort from the NGOs and Civil Society Organizations strengthen the budget
allocation for children. This process would provide a large operative space and public
support to the child labour campaign. 93rd constitutional amendment to the constitution
made the right to education as a fundamental right is an opportunity to strengthen the
campaign. The main motto of the campaign should be to change political attitudes by
socializing the issues of children at the community level.

4. Community Action towards Child Education:


There is need to bring about wide spread public awareness towards initiating community
action in promoting school enrolment. Education helps a child to develop cognitively,
emotionally and socially, and needless to say, education is often gravely reduced by child
labour. We need to create a conducive climate in which community people at large would not
tolerate the child labour in any form any more. There is need to bring about awareness
among the poor parents so that they will develop a willingness to make any sacrifice to get
their children educated. It is possible only when they are convinced about the significance of
education. Once the child is released from labour, the child should be admitted either to

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formal education or to informal education depending upon various factors like age, level of
understanding. This should be accompanied with vocational training depending upon their
own choice. Preparation should also be made for sustaining education outside of formal
school buildings, using community facilities and strengthening alternative education through
a variety of community channels. Influence and sensitize the political parties to include child
education and eradication of child labour in their election manifesto. Through training and
capacity building of central care givers, including 14
parents, teachers, and community health workers, a diversity of programmes can enhance the
communitys ability to provide education to children.

5. Engaging Institutions of Governance:


The institutions of governance at grass root can monitor the policies, programmes and laws
to ensure protection of childrens interests and rights. Gram Panchayat can play a responsible
role in identification of the projects in the Gram Panchayat areas and allocate employment
opportunities to the needy. It can also ensure child participation and choice in matters and
decisions affecting their lives. There is need to create community monitoring system through
their effective participation in the Gram Sabha. Strengthening community participation in the
whole process by way of conducting regular social audits of all the programmes is a
prerequisite. In doing so they seek authorities accountable and transparent towards effective
implementation of various government programmes meant for child education and
eradication of child labour.

REVISED NATIONAL CHILD LABOUR PROGRAMME (NCLP)


1. Transitional Education Centres
The current National Child Labour Programme (NCLP) needs to be revamped. NCLP schools
must be converted into Transitional Education Centres (TECs) which are both non-residential
and residential. It is very important that the guidelines for TECs are very flexible, adapting to the
local situation.Every child rescued from work would have to be brought to a local TEC and the
TEC would have to accept all children who are rescued from work. These TECs must act as
bridges and the children are to be handed over to the SSA programme. This will have to be
decided on a case-by-case basis. Each TEC should have facilities to accommodate at least 50

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children at any given point of time. It is proposed to have 30 TECs (non-residential) in each of
the 600 districts in the country. These TECss would be equipped for at least 50 children at any
given point of time. However, it is expected that there would be even more number of children
due to the intensive campaign, awareness building as well as enforcement of law. The NCLP
scheme must be flexible enough to take all such children and if necessary merge a couple of
TECs in one place. It is envisaged that 45 lakh children would be benefited by this arrangement.
Some children who are rescued from work have no security in terms of their family or
community and are, therefore, in a highly vulnerable position of exploitation. The residential
TECs would be the first post where such rescued children would be sent. It is proposed to have
2 residential TECs in each district with 50 children in each. Even here, depending upon the
demand there must be flexibility to increase the residential TECs and if necessary, modify the
non-residential TECs to residential ones, within the budgets that are provided for. It is envisaged
that 3 lakh children would benefit from this over five years.

Migrant children
The NCLP needs to recognize the special situation of migrant child labourers. These could be
children who have runaway from home or children who migrate seasonally with their families.
Given the extent of intra-state migration, additional TECs must be set up in states/districts from
where families migrate and linkages must be established with local schools so that children have
a residential facility when their parents move out for work. temporary TECs could also be set up
in areas where people migrate for work such as to the brick kilns, salt pans, sugar cane areas, to
name a few. Local NGOs could be supported to run these temporary TECs so that children get
health and education facilities and are not roped into work.

NCLP Project Society at District level

Each district would continue to have a District Child Labour Project Society under the NCLP
program with the District Collector as its Chairperson and a committee that assists and advises
the staff. It would have to however expand its operations to going beyond running of special
schools. It would add the component of an intense social mobilisation through the social
mobilisers, along with taking up the TECs.

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Social Mobilisation
Given that eradication of child labour is not an easy task, preventive strategies are more
sustainable in the long run. One of the major preventive strategies, which must feature in any
national child labour eradication policy, is the role of social mobilization and community
participation. It is vital to ensure that children stay at home and go to formal government schools
rather than leave home to work full time. There has to be a national campaign to invoke public
interest and large-scale awareness on this issue, there is a need for an extensive awareness
generation campaign launched over a period of time at the Centre and State on a sustained basis.
Required budgetary provisions for such a mass campaign must be provided for in 11th Plan.
Social Mobilisers
Child labourers are spread across the country; working in dispersed villages and slums. The
eradication of child labour cannot be done by the labour department alone, as it is so under-
staffed. Labour department needs to have a cadre of youth volunteers who can be trained as
Social Mobilisers who will be responsible for withdrawing children from work as well as
monitoring school dropouts and children with irregularity of attendance. It is understood that if
such children are not tracked they would join the labour force as child labour. It is proposed to
have 5 social mobilisers in each of the 6202 Blocks in the country. Each of the social mobilisers
would be responsible for 200 children and it is envisaged that through their activity the status of
more than 3 crore children would be monitored.

