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THE DIRT

Summer Issue 2017, Volume 43, Issue 2

Green Works Summer Meeting page 4

Hot Gardens & Cool Plants page 5

Gardening in an Era of Climate Change page 17
1
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
PRESIDENT
COMMITTEES
Ed Burke VJ Comai
Rocky Dale Gardens Bartlett Tree Experts BUDGET AND FINANCE
806 Rocky Dale Road 184 Tamarack Rd COMMITTEE CHAIR
Bristol, VT 05443 Charlotte, VT 05445 Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
802.453.2782 802.296.1797 802.425.5222
ed@rockydalegardens.com vcomai@bartlett.com
INDUSTRY AWARDS COMMITTEE CHAIR
VICE-PRESIDENT Marlys Eddy Ed Burke - Rocky Dale Gardens
Vermont Technical College 802.453.2782
Hannah Decker PO Box 500
Fairfax Perennial Farm, Inc. Randolph Center, VT 05061 LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE CHAIR
7 Blackberry Hill Road 802.728.1207 Gabriel Bushey - Crafted Landscapes, LLC
Fairfax, VT 05454 meddy@vtc.edu 802.233.8551
802.849.2775
perennialfarm@surfglobal.net Ashley Robinson MARKETING & EDUCATION
SECRETARY/TREASURER Ashley Robinson Landscape Designer COMMITTEE CHAIR
PO Box 28 Ed Burke - Rocky Dale Gardens
Nate Carr Charlotte, VT 05445 802.453.2782
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc. 802.922.1924
287 Church Hill Road arobinsonld@gmail.com MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE CO-CHAIR
Charlotte, VT 05445 VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
802.425.5222 802.425.6222
ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY Hannah Decker - Fairfax Perennial Farm
nate@churchhilllandscapes.com
802.849.2775
DIRECTORS Kristina MacKulin
Green Works/VNLA PROGRAM COMMITTEE CO-CHAIRS
Gabriel Bushey P.O. Box 92 VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
Crafted Landscapes, LLC N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473 802.425.6222
4800 Basin Harbor Road Toll Free: 888.518.6484 Ashley Robinson - Ashley Robinson
Vergennes, VT 05491 P: 802.425.5117; F: 802.425.5122 Landscape Designer
802.233.8551 Kristina@greenworksvermont.org 802.922.1924
gabe.w.bushey@gmail.com www.greenworksvermont.org
RESEARCH & AWARDS
Carrie Chalmers COMMITTEE CHAIR
Carrie Chalmers Design VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
239 Lawrence Hill Road 802.296.1797
Weston, VT 05161
802.375.5930 VERMONT CERTIFIED HORTICULTURIST
carriechalmers6694@gmail.com COMMITTEE
Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
802.425.5222

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2
PRESIDENT’S LETTER Ed Burke, Rocky Dale Gardens

Dear Fellow Green Works Members,
inside this
issue
Keeping Up
Board of Directors 2
As I write this, it seems like we have entered into
monsoon season in Vermont! We could not have a more The President’s Letter 3
opposite season to last year’s! At least with those of us
installing plants we don’t have to worry about the lack The Buzz 4
of watering. Green Works Summer
Meeting & Trade Show
Speaking of installing plants have you noticed that we Welcome New VCHers
are still in the midst of a plant shortage? The economic struggles and Hot Gardens with Cool
downturn we experienced several years back took its toll on the nursery Plants
business. Many growers had to dump their plant stock and did not replant. Calendar of Events
Green Works Twilight
Some growers went out of business completely. While the building industry
Gatherings
has rebounded quickly it will take time for shrub and tree nurseries to catch up
with supply and demand. Many growers will be wary to plant too much
nursery stock. It’s a good idea to order early and plan ahead when you are Leonard’s Clippings 9
introducing your clients to their plant choices. It is going to take a few more
The Lab 12
years for this plant shortage to ease up, especially for larger caliper trees.
Observations from
UVM Diagnostic Lab
As we look to changes in our local horticultural community, it is worth noting
VT Forest Health Insect &
that Don and Lela Avery have succeeded in closing Cady’s Falls Nursery in Disease Observation
Morristown after 37 years! It is a well-deserved “retirement” from the business Excerpts
end and a generous gesture that they will keep the garden open for visitors on a
limited basis. Our thanks to Don and Lela for the quality and passion they have The Idea Factory 16
brought to the field of horticulture in Vermont. They are held in high esteem News from AmericanHort
among gardeners, (professionals and hobbyists), throughout New England and Gardening in an Era of
beyond. We wish them much happiness as they garden, travel and enjoy life not Climate Change
tethered to the cash register! Book Review

Strictly Business 21
While most of us still have to make a living between the last and first snows,
take time to relax and enjoy summer- it is fleeting and we give too much of it Strategic Thinking: 5
Metrics to Increase
away. For most of us, the Fourth of July marks a turning point in the season and
Profitability
even though you’re super busy, reflect on how the year is going, how you’re
New Member Profile:
feeling and what you might do differently next season. Save time for our Pierson Nurseries, Inc.
Summer Meeting too- at The Marble House in Dorset with speakers Barry Glick
of Sunshine Farm and Gardens and Brian Post of Standing Stone Landscape The Plant Lounge 25
Architecture. It’s a beautiful setting and the event will be awesome- I hope to Tree Spotlight: Kentucky
see you there. Coffeetree
Goldenseal Charms &
Cheers! Heals!

Ed
Cover Photo: Achillea
‘Moonshine” and Salvia
‘May Night’ - Dick Conrad -
Outdoor Garden Spaces. See
article on page 17.
3
THE BUZZ
the low down on what’s up!

Green Works Summer Meeting and Trade Show
August 16, 2017
The Marble House Project, Dorset, VT.

Keynote speaker Barry Glick from Sunshine Farm & Gardens presents
“Woodland Wonders of the Wild”.
“Welcome to the World of Dry Stone Walling” presentation w/Brian Post
of Standing Stone Landscape Architecture.
Tour the beautiful grounds and gardens of The Marble House Project,
Our annual Summer Meeting Auction - bring a plant, tool, book, pie to
donate and bring along your wallet!
Special Membership Meeting.
Pre-register by August 7, 2017 and save$$!
Exhibitor registration deadline is July 31, 2017

Don’t delay and register today! program sponsor

Welcome New Vermont Certified Horticulturists!
Justin Pearson Kelsey Haigh Linzy Vos
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc. Henderson Tree & Garden Just Dancing Gardens &
PO Box 81 Services Greenhouse
Hinesburg, VT 05461 1542 Route 14 3515 Oak Hill Road
315-767-5139 White River Junction, VT 05001 Williston, VT 05495
justinpearson@gmail.com 802-296-3771 802-863-3530 / 802-673-0083
www.churchhilllandscapes.com kelsey@hendersonstreeservice.com linzyvos@gmail.com
Category: Hardscaping, Landscape www.hendersontreeservice.com www.justdancinggardens.com
Designer, Landscape/Design/Build, Category: Arborist, Garden Center,
Landscape/Install/Maintenance Greenhouse Retail, Hardscaping,
Landscape Designer, Landscape
Design/Build, Landscape/Install/
Maintenance, Nursery Retail

Get Certified! Don’t delay and order
your study manual today!

