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) I Semester (Physics)

Paper-I: Electromagnetism (PHB101)

Lectures: 40

Tutorials:08

Gausss law, electric potential, multipole expansion of electrostatic potential, linear quadrupole and

potential due to it.

Dielectrics, polarization of dielectrics, three electric vectors and relationship among them, Gausss law

for dielectrics, Poisson and Laplaces equations in dielectric, boundary conditions for dielectrics,

polarizability, Clausius-Mossotti relation, Capacitors: Parallel plate capacitors filled with (a) a dielectric

of linearly increasing dielectric constant and (b) a composite dielectric.

Continuity equation and attainment of electrostatic equilibrium, transient currents, growth and decay of

d.c. in LCR circuits, Thevenins theorem, superposition theorem and maximum power transfer theorem,

Kelvins double bridge for the measurement of low resistance and leakage method for high resistance.

Alternating currents: Representation of sinusoids by complex numbers, sinusoidal voltage applied to a

series RL, RC and LCR circuits, series resonance, sharpness of resonance and Q-factor, power in AC

circuits.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetic Properties

Ampere circuital law and its applications: Magnetic field due to a long straight current carrying

conductor and a toriod, Gausss law of magnetostatics, magnetic moment and angular momentum, three

magnetic vectors and relationship among them, magnetic susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis

curves (physical significance), theories of magnetism (qualitative idea), Langevin theory of

paramanetism, Weiss molecular field theory of paramagnetism and Curie-Weiss law of ferromagnetism.

Laws of electromagnetic induction, self inductance and its calculation for a long solenoid and two long

parallel wires, mutual inductance, Neumanns formula, calculation of mutual inductance for two

solenoids, relation between self and mutual inductances in case of a toroid.

Idea of displacement current and Maxwells modification of Amperes law, Maxwells equations and

their significance, propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space and isotropic non-conducting

dielectric medium, Poynting vector and Poyntings theorem.

Books Recommended:

and Rakshit, P.C. (P) Ltd.)

2. Tewari, K.K. : Electricity and Magnetism (S. Chand)

3. Mahajan, A.S. and Electricity and Magnetism (Tata McGrawHill)

Rangawala, A.A.

4. Resnick, R. and : Physics, Vol. II (John Wiley)

Halliday, D.

Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) II Semester (Physics)

Paper-II: Mechanics (PHB201)

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

Concept of inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces, conservative and non-

conservative forces, concept of potential energy, energy diagrams, law of conservation of total energy.

System of particles: Centre of mass for a system of particles, motion of the centre of mass, Expressions

for kinetic energy, linear momentum and angular momentum for a system of particles in terms of centre

of mass values. Central forces and the law of conservation of angular momentum.

Galilean transformations (velocity, acceleration) and its inadequacy. Postulates of special theory of

relativity, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition, length contraction and time dilation, variation of

mass with velocity, relativistic form of Newtons second law, equivalence of mass and energy, relativistic

transformations of momentum and energy. Relation between relativistic momentum and energy.

Transformation equations for a frame of reference rotating with respect to an inertial frame of reference,

coriolis force. Rotation of a rigid body: Energy and moment of inertia and moment of inertia as a tensor,

principal axes, angular momentum and kinetic energy of rotation with respect to principal axis, moment

of inertia for a spherical shell and solid sphere, rolling bodies.

Differential equation of the elliptical orbit of a particle moving under an attractive central force, Keplers

laws, deduction of Newtons law of gravitation from Keplers laws.

Differential equation and the solution for a simple harmonic oscillator, some examples (simple

pendulum, and compound pendulum). Damped Oscillator: Equation of motion and its solution,

qualitative description of the effect of different amounts of damping on the motion. Forced oscillations

and resonance: Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator and variation of amplitude with

frequency and damping, Q factor. Classification of waves, expression for a plane progressive harmonic

wave, particle velocity and acceleration. Differential equation of a wave, wave velocity, energy density

and intensity of a wave.

Books Recommended:

1. Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. : Physics Vol.1 (Wiley-Eastern)

2. Mathur, D.S. : Mechanics (S. Chand)

3. Kittel, C., Knight, W.D. and : Berkley Series Vol.1 Mechanics (McGraw

Ruderman, M.A. Hill)

Physics series (Arnold-Heinemann)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) III Semester (Physics)

Paper-III: Optics (PHB-301)

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

Unit-I: Geometrical Optics and Nature of Light

Fermats principle and its application to obtain laws of reflection and refraction. Cardinal points of an

optical system. Chromatic and spherical aberrations, removal. Coma, astigmatism, curvature of the field,

distortion (qualitative).

Nature of light: Idea of wave, electromagnetic and quantum theory of light.

Scattering: Compton effect, Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering.

Unit-II: Interference

Interference of light waves: Intensity distribution, coherence. Fresnels biprism. Interference with white

light. Phase change on reflection: Stokes relations, Interference in thin film (parallel and wedge-shaped),

cosine law, fringes of equal inclination (Hadinger fringes) and equal thickness (Fizeau fringes), localized

fringes. Newtons rings, determination of wavelength and refractive index of liquid. Michelsons

interferometer, determination of wavelength and wavelength difference. Multiple beam interferometry,

Fabry-Perot interferometer, Lumer-Gehrecke plate.

Unit-III: Polarization

Polarization of light waves. Production of plane polarized light by reflection, refraction and scattering,

Brewsters law, Malus law. Superposition of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves. The

phenomenon of double refraction: Positive and negative crystals, normal incidence of plane waves on a

negative uniaxial crystal, Nicol prism, polaroids. Interference of polarized light, quarter and half wave

plates, production of elliptically and circularly polarized light. Analysis of polarized light. Optical

activity. Faraday rotation.

Fraunhofer diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction at one, two and N slits, diffraction grating, grating

spectrum, Rayleigh criterion of resolution, resolving power of grating.

Fresnel diffraction: Fresnels half period zones, zone plate, Fresnel diffraction at circular aperture and

straight edge using Fresnels half period zones.

Lasers: Basic principle, Ruby laser. He-Ne laser. Properties of laser beam.

Books Recommended:

2. Laud, B.B. : Electromagnetics (Wiley Eastern)

3. Mathur, B.K. : Optics (Gopal Printing Press)

4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) IV Semester (Physics)

Paper-IV: Electronics (PHB-401)

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 8

Unit-I: BJT Amplifier and Biasing

Current flow in BJT; , and their relation, small signal low frequency hybrid parameters. BJT as an

amplifier, amplifier configurations, equivalent circuits and their analysis, characteristics of their simple

circuits, load line, Q-point and its change due to temperature variation. BJT biasing: fixed biasing, self-

bias, stability factor (all for CE configuration).

RC coupled amplifier, its equivalent circuit and its gain in low, mid (derivative) and high frequency

regions (non-derivative). Feedback in amplifiers, expression for the gain positive and negative

feedback, advantages of negative feedback amplifier (non-derivative).