Survey of child labour


It is necessary that the government commission research and surveys on different aspects of child
labour in the country. This is important since the last countrywide enumeration 7 of the working
children was held in 2001 Census and the incidence of child labour may have undergone change
since then with population growth and the large-scale migration of workforce.

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EXISTING PROGRAMMES FOR REHABILITATION OF CHILD LABOUR
1- National Child Labour Programme
A National Policy on Child Labour was announced in 1987 which emphasised the need for strict
enforcement measures in areas of high child labour concentration. In order to translate the above
policy into action, the Government of India initiated the National Child Labour Project Scheme
in 1988 to rehabilitate the working children starting with 12 child labour endemic districts of the
country. Under the Scheme, working children are identified through child labour survey,
withdrawn from work and put into the special schools, so as to provide them with enabling
environment to join mainstream education system. In these Special Schools, besides formal
education, they are provided stipend @ Rs.100/- per month, nutrition, vocational training and
regular health check ups. In addition, efforts are also made to target the families of these children
so as to cover them under various developmental and income/employment generation
programmes of the Government. The Scheme also envisages awareness generation campaigns
against the evils of child labour and enforcement of child labour laws. It is seen that the level of
enforcement in the States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra & West Bengal is
encouraging, whereas that in UP, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh & Orissa it is very low.

ILO-International Programme for Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)


ILO launched IPEC Programme in 1991 to contribute to the effective abolition of child labour in
the world. India was the first country to sign MOU in 1992. The INDUS Project envisages direct
interventions in the identified 21 districts spread across five states for identification and
rehabilitation of child labour. The strategy under the project is to complement and build up on
the existing government initiatives.

SYNERGY BETWEEN ALL CONCERNED DEPARTMENTS

Ministries and departments have different roles to play in order to ensure that children removed
from work are properly rehabilitated and do not go back into the work force.

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1. Department of Labour
The department of Labours function is to identify and rescue child labour and
ensure that all the children who are out of school in an area are covered; Enforce
law- and action against employers of children; Counsel rescued children and
mainstream them into formal schools; Coordinate all the concerned departments
of education, police, youth, welfare panchayat raj, and women and child development and
establish protocols for collabourative action; Establish TECs for children rescued from labour.

2. Department of Education
The department of education has the task of integrating all out of school children which includes
child labour and school dropouts into the school system and ensure that children enjoy their right
to education. Their function is to prevent children from joining the labour force the education
department must ensure that all children in the 5-8 years age group are enrolled and retained in
schools; through SSA pay attention to children in the 9-14 age groups like child labour,
migrating children, street children, domestic child workers and school dropouts and never
enrolled children and provide for residential and non-residential bridge courses, seasonal hostels,
mobile schools and work-site schools for children who migrate with their families must from the
very beginning be linked to a formal government school

3. Department of Home/Police
The role of the police is, booking the right cases under the Child Labour Act and all other
relevant Acts; take complaints all missing children and track them and follow up in the best
interest of the child and their right to education.

4. Department of Youth Affairs


The Nehru Yuvak Kendra Sangatanas (NYKS) under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
has a huge network of youth clubs across the country. They
must spearhead a campaign against child labour and for childrens right to education in the entire
country.

20
5. Department of Panchayat Raj
The Ministry for Panchayat Raj /Rural Development is to ensure that all gram
panchayats fully monitor the status of children in their area. It must also provide
training for the gram panchayats to track children and protect their rights

6. Department of Women and Child Development


The Ministry must strengthen Child line and expanded to every district of the
country. A Juvenile Justice Board and a Child Welfare Committee (CWC) must be set up in
every district as required in the JJ Act of 2000. There is a need for the Labour department to
coordinate its activities with the CWC.

7. Involvement of Judiciary
There has to be an orientation for the judiciary and establishment of procedures for making the
courts child friendly. Children must not be allowed to make forays to the Court till they turn
hostile. There is a need to also establish mobile courts for quick and timely action to rescue
children and book cases.

8. Role of Gram Panchayats


At the level of gram panchayats, children would not be statistics but will have
specific names. If children are not found in the village or with their family, there
must be an immediate enquiry into their whereabouts. As a first step they must
lodge a police complaint and pursue the matter till children are found and rescued from whatever
location they might be in. A list of all such children who are not in the families must be drawn up
and consolidated at the mandal/block/ and district level. It must be monitored at the State level
and reviewed systematically.

9. Vocational Training for children in 15-18 years age group


The Labour Department should assist children who have completed Class X to get vocational
training by linking them up to local ITIs, NGO run vocational training programmes and private

21
sector initiatives. They should not run vocational training centers as the track record of
vocational training centers set up by the labour departments is extremely poor. The labour
department should instead help older children to get placements in the job market.

TRAININGS
Youth volunteers, gram panchayats, school teachers, officers of labour department and so on
must all be given training about child labour and their respective roles in abolition of child
labour. Training modules are to be prepared on the issue of child labour and education. All the
participants must have a legal literacy and have a full knowledge of childrens rights and their
entitlements, the role of various departments, and awareness of the schemes and programs meant
for children.