www.greenworksvermont.org
888.518.6484

4
Hot Gardens with Cool Plants
by Dr. Leonard Perry, UVM Horticulture Professor Emeritus

Not that you’ll have much time their rock garden, perennials,
to get away during the summer roses, design ideas, trees and
busy season, BUT if you do or shrubs. The 11 greenhouses have
just need a break, here are some changing seasonal displays, and
relatively nearby gardens you extensive collections of plants
might work into your plans (a such as orchids, begonias, ferns
“business trip” or “busman’s and cacti. (espacepourlavie.ca/
holiday” perhaps). You’re sure en/botanical-garden).
to come back with new
inspiration and plant ideas. Speaking of our bus tour this
While there are quite a few nice fall, I’d be remiss if I didn’t
gardens within a few hours drive mention the really special event
of Vermont, many with some ONLY this year in Ottawa, the
great design focus, in this article Mosaicultures, which we’ll also
I’ll just focus on 4 special visit on our overnight trip.
botanic gardens and one not-to- These are the larger-than-life
miss horticultural event for 2017 sculptures, made entirely of
only. plants growing on frames, the
same type as were featured in
The first and closest to most is Montreal in 2013. For the 150th
the Montreal Botanical celebration in Canada this year,
Gardens—the second most over 40 such mosaicultures are
important (after Kew in England) being created with the focus this
in the world. Not only do they time on Canadian culture,
have an immense herbaria and folklore, and history. It’s actually
research focus that makes them in Gatineau, across the river from
special, but a diversity of Ottawa, along the river in the
gardens, some very special ones, park, and it’s free! Running from
and special events. When we June 30 to October 15, only this
take our yearly bus tour there (a year, you can learn more and see
collaborative effort with your photos on their website
Association, in fall usually), it (mosaicanada.ca/index-en). You
usually fills as it has this year. could do this in a day (Ottawa is
Whether it’s spring bulbs, around 4 hours drive from
summer flowers, fall foliage of the Burlington), but overnight is
arboretum, or winter skiing and better as there is much else to see
the greenhouses, there is and places to dine in the capital
something to see each season. city of Canada.
This Chinese lantern display each
Sept-Oct is found throughout the For those in southern Vermont,
largest Chinese garden outside nearby is the Berkshire
China (done in the style of the Botanical Garden in
Ming Dynasty), where you'll also Stockbridge, Mass. You can learn
find the largest Penjin (Chinese about all their gardens, special
bonsai) collection in North events, and extensive educational
America. Nearby you'll find the Top: Montreal Botanical Gardens programs online
modernistic Japanese garden, tea Center: Mosaicultures, Gatineau, Canada (www.berkshirebotanical.org).
Bottom: Berkshire Botanical Garden Both functional and ornamental,
room and bonsai collection; and
many specialty gardens such as the display gardens on 15 acres

5
are among the oldest in the US and have been expanded over Then, if you find yourself in the coastal Maine area as so many
the years in breadth and variety through a series of bequests do in summer (or even fall, and winter when they have an
and major gifts. The collections emphasize plants that are extensive holiday lighting event), make sure to check out the
indigenous to or thrive in the Berkshires; more than 3,000 Coastal Maine Botanical Garden in Boothbay
species and varieties are represented, well-labelled (being a (www.mainegardens.org). You may have heard William Cullina
plant geek, something I always look for in gardens). The (president and CEO) speak of the gardens at a past VNLA
garden features many events throughout the season, among meeting or flower show. As you may know he has written
them for this summer nine designers and builders interpret several books, including one on ferns, so ferns are a focus in the
play house structures for gardens and combinations.
the exhibition, “PlayDate: Make sure to allow several
Playhouses in the Garden” hours minimum to view all
on display through their gardens and plants
September 24. and trails, art, and special
exhibits which change
No visit to central Mass. yearly. This year they will
and the Boston area, for be highlighting the
horticulturists, is complete permanent collection of
without a visit to the sculpture that has been
Tower Hill Botanical acquired in the past 10
Garden near Worcester, years.
Mass.
(www.towerhillbg.org). On After 16 years of planning,
their website you can learn planting, and building, the
about the several special art grand opening of Coastal
exhibits (related to plants of Maine Botanical Gardens was
course) this season, celebrated on June 13, 2007.
concerts, and special flower Today Coastal Maine
shows for roses, daylilies, Botanical Gardens comprises
lilies, carnivorous plants, 270 acres of tidal shoreland.
begonias, and dahlias—in Gardens include the Giles
conjunction with their Rhododendron Garden,
respective plant societies. which includes a multi-level
waterfall; the 2-acre Bibby
The first comprehensive and Harold Alfond Children's
botanic garden started in Garden (a favorite of mine,
New England, Tower Hill has many cool plants can be
eight distinct gardens, found here too) inspired by
dedicated to woody plants, Maine children's literature;
vegetables, plant systematics, Top: Montreal Botanical Gardens the Lerner Garden of the Five
winter interest, fruits, perennials Center: Mosaicultures, Gatineau, Canada Senses; Rose & Perennial Garden;
and wildlife. The Orangerie and Bottom: Berkshire Botanical Garden Burpee Kitchen Garden; Slater Forest
Limonaia house non-hardy Pond; Cleaver Event Lawn & Garden;
plants from around the world, with an emphasis on those from Haney Hillside Garden; and Vayo Meditation Garden. The
the southern hemisphere and Mediterranean region. The Frank waterfront Fairy House Village, re-imagined in 2013,
L. Harrington, Sr. Preservation Orchard contains the Davenport encourages children to use their imagination to build homes
Collection of more than 119 pre-20th century apple varieties. for the wee folk of the forest without disturbing the
The Tower Hill Library presently has more than 6,000 books environment. The most-recent addition to the Central Gardens
and periodicals, with the oldest book in the collection dating to area is the Bosarge Family Education Center, which opened in
the 15th century. The Belvedere provides a spectacular 2011. The two-wing structure surrounded by zoned landscaping
overlook of Mount Wachusett and the Wachusett Reservoir with native plants, rain gardens, and other sustainable
along a one-mile Loop Trail that circles through 132 acres of elements earned the highest LEED Platinum (Leadership in
natural beauty. The more adventurous may continue north Environmental and Energy Design) rating and attained net-
along the trail to the top of Tower Hill, named for the survey zero-energy status, indicating that it generates more energy
tower erected there when the Reservoir was built at the turn of than it uses.
the century. There also is a Café and gift shop.
Happy horticultural travels!