Construction of JFET, idea of channel formation, physical explanation of different regions of I-V curves,

definitions of rd and gm. Basic construction of MOSFET and its working, physical explanation of

characteristics, enhancement and depletion modes.

Positive feedback and Barkhausen criterion for oscillations, circuit diagrams and working for RC phase-

shift, Weins bridge oscillators. Types of multivibrators, operation of astable multivibrator. RC

differentiator and integrator.

Operational amplifier (black box approach) and its ideal characteristics, virtual ground, inverting and

non-inverting amplifiers, adder, integrator and differentiator.

Power supply: action of a capacitor filter, design of Zener regulator, transistor series regulators. CRO:

CR tube, block diagram of CRO, working of triggered sweep scopes, frequency and phase measurements

using Lissajous figure.

Modulation: amplitude modulation and analysis of A.M. wave, A.M. diode detection, tuned radio

frequency receiver, super heterodyne receiver (block diagram only).

Books Recommended:

1. Bagde, M.K., Singh, S.P. & : Elements of Electronics (S. Chand)

Singh, Kamal

2. Mehta, V.K. : Principles of Electronics (S. Chand)

3. Theraja, B.L. : Basic Electronics, Solid State (S. Chand)

4. Millman, M. : Micro-Electronics (McGraw Hill)

5. Boylested, R. & Nashelksky, L. : Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Prentice

Hall)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) V Semester (Physics)

Paper-V: Mathematical Methods

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann differential equations, line integrals of complex function, Cauchys

integral theorem, Cauchys integral formula, Problems based on Cauchys integral theorem and integral

formula, Taylor and Laurent series, Use of Taylor and Laurent series for a few simple functions. Singular

points, classification of singularities, residues, Cauchys residue theorem, contour integrations, evaluation

of some definite integrals.

Differential vector operators: Gradient, divergence and curl. Gausss theorem, Greens theorem, Stokes

theorem, Some simple examples based on these theorems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, cylindrical

and spherical polar coordinates, divergence, gradient, curl and Laplacian in these coordinates.

Beta function and Gamma function. Method of obtaining series solution of second order differential

equation. Bessel functions: Series solution and Bessel function of the first kind, recurrence relations,

second solution of Bessels equation, spherical Bessel functions, generating function. Hermite

polynomials: The generating function, Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation.

Legendre function: The polynomial solution of the Legendre equation, the Legendre function of the

second kind, the generating function, upper bound for Pn(x), Rodrigues formula, orthogonality

relation. Associated Legendre functions and its orthogonality property. Laguerre functions.

Books Recommended:

2. Arfken, G.B. & Weber, H.J. : Mathematical Methods for Physicist (Academic Press).

Ghua, S.J.

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) V-Semester (Physics)

Paper-VI: Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

(A) CLASSICAL MECHANICS

Unit-I: Lagrangian Dynamics and Variational Principles

Constraints holonomic and non-holonomic, time independent and time dependent. Generalized

coordinates, Lagrange equations from DAlemberts principle, velocity dependent potentials, velocity

dependent potential for e.m. field, applications of Lagrangian formalism to simple mechanical systems.

Variational Principle: Technique of the calculus of variation, Hamiltons variational principle, Lagrange

equations using Hamiltons principle. Generalized momenta, Cyclic coordinates, Definition of

Hamiltonian and its physical significance, conservation of energy, conservation of linear and angular

momenta.

Hamiltons equations of motion from variational principle, Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates,

Hamiltonian as a constant of the motion.

Two-body Problem: Central force problem, conservation of angular momentum and Keplers second law,

the Kepler problem inverse square law of force, Keplers first and third laws, the Virial theorem and its

simple applications.

Two-body Collisions:- Scattering by a central force, Rutherford scattering formula, transformation of the

scattering problem from centre of mass to laboratory coordinates.

Unit-III: Four Dimensional Formulation and its Applications

Elementary idea of tensors; covariant, contra-variant and mixed tensors, addition, subtraction, multiplication and

contraction of tensors, quotient law. Four dimensional formulation of mechanics: Four dimensional representation

of the Lorentz transformations, covariance of the laws of nature, four vectors: velocity, momentum, force and their

transformations, equation of motion of a point particle in four vector form, relativistic Lagrangian. Collision

Kinematics: Energy in C.M. system, Lorentz factor of the C.M., threshold of a reaction, kinematics of two body

decays.

Unit-IV: Relativistic Electrodynamics and Applications of Relativistic Mechanics

Relativistic Electromagnetism: Equation of continuity in covariant form, electromagnetic field tensor, dual field

tensor, Maxwells equations in covariant form, transformation of electromagnetic fields, four potential, gauge

transformation. Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an e.m. field, Lagrange equation

of motion of a charged particle in uniform static electromagnetic field, electromagnetic fields of a uniformly

moving charged particle.

Books Recommended:

2. Marion, J.B. & : Classical Dynamics of Particles Systems (Saundeu)

Thornton, S.T.

3. Joshi, J.W. : Matrices and Tensors in Physics (New Age)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) V Semester (Physics)

Paper-VII: Thermal and Statistical Physics

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

Unit-I: First Law of Thermodynamics

Fundamental concepts of thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems, (homogeneous/ heterogeneous/

open/ closed/ isolated), state of a system, state variables: extensive and intensive variables,

thermodynamic equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics, empirical and thermodynamic

temperatures. Processes: reversible, irreversible and quasi-static.

First law of thermodynamics: Mathematical formulation of the first law, dependence of heat flow on

path, heat capacities, internal energy of an ideal gas, Carnot cycle, efficiency of reversible heat engine

and refrigerator; flow diagrams

Need for a second law of thermodynamics, shortcomings of the first law, entropy, entropy changes in

reversible and irreversible processes, entropy and the statement of the second law of thermodynamics,

Clausius and Kelvin-Planck statements of the second law, T-S diagrams, entropy of an ideal gas, entropy

of a mixture of two gases, Gibbs paradox, entropy and disorder.

Combined I and II laws: TdS equations, energy equations, expressions for the difference and the ratio of

heat capacities, enthalpy, porous plug experiment, Joule-Thomson coefficient, Helmholtz and Gibbs

functions, Maxwells equations.

Third law of thermodynamics: Statement of the third law and absolute value of entropy.

Phase Transition: First order phase transitions, Clapeyron equation and its applications.

Review of the fundamentals of the kinetic theory : Basic assumptions, molecular flux, equation of an

ideal gas (using expression for the molecular flux), Van der Waals equation, critical constants, law of

corresponding states, collision cross-section and mean free path, transport phenomena: viscosity,

conduction and diffusion.