EDUCATION AS AN INTERVENTION STRATEGY TO ELIMINATE AND PREVENT


CHILD LABOUR

Consolidated Good Practices of the International Programme on the Elimination of Child


Labour (IPEC )

Education is pivotal to eliminating and preventing child labour, to establishing a skilled


workforce and to promoting development based on the principles of social justice and human
rights. There has been progress in recent years in raising public consciousness of the problem of
child labour, of its pervasive and tenacious nature and of the awful prospect that it is growing in
some areas of the world, for example, in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, key UN and
other international agencies are now working together more effectively, which is critical to
sustaining the growing global movement to eliminate child labour. The basis of action to combat
the problem is the political will and commitment of individual governments and civil society to
address it. It has been shown that a phased and multi-sectoral strategy which motivates a broad
alliance of partners to acknowledge and act against child labour is most effective in bringing
about tangible and sustainable results. Primary education in most countries is not completely free
and in most developing countries schooling is not accessible to all children. Parents who send
their children to primary school must shoulder numerous indirect costs, such as uniforms and
textbooks. Furthermore, they incur the opportunity cost, which is the wage that the child would
earn if she or he was working instead of going to school. Still, while poverty is an important

22
pull factor, dragging children prematurely into the labour market, there are important push
factors, particularly social exclusion, within the education system itself, or within the local
communities in which schools are situated. Investments in primary education should be spread
more evenly, focusing more on children at risk. Not taking these children into special
consideration will jeopardize the goal of achieving universal primary education by 2015, one of
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The lack of mechanisms to offset the opportunity
cost for very poor families is particularly important.

Good practices in education to eliminate and/or prevent child labour In India

ILO-IPEC, therefore, has acquired experience and expertise in a number of strategic areas
regarding education-related activities to eliminate or prevent child labour and reach out-of-
school children. On the basis of this experience, it has been possible to highlight some key
underlying principles that characterize some of the good practices that have been emerging, for
example:
Multi-sectoral approaches have a much more effective and sustained impact in the elimination
and prevention of child labour, combining the involvement of relevant government line
ministries, social partners and civil society.
Education is a necessary, but not sufficient, intervention in the case of children working in
hazardous and exploitative labour. In addition to receiving education of good quality and
relevance, working children also need to benefit from a protective rights-based environment and
access to legal, health and other services.
Child labour must be mainstreamed into Poverty Reducation Strategy Papers (PRSP), EFA,
national plans of action and other resource allocation frameworks.
Partnerships within the broader framework of the UN system and other international and
national organizations must be actively pursued and implemented.
Particular attention should be paid to the situation of girls work and education through gender
specific strategies, and to the situation of particularly vulnerable groups of children, for example,
the very young.
Formal education strategies are vital to the long-term success of interventions.
Practices should be grounded in country-specific realities when dealing with the issue of child
labour, while recognizing broader issues that may go beyond any one specific country. There are

23
a variety of approaches being undertaken using education as a means of combating child labour.
The identification of good practices in this area will help in the creation of a knowledge base that
can assist field practitioners, policy makers, agencies, organizations and other partners and may
be able to support work in mainstreaming child labour in EFA and poverty reduction strategies
and in other development approaches.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PRACTICE IN INDIA


India
This aims to eliminate child labour through the universalisation of quality formal education and
works towards the creation of awareness and demand for education among the poor. It started
working in the Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh in 1991 and universalisation of formal
primary education has been one of its key objectives. MVF maintains that children are not meant
to be workers and each child out of school is a potential worker. Their programmes therefore
target all children, believing that every child going to school means keeping the child away from
working. Moreover, providing schooling to child workers is only not a matter of building a child-
friendly environment within the schools, but also promoting a broader, more political
environment in which going to school is part of the fundamental rights framework for children.
The geographical location of the action programme supported by ILO-IPEC, Kulkacherla
Mandal, is a very underdeveloped area and there is also a high concentration of girls working in
the production of hybrid cotton seeds in cotton farms. Many of these girls are from the Lambadi
tribes who are known to be migratory in nature. Supported by an approach using social
mobilization techniques, MFV 11 established residential bridge camps to facilitate the
transition of former child labourers into formal education and social mobilisation.

Impact of the practice

Effectiveness

In India, in spite of limited financial support from ILO-IPEC, MVFs bridge course was
particularly effective and, over the last decade or so, has been implemented in more than 6,000
villages, covering 137 mandals (municipalities) in 11 districts of Andhra Pradesh. It is estimated
that around 45,000 child labourers have benefited from the MVF bridge camps. MVF has been

24
an ardent advocate for the universalisation of primary education and the total elimination of child
labour. Its research and activities have indicated that these two goals are inextricably linked and
must be pursued together. An ILO-IPEC report subsequently revealed that there had been a
considerable reduction in the incidence of child labour in the area following the MVF
programme. It also successfully created a consensus at the community-level that school is the
only alternative to prevent children from working and, through this consensus, established a
social norm against child labour.

Sustainability

The MVF model was replicated on a wider scale by the Andhra Pradesh governments
Department of Social Welfare through its Back to School Project covering over 10,000
children each summer. MVF plays a significant role in providing technical support to state-led
educational programmes. Having the state assume the responsibility has been the best way to
ensure the sustainability of the bridge course strategy.

Replicability

The MVF has been working in Andhra Pradesh since 1992 and continues to expand its influence.
As mentioned above, the state-led Back to School Project essentially replicated the MVF
model and the organization played a significant role in providing technical support.