6
THANK YOU TO OUR 2017 VERMONT FLOWER SHOW SPONSORS

7
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
August 16, 2017 October 9-11, 2017
Green Works Summer Meeting Production Technology Conference
& Trade Show AmericanHort Participate in the Green Works
The Marble House Project Dallas, TX
Dorset, VT www.americanhort.org/tech 2017 Industry Awards Program
www.greenworksvermont.org
November 29 - December 2, 2017
September 11-12, 2017 New England Grows
Ottawa Mosaicultures & Montreal Boston Convention &
Botanical Garden Tour Exhibition Center
w/Dr. Leonard Perry Boston, MA
www.greenworksvermont.org www.newenglandgrows.org
(tour full)
Mid-Atlantic Nursery Trade Show
September 13, 2017 January 20 - 12, 2018
Eco-Tour: North Creek Nurseries The Baltimore Convention Center
Test and Trial Gardens Baltimore, MD
10am-12:30pm www.mants.com
Landenberg, PA
www.ecolandscaping.org/events/ February 15, 2018
Green Works Winter Meeting & Entry forms available in
September 16, 2017 Trade Show
CareerNext Summit 2017: Rising UVM Davis Center late August!
Tides in Horticulture Burlington, VT
The Association for Garden Details TBA
Communicators There is a great project out
Charleston, SC March 6-9-, 2018
www.gardenwriters.org Philadelphia Flower Show Bus Tour there waiting for an award!
Green Works/VNLA
Details TBA

Green Works Twilight Gatherings!
We have been holding While some of our gatherings
monthly twilight gatherings, have been lightly attended,
which we launched in May, we want to thank our hosts
2017. These gatherings are for taking the time to hold
meant to be part social, part them. We plan to continue to
catch up with your build on these gatherings,
colleagues, and part giving our members an
educational! opportunity once a month to
gather, share their “tears and
Gatherings held so far have beers”, as one of our board
been at Fairfax Perennial member’s likes to say, and
Farm - Spring Sneak Peak Tour continuing to learn
on April 23; Full Circle something along the way.
Gardens - Broadening
Keep your eyes out for email
Perennial Plant Choices for
notices! If anyone has an
Landscapers on May 23;
idea for a gathering or would
Basin Harbor Cruise and
The Basin Harbor Cruise and Garden Tour - like to host an evening
Garden Tour on June 13; and
a beautiful evening on the lake! gathering please contact
Eshqua Bog Guided Tour on
Kristina in the office.
July 12.

8
LEONARD’S CLIPPINGS!
by Dr. Leonard Perry, UVM Horticulture Professor Emeritus

We have a tour! The bus tour to gardens in the
Champlain from Burlington in Keeseville, N.Y. His is one of
over 240 craft breweries now in NY state, up from 95 in
Philadelphia area, July 21-25, while not a full bus did get
2012 thanks to a change in laws.
enough to run. You can check out our site visits (and ones
you might visit if in the area anytime), online (pss.uvm.edu/
• In April, Professor Don Ross (soils) was invited to DC as
ppp/PAtour17an2.pdf). Plans are in the works for a bus tour,
part of the Union of Concerned Scientists. They met with
again in collaboration with your association back to the
legislators to discuss the importance of investing in ag
Philadelphia area, to “the” flower show (the largest such
research.
indoor show in the world) this coming March 6-9, 2018.
Watch for more details and registration coming this fall.
• Also in April, CALS Dean Tom Vogelmann, presented the
North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture
PSS now has a new faculty member starting this fall. This is
(NACTA) plaque to PSS faculty member Vic Izzo in
the crop genetics position that was advertised with
recognition for his excellence in teaching.
interviews this past winter, and that has been on the
department “wish list” for a position for over 30 years. Eric
• Congratulations to PSS senior, Peter Chlebowski, recipient
von Wettberg, will be coming from Florida International
of the 2017 Environmental Citizen Award for all his work
University (Miami). With a PhD from Brown University in
with the UVM Beekeepers establishing pollinator gardens
2007, his focus is on botany, ecology, and evolutionary
on campus. This award recognizes a student who
biology. Dr. Wettberg recently had a publication in the
demonstrates outstanding commitment to the
prestigious Nature Genetics on “Whole-genome
environment, and whose behavior sets an example to
resequencing of 292 pigeonpea accessions identifies
inspire others to lead a more sustainable lifestyle.
genomic regions associated with domestication and
agronomic traits.”
Thanks in part once again to your association support, the
Burlington Waterfront Park flower display garden is a reality,
In the last issue of the Dirt I mentioned the courses at that
but with a twist. While it has been an official All-America
time being offered this summer. The only ones to get
Selections flower display garden for the over 20 years I’ve
sufficient students (those with low numbers are subsidized
coordinated it there with Burlington Parks and Recreation (and
as being part of the Catamount Farm summer experience)
prior at the Hort Farm), this will be the last year for the AAS
were mine on Herb Growing, Design and Use (18 students),
flowers and affiliation. The focus this year, and going forward,
Composting Ecology (Herlihy, 4), Cold Climate Viticulture
will be on pollinator flowers and will be coordinated by Annie
(Bradshaw, 4), Summer Farm Operations (Bradshaw, 6), Soil
White (my former grad student who studied this subject, and
Water Movement (Gorres, 7), and International Agroecology
now consults through her Nectar Landscape Design studio).
(Mendez, 13).
This came about in part through my retirement last year and a
In other PSS news:
need to shed a few more projects, the interest in this subject
locally and by Annie, and the desire by one of the grower
• PSS '12 alum Kristof Grina and his rooftop garden
suppliers (Doug Cole, of D.S.Cole Growers in NH) for knowledge
company "Uptop Acres" in DC, continues to garner
about pollinator-friendly annual flowers. D.S.Cole and Pleasant
praise, “We grow food on roofs - converting
View Gardens (Proven Winners and Selections) have once again
underutilized spaces into productive farmland and
supplied flowers, to complement the few AAS ones I grew from
environmental safeguards.  We create spaces for
seeds. Annie will be making observations this summer on
communities to interact with and learn about food, in
attractiveness of varieties to pollinators. Those of interest are
order to establish agriculture as a fixture of city life.”
in the main large central bed. Others, such as many of the new
2018 Proven Winners, are in the other beds. Annie will have
• PSS Chair Deb Neher received the Service Award from
plants signed, and the list posted on her website
the Soil Ecology Society at their biennial meeting in
(pollinatorgardens.org).
Ft. Collins, Colorado on June 8.
In addition to annuals, thanks to support from Burlington
• PSS Alum Dylan Badger has, with his brother in August
Parks, nine perennials (5 of each) were planted in the center of
2014, opened Ausable Brewing Co. just across Lake
9
the main bed—ones not necessarily native cultivars, but
popular ones that have shown attractiveness to pollinators:

Asclepias tuberosa (2017 Perennial Plant of the
Year, www.perennialplant.org)
Coreopsis tripteris
Echinacea purpurea ‘Magnus’
Salvia nemorosa ‘Caradonna’
Liatris spicata ‘Kobold’
Monarda didyma ‘Jacob Cline’
Nepeta x faassenii ‘Walker's Low’
Perovskia atriplicifolia
Veronicastrum virginicum ‘Lavender
Towers’ (described in the last issue of The Dirt)

Thanks to Annie for assuming leadership of this garden The Burlington Waterfront Garden at the
visible by thousands, and its continuation with a timely new end of last season, 2016.
focus. I hope you get a chance to check it out this summer.

10
Your Landscaping Resource

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Please call for
a copy of our
2017 catalog.

Landscape Distribution Center
472 Marshall Avenue, Williston, Vermont

Spring/Summer Wholesale Hours:
Weekdays 7:00am–6:00pm, Sat. 8:00am–5:00pm, Sun. 9:00am–4:00pm
Phone: 802-658-2433 • Fax: 802-860-2936 • E-mail: wholesale@gardeners.com

11
THE LAB
putting it under the lens . . .

Observations from the UVM Plant Diagnostic Lab
by Ann Hazelrigg, Phd.