System and ensemble, phase space, micro- and macro-states, Postulates of classical and quantum

statistics, thermodynamic probability. Expressions (no derivation) for thermodynamic probability of a

macrostate in Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. Statistical definition of

entropy, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution functions,

Partition function, thermodynamical quantities in terms of the partition function. Monoatomic ideal gas,

the law of equi-partition of energy, quantized linear oscillator, Specific heat of a diatomic gas, rotational

and vibrational specific heats.

Black-body radiation: Black body radiation as thermodynamic substance, Plancks law. Rayleigh Jeans

law and Wiens law as special cases of Plancks law.

Books Recommended:

1. Sears, F.W. and : Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Statistical

Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, 3rd Edn. (Narosa)

2. Zemansky, M.W. : Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th Edn. (McGraw Hill)

B.Sc. (Hons) VI Semester (Physics)

Paper-VIII: Quantum Mechanics

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

Failures of classical mechanics: Blackbody radiation, Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Wave nature

of particles: de-Broglie waves and their experimental confirmation (Davisson-Germer Experiment and

Thomson Experiment).

Discreteness of energy levels: Bohr model of hydrogen atom, energy levels of hydrogen atom, Frank and

Hertz experiment.

Localized wave packets, Wave packets and the uncertainty principle.

The basic postulates of quantum mechanics, properties, physical significance and Born interpretation of

wave functions in quantum mechanics, probability density.

Operators: Adjoint, Projection and Hermition operators. Commutator algebra [x, px], [y, py]. Eigen

values and eigen vectors of an operator.

Ehrenfest theorem, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle (Derivation) and its simple applications (size and

energy of hydrogen atom, electrons in nucleus, range of nuclear force).

Time dependent and independent Schrodinger equations. Stationary states, continuity equation.

One dimensional problem: Free particle, particle in a box, potential step, potential barrier (tunneling).

Particle in One dimensional infinite square well, Finite Square well, linear harmonic oscillator.

Schrodinger equation for two particles and its reduction in terms of central of mass and relative motion.

Schrodinger equation in spherical coordinates with central potential. The free particle in spherical

coordinates. Orbital angular momentum operators and their communication relations, Eigen values and

eigen functions of L2 and Lz.

Schrodinger equation for hydrogen like atoms, solution of the radial equation for the hydrogen atom, its

eigen values and eigen functions, degeneracy of the bound states of hydrogen.

Books Recommended:

1. Eisberg, R and Resnick, R : Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons 2004.

2. Zettili, N. : Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons 2006.

B.Sc. (Hons.) VI Semester (Physics)

Paper-IX: Spectroscopy and Condensed Matter Physics

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

Quantum numbers n,l,s,j and magnetic quantum numbers. One valence electron atom: Electronic

configuration and atomic states, spin-orbit interaction (qualitive), fine structure, intensity rules for

structure doublts, selection rule for electrical dipole transitions.

Two valence electron atoms: LS and jj coupling scheme, vector model of atom, terms and levels for non-

equivalent electron system (sp,pd and spd configuration) and equivalent electrons (p2,d2

configurations).Hunds rules. Zeeman effect.

Diatomic molecule as rigid and non-rigid rotator, rotational spectrum.The vibrating diatomic molecule:

harmonic and anharmonic oscillator models, vibrating-rotator and its spectrum. Infrared spectrum of

diatomic molecules. Classical theory of Raman effect, rotational Raman spectra of diatomic

molecules.Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: Vibrational structure (progressions and sequences),

Franck-Condon principle (qualitative).

Laser Physics: Einsteins A and B coefficients, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, population

inversion, Resonator Laser pumping: Two, three and four level system (qualitative) ammonia maser,

principal and working of He-Ne and N2 lasers.

Unit - III: The crystalline state and diffraction from crystals

Crystalline and amorphous structure: Lattice, basis, primitive cell, unit cell, Wigner-Seitz cell, two and

three dimensional lattice types (Bravais Lattices), common crystal structures (NaCl, CsCl , HCP ), index

system for directions and planes.

Atomic cohesion and crystal binding: Cohension of atoms, primary bonds (covalent, metallic, ionic),

secondary bonds (van der Waals, hydrogen), potential energy of ionic crystals (derivation), estimation of

cohesive energy, concept of reciprocal lattice, Bragg law, Laves theory of x-ray diffraction, Brillouin

zones.

Lattice vibrations: The Ball and Springs model of a harmonic crystal. Normal modes of a one-

dimensional monatomic chain, the periodic boundary condition, dispersion curve, salient features, normal

modes of a diatomic chain, acoustical and optical modes, dispersion curves, salient features.

Electronic properties: Drude model, dc electrical resistivity, difficulties of classical theory, Fermi-Dirac

distribution and its variation with temperature, Sommerfeld model of free electron gas, electron density

of states, Hall effect.

Electron energy bands: Failures of free electron theory, formation of energy bands (wave mechanical

interpretation), Bloch theorem, calculation of band gap in nearly free electron model for a linear

monatomic crystal.

Books Recommended:

2. Haken, H. & : Atomic and Quantum Physics (Springer-Verlag)

Wolf, H.C.

3. Banwell, C.A. : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Tata McGraw-

Hill)

4. Hollas,J.M : Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy(RS.C)

5. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)

6. Kittel, C. : Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Ed. (John Wiley)

7. Srivastava, J.P. : Elements of Solid State Physics (Prentice Hall)

8. Levy, R.A. : Principles of Solid State Physics (Academic Press)

9. Myers, H.P. : Introductory Solid State Physics (Viva)

Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) VI Semester (Physics)

Paper-X: Nuclear, Particle and Astrophysics

Lectures: 40

Tutorials: 08

Unit-I : Properties of Nuclues

General properties of the atomic nuclei: Constituents of the nucleus (n,p hypothesis). Size of the nucleus from high

energy electron scattering experiment.

Nuclear charge: Measurement of nuclear charge; -scattering method. Nuclear mass, Bainbridge and Aston mass

spectrograph, mass defect and binding energy, variation of binding energy with atomic mass, elementary idea of

nuclear fission and fusion.

Nuclear angular momentum, Nuclear magnetic dipole moment, nuclear electric quardrupole moment: definition,

units, significance of +ve and ve values.

Qualitative discussion of the nature of nuclear forces: Experimental evidence of short range, saturation, charge

independence, charge symmetry, state dependence, tensor nature.

Radioactive series decay: Growth and decay of the daughter product, yield, ideal, transient and secular equilibrium.

Qualitative discussion of alpha, beta and gamma-decays, basic features of and decays, idea of continuous

nature of particle spectrum.

Energy loss of heavy charged particles due to excitation and ionization, semi-empirical formula for energy loss due

to ionization, dependence of stopping powers on energy, projectile and medium, range and straggling, Braggs

curve, Interaction of gamma radiation with matter: photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production,

attenuation.

Nuclear radiation detectors: Geiger- Muller detector and scintillation detector.