INITIATIVE TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT FOR CHILD EDUCATION

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All Movement) is a programme by the Government of
India aimed at the universalization of elementary education "in a time bound manner", as
mandated by the 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free education to children
aged 614 (estimated to be 205 million in number in 2001) a fundamental right. The programme
was pioneered by Atal Bihari Vajpayee. SSA is being implemented in partnership with State

25
Governments to cover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1
million habitations.

The programme is looking to open new schools in those habitations without schooling facilities
and to strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms,
toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.

Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, and the
capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing
teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster,
block and district level. SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills.
SSA has a special focus on female education and children with special needs. SSA also seeks to
provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.

Its goals of 2011 were to do the following:

Open new schools in areas without them and to expand existing school infrastructures and
maintenance.
Address inadequate teacher numbers and provide training a development for existing
teachers.
Provide quality elementary education including life skills with a special focus on the
education of girls and of children with special needs, as well as computer education.

Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA)

Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA) is a pioneering Child Rights and Anti-Human trafficking non-
governmental organization in India working to eradicate bonded labour, child labour and
trafficking, along with the demand for education for all children since its inception, in 1980.

BBA today is known for its effective multi-dimensional approach in dealing with the issue of
child labour and trafficking. BBA activists are fighting at all fronts there are some who are
working at the grass roots level, some who are working with the victims, yet others who are
dealing with the legal aspects and the introduction of new policies in law and order. The
movement is not only rigorously active in domains sustaining child labour, but is also working
with equal vigor to prevent the problem at the grassroots level. Its vision is To create a child

26
friendly society, where all children are free from exploitation and receive free and quality
education. Its Mission is To identify, liberate, rehabilitate and educate children in servitude
through prevention, direct intervention, child and community participation, coalition building,
consumer action, promoting ethical trade practices and mass mobilisation.

MID DAY MEAL SCHEME


The Midday Meal Scheme is the popular name for school meal programme in India which
started in the 1960s. It involves provision of lunch free of working days. The key objectives of
the programme are: protecting children from classroom hunger, increasing school enrollment and
attendance, improved socialization among children belonging to all castes, addressing
malnutrition, and social empowerment through provision of employment to women. The scheme
has a long history, especially in the state of Tamil Nadu. The scheme was introduced statewide
by the then Chief Minister K. Kamaraj in the 1960s and later expanded by the M. G.
Ramachandran government in 1982. It has been adopted by most Indian states after a landmark
direction by the Supreme Court of India on November 28, 2001. The success of this scheme is
illustrated by the tremendous increase in the school participation and completion rates in Tamil
Nadu.

National Programme for Nutrition Support to Primary Education


Although the programme in Tamil Nadu was initially termed as an act of "Populism", the success
of the scheme made the project hugely popular. The success was so spectacular that in 1995, the
then Indian prime minister P.V.Narsimha Rao hailed the success of the project and suggested
that the scheme be implemented all over the country, and thus began the "National Programme
for Nutrition Support to Primary Education".

According to the programme the Government of India will provide grains free of cost and the
States will provide the costs of other ingredients, salaries and infrastructure. Since most State
governments were unwilling to commit budgetary resources they just passed on the grains from
Government of India to the parents. This system was called provision of dry rations. On
November 28, 2001 the Supreme Court of India gave a famous direction that made it mandatory
for the state governments to provide cooked meals instead of dry rations. The direction was to

27
be implemented from June 2002, but was violated by most States. But with sustained pressure
from the court, media and in particular from the Right to Food Campaign more and more states
started providing cooked meals.

In May 2004 a new coalition government was formed in the centre, which promised universal
provision of cooked meals fully funded by the centre. This promise in its Common Minimum
Programme was followed by enhanced financial support to the states for cooking and building
sufficient infrastructure. Given this additional support the scheme has expanded its reach to
cover most children in primary schools in India. In 2005 it is expected to cover 130 million
children.

28
COMPANY

PROFILE

29
AARAMBH

AARAMBH is a non-profit charity organization based and working in Navi Mumbai (New
Bombay), India. This non-government organization (NGO) was created as a Community
Service Center for the most marginalized families living in urban slum communities and rural
areas.

Our goal is to provide educational, health and vocational skills tounderprivileged children and
women. AARAMBH is registered with the The Charity Commssioner Mumbai, The Income
Tax Department and the Home Minstry (FCRA) Government of India.
Please take a few minutes and browse through our website to learn more about us. Drop us a
note when you have the time. We'd love to hear from you and answer any questions that you
might have.

The Problem:-

Navi Mumbai ( New Bombay), a satellite township to Bombay with its broad roads and
beautiful railway stations is also home to thousands of migrants who have come to this city in
search of employment. They live in small shanties put on the side of roads, under flyovers and
along railway tracks. These areas have no sanitation and drinking water facilities. Diseases like
T.B., Malaria, etc are common and the worst sufferers are the children.

Sickness among children and poverty of parents force thousands of children to drop out of
school even before they are 10 years old

Hundreds of children are forced to work 10 to 12 hours a day to support their families

Women and young girls face harassment and abuse at home and in the community

Girls as young as 14 and 15 years are forced into marriage due to social and cultural
pressures

30
Mission

Catalyze social and economic change in marginalized communities with focus on the rights of
underprivileged children and empowerment of women.

When founded in 1996, our primary goal was to provide educational and health support to drop
outs & out-of-school children and enrol them into regular schools. We have succeeded in this
endeavour, growing from 70 children in one centre in 1996, to approximately 2000 children,
women and youth in 10 community centres today. We remain fully committed to providing
vulnerable children with an opportunity to receive education and realize their potential in life.