We get some cool pictures in entomologist from another
the Plant Diagnostic Clinic state posted on the site,
from gardeners, farmers and saying this occurs when a
landscapers each year. I don’t swarm of bees has alighted
always know what is causing before moving on to a new
the problem, but the pictures location. If the swarm is on a
can be easily shared with branch for a few hours, they
pathologist and entomologist start to make a comb.
colleagues around New
England and beyond to find A couple of sawflies have been
out what it is. Sometimes it common in the Clinic
takes a village! recently; rose slug and birch
sawfly. Sawflies resemble
This picture of a weird orange
caterpillars to an untrained
hard gall came in from a
eye, but they are actually in
gardener growing
two different insect orders;
elderberries.
Lepidoptera (moths and
After having the grower split butterflies/caterpillars) and
the gall open to see if there Hymenoptera (sawfly larvae
were any insect chambers and wasp-like adults).
present and finding none, I Although the larvae of both
sent the picture out to small feed on foliage, the organic
fruit specialists. The insecticide Bacillus
consensus was that the gall thuringiensis (Bt kurstaki), is
was caused by a fungal rust an excellent organic
disease, probably Puccinia insecticide that targets only
bolleyana. This rust requires Lepidopteran larvae and will
two living hosts to complete not work on sawfly larvae.
its life cycle, elderberry and a The easiest way to tell the
sedge (Carex) species. difference is to count the
Recommendations are to number of prolegs-
prune and destroy any galls caterpillars have 5 or fewer
found. abdominal prolegs (see top-
green caterpillar below)
The center picture of an
whereas sawflies have 6 or
apple leaf with weird waxy
more (see bottom-white
structures was posted to a
sawfly with black spots). Both
Diagnostician’s listserve. An
have the 3 pairs of jointed
12
legs seen on the thorax area. Caterpillars also
have ‘crochets’ or little hooks on their prolegs
and sawflies don’t, although you would need a
hand lens to see this or be at least 40 years
younger than me. Sawflies are often gregarious
feeders, feeding in large masses.

The picture top right, on the leftside is a rose
slug (sawfly) feeding on the undersides of
amelanchier and/or rose leaves. The picture all
the way to the right is the dusky birch sawfly.
They put their rear ends up in the air
when disturbed and feed in groups. These
pests will not cause much damage on
healthy birch trees.

Tent caterpillars have been a nuisance in
forests and some landscapes this spring.
Eastern tent caterpillars (L) feed on
cherry and apple, construct a “tent” and
have a solid white stripe down their back.
Forest tent caterpillar larvae have
white, keyhole markings down the back
(R). Forest tent caterpillars do not make a
tent. In fruit trees, if the ETC is found early, the small often follows the leaf veins since this area stays wetter
caterpillars can be controlled with Bacillus thuringiensis longer and favors the pathogen. By the time you see the
kurstaki (Bt). disease, it is too late to do anything about it and the
pathogen rarely
Aphids have been prevalent this year due to the long
causes long term
cool spring weather producing lots of succulent plant
damage.
growth that aphids love. Anthracnose may be common
in some areas in maple, ash, oak and sycamore also as a This picture on
result of the wet spring. The browning in the foliage the right of a
birch on the UVM
campus was
showing a
thinning crown.
Looking farther
down the stem
you could see the
raised zig zag
callus ridges of
the bronze birch
borer. When on
the main trunk,
this feeding
damage will
eventually result
in tree death.
13
This magnolia was a dull flat black as a result of a very
heavy infestation of magnolia scale. The scale excretes
a sugary ‘honeydew’ that the sooty mold fungus grows
on, turning the tree black. Once the scale is controlled
(maybe too late for this tree!) the sooty mold will go
away.

As always, the UVM Plant Diagnostic Clinic is happy to
help with disease and pest ID. You are welcome to send
samples to Jeffords Hall (or drop by), 63 Carrigan Drive,
UVM, Burlington, VT 05405. If we are in the field,
samples can be left near the lab door at 201 Jeffords.
Pictures can be emailed to ann.hazelrigg@uvm.edu but
you can only send one at a time. To reach us, our
number is 656-0493.

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14
Vermont Forest Health Insect & Disease Observations
Excerpts - June, 2017
VT Department of Forests, Parks & Recreation - Agency of Natural Resources

Weather: Cool and wet summarize the month of June 2017 branches, but many trees had symptoms throughout the crown by
early June. By late June, as foliage continued to develop, sycamore
despite a week during the month that was warm (hot) and dry.
crowns were looking green again, although new foliage was tufted
From June 8 to 15, temperature records were broken and
and the crowns generally thin.
a string of nearly rain-free days occurred. Early June was drier
than normal. This was especially welcome and noticeable after a Browning White Pine. White pine needle damage is widespread
wet May. again this year. In many years the browning of last year’s needles
has been widespread by Memorial Day. However, in 2017,
Maple Dieback. Maple dieback has been reported from multiple
symptoms didn’t develop until the second week of June. With
locations in eastern Vermont where drought conditions had
heavy winds and rains, many brown needles were already cast by
persisted into early spring this year (see the drought
late June. Needle damage continues to affect some trees more
maps in our April observations). These are mostly landscape trees
than others. In our monitoring plots, the same trees have the
on ledgey or gravelly sites where symptoms had not been
most severe symptoms year after year; some are now exceedingly
observed in 2016. By mid-June, upper crown dieback was
thin.
significant. On some trees, the foliage on living branches was of
good size and color, suggesting that plentiful moisture later in the Red Branches on Balsam Fir. We continue to see red flagging
spring is allowing trees to recover and rebuild their crowns. branches on balsam fir, and entire trees that have died suddenly.
Balsam woolly adelgid is responsible for at least some of the fir
Sycamore anthracnose was widespread... Correction.
symptoms we are observing.
Sycamores are not widespread. But wherever they grow, they have
been hit by anthracnose. On sycamore, anthracnose causes shoot
For the complete monthly report please visit
mortality as well as defoliation. Damage is most severe in lower
www.fpr.vermont.gov/forest/forest_health/current_health.

Prides Corner Farms
We are all about

You need fewer hassles
You need someone who will listen
You need a partner that believes in you
You need someone who has your back
You need product that will not be in big box stores
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15
THE IDEA FACTORY
tips & trends, food for thought…

New Field Guide on BioControl
News from AmericanHort Available for Download
Bee Health Best Management Practices (BMPs) for The USDA Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team has
the Horticulture Industry. The Horticultural Research released a  Field Guide for the Biological Control of Weeds in
Institute, the AmericanHort research foundation, has Eastern North America. This guide includes a quick search by
released new Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Bee flower color (non-flowering are gray), discusses basic plant
Pollinator Health in the Horticulture Industry. Relevant to and biocontrol biology, and has a symbol-driven efficacy
greenhouse and nursery growers as well as landscape quick guide (status for individual biocontrols: high-low
managers, the BMPs were developed by a team of priority, caution with redistribution, illegal to redistribute, no
researchers, including those funded directly by HRI, to establishment, failed to establish).  To download this
convey research results to date. They will be updated as the publication visit: www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/technology/
research effort continues. By following BMP guidelines, pdfs/FHTET-2016-04_Biocontrol_Field_Guide.pdf,
horticulture can do its part to support pollinator health. For
more information please visit www.growwise.org.

AmericanHort Launches New Knowledge Center. It Botanical Body Language?
might just be better than Google. The AmericanHort
Knowledge Center has gotten an updated look and improved
functionality. It's more searchable, accessible, resourceful, Here is a great article which recently appeared in
and useful for member businesses and their staff. the NY Times - Understanding What Makes Plants
Happy, by Margaret Roach. Check it out at:
Resources include articles from leading industry experts, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/30/style/
webinar recordings, and videos. Users simply need to login in
understanding-what-makes-plants-happy.html?
with their AmericanHort ID and password to have a 3,000+
article and media library right at their fingertips. smprod=nytcore-iphone&smid=nytcore-iphone-
Information is organized by industry segment with share&_r=0.
something for every industry professional. Advocacy efforts
and news from Washington, D.C. has its own stream under
"Washington Impact." Visit www.hortknowledgecenter.org.