Basic interactions and their mediating quanta, classification of particles; Fermions and Bosons, leptons and

hadrons, particles and antiparticles, idea of resonances, conservation rules in fundamental interactions,

determination of spin and parity of pions, strange particles, isospin and its conservation, quarks, their quantum

numbers and quark model.

Primary cosmic rays: Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays, secondary cosmic rays, Production secondary

cosmic rays, Rossi transition curve, electromagnetic cascade showers.

Structure of the sun, stellar energy source, p-p and C-N-O cycles and their temperature dependence, H-R diagram,

white dwarf and Chandrasekhar mass limit, neutron star and pulsar, Schwarzschild radius and Black Holes.

Books Recommended:

1. Enge, H.A. : Introduction to Nuclear Physics (Addison Wesley)

2. Evans, R.D. : Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill)

3. Kapoor, S.S. & : Nuclear Radiation Detectors (New Age)

Ramamurthy, V.S.

4. Knoll, G.F. : Radiation Detectors

5. Dodd, J.E. : Ideas of Particle Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press)

6. Martin, B.R. & Shaw, : Particle Physics (John Wiley)

R.G.

7. Rossi, B. : Cosmic Rays (George Allen and Unwin)

8. Pomerantz, M.A. : Cosmic Rays (van Nostrand Reinhold)

9. Bass, B. : An Introduction to Astrophysics (Harper and Row)

10. Zeilik, M. : Conceptual Astronomy

11. Ghosal, S.N. : Atomic and Nuclear Physics (S. Chand & Company, Ltd.)

Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) I Year (Physics)

Paper-I: (PH106) Mechanics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Concept of inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces, conservative and non-

conservative forces, concept of potential energy, energy diagrams, law of conservation of total energy.

System of particles: centre of mass for a system of particles, motion of the centre of mass, c.m. frame of

reference, expressions for kinetic energy, linear momentum and angular momentum for a system of

particles in terms of centre of mass values. Central forces and the law of conservation of angular

momentum.

Review of rotational kinetic and dynamic variables, transformation equations for a frame of reference

rotating with respect to an inertial frame of reference, coriolis force, foucaultss pendulum. Rotation of a

rigid body: Energy and moment of inertia and moment of inertia as a tensor, principal axes, angular

momentum and kinetic energy of rotation with respect to principal axis, moment of inertia for a spherical

shell, sphere (hollow and solid) and a cylinder (hollow and solid), rolling sphere, idea of precessional

motion.

Differential equation and the solution for a simple harmonic oscillator, some examples (mass-spring,

simple pendulum, and compound pendulum), variation of particles displacement, velocity, acceleration

and its potential and kinetic energy with time, idea of phase. Damped Oscillator: Equation of motion and

its solution, qualitative description of the effect of different amounts of damping on the motion. Forced

oscillations and resonance: Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator and variation of

amplitude with frequency and damping, Q factor, superposition of two perpendicular S.H.Ms, coupled

pendulum and superposition of the normal modes.

Classification of waves, expression for a plane progressive and transverse harmonic wave, particle

velocity and acceleration, path difference and phase difference, velocity of transverse waves in a string.

Differential equation of a wave, wave velocity, energy density and intensity of a wave. Longitudinal

waves in gases, calculation of speed of sound, superposition of waves, interference and beats, stationary

waves and modes of vibration, group velocity and phase velocity of a wave, electromagnetic wave

equation and physical significance of the speed of e.m. waves.

Unit V: Gravitation

Law of gravitation, gravitational field and potential, gravitational potential energy, gravitational field

intensity and potential due to a spherical shell (inside, outside), a solid sphere (inside, outside) and a disc

at a point distant r from the centre. Two body problem reduced to one-body problem, reduced mass,

differential equation of the elliptical orbit of a particle moving under an attractive central force, Keplers

laws, deduction of Newtons law of gravitation from Keplers laws.

Unit VI: Special Relativity

Galilean transformations (velocity, acceleration), invariance of the laws of conservation of momentum

and energy to Galilean transformation and inadequacy of Galilean transformations, the principles of

special relativity, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition, length contraction and time dilation,

relativistic Doppler effect, variation of mass with velocity, relativistic form of Newtons second law,

work and energy. equivalence of mass and energy, relativistic transformations of momentum and energy.

Relation between relativistic momentum and energy. Mass, velocity, momentum and energy of a particle

of zero rest mass.

1. Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. : Physics Vol.1 (Wiley-Eastern)

3. Kittel, C., Knight, W.D. and : Berkley Series Vol.1 Mechanics (McGraw

Ruderman, M.A. Hill)

Physics series (Arnold-Heinemann)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) I Year (Physics)

Paper-II : (PH107) Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Waves

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Unit I: Vector Fields and Electrostatics

Scalar and vector fields, gradient, divergence and curl with their physical significance, divergence and

Stokes theorems. Gausss law and its applications: Field due to a uniformly charged sphere, charged

infinite plane and charged infinite cylinder, electrostatic potential, potential gradient, potential and field

due to an electric dipole, multipole expansion of electrostatic potential, linear quadrupole and potential

due to it, potential energy due to charge distribution, Laplace and Poisson equations and their properties,

uniqueness theorem.

Dielectrics, polarization of dielectrics, three electric vectors and relationship among them, Gausss law

for dielectrics, boundary conditions for dielectrics, polarizability, Clausius-Mossotti relation, Langevin-

Debye equation, Capacitors: Parallel plate capacitors filled with (a) a dielectric of linearly increasing

dielectric constant and (b) a composite dielectric.

Electric current, current density, continuity equation and attainment of electrostatic equilibrium, transient

currents, growth and decay of d.c. in LCR circuits, resistive circuits and Kirchhoffs laws, current

sources, Thevenins theorem, Nortons theorem, superposition theorem, and maximum power transfer

theorem, loop and nodal analyses, Kelvins double bridge for the measurement of low resistance and

leakage method for high resistance.

Ampere circuital law and its applications: Magnetic field due to a long straight current carrying

conductor and a toriod, Gausss law of magnetostatics, energy stored in a magnetic field, magnetic

moment and angular momentum, three magnetic vectors and relationship among them, magnetic

susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis curves (physical significance), magnetic materials and their

properties, theories of magnetism (qualitative idea), Langevin theory of paramanetism, Weiss molecular

field theory of paramagnetism and Curie-Weiss law of ferromagnetism.

Laws of electromagnetic induction, self inductance and its calculation for a long solenoid and two long

parallel wires, mutual inductance, Neumanns formula, calculation of mutual inductance for two

solenoids, relation between self and mutual inductances in case of a toroid.

Alternating currents: Representation of sinusoids by complex numbers, sinusoidal voltage applied to a

series RL, RC and LCR circuits, series resonance, sharpness of resonance and Q-factor, parallel

resonance, power in AC circuits.