Over the past ten years, we have learnt that in order for the children to succeed, the families units
and communities that surround these children must also progress. Therefore, our mission today is
to empower people of these communities through participation and collective effort to secure
opportunities for growth and social justice

Our current objectives can best be summarized as follows:


Motivate parents from slum communities to send their children to schoo
Encourage women to acquire skills that will help them earn reasonable wages
Network with local governments & community groups to create bonds for collective action
towards effective utilization of public services
Sensitize the local community about Child Rights
Enhance the capacity of the youth groups to take leadership roles in the community

31
Our Programs:-

Consistent with our current mission, AARAMBHs programs cover children,


youth, and women in the slum communities of New Bombay. The following is a
listing of our current endeavors:
Children
Educational activities for children who have dropped out of school
Enrollment of out of school children into regular schools
Eliminating child labor in the slum communities by awareness programs for
parents
Regular health camps & follow ups for children
Cultural activities for self expression

Youth
Training in vocational skills training for including screen printing , paper
products, and computer courses
Leadership training for youth
Sponsorships for needy students to enable them to pursue their education
through high school and college
Health awareness camps
Women
Vocational skills training & income generation including tailoring,
embroidery, candle making, crafts, etc
Through our savings groups, women are encouraged to open and operate their
own bank accounts, and to save for a rainy day.
Health education and adult literacy classes
Leadership skills

Our Future:-

32
We recognize that our success in attracting and retaining children-at-risk to this program is
dependent on mobilizing mothers and convincing them that AARAMBH is a productive and
useful opportunity for their children. We therefore have and will continue to include women in
our activities. We seek to empower women in slum communities in order to ensure their access
to health and economic services.

Our key goals for the next three years include:

Expand our programs to include 2000 children

Provide vocational skills training for 200 youth

Provide Health and Social Awareness programs for 500 women.

Over the next ten years, we plan to provide educational and health support for 5000 children. In
addition, we will work with 1000 women to help them access and exercise their rights to health,
social & economic prosperity.

The major services of the centre

Child & Family Counselling

Enrolment into Formal Education

Awareness on Health & Hygiene

Recreational Activities

Home Integration and Repatriation

CHILDLINE

Special Juvenile Police Unit (SJPU)

Childrens Day Celebration

Craft Works

33
Value Imparting Programs

Orientation Programs

Various Religions Celebration

Working Strategies of Aaralabh


1. At the level of young at risk
2. At the level of community and Society

Target Groups of Aaralabh


1. Unaccompanied Children living on streets
2.Children who do labour
3. Abandoned / Orphaned Children
4. Runaway / Missing children
5. Victims of Substance Abuse
6. Victims of Child Abuse / Violence / exploitation
7. Children who do begging
8. Children who do Rag Picking
9. Children whose Rights are violated

Services

Counseling
Every child who enters AARALABH would undergo Counseling. They provide two types of
counselling: Initial counseling and Intensive counseling. The intensive counselling will take a
week long. The details of the child are revealed through the initial counseling. Their
professional counsellors, who would in the process identify the real problems of the child and
help him to transform his attitudes towards life. The intensive counselling includes recreational
and motivational therapy as well. At the end of the counselling the child is either reinstated into
his family or placed in one of its centres for rehabilitation. In some exceptional cases the child is
referred to other care institutions.

34
Home Placement
Home placement finds its core importance among all our activities. AARALABH believes that
the Child belongs to his/her home and that is where the children can grow up best. Reinstating
the children back in their homes at the earliest after rehabilitation is the goal that AARALABH
pursues with intent. During the intervention time AARALABH absorbs them in the interim for a
period that may be necessary and which depends on the specific needs of the individual. The
counseling services in this direction and the formative measures undertaken are focused on
enabling and empowering the individual child to reintegrate them back into their families or
societies.

Education
Most of the children stop their education after their initial schooling. The reason behind this
scenario is that economic instability. AARALABH intends to support these children for their
higher education in different trades with the help of well wishers and like minded people who
could support these children to puruse the education further.

Vocational Training
Vocational training coupled with Non-Formal Education is provided to those children above 14
years of age, who show too much resistance towards formal education. This is because many
children from poor families find earning money as a better alternative compared to going to
schools. Therefore we try to provide them with this option at least to help them lead a better and
more responsible life. The vocational training includes welding, carpentry, two-wheeler
mechanism, computer training, tailoring etc. However, in the process whenever we discover that
a child has developed interest in formal education, we help him to make a switch.

Job Placement

35
After completing the vocational training, we place these children in different job setting
according to their qualification. This will help them to construct their future, by making them to
find out their bread from their sweat.

Room Placement
Room placement for older boys nearing the age of 18 years is an activity to help them become
independent. The job placed boys are assisted in procuring a separate rented room outside
AARALABHs residential facility. Around 3-4 boys live together in a room, they pay the rent
jointly and stay together as a family with bonding.

Health Care
Giving better medical service to the children is one of our major concerns. It is our primary
responsibility to look after the children until they are reintegrated with their families. We
facilitate proper treatment for sick children and also conduct medical camps from time to time.

Personality Enhancement
Personality Enhancement has a vital aspect among our services. Such measures help to develop
positive attitudes in life, facilitate growth in resilience, recognize and understand the
personalities and bring awareness of hazards that adversely affect the physical health.