Summer Quotes for Thought!

“And so with the sunshine and the great bursts of leaves growing on the trees,
just as things grow in fast movies, I had that familiar conviction that life was Your source for over 35 years
beginning over again with the summer.” ~F. Scott Fitzgerald • NATIVE PLANTS • FERNS & GRASSES
• SHADE TREES • PERENNIALS
• FLOWERING SHRUBS • WETLAND PLANTS
"The first week of August hangs at the very top of summer, the top of the live- • EVERGREENS • BROADLEAFS

long year, like the highest seat of a Ferris wheel when it pauses in its turning. WE DELIVER WHERE YOU ARE
The weeks that come before are only a climb from balmy spring, and those that CONTACT US IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO RECEIVE

follow a drop to the chill of autumn, but the first week of August is motionless,
OUR WEEKLY AVAILABILITY & SPECIALS EMAIL

and hot. It is curiously silent, too, with blank white dawns and glaring noons, Mailing: 24 Buzzell Road, Biddeford ME 04005
Physical: 291 Waterhouse Rd, Dayton ME 04005
and sunsets smeared with too much color.”―Natalie Babbitt, Tuck Everlasting phone (207) 499-2994 • fax (207) 499-2912
email: sales@piersonnurseries.com
www.piersonnurseries.com

16
Gardening in an Era of Climate Change
by Judith Irven

As I look back on last summer, both here in Vermont and all down year or two, as well as for the next deluge. Here are his
the eastern seaboard, I recall it as incredibly dry and also very hot suggestions to improve drought tolerance:
—not an easy time for our gardens.
Smart Gardening Practices Conserve Water.
And a quick check of the NOAA website for Burlington reinforced
Firstly, ensure the soil profile of any bed is flat, rather than
my impressions. The overall rainfall in the summer of 2016 was
mounded—especially at the edges. This helps the water penetrate
50% below the long term average. A total of 15 inches of rain fell
the soil, rather than running onto the surrounding hardscape or
between May and October, compared with the long-term average
lawn. And, if the soil is already mounded, you can add a low stone
of 22 inches, and every month was drier than the long term norm.
wall around the perimeter of the bed to achieve the desired
Also, during those same six months, the average daily maximum profile.
temperatures were all several degrees higher than their long-term
Also, with new designs, orient the beds with the long sides facing
counterparts.
approximately east and west, as long south-facing beds tend to
By contrast, so far in 2017 we have experienced excessively high get parched in the mid-day sun.
rainfall. 2011 was also a year
Now look for places where
with excessively high rainfall, so
water naturally collects, such as
much so that Vermont was
below the roof or near a solid
declared a federal disaster area
driveway. Instead of letting this
because of the loss of spring
water run off into the storm
crops. And of course everybody
sewer, create a ‘rain-garden’.
remembers that same year the
This is essentially a gently
devastation caused by Tropical
sloped sunken bed that holds,
Storm Irene.
and then gradually absorbs the
In an era of climate change, wide excess water which then
swings in the weather patterns irrigates the surrounding
are becoming the ‘new normal’— plants. UVM’s Vermont Rain
some years are unduly dry while Garden Manual (https://
others very wet. And at the same www.uvm.edu/seagrant/
time we are also experiencing vtraingardenmanual) is an
A low stone wall to level the soil surface.
more extreme individual weather excellent resource that covers
events—from hight winds, to both the design and plant
flooding and record snowfalls. selection for rain gardens.

Climate Change and the Gardener. And lastly, suggest to your clients that they water all mature
plants less frequently—once a week or even once a fortnight
The message is clear: we should be aiming to design resilient
should be plenty for established plants. But caution them that,
gardens that will thrive both in times of drought and when there
when they do water, they need to give each plant a thorough
is excessive rain.
soaking (the equivalent of at least a 1/2 inch of rainfall). This
Last fall I had a wonderful opportunity to spend a couple of encourages plants to develop deeper roots and thus need less
hours, along with friends at American Meadows in Shelburne, water in the long run.
Vermont, talking with David Salman of High Country Gardens and
Soil Enrichment Creates Drought-Tolerant Plants.
a recognized expert on gardening in an era of climate change.
For hundreds of years gardeners everywhere have known the
David comes from New Mexico where he has been following
value of enriching their soil with compost. This magic ingredient
changing weather patterns and their impact on plants. As he
creates a water-retentive soil with valuable micronutrients.
explained, the last five years the entire Southwest has been in the
grips of an excessive drought. But, by contrast, the 1980s decade Mycorrhizae—specialized fungi that live in an intimate symbiotic
in New Mexico was one of wettest on record. relationship with the roots of most plants—are the second critical
component of healthy soil. Some types of mycorrhizal fungi
So I was particularly eager to see what advice David could pass
surround the roots while other actually penetrate the cells of the
along to help us prepare Vermont gardens for the next drought
host plant. But either way, the plant supplies the fungi with all
that—despite this year’s chilly wet spring—will surely return in a

17
their food—in the form of carbohydrates— and in return the fungi
help the host plant absorb both water and nutrients from the soil
while also protecting it from various pathogens. Thus, in addition
to adding compost to the soil, it is often recommended that
mycorrhizal soil additives will enhance the ability of plants to
survive prolonged dry spells.

However, both Ann Hazelrigg and Mark Starrett agree that, while
mycorrhizal fungi contribute to overall plant health, there is no
definitive research to demonstrate that applying mycorrhizal soil
additives will improve plant survival.

Check for Microclimates.

Even in a dry summer, there may be areas of the property that are
wetter than the rest, so use these to your advantage.