Idea of displacement current and Maxwells modification of Amperes law, Maxwells equations

(integral and differential forms) and their physical significance, Poynting vector and Poyntings theorem,

classical wave equation, electromagnetic waves in free space and in isotropic non-conducting dielectric

medium. Production and detection of electromagnetic waves, Hertzs experiment.

Books Recommended:

and Rakshit, P.C. (P) Ltd.)

2. Tewari, K.K. : Electricity and Magnetism (S. Chand)

3. Mahajan, A.S. and Electricity and Magnetism (Tata McGrawHill)

Rangawala, A.A.

4. Resnick, R. and : Physics, Vol. II (John Wiley)

Halliday, D.

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) II Year (Physics)

Paper-I: (PH205)Optics and Electromagnetic Theory

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Unit-I: Geometrical Optics

Fermats principle and its application to obtain laws of reflection and refraction, matrix method in paraxial optics,

cardinal points of an optical system, system of two lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations, coma, astigmatism,

curvature of the field, distortion (qualitative), Huygens and Ramsden eye pieces (qualitative).

Maxwells equations and their significance, scalar and vector potentials, gauge transformations and gauge

condition, oscillating dipole, energy density and intensity, plane e.m. waves in free space, isotropic non-conducting

medium and conducting medium. Behaviour of field vectors across the boundary of two media, reflection and

refraction of plane e.m. waves at a plane interface of two dielectric media (only laws of reflection and refraction).

Unit-III: Polarization

Polarization of light waves, production of plane polarized light by reflection, Brewsters law, Malus law,

superposition of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves, elliptically and circularly polarized light. The

phenomenon of double refraction: Positive and negative crystals, cases of normal and oblique incidence of plane

waves on a negative uniaxial crystal, Nicol prism, polaroids. Interference of polarized light, quarter and half wave

plates, production of elliptically and circularly polarized light, experimental detection of different types of

polarized light, optical activity.

Unit-IV: Interference

Principle of superposition and interference of light waves, coherence and its realization (Youngs double hole

arrangement), temporal and spatial coherence, localized fringes in thin films, fringes of equal thickness and equal

inclination. Fresnels biprism. Newtons rings, Michelsons interferometer, multiple beam interferometry, principle

of Fabry-Perot interferometer.

Unit-V: Diffraction

Fraunhofer diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction at one, two and N slits, diffraction grating, Fraunhofer diffraction at

circular aperture (no derivation), Rayleigh criterion of resolution, resolving power of grating.

Fresnel diffraction: Fresnels half period zones, zone plate, Fresnel diffraction at circular aperture, opaque disc and

straight edge, explanation of rectilinear propagation.

Lasers: Basic principle, Ruby laser. He-Ne laser. Properties, applications.

Holography: Recording of hologram, reconstruction process, applications.

Fibre Optics: Optical fibre, fibre optic communication systems and their advantages.

Scattering: Compton effect, Raman scattering (qualitative).

Non-linear Optics: Non-linear polarization, second harmonic generation (qualitative).

Books Recommended:

2. Laud, B.B. : Electromagnetics (Wiley Eastern)

3. Mathur, B.K. : Optics (Gopal Printing Press)

4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) II Year (Physics)

Paper-II : (PH206)Electronics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I

Overview of semi-conductor physics, p-n junction, depletion layer, discussion of the diode equation I = Io [exp

(eV/nkT) 1] and its piece-wise linear approximation. Diode rectification, half wave, full wave and bridge

rectifiers, their ripple factor and efficiency, breakdown mechanisms, Zener diode and its applications, idea about

light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodiodes, clipping and clamping circuits using diodes.

UNIT-II

Current flow in BJT, , and their relation, small signal low frequency hybrid parameters. BJT as an amplifier,

amplifier configurations, equivalent circuits and their analysis, characteristics of their simple circuits, BJT biasing,

fixed biasing, self bias, load line, Q-point and its change due to temperature variation, stability factor (all for CE

configuration).

UNIT-III

Class A, B and C operation of amplifiers. RC coupled amplifier, its equivalent circuit and its gain in low, mid and

high frequency regions. Feedback in amplifiers, expression for the gain positive and negative feedback,

advantages of negative feedback amplifier (non-derivative). Voltage gain in case of CE amplifier without bypass

capacitor across RE.

UNIT-IV

Construction of JFET, idea of channel formation, physical explanation of different regions of I-V curves,

definitions of rd and gm. Basic construction of MOSFET and its working, physical explanation of characteristics,

enhancement and depletion modes.

Binary number system, binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversions. Logic gates: AND, OR, NOT,

NAND, NOR and XOR gates and their truth tables, Boolean algebra, De Morgans theorem, NAND and NOR as

universal gates, diode circuits for AND and OR gates, logic families TTL and CMOS characteristics (No

circuits).

UNIT-V

Positive feedback and Barkhausen criterion for oscillations, circuit diagrams and working for RC phase-shift,

Weins bridge, Hartley oscillators. Types of multivibrators, operation of astable multivibrator. RC differentiator

and integrator.

Operational amplifier (black box approach) and its ideal characteristics, virtual ground, inverting and non-inverting

amplifiers, adder, integrator and differentiator etc.

UNIT-VI

Power supply action of a capacitor filter, design of Zener regulator, transistor series regulators, modulation, need of

modulation, amplitude modulation and analysis of A.M. wave. A.M. diode detection, tuned radio frequency

receiver, super heterodyne receiver (block diagram only).

CR tube, block diagram of CRO, working of triggered sweep scopes, frequency and phase measurements using

Lissajous figure.

Books Recommended:

1. Bagde, M.K., Singh, S.P. & : Elements of Electronics (S. Chand)

Singh, Kamal

2. Mehta, V.K. : Principles of Electronics (S. Chand)

3. Theraja, B.L. : Basic Electronics, Solid State (S. Chand)

4. Millman, M. : Micro-Electronics (McGraw Hill)

5. Boylested, R. & Nashelksky, L. : Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Prentice Hall)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) III Year (Physics)

Paper-I : (PH311) Mathematical Methods

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Functions of complex variables, De Moivres theorem, limits and continuity, Cauchy-Riemann

differential equations, line integrals of complex function, Greens theorem in the plane, Cauchys integral

theorem, Cauchys integral formula, problems based on Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula,

Taylor and Laurent series, use of Taylor and Laurent series for a few simple functions. Singular points,

classification of singularities, residues, Cauchys residue theorem, contour integrations, evaluation of

some definite integrals.

Differential vector operators: Gradient, divergence and curl. Surface and volume integrals, integral

definition of gradient, divergence and curl. Gausss theorem, Greens theorem, Stokes theorem, some

simple examples based on these theorems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, cylindrical and spherical

polar coordinates, divergence, gradient, curl and Laplacian in these coordinates.

