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ECE 9403a - Need to Know (Final)

Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost Converters

Class Notes, how they work, waveforms, analysis (determine gain for CCM, design inductor to
meet ripple considerations and/or continuous current mode {CCM}, determine average,
maximum and minimum component currents)

Also note IGBTs vs MOSFETS, conduction losses, switching losses, diode reverse recovery
current, ZVS and ZCS turn-on and turn-off

Conventional Flyback and Forward Converters

Class Notes, advantages and disadvantages of each, how they work, waveforms, analysis, design
to ensure proper demagnetization of core, switch voltage stresses, relationship between duty ratio
and switch voltage stress. Note for flyback converter: derivation of same equations as for buck-

"The Forward Converter: From the Classic to the Contemporary" by F. Dong Tan

Know how the converters shown in Fig. 1(a) - 1(f) work as discussed in class. Also know their
advantages and disadvantages.

Active Clamp Forward Converter

Explain how the circuit works. Know the modes of operation. Be able to explain why active
clamp converter can be used for offline application discussed in the Unitrode paper but standard
forward converter cannot be.

"The Forward Converter: Extension to Include Synchronous Rectifiers and Current Doublers"
by F. Dong Tan

Page 41, 42 (top 6 converters), 43 (NOT "Derivation of a Current Doubler"), Section 4

(advantages of current doublers, Fig. 6). Also know advantages of current doublers (easier to
implement synchronous rectifiers, allows the use of integrated magnetic to reduce converter size)
and drawback (generally not as efficient as standard center-tap secondary scheme for converter

"An Improved Gating Technique for the Synchronous Rectifier MOSFETS in the Forward
Converter Topology" by Y. Xi, P. K. Jain, and G. Joos

The whole paper - especially Figs. 1 - 6. No equations.

Two-Switch Forward, Push-Pull, Half-Bridge, Full-Bridge Converters

See class notes.

"A 500 kHz Multi-Output Converter with Zero-Voltage Switching" by Dhaval B. Dalal

Modes of operation (Fig. 4) and phase-shift PWM (Fig. 6). Note that Fig. 4. does not show all
the modes of operation.

"Design Considerations for High-Voltage High-Power Full-Bridge Zero-Voltage-Switched PWM

Converter" by J. A. Sabate, V. Vlatkovic, R. B. Ridley, F. C. Lee, and B. H. Cho

Pages 275 to 278 and Fig. 7. Only equations (1) and (2) need to be known. Relation between
ZVS range with respect to load, conduction losses, leakage inductance, transformer turns ratio.

"Novel Zero-Voltage and Zero-Current Switching (ZVZCS) Full-Bridge PWM Converter Using
a Simple Auxiliary Circuit" by Jung G. Cho, Ju W. Baek, Chang Y. Jeong, et. al.

Introduction, converter modes of operation, appearance of resonant peak in switch current,

explanation of counter voltage mechanism, why one leg should have MOSFETS, the other
IGBTs. Advantage (elimination of circulating current in freewheeling mode), disadvantages (cost
as it is cheaper to use four of one device, IGBT not as fast as MOSFET and MOSFET has more
conduction losses than IGBT)

"A Comparison of Half-Bridge Resonant Converter Topologies" by Robert L. Steigerwald

The whole paper, especially the comparison section. Also note switching frequency vs resonant
frequency, the need for lagging current to achieve ZVS, and the compromise between ZVS range
and current stresses.

"Constant Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters with Zero Switching Losses" by Praveen
Jain, Harry Soin, and Martin Cardella

Explain how it is possible to operate a resonant converter with fixed switched frequency PWM

"Asymmetrical Pulse-Width Modulated Resonant DC/DC Converter Topologies" by Praveen K.

Jain, Andre St. Martin, and Gary Edwards

Explain how the APWM converter with the capacitive output filter works. Also note compromise
between ZVS range and current stresses.

Quasi-Resonant Converters

See class notes. Focus on modes of operation for ZVS buck and ZCS boost converters. Know
advantages (reduced switching losses) and drawbacks (higher semiconductor voltage/current
stresses, variable switching frequency operation) of these converters. Know that these converters
can be operated with fixed switching frequency as shown in Buck Quasi-Resonant converter
paper by Ivo Barbi et. al.

"Novel Zero-Voltage-Transition PWM Converters" by Guichao Hua, Ching-Shan Leu, and Fred
C. Lee.

"High Efficiency Telecom Rectifier Using a Novel Soft-Switched Boost-Base Input Current
Shaper" by Robert Streit and Daniel Tollik

Know how these ZVT-PWM converters work (modes of operation), advantage of Streit
converter over Hua converter (inherent turn-off snubbing of auxiliary switch), why the turn-on
losses of the auxiliary switch are less than those that would exist for the main switch if the
converter had no auxiliary circuit.

Advantage (fixed frequency ZVS with PWM waveforms as the auxiliary circuit is operational for
only a small fraction of the switching cycle). Disadvantage (cost of auxiliary circuit even though
component can be small as they conduct little average or rms current)

Also explain how the reverse recovery current of the main power diode can be eliminated and the
benefits of doing so (less reverse recovery losses, less noise/EMI due to soft commutation, less
risk of potential short circuit hazard)

A Comparative Analysis of the Behavior and of the Switching Losses for a Group of ZCS-PWM
Converters using IGBT's by R.L. Fuentes and H. L. Hey

Topology A and topology C, the main switch and main diode waveforms, Fig. 6 (comparison
between hard-switching and ZCS-PWM topologies)

"A Comparative Study of Zero-Current-Transition PWM Converters" by Pritam Das and Gerry

Introduction section (general principles), Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 (the operation of these two
topologies), Fig. 9, and Fig. 13 (just note that hard switching converter is more efficient at lighter

"Power Electronics Polluting Effects" by Richard Redl

Explain converters in Fig. 4 (Passive - cheap but bulky) , 5 (Best, but ac-dc-dc now requires 2
switching converters instead of one), 6 (only one converter so cheaper and simpler but
performance suffers). Explain how boost converter operating in DCM or CCM can be used for
power factor correction.

"A New Family of Single-Stage Isolated Power Factor Correctors with Fast Regulation of the
Output Voltage" by Richard Redl, Laszlo Balogh, Nathan O. Sokal

Converters in Fig. 8(a) and 8(b) and Sections II.B, IV.A, IV.G.

"PWM Full-Bridge Converter with Natural Input Power Factor Correction" by Gerry
Moschopoulos, Mei Qiu, Humberto Pinheiro, and Praveen Jain

Section IV only (all parts)

"Off-Line Flyback Converter with Input Harmonic Current Correction" by Fu-Sheng Tsai, P.
Markowski, and E. Whitcomb

Concept of auxiliary winding, trade-off between lower dc bus voltage and input current

A Topology Survey of Single-Stage Power Factor Corrector with a Boost Type Input-Current
Shaper by C Qiao and K. M. Smedley

Fig. 10(a) and (b)