For instance, since water runs downhill, low lying areas remain wet
Helictotrichon sempervirens and Sedum ‘May Night’.
longer after it rains, making them suitable for many drought-
tolerant plants that can endure periods intermittent dryness. The
pin oak and swamp white oak are both considered drought- Anise hyssop
tolerant. Allium ‘Millenium’
However, in very dry places, such as on a south or west facing Butterfly Weed (Asclepias tuberosa)
slope, which will get baked in the afternoon sun, choose plants Poppy Mallow (Callirhoe involucrata)
(like the bur oak) which are classified as xeric. Tick-seed (Coreopsis ‘Zagreb’);
Winter Advice. Dianthus ‘Firewitch’
Seed grown varieties of Echinacea
We are all aware that winters today are warmer than in the past,
Sea Holly
meaning the soil does not freeze as deeply. This makes it feasible
Gaillardia
to experiment with interesting perennials that may be rated as less
Dead-nettles (Lamium and Lamiastrum galeobdonblon
hardy.
'Herman's Pride’
However, despite the trend towards higher average winter Rough Blazing star (Liatris aspera)
temperatures, once in a while frigid Arctic air escapes from the Heirloom honeysuckle (Lonicera reticulata Kintzley's Ghost)
polar regions, resulting in short bursts of intensely cold air. While Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)
these short cold spells will not lower the ground temperatures
All varieties of Catmint
significantly, they may damage less-hardy woody plants above the
Evening primrose (Oenothera macrocarpa)
ground. So be more conservative when specifying less hardy woody
Ornamental oreganos
plants in your designs.
Ornamental grasses (except Muhlenbergia and Molina)
And lastly, when the drought extends into the winter, plants Russian Sage
actually succumb to drought rather than cold. So be sure to Black eyed Susans
thoroughly irrigate any vulnerable plants—such as those you
Meadow Sage (Salvia ‘Blue Hill’, ‘May Night’ and ‘Caradonna')
planted the previous fall—both before they enter dormancy in the
Soapwort (Saponaria ocymoides)
late fall and again if the temperature rises above 50℉ during the
Both tall and groundcover types of Sedum
winter, when the roots can absorb it best.
Goldenrod cultivars (Solidago); Yarrow.
And Finally—Some Well-Known Hardy Perennials
that also Tolerate Dry Times About the Author: Judith Irven and Dick Conrad live in Goshen
where together they nurture a large garden. Judith is a Vermont
As we anticipate the prospect of more dry summers somewhere in Certified Horticulturist and teaches Sustainable Home
our future, I suggest we begin to populate our gardens now with Landscaping for the Vermont Master Gardener Program. You can
drought-tolerant plants which will also thrive in the intervening subscribe to her blog about her Vermont gardening life at
wet years. (so—no I am not suggesting we all run out and buy www.northcountryreflections.com. Dick is a landscape and garden
cacti!) photographer; you can see more of his photographs at
A quick Internet search yields plenty of suggestions. Here is www.northcountryimpressions.
David’s list of perennials for you to ponder:

18
Book Review
The Hidden Life of Trees

If you are looking for a good and fairly quick summer read I anthropomorphic because of the descriptions of tree
highly recommend The Hidden Life of Trees - What They Feel, “mothers”, their “skin” and “brains”. However this was
How They Communicate - Discoveries from a Secret World by purposefully done so that the average person could understand
Peter Wohlleben; forward written by Tim Flannery. his points. Each fact he brings out is well cited in the extensive
The Note section cites the scientific
I first heard about this book while research. The book almost reads like a
driving in the car and hearing the story and after reading the entire
NPR story - A Web of Trees and Their book you begin to see a forest as an
Hidden Lives which was about Peter interactive community not just a
Wohlleben’s book. The NPR group of trees sharing the same
summary of the book reads “Draws space.
on up-to-date research and engaging
forester stories to reveal how tees This book confirmed much of my
nurture each other and personal experience and learning
communicate, outlining the life over my lifetime including
cycles of “tree families” that support observations in woods and forests
mutual growth, share nutrients and while hiking. This book gave an
contribute to a resilient ecosystem.” explanation for many of my
observations. A few of these ideas
While revisiting the NPR story I came include:
upon a book review in the WNY
Gardening Review, a publication put • The difference between a mature
out by the Cornell University (old growth) forest planted by nature
Cooperative Extension Erie County and ones planted my man. The first is
written by Lyn Chimera. Following is mixed. The second is often
a reprint of Lyn’s book review. monoculture.
• The importance of soil
Kristina microorganisms in the health of a
forest and how this differs from trees
WNY Gardening Matters, planted in isolation as part of a
February, 2017 landscape.
by Lyn Chimera • How extensively trees communicate and support each
other both physically and nutritionally within the forest
community.
Recently I heard an interview on NPR with Peter Wohlleben, a
German forest manager who wrote the best-selling book called • The role of trees in climate and air quality. (I really
The Hidden Life of Trees.” He spent over 20 years working for the understand this for the first time) It’s much more complex
Forestry Commission in Germany then left to use his than taking in carbon dioxide and giving off oxygen.
ecologically founded ideas to manage a mature forest. As he put
it, he wanted to utilize what the trees had taught him over I now have a totally different experience while in the woods. I
those 20 years. It was a fascinating interview so I decided to always wondered why trees blew in all different directions
order the book. It didn’t disappoint. during a wind storm...now I know! (You’ll have to read the book
to find out).
Originally the book was published in Germany where it quickly
became a bestseller. This led to the publication of his book in 17 A quote on the book jacket by author Hope Jahren says it all:
languages. “Soon after we begin to recognize trees for what they are – gigantic
beings thriving against incredible odds for hundreds of years – we
The Hidden Life of Trees has made as big an impact on my naturally come to ask, ‘How do they do it?’ This charming books
ecological thinking as did reading Bringing Nature Home by tells how. “
Doug Tallamy. Initially I thought Wohlleben’s book was too

19
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STRICTLY BUSINESS
no kidding …

Strategic Thinking: 5 Metrics to Increase Profitability
by Jacki Hart
Measure only what you monitor, and monitor what you
measure.

Are your sales targets being met or exceeded?
Are wages in line? 
Is labour burden on budget? 
Materials costs being properly charged out? 
Is overhead being recovered? 

These are all important management questions. And really
important ones to have the answers for NOW, not when the
snow flies and it’s too late to adjust your pricing and work
flow accordingly.
3. Recovering Labour Burden. This is one area where most
As ominous as it may seem, setting aside a couple of days to companies lose opportunity for profit. It can really sneak up on
review and strategize is crucial to ensuring a solid finish to the you. This metric includes how much time in a day you pay
year with as much money as possible in the bank. various staff for tasks, travel time and breaks, materials or
inventory handling etc: wage costs for which you can’t bill
The bottom line is that if you don’t manage your your customers. Every time I sit and calculate this with
business, it will manage you. If you’re aiming at nothing, you business owners, they’re shocked. Add up the minutes of paid
will hit it with huge accuracy! One of the main reasons that so 'down time', convert to a decimal in hours and divide into total
many small businesses fail, is the owners simply don’t know average daily hours. This percentage should be added to your
how or what to measure, or when. It’s really not that hard, and wage and labour burden costs to get a true cost of labour. From
I’m here to help demystify it for you. there, you’ll add overhead recovery and profit to arrive at your
charge out rate.
Here is 5 top metrics tips to get you started:
4. Materials Pricing. How do you handle it when you give a
1. Monitoring Wages as a Percent of Sales. This can give customer a price and before completing the sale you have to
you a quick at a glance pulse of how much more or less source products from somewhere else more expensive? Do you
productive your staff are compared to a previous year or period know what type of products you sell (and possibly install) make
of time. This includes staff who work with your customers and you more profit than others? Start paying attention to this… it
who are delivering your services to them. It includes the will pay off at year end.
wages, labour burden, down time, etc. The total 'front line' staff
costs. Simply divide this total by your sales for the same 5. Recovering Expenses. Also referred to as overhead
period. Compare it to last year. (Hint office staff and owner or recovery. This metric is about knowing what expenses your
non-billable managers aren’t included.) business has that will be fairly consistent for the year: rent,
heat, hydro, phones, office staff, insurance, owner salary,
2. Sales Targets. If you haven’t set targets by month and management salaries, etc. Smaller companies often lump
year(or by week) how will you know if you’re having a strong equipment, trucks etc in to this cost also (referred to as single
year let alone the potential a for profitable year? It’s crucial to overhead recovery). The total of these expenses have to be
know if you have enough sales to pay all of your bills and have included in your costs markup somewhere, to ensure that your
profit left over. If you didn’t set a sales budget, you could start business recovers costs in every price you set for your products
by comparing your sales to the same period last year, service or services.
division by service division.
21
About the Author: Jacki Hart is president of Consulting by
Hart in Ontario, Canada. She is an entrepreneur, advisor,
business consultant, and workshop facilitator with a career in
the Green Industry spanning 35 years. Jacki is one of Canada’s
first women to hold the North American Green Industry
certificate for business management excellence. Jacki also
manages the Prosperity Program and Peer to Peer Network for
Landscape Ontario.