Beta function and gamma function. Method of obtaining series solution of second order differential

equation. Series solution and Bessel function of the first kind, recurrence relations, second solution of

Bessels equation, spherical Bessel functions, asymptotic formulae, the generating function. Hermite

polynomials: The generating function, Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation.

The Polynomial solution of the Legendre equation, the Legendre function of the second kind, the

generating function, upper bound for Pn(x), Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation, the associated

Legendre functions, orthogonality property of associated Legendre function, spherical harmonics,

properties of spherical harmonics, Laguerre functions, Associated Laguerre Polynomails.

Fourier series: General properties, completeness, Sturm-Liouville theory, summation of a Fourier series,

periodic functions, applications of Fourier series. Partial differential equations: Laplace and Poission

equations, solution of Laplace equation for simple problems-steady flow of heat in one and two

dimensions, variable linear heat flow, vibration of a circular membrane.

Development of the Fourier integral, Fourier integral Exponential form, complex form of Fourier

integral, Fourier transforms, inversion theorem, Fourier transform of derivatives, Laplace transform,

Laplace transform of derivative and inverse Laplace transformation, Classification of integral equations,

transformation of a differential equation into an integral equation integral equation with degenerate

(separable) Kernels, symmetric Kernels, Kernels reducible to symmetric Kernels, solution of symmetric

integral equations.

Books Recommended:

2. Arfken, G.B. & : Mathematical Methods for Physicist (Academic Press).

Weber, H.J.

3. Ghatak, A.K., : Mathematical Physics (Macmillan India).

Goyal, I.C. &

Ghua, S.J.

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year

Paper-II : (PH312) Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

(A) CLASSICAL MECHANICS

UNIT-I

Lagrange Equations: Review of mechanics of a system of particles, Constraints holonomic and non-holonomic, time

independent and time dependent. Generalized coordinates, kinetic energy in terms of generalized coordinates, Lagrange

equations from DAlemberts principle, velocity dependent potentials, velocity dependent potential for e.m. field, applications

of Lagrangian formalism to simple mechanical systems.

UNIT-II

Variational Principle: Technique of the calculus of variation, Hamiltons variational principle, Lagrange equations using

Hamiltons principle. Symmetry and Conservation Laws: Conservation theorems and symmetry properties, generalized

momenta, cyclic coordinates, definition of Hamiltonian and its physical significance, conservation of energy, conservation of

linear and angular momenta.

UNIT-III

Two-body Problem: Bound State, reduction of two-body problem to the one-body problems, equations of motion for relative

motion. Central force problem, conservation of angular momentum and Keplers second law, the Kepler problem inverse

square law of force, Keplers first and third lawsl the Virial theorem and its simple applications.

UNIT-IV

Two-body Problem: Scattering, Scattering cross-section, scattering by a central force, Rutherford scattering formula,

transformation of the scattering problem from centre of mass to laboratory coordinates. Hamiltonian formulation: Hamiltons

equations of motion from variational principle, cyclic coordinates and the conservation theorems, Hamiltonian as a constant of

the motion.

UNIT-V

Elementary idea of tensors; covariant, contra-variant and mixed tensors, addition, subtraction, multiplication and contraction

of tensors, quotient law. Four dimensional formulation of mechanics: Four dimensional representation of the Lorentz

transformations, covariance of the laws of nature, four vectors: velocity, momentum, force and their transformations, equation

of motion of a point particle in four vector form, relativistic Lagrangian. Collision Kinematics: Energy in C.M. system,

Lorentz factor of the C.M., threshold of a reaction, kinematics of two body decays.

UNIT-VI

Relativistic Electromagnetism: Equation of continuity in covariant form, electromagnetic field tensor, dual field tensor,

Maxwells equations in covariant form, transformation of electromagnetic fields, four potential, gauge transformation.

Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an e.m. field, Lagrange equation of motion of a charged

particle in uniform static electromangnetic field, electromagnetic fields of a uniformly moving charged particle.

Books Recommended:

2. Marion, J.B. & : Classical Dynamics of Particles Systems (Saundeu)

Thornton, S.T.

3. Joshi, J.W. : Matrices and Tensors in Physics (New Age)

B.Sc. (Hons) III Year (Physics)

Paper-III : (PH313) Quantum Mechanics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Unit-I:

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics:

Failures of Classical Mechanics: Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric effect, Compton Effect

Wave nature of particles: de-Broglie waves and their experimental confirmation (Davisson-Germer

Experiment and Thomson Experiment).

Discreteness of Energy levels: Bohr model of Hydrogen atom, Energy levels of Hydrogen atom, Frank

and Hertz experiment. The Correspondence principle.

Unit-II: Wave

packets: Localized wave packets, Wave packets and the uncertainty principle, Motion of wave packets,

Group and Phase velocities.

Postulates of quantum mechanics: The basic postulates of quantum mechanics, Properties, Physical

significance and Born Interpretation of wave functions in quantum mechanics, Probability density.

Operators: Adjoint, Projection and Hermition operators. Commutator algebra [x, px], [y, py]. Eigen

values and eigen vectors of an operator.

Ehrenfest theorem, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle (Derivation) and its simple applications (Size and

Energy of Hydrogen atom, electrons in nucleus, range of nuclear force).

Unit-III:

Schrodinger Equation: Time dependent and independent Schrodinger equations. Stationary states,

Continuity Equation.

One dimensional problem: Free Particle, Potential step, Potential Barrier (Tunneling). Particle in One

dimensional Infinite Square well, Finite Square well, Linear Harmonic Oscillator.

Unit-IV:

Angular Momentum: Orbital angular momentum operators and their commutation relations, Eigen

values and Eigen functions of L2 and LZ.

Spherical Coordinates, Schrodinger equation for two particles and its reduction in terms of central of

mass and relative motion.

Schrodinger equation for Hydrogen like atoms, Solution of the Radial equation for the Hydrogen atom,

its Eigen values and Eigen functions, degeneracy of the bound states of Hydrogen.

Unit-V: (10 Lectures)

Spin Angular Momentum: Magnetic moment and angular momentum. Stern-Gerlach experiment, Spin

angular momentum operators and their Algebra, Eigen states of spin of particles.

Total angular momentum, its commutation relation, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of J2 and Jz.

Stationary state perturbation theory (only first order) and its simple applications (Anharmonic Oscillator,

Normal Zeeman effect)

Basics of scattering theory: Elastic and Inelastic scattering (simple idea), CM and laboratory reference

frame.

Differential and total cross sections, Scattering wave function and Scattering amplitude.

Relation between Scattering amplitude and cross section. Phase Shift, Partial wave analysis, Optical

theorem.

Books Recommended:

1. Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons 2004.