Child Labour Eradication


Child labour is a serious and extensive problem, with many children under the age of fourteen
working in hazardous situation. Child labour has been identified as harmful and hazardous to the
childs development needs, both mental and physical. AARALABH through its Child Labour
project aims at the termination of child labour gradually and to ensure the change in mindset of
these innocent kids to get in to normal and dignified life.

HIV/AIDS Awareness

36
HIV/AIDS is considered as the dreadful disease of this century. It is also spreading at an
alarming rate. Being ranked second in case of HIV/AIDs patients, India is on the path to reach
the top spot. This is mainly due to the unawareness among the people. As a remedy to this, we
organize plenty of awareness programs in order to make young people on the streets to be aware
about HIV/AIDS and its transmission.

National Research and Documentation (NRD)


It is one of the important elements of AARALABHs activities aimed at providing for building a
strong intellectual base essential for the kind of work it is involved in. NRD plays an
indispensable role of adding intellectual and critical substance to the programs and activities of
AARALABH and discerning its mission in the context of changing circumstances, emerging
realities and policy environment that affect and influence its target groups and areas. NRD
highlights AARALABHs experience as an inspiration to others to serve

37
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

38
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1-Reduce and prevent the incidence of children working in harmful conditions


2- Increase educational alternatives; and document best practices and replicable strategies.
3-Improving the quality and effectiveness of educational and social development programs for
the orphans.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

The time is one of the major limitations.


The information collected is restricted to only one NGO.
The study is conducted in metro city.

39
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

40
RESEARCH METHOLOGY

The methodology used in studying and understanding the perceived views of respondents
about the child labour and child education .
Sampling, by definition, is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of
individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern,
especially for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more
properties of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. In the case of
this project, the properties taken into concern are, the opinion of people regarding the knowledge
education and child labour policies and action,
The process of Sampling in the city of Mumbai was conducted among the company
employees and students ..

SOURCE OF DATA

In a broader sense we can say that two types of data are available to the researcher. They
are as follows:

1. Primary data: A structured questionnaire was prepared for the collection of primary data.

2. Secondary data: Secondary data are collected from the materials provided by the ngo , internet
and the company website.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Broadly speaking, we can classify the Research Designs into 3 types

Exploratory Research Design:

This is generally used to clarify thoughts and opinions about the research problems or the
respondent population, or to provide insights on how to do more conclusive (casual) research.
Exploratory research studies are also known as Formularies Research Studies.

41
Descriptive Research Design:

Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the
characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group, whereas diagnostic research studies
determine the frequency with which something occur or its association with something else.

Casual Research Design:

Casual Research design is also known as Hypothesis testing research studies, (generally
known as experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypotheses of casual
relationship between variables. Such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and
increase reliability, but will permit drawing inferences about causality. Usually experiments meet
this requirement. Hence, when we talk about research design in such studies, we often mean the
design of experiments.

RESEARCH DESIGN OPTED

In this research process the design opted for research are the Exploratory and Casual
Research Design.

SAMPLING METHOD

Sampling Unit: students and company employees

Sampling Size: 30 Respondents.

The sampling procedure adopted in this study is non-probability judgmental sampling;


the chance of any particular unit in the population being selected is known. The sample area and
sample unit chosen are primarily on the basis of judgmental.

Here judgmental sampling will be used to pick the sample area, sample unit&
respondents therein. Thus, altogether the study proposes to have 2 sample area&30 respondents.

42
STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES:

Simple statistical techniques used, drawing of percentage. Tables for analyzing and
graphs for pictorial understating were used in the study.

SOURCE OF DATA:

In a broader sense we can say that two types of data are available to the researcher. They
are as follows:

1. Primary data: A structured questionnaire was prepared for the collection of primary data .

2. Secondary data: Secondary data are collected from the materials provided by the NGO .

PROCESSING OF THE COLLECTED DATA:

1. A number of tables are prepared to bring out the main characteristics of the data.
2. Inferences are drawn from the data analyzed.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:

To elicit the primary data of the proposed study, questionnaires with structured questions
for the respondents shall be considered.

PLAN OF ANALYSIS:

The collected data is analyzed with the help of statistical tools. Statistical tool
percentages are used wherever possible to make the presentation effective, tables, charts &
diagrams were used.

43
TOOLS USED FOR DATA COLLECTION:

The tools used for primary data collection was a structured questionnaire that includes
both open ended and close ended questions. Secondary data was collected from the certain
websites, books and major chunk of information was collected from the NGO. The collected data
was organized, processed and tabulated in separate tables under specific heading. The data was
processed using the percentage method.

44
DATA ANALYSIS
&
INTERPRETATION

45
CALCULATION & INTERPRETATION OF RATIOS

How much have you heard about Child Labour?

TABLE

No of respondents Frequency Percentage


A lot 21 70%
A little bit 5 15%
Not much 3 12%
Doesnt know it is exist 2 3%
GRAPH

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
a lot little bit not much didnt know its still exist

ANALYSIS

From 30 sample size 70% of respondents knows a lot about child labour , 15% knows a little bit
, 12% does not know much and rest 3 % wonders that still there exist child labour

Interpretation

From the above data we can interpret that our society is well aware of the Child labour problem
, still some people does not know about this problem .