Jacki writes for other trade magazines and will be a regular
contributor to our business column. CBH is a consulting firm
that “passionately believes that entrepreneurial success depends
on sustained forward momentum - across all areas of business -
both the visible and the invisible. To learn more about CBH visit
www.consultingbyhart.com.

Cobble Creek Nursery, LLC

C obble Creek Nursery will be specializing
in quality field grown B&B nursery
stock, having sold our container growing
operation. We would like to take this
opportunity to thank Sally, Jason and Sonya
for their years of loyalty and service and
to wish them well in their new endeavors!
John, Patti and Todd will continue to
offer the same high quality plants and
exceptional customer service you have
come to expect from Cobble Creek.

John Padua
991 Tyler Bridge Road, Bristol, VT 05443
phone/fax: 802- 453-3889 / e-mail: cobcreek@gmavt.net

22
Member Profile: Pierson Nurseries, Inc.

Our member feature this issue is Pierson Nurseries, Inc. to add container and wetland plant growing areas. In 2008,
more above ground holding space was created for our B&B
located in Dayton, Maine. We sent co-owner Jake Pierson a
material. In 2009, our facility was updated with a brand new
questionnaire so we could learn more about him and his
propagation house to meet our increased production needs. In
business. Thanks for being a member!
2011 we deepened all of our irrigation ponds so for the
foreseeable future, we
Introduce yourself and
will have plenty of
your business. My name
water for irrigation.
is Jake Pierson, co-owner
In 2012, Jake’s wife
of Pierson Nurseries Inc
Allie joined the
located in Dayton, Maine.
company. A new
My parents, Dale and
pump and filtration
Mike Pierson have owned
system for our first
and operated Pierson
drip irrigation was
Nurseries, Inc. since it’s
installed on a 20 acre
inception in 1973.
parcel of BB field
In 1975 we purchased production.  In 2014
seven acres of land in Jake and Allie Pierson
Saco, ME which we used added another 30
for growing for ten years. acres to our parcel. 
An additional five acres of During 2015 we
land was leased in 1982. cleared some timber
Commercial landscaping land and increased
The crew at Pierson Nurseries.
was a large part of the our field production by
business as the nursery expanded. 25%.  It will be under cultivation by the end of 2017. The
We bought 65 acres of land in Dayton in 1985. The first fields production areas of the nursery consist of 50 acres of field, 8
were graded in the fall of that year and the construction of the acres of B&B holding area, 6 acres for wetland production and
garage and pole barn started in the spring of 1986. The first an 8 acre container area, all under irrigation. Wetland and
roads and a pond were built and additional grading was done native plants are now about one third of all plant sales.
in 1987. The root cellar, shed, and expansion of the container How did you get started in the field of horticulture? What
area was completed in 1988. In 1989 a second pond was dug to is your educational background?
insure a water source for all growing areas. In 1991 we started I grew up working at the nursery but decided to leave the
a slow down of the landscaping division and began the industry to go to school to study political science. After a
establishment of our wetland nursery. During the fall of 1992 lackluster college career, I came back to the nursery looking
we installed underground irrigation to the field area. for a job to help pay my student loans. Very quickly, I realized
Early in the nineties landscaping was eliminated and the full that to have the opportunity to work in a family business that
efforts of all staff was re-focused on the production and supply was in the horticulture field was a very rare one indeed.
of nursery stock to the horticultural trade. From 1993-1997 we
continued to expand the container area and added a wetland How long have you been in this business? Any other
processing facility at the nursery. In 1998 more wetland businesses? I’ve been working here since 2004 full time but
production swales and ponds were constructed at land one really most of my life I’ve spent time here working. My first
mile from the nursery where expansion can continue as clear memory of the nursery is of loading trailers from our
demand grows. In 1999 the main irrigation pond was enlarged potting cellar when I was a kid. We filled pots by hand and
to insure adequate water for all areas of the nursery. The year then loaded and counted them on trailers.
2000 brought improvements in the potting system and office What do you find the most challenging/biggest issues in
expansion. In 2004 Jake Pierson joined the company. He is running your business? The seasonality of it. Short windows
currently a co-owner involved with purchasing, sales and for much of our work and trying to cram more into those short
overall management. In 2005 an additional 20 acre parcel was windows every year.
purchased. This was planted to increase B&B production and

23
What do you find most Where would you like to
rewarding? The fact that we be five years from now?
are involved in an industry Continuing to run a
that supplies a product that successful business and
is good for the Earth. I love watching my kids grow up.
driving by properties that
we’ve supplied plants to and Why do you like being a
to see the end result of that member of Green Works? It
hard work. gives us exposure to the
nursery and landscape
Share a business tip. Know industry in Vermont and
your true costs. Be aware of allows us to start new
those and price accordingly. relationships.
Our industry has a tendency
to not have a good handle on What’s your favorite
labor costs especially. It is a restaurant? Custom Deluxe,
very easy place to have an a small eatery in my
unhealthy business if you hometown of Biddeford
are inefficient. Pierson Nurseries, Inc. located in Dayton, Maine. Maine.

Share your favorite plant. Pinus parviflora ‘Glauca’ - What do you like to do during your down time? Spend
Japanese White Pine time with my kids and family.

To learn more about Pierson Nurseries, Inc. please visit their
website: www.piersonnurseries.com.

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24
THE PLANT LOUNGE
wiry stems, hairy leaves and bodacious blooms. . .