2. Nouredine Zettili, Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons 2006.

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year

Paper-IV : (PH314) Thermal and Statistical Physics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I: Kinetic Theory of Gases

Review of the fundamentals of the theory : Basic assumptions, molecular flux, equation of an ideal gas,

principle of equipartition of energy, specific heats of mono, di- and triatomic gases, kinetic theory versus

thermodynamics, Andrews experiment, intermolecular forces, Van der Waals equation, critical

constants, law of corresponding states, collision cross-section and mean free path, transport phenomena:

viscosity, conduction and diffusion.

UNIT-II

(a) Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems,

(homogeneous/heterogeneous/open/closed/isolated), state of a system, state variables: extensive and

intensive variables, general equation of state (ideal gas and Van der Waals equations as examples),

thermodynamic equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, empirical and thermodynamic

temperatures. Processes: reversible, irreversible and quasi-static.

(b) First Law of Thermodynamics: Mathematical formulation of the first law, heat capacities,

applications: energy equations (expressions for internal energy in terms of heat capacities), internal

energy of (i) an ideal gas (ii) Van der Waals gas, Joule free expansion.

Carnots cycle, efficiency of a reversible heat engine, Carnots theorem, thermodynamic temperature

existence, the need for a second law, shortcoming of the first law, entropy, entropy changes in reversible

and irreversible processes, entropy and the statement of the second law of thermodynamics, Clausius and

Kelvin-Planck statements of the second law, T-S diagrams, entropy of an ideal gas, entropy of a mixture

of two gases, Gibbs paradox, entropy and disorder.

UNIT-IV

(a) Combined I and II Laws: TdS equations, energy equations, expressions for the difference and the

ratio of heat capacities, enthalpy, porous plug experiment, Joule-Thomson coefficient, principle of

regenerative cooling, Helmboltz and Gibbs functions, Maxwells equations.

(b) Third Law of Thermodynamics: Statement of the third law and absolute value of entropy, adiabatic

demagnetisation.

(c) Phase Transitions: First order phase transitions, Clapeyron equation, tripple point, second order phase

transition.

UNIT-V: Formalism of Statistical Physics

System and ensemble, phase space, micro- and macro-states, Postulate of classical and quantum statistics,

thermodynamic probability, thermodynamic probability of a macrostate in B-E, F-D and M-B statistics

and its application to the systems of few particles. Statistical definition of entropy, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-

Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution functions, partition function, thermodynamical quantities in

terms of the partition function.

Monatomic ideal gas, Maxwells formula for the distribution of velocities, Experimental verification of

Maxwell formula, the law of equipartition of energy, quantized linear oscillator, Specific heat of a

diatomic gas, rotational and vibrational specific heats. Black-body radiation Black body radiation as

thermodynamic substance, Plancks law. Rayleigh Jeans law and Wiens law as special cases of Plancks

law. Paramagnetism, Negative temperatures.

Books Recommended:

Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, 3rd Edn. (Narosa)

2. Zemansky, M.W. : Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th Edn. (McGraw Hill)

B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year (Physics)

Paper-V (PH315) : Atomic, Molecular, Laser and Condensed Matter Physics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Quantum numbers n,l,s,j and magnetic quantum numbers, spectroscopic terms, spin-orbit interaction

energy, idea of relativistic correction and Lamb Shift, fine structure of hydrogen and sodium spectra,

intensity rule for structure doublets, excitation and ionization potentials.

LS and jj coupling scheme: Terms and levels for non-equivalent electron systems (sp, sd, sf, pp and spd

configurations), Paulis exclusion principle applied to equivalent electrons (s2.p2). Breits scheme of

magnetic quantum numbers applied to terms derivation (p2,d2), Hunds, rules, selection rules for electric

dipole transitions, normal and anomalous, Zeeman effect (no derivation).

Diatomic molecule as rigid and non-rigid rotator, rotational spectrum, the vibrating diatomic molecule:

harmonic and anharmonic oscillator models, vibrating-rotator and its spectrum, infrared spectrum of

diatomic molecules, classical theory of Raman effect, rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules.

Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: Vibrational structure (progressions and sequences), Franck-

Condon principle (qualitative), shapes of molecular orbitals, electronic structure of H2 and N2, modes of

vibration of CO2 and H2O (qualitative).

Einsteins A and B coefficients, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, population inversion, Laser

pumping: Optical and electrical. Two level system, three and four level system (qualitative) ammonia

maser, Resonator: vibtational modes of a resonator, number of modes per unit volume, open resonators,

properties of laser beams, principle and working of Ruby, He-Ne and N2 lasers, application of lasers.

Laser safety.

Unit - IV: The Crystalline State

Crystalline and amorphous structure: Lattice, basis, basis vector, primitive cell, unit cell, Wigner-Seitz

cell, two and three dimensional lattice types (Bravais Lattices), common crystal structures (NaCl, CsCl

Common metals, HCP and Diamond), index system for directions and planes, interplanar distance, idea

of quasi-crystal.

Atomic Cohesion and Crystal Binding: Cohension of atoms, primary bonds (covalent, metallic, ionic and

mixed) secondary bonds (van der Waals, hydrogen), potential energy of ionic and noble gas crystals

(derivation), estimation of cohesive energy.

Crystal Diffraction: Bragg diffraction, description of Laues experiment and Laue photograph, origin of

the concept of reciprocal lattice, Brillouin Zones, Bragg law, use of x-rays, neutrons and electrons for

studying Bragg diffraction.

Lattice Vibrations: The Ball and Springs model of a Harmonic Crystal, normal modes. Normal modes

of a one-dimensional monatomic chain, the periodic boundary condition, dispersion curve, salient

features, normal modes of a diatomic chain, acoustical and optical modes, dispersion curves, salient

features, quantization of lattice vibrations, concept of zero point energy.

Electronic Properties: Classical free electron theory, Drude model, collisions or relaxation times, dc

electrical resistivity, Mathiessens rule, Hall effect, difficulties of classical theory, Fermions, Fermi-Dirac

distribution and its variation with temperature, Sommerfeld model of free electron gas, electron density

of states.

Electron Energy Bands: Failures of free electron theory, formation of energy bands (wave mechanical

interpretation), consequences of periodicity, Bloch theorem, occurrence of energy gaps, calculation of

band gap in nearly free electron model for a linear monatomic crystal. Simple properties of

superconductors (zero dc resistance and Meissner effect).

Books Recommended:

2. Haken, H. & : Atomic and Quantum Physics (Springer-Verlag)

Wolf, H.C.

3. Banwell, C.A. : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Tata McGraw-

Hill)

4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)

5. Kittel, C. : Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Ed. (John Wiley)

6. Srivastava, J.P. : Elements of Solid State Physics (Prentice Hall)

7. Levy, R.A. : Principles of Solid State Physics (Academic Press)

8. Myers, H.P. : Introductory Solid State Physics (Viva)

Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I

General properties of the atomic nuclei: Constituents of the nucleus (n,p hypothesis). Size of the

nucleus: high energy electron scattering.