46
What do you think creates awareness about Child Labour most effectively?

TABLE

FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
TELEVISION 15 50%
INTERNET 6 20%
NEWSPAPER 9 30%
OTHER SOURCE 0 0%

GRAPH

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
TELEVISION INTERNET NEWSPAPER OTHERS

ANALYSIS

from the above data 15 people(50%) of the sample size get information about child labour from
television , 6 people (20%) from internet , 9 people (30%) from newspaper.

INTERPRETATION

Media plays a vital role in this segment also . as 80% of the respondents gets information about
child labour from the electronic media i.e television and internet . Rest 20% gets it from
newspapers.

47
Who do you think can help To end Child Labour?

TABLE

Frequency Percentage
GOVERNMENT 6 20%
NGO 4 13%

BUSINESS 5 17%
ORGANIZATION
ALL 15 50%
GRAPH

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
government NGOs business organizations a combination of all

ANALYSIS

From all respondents 20% thinks that government can help to end child labour , 13% believes
that ngo can do things to end this problem, 17% of people thinks that business organisation can
help to shut this problem , and 50% of the respondents believes that a combination of all of them
I i.e government ,ngo , business organizations can take steps to end the child labour problem

Interpretation

People have a belief that the business organization , ngo and the government can take action by
collaboration among themselves . so that more funds can be raised and more positive action can
be taken to get rid of child labour problem.

48
Do you think children below the age of 14 going to work is right?

TABLE

FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
UP TO THEM 6 20%
NECESSARILY EVIL 9 30%
THEY SHOULD NOT CUT 7 23.3%
DOWN THEIR CHILDHOOD

ITS A HORRIBLE CONCEPT 8 26.6%


Graph

35%

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%
up to them necessarily evil they should not cut It's a horrible concept
down their childhood

ANALYSIS

20% of the respondents thinks it is up to the children whether he wants to work or not , 30% i.e
9 people think it is necessarily an evil to the society .

24% beliefs that the child should not cut down their childhood by engaging himself in this social
taboo . 27% ie 8 people thinks that its a horrible concept

INTERPRETATION

The society now a days does not accept the child labour , but still some problem is there , so
awareness is needed to abolish the problem . some people thinks that its up to the child whether
to do child labour or not , poverty is the main issue in many cases . child labour can be irradiated
by strong educational policy

49
Which gender do you think is more affected by Child Labour?

Table

GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE


MALE 12 40%
FEMALE 8 26.6%
BOTH 10 33.3%

Pie chart

33%
40%

MALE
FEMAE
BOTH

27%

ANALYSIS

From 30 respondents 12 people (40%) thinks that there is more male child labour , 27% thinks
that there is more female child labour , and the rest around 33% means 10 people thinks that
there is equal ratio in both male and female child labour .

Interpretation

The society thinks that there exist both male and female child labour who works in different
industries . there is a belief that male child labours are more than the female child labours,

50
Do you think that Government is doing enough to reduce Child Labour ?

TABLE

frequency percentage

yes 18 60%
no 12 40%
Pie chart

40%

60%

YES
NO

ANALYSIS

60% (18 person) of the respondents thinks that government is doing enough to end the child
labour issues . 40% (12) still thinks government should take better action to end such problems.

INTERPRETATION

Its a sign that major part of the society knows about the programs initiated by government such
as sarv sikhsya abhiyan , bachpan bachao andolan , and mid day meal programs in school . this is
obviously giving positive result , but still government is lacking behind something as the child
labour rate is not decreasing , so people beliefs that government is not doing enough to end this
problem

51
Do you think Child Education will help to reduce the Child labour system ?

Table

frequency percentage

yes 26 86.6%
no 4 13.4%

Pie chart

13%

YES NO

87%

Analysis

87% respondents (26 out of 30 ) have a strong belief that child education is much more
important than anything to end this problem . 13% says only child education is not enough to
control the child labour problem.

Interpretation

People thinks by providing child education we can reduce the child labour problem . but still it is
not enough , we have to go through deep and analyse the real problem , in some case poverty is
the main issue so we have to solve those kinds of issues first so that further action can be taken .
apart from child education skill training and other initiatives can also be taken

52
Are you Aware of 1098 child helpline number ?

TABLE

frequency percentage
Yes 9 30%
No 21 70%

30

YES
70 NO

Analysis

Out of 30 respondents only 9 ie 30% people are aware of the 1098 child helpline number. Rest
70% ie 21 are not aware of this number .

INTERPRETATION

1098 A phone number that spells hope for millions of children across India, CHILDLINE is
India's first 24-hour, free, emergency phone service for children in need of aid and assistance.
Whether you are a concerned adult or a child, you can dial 1098, the toll free number to access
our services

From the above data we can assume that still there is a lack of awareness in the society . so
awareness program must be done to get benefit from such initiatives like 1098 child helpline
number

53
Do you think NGOs are taking initiative for the betterment of Orphan Child ?

TABLE

frequency percentage
yes 15 50%
No 9 30%
Cant say 6 20%
Pie chart

20%

50%
YES
NO
30%
CANT SAY

Interpretation

15 people (50%) agrees that NGOs are doing well for the betterment of child orphans, 30% ie 9
people disagrees it and 6 people could not reply for the question.