Tree Spotlight: Kentucky Coffeetree
by Bonnie Woodford - VT Urban & Community Forest Program
The VT Urban & Community Forest Program’s most recent tree Twig: Stout, light brown with
spotlight is the Kentucky Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioica). The whitish patches, somewhat
coffeetree is native to central and eastern North America. zigzag or wavy, large heat-
shaped leaf scar.  
Kentucky Coffeetrees grow well in full sunlight and moist well
Bark: Dark grayish brown,
drained soils. It can reach a height of 60-75’ with a 40-50’ crown
scaling, and developing deep
spread. It is a very tolerant tree growing well in acidic, alkaline,
scaly ridges as tree matures. 
moist, and rich soils. It is tolerant to drought and air pollution
making it a great street tree. The coffeetree’s leaves, seeds, and Sources: Missouri Botanical
pulp are poisonous and are toxic to wildlife, livestock, humans, Garden, USDA Plant Guide; Virginia
and pests. Since it dioecioius with a male and female plants it is Tech.
suggested to plant the male species to avoid the fruit. Although
the seed pods are poisonous, when cooked they are safe to eat. Photography Sources: 5473007-
Vern Wilkins, Indiana University,
Native Americans roasted seeds for food, and early settlers used
Bugwood.org; 0008216 - Paul Wray,
the roasted seeds as a coffee substitute. You might suspect this is Iowa State University, Bugwood.org;
where it gets its name, but it’s not. The tree gets its name because 5454540- Jason Sharman,
the seeds look like coffee beans. Vitalitree, Bugwood.org; 5500415-
T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State
University, Bugwood.org.
The Big Tree Program is a national initiative that tracks and
records the biggest trees of each species across the country. The
About the Vermont
Vermont Big Tree Program is based on the national program; its
Big Tree Program
scoring system comprises 3 measurements: height, crown width,
and circumference at breast height. In 1972, a list of Vermont's biggest
trees began to assemble under the
The current champion Kentucky Coffeetree is in West Castleton, guidance of Jeff Freeman, a now-
Vermont. The last time it was measured in 2003, its height was 105 retired professor from Castleton
State College. The list contained
feet, it had an average crown spread of 26 feet, and its
the diameters of 27 of the largest
circumference at breast height was 6 feet 1 inches, with a diameter trees known at the time. This list
of 1 feet 11 inches. was later expanded in 1977 and
1982 to 75 and 81 species,
Facts and Figures on the Kentucky Coffeetree
respectively. By 1990 the list had
Common names: American coffee bean, American coffee berry, grown to include 91 species and
American mahogany, coffee tree, dead tree. followed the inventory system that
American Forests has used since
Height: 60-75 feet the mid-twentieth century, which
includes species, circumference at
Hardiness Zone: 3-8 breast height, tree height, and
Leaf: Alternate, bipinnately compound (meaning the initial crown spread as criteria.
leaflets are composed of multiple leaflets), very large leaflets 1 to
The American Forests National
3 feet long, with numerous ovate 1 ½ to 2 inch leaflets, green Register of Big Trees currently lists
above and slightly lighter underneath. 734 species. Vermont's list
contains 110 species. They range
Flowers: Coffee trees are dioecious, meaning there are both male
in score from 48 for the dwarf chinkapin oak in Bridport to an eastern
and female trees, male and female flowers are whitish organized in cottonwood in Hubbardton with a score of 439. Jeff Freeman
long 3 to 4 inch branched clusters. continued to manage the list up until 2008, when he turned his Riles
over to the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, & Recreation (VT
Fruit: Reddish brown flat pods, 3 to 8 inches long, 1 ½ to 2 inches
FPR). Jeff is still engaged with Vermont's big tree hunters, but the
wide, contains six or more dark brown seeds imbedded in a sticky program is now housed at VT FPR.
pulp.
25
Goldenseal Charms and Heals!
by Barry Glick
“Golden” will be the first word to enter your mind when you overprescribed, and most likely ineffective, antibiotics.
see the roots, rhizomes and dormant buds of Hydrastis
Hydrastis canadensis is native to almost every state east of the
canadensis. You’ll
Mississippi and will
understand
grow happily in just
immediately why the
about any soil
common name is
conditions. I would
“Goldenseal.” This
guess that hardiness
very useful native
and heat tolerance
woodland plant will
are USDA zones
not only charm and
4-10.
entertain you spring,
summer, and I grow Hydrastis
autumn, it can even canadensis in several
heal you. places in my
gardens, from full
Well, I’d better be
shade to dappled
careful not to play
sunlight. It makes a
doctor here, though
wonderful
many Native
groundcover as the
American tribes were
6-12" leaves on
aware of the powerful
6-12" plants overlap
medicinal benefits of
and shade out
Goldenseal quite a
weeds.
long time ago. The
Cherokee used it as a cancer remedy, which is one of the You can go to: www.sunfarm.comhydrastis_canadensis.phtml
earliest observations of the occurrence and treatment of for some evolutionary, seasonal images of Hydrastis canadensis
cancer among American Indian from early spring to late
groups. Another important autumn, emergence, and flower
historical use of Goldenseal root to fruit.
was as anautumn,
eye washemergence,
for variousand Here’s a beautiful hand-colored
eye problems, such as botanical illustration from days
conjunctivitis. The Iroquois past, showing all seasons and
found it beneficial as a bitter parts of the plant.
stomach digestive to help
past, showing all seasons
stimulate digestion and improve The large, medium- green,
appetite, and to treat skin deeply textured oak/maple-
inflammations. Other uses shaped leaves stay rich and
include relief for inflammation supple all the growing season
oak/maple-shaped leaves
of the mucous membranes of the long and make a perfect foil for
throat. their frilly white, ephemeral
flowers in early spring and their
long I’ve
I will say that and used
makeita perfect
bright-red, raspberry like fruit in
successfully to ease the pain and autumn.
hasten the healing of sore
throats and to treat cold and This long-lived native perennial
influenzabright-red,
symptoms.raspberry
I made alike is very easy to grow from seed
tea from dried roots and have to and, left to its own devices, will
admit that it was one of the make a lovely colony in just a
perennial is very easy to few years. Once established, it
most bitter tastes I’ve ever
grow from seed and, left requires no maintenance other
experienced. However, the
results were well worth it and it than normal weeding and a
was more palatable than taking good mulch. Plants never

26
“need” to be divided, but if you desire to make new
divisions, you can dig them up every four or five years and
make your divi- sions in early spring. This will give them
ample time to re-establish themselves before winter.
As with all of the other members of the Ranunculaceae
family, the voluminous herds of deer that traverse my farm
daily have NEVER touched this graceful plant. All in all,
Hydrastis canadensis is a welcome addition in any garden.

Barry Glick will join us as our keynote speaker at our Summer
Meeting & Trade Show on August 16, 2017. Barry, the self-
proclaimed “King of Helleborus,” grew up in Philadelphia in the
’60s, a Mecca of horticulture. Barry cut high school classes and
hitchhiked to Longwood Gardens before he was old enough to
drive.
In 1972, he realized there was just not enough room for him
and his plants in the big-city environment, so he bought 60
acres of a mountaintop in Greenbrier County, WV, where he
gave birth to Sunshine Farm & Gardens (www.sunfarm.com), a
mail-order plant nursery. Hydrastis canadensis in bloom.
Barry grows more than 10,000 different plants and specializes
in native plants and hellebores. He can be reached at
304.497.2208 or barry@sunfarm.com.

187 Main Street, Colchester, VT 05446
Three Things to know about Van Berkum Nursery (802) 878-2361 - www.claussens.com
1) We are passionate about what we grow, from New England Open 7 Days a Week
Woodlanders to Wicked Ruggeds.
2) We specialize in healthy NH grown perennials, personal service, Specializing in Vermont Grown
and extensive plant knowledge.
3) We have friends in low places. (ribbit). Spring & Fall Bulb Plants ~ Easter Lilies ~ Bedding Annuals
Perennials ~ Hanging Baskets ~ Herbs ~ Vegetable Plants
Hardy Chrysanthemums ~ Poinsettias

Claussen’s carries the area’s largest selection of top-quality tropical
foliage and flowering house plants – for sale and rent.

We sell commercial plant material at competitive prices to local
landscapers, interiorscape designers, garden center and flower shops in
Vermont, New Hampshire and New York. Open daily, Claussen’s
7BO#FSLVN/VSTFSZt+BNFT3PBE%FFSĕFME /) provides friendly, experienced customer service, along with weekly
 
'BYtTBMFTEFTL!WBOCFSLVNOVSTFSZDPN delivery service to all of our commercial accounts.
www.vanberkumnursery.com Visit us in person or online at www.claussens.com

27
PO Box 92
North Ferrisburgh, VT 05473

A Professional Association for
Green Works’ mission is to support and strengthen the
Growers, Retailers, Garden Centers, Nurserymen
horticulture industry
and Women, Landscapeof Vermont by Contractors,
Designers and creating greater
awareness of the benefits
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