Analysis

From the above data we can assume that ngos are doing well for thr betterment of orphan
students , ngos are providing education . skill training and other trainings for the orphan students
to make them able to sustain in the society in future . they are taking action against those who are
provoking child labour system in direct way . guiding the missing children , helping the poor
children to get their education etc , so ngos are doing their work to get back those backward
child into the main stream of the society

54
FINDINGS

55
Finding

Eliminate Poverty
International financial institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
contributed to the rise in child labour when they called on countries heavily indebted to them to
reduce public expenditure on health care and new jobs. These structural adjustment programmes
have resulted in increased poverty and child labour. The World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund should rethink their loan plans to developing countries in an effort to increase
social expenditure rather than reduce it.

Government organizations and industries should be pressured to act in a socially responsible


manner and to put an end to child labour or to provide children with better working conditions.
Boycotting is not the solution because it forces children, who otherwise have no specific training,
to quit their jobs and return to the streets or to more dangerous activities.

Encourage Education
Children need to learn how to read and write. They need social and professional skills that only
school and a nurturing environment can provide.

Some countries have compulsory schooling and some provide free public schooling. However, in
many countries, particularly for those where structural adjustment lending has led to the
privatization of schools-the cost of teaching, books, and uniforms makes it impossible for
children to get an education. Furthermore, for education to become a solution to child labour,
schools must be located close to where these children live.

Education must be free and compulsory up until the minimum legal age for employment.

Enforce Labour Laws


Most countries have laws against child labour; however, some governments support child labour
(regardless of existing laws) as a way of gaining a competitive market advantage.

Rehabilitate and Protect Working Children(Encourage NGO participation)

56
Preventing children from working is not necessarily the best solution; children may end up in
worse situations and their families may become even poorer.

Some NGOs fight to protect working children by providing them with information on their rights
or by guaranteeing them safer working conditions. Other NGOs help children in the transition
from work to school by building centres where they are provided with healthcare and a tailored
education. The children leave these centres only when they have learnt to be independent.

Abolish Child Trafficking


Everywhere in the world, there are adults who earn a living by buying and selling children. The
governments of all countries must take harsh measures against child trafficking.

Promote Fair Trade


There is a worldwide rise in commercial agreements-which must include norms for guaranteeing
basic human rights and respect. Implementing these fair trade norms helps prevent child labour.

The new labelling campaigns-like Rugmark or the equitable commerce label-guarantee that the
products consumers buy are not manufactured by children and that fair commercial practices
have been employed. The label also reminds companies that young consumers should also be
aware of commercial practices.

Fair trade practices guarantee a fair price to small-scale producers. In 44 developing countries,
fair trade helps keep 550 co-operatives in business. These co-operatives consequently provide
goods to 5 million people and often reinvest profits in the community, where the money is used
to build schools, medical clinics, wells, etc.

Replace Child Workers by Adult Workers

There are 800 million unemployed adults in the world; and yet, the number of working children
is estimated to be at over 300 million.

Replacing these working children with their mostly unemployed parents would result in higher
family incomes (since adults are generally paid better), and the resulting rise in production costs
would have little impact on exports sales.

57
SUGGESTION

58
RECOMMENDATION AND SUGGESTIONS
Prioritise primary education. Primary education should be free, compulsory, well-
resourced, relevant and nearby. It is much easier to monitor school attendance that to
inspect factories and workshops. Sponsoring a child doesn't solve this problem - it might
make us feel good, but it only helps educate one child, isolating them from others in their
community.
Ban the worst forms of child labour Demand the government support the ILO
Convention
Give the jobs of child workers to their adult relatives This way, the family does not
suffer, and indeed should be better off, as adult wages are generally much higher than
child wages.
Education and training for women All studies show that when women are educated,
trained and empowered, the incidence of labour by their children, especially girl children,
drops dramatically
Family control of fertility - so that families are not burdened by children

59
CONCLUSION

60
CONCLUSION:

Child labour denies the child of his basic right that is the right to education. No
education means unskilled jobs and exploitative wages. This leads to the creation of an
unskilled adult labour force which causes early physical decay, economic insecurity, low quality
of life and ultimately high poverty. Thus child labour creates a vicious circle of poverty,
unemployment, underemployment and low wages. Over the years the Government of India has
multiplied its efforts to address the needs and rights of exploited children. Still, the issue
remains grave and demanding more rigorous measures. In order to eliminate the social evil of
child labour there is a need for more intensive initiatives to tackle poverty and promote
education opportunities to all children to help children and families in crisis.

61
BIBLIOGRAPHY

62
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.aarambh.com

www,Wikipedia com
www.childlabour.tn.gov.in/.htm
Department of Economics and Statistics website
www.childlineindia.org.inl
www.ilocarib.org.tt
www.indianet.nl/

63
ANNEXURE

64
Questionnaire
1. How much have you heard about Child Labour?

A lot

A little bit

Not much

Didn't know it still exists

2. What do you think creates awareness about Child Labour most effectively?

Television

Internet

Newspapers

Other (Please specify) _____________

3. Who do you think can help end Child Labour?

The governments

NGOs

Business Organizations

A combination of them all

4. Do you think children below the age of 14 going to work is right?

Its up to them

It's a necessary evil

65
They should not cut down their childhood

It's a horrible concept

5. Which gender do you think is more affected by Child Labour?

Male

Female

Both equally

6. Do you think that Government is doing enough to reduce Child Labour ?

Yes

No

7. Do you think Child Education will help to reduce the Child labour system ?

Yes

No

8. Are you Aware of 1098 child helpline number ?

Yes

No

9- Do you think NGOs are taking initiative for the betterment of Orphan

Child ?

A- Yes
B- No

66
10. What government can do abolish the child labour ?

Ans

67