Nuclear charge: Measurement of nuclear charge; -scattering method. Nuclear mass, Bainbridge and Aston mass

spectrograph, mass defect and binding energy, variation of binding energy with atomic mass, elementary idea of nuclear

fission and fusion.

Nuclear Angular Momentum, Nuclear magnetic dipole moment, idea of nuclear g-factor. Nuclear electric

quardrupole moment: definition, units, significance of +ve and ve values. Elementary idea of nuclear

statistics and parity.

Qualitative discussion of the nature of nuclear forces: Experimental evidence of short range,

saturation, charge independence, charge symmetry, state dependence, tensor nature.

UNIT-II

Radioactive Series Decay: Growth and decay of the daughter product, yield, ideal, transient and

secular equilibrium. Bateman equations and their application to activation analysis.

Qualitative discussion of alpha, beta and gamma-decays, basic features of and -decays, energy

spectrum of alpha particles, fine structure, continuous nature of particle spectrum-neutrino, excited

states of nuclei, selection rules for decay.

Nuclear Reactions: Energy balance, Q-value, negative Q-value reactions and threshold energy, energetics

of ,+,- and EC decays, reaction cross section.

Energy loss of charged particles due to excitation and ionization, semi-empirical formula for energy loss

due to ionization, range and straggling, qualitative idea of radiation loss, Cerenkov radiation. Interaction

of gamma radiation with matter: photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production.

detectors, position sensitive gas filled detector.

Basic interactions and their mediating quanta, classification of particles; Fermions and Bosons, leptons

and hadrons, particles and antiparticles, idea of resonances, conservation rules in fundamental

interactions, determination of spin and parity of pions, strange particles, associated production,

strangeness and decay modes of charged Kaons, isospin and its conservation, quarks, their quantum

numbers and quark model.

Primary cosmic rays: Energy and charge spectrum of primary cosmic rays, secondary cosmic rays,

composition of secondary cosmic rays, variation of intensity of cosmic rays, quantitative discussion of

geomagnetic effect, Rossi transition curve, electromagnetic cascade showers and extensive air showers,

elementary idea of origin of primary cosmic rays.

UNIT-VI: Astrophysics

Structure of the sun, sunspots, solar flares, stellar energy source, p-p and C-N-O cycles and their

temperature dependence, stars and their temperatures and magnitudes, H-R diagram, stellar evolution

(hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium), white dwarf, Chandrasekhar mass limit, neutron star, pulsars,

black hole, Schwarzschild radius.

Books Recommended:

2. Evans, R.D. : Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill)

3. Kapoor, S.S. & : Nuclear Radiation Detectors (New Age)

Ramamurthy, V.S.

4. Knoll, G.F. : Radiation Detectors

5. Dodd, J.E. : Ideas of Particle Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press)

6. Martin, B.R. & : Particle Physics (John Wiley)

Shaw, R.G.

7. Rossi, B. : Cosmic Rays (George Allen and Unwin)

8. Pomerantz, M.A. : Cosmic Rays (van Nostrand Reinhold)

9. Bass, B. : An Introduction to Astrophysics (Harper and Row)

10. Zeilik, M. : Conceptual Astronomy

11. Ghosal, S.N. : Atomic and Nuclear Physics (S. Chand & Company,

Ltd.)

Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) I Year (Physics)

Paper-I : (PH106) Mechanics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Concept of inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces, conservative and non-

conservative forces, concept of potential energy, energy diagrams, law of conservation of total energy.

System of particles: centre of mass for a system of particles, motion of the centre of mass, c.m. frame of

reference, expressions for kinetic energy, linear momentum and angular momentum for a system of

particles in terms of centre of mass values. Central forces and the law of conservation of angular

momentum.

Review of rotational kinetic and dynamic variables, transformation equations for a frame of reference

rotating with respect to an inertial frame of reference, coriolis force, foucaultss pendulum. Rotation of a

rigid body: Energy and moment of inertia and moment of inertia as a tensor, principal axes, angular

momentum and kinetic energy of rotation with respect to principal axis, moment of inertia for a spherical

shell, sphere (hollow and solid) and a cylinder (hollow and solid), rolling sphere, idea of precessional

motion.

Differential equation and the solution for a simple harmonic oscillator, some examples (mass-spring,

simple pendulum, and compound pendulum), variation of particles displacement, velocity, acceleration

and its potential and kinetic energy with time, idea of phase. Damped Oscillator: Equation of motion and

its solution, qualitative description of the effect of different amounts of damping on the motion. Forced

oscillations and resonance: Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator and variation of

amplitude with frequency and damping, Q factor, superposition of two perpendicular S.H.Ms, coupled

pendulum and superposition of the normal modes.

Classification of waves, expression for a plane progressive and transverse harmonic wave, particle

velocity and acceleration, path difference and phase difference, velocity of transverse waves in a string.

Differential equation of a wave, wave velocity, energy density and intensity of a wave. Longitudinal

waves in gases, calculation of speed of sound, superposition of waves, interference and beats, stationary

waves and modes of vibration, group velocity and phase velocity of a wave, electromagnetic wave

equation and physical significance of the speed of e.m. waves.

Unit V: Gravitation

Law of gravitation, gravitational field and potential, gravitational potential energy, gravitational field

intensity and potential due to a spherical shell (inside, outside), a solid sphere (inside, outside) and a disc

at a point distant r from the centre. Two body problem reduced to one-body problem, reduced mass,

differential equation of the elliptical orbit of a particle moving under an attractive central force, Keplers

laws, deduction of Newtons law of gravitation from Keplers laws.

Unit VI: Special Relativity

Galilean transformations (velocity, acceleration), invariance of the laws of conservation of momentum

and energy to Galilean transformation and inadequacy of Galilean transformations, the principles of

special relativity, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition, length contraction and time dilation,

relativistic Doppler effect, variation of mass with velocity, relativistic form of Newtons second law,

work and energy. equivalence of mass and energy, relativistic transformations of momentum and energy.

Relation between relativistic momentum and energy. Mass, velocity, momentum and energy of a particle

of zero rest mass.

1. Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. : Physics Vol.1 (Wiley-Eastern)

3. Kittel, C., Knight, W.D. and : Berkley Series Vol.1 Mechanics (McGraw

Ruderman, M.A. Hill)

Physics series (Arnold-Heinemann)

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) I Year (Physics)

Paper-II: (PH107) Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Waves

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Unit I: Vector Fields and Electrostatics

Scalar and vector fields, gradient, divergence and curl with their physical significance, divergence and

Stokes theorems. Gausss law and its applications: Field due to a uniformly charged sphere, charged

infinite plane and charged infinite cylinder, electrostatic potential, potential gradient, potential and field

due to an electric dipole, multipole expansion of electrostatic potential, linear quadrupole and potential

due to it, potential energy due to charge distribution, Laplace and Poisson equations and their properties,

uniqueness theorem.

Dielectrics, polarization of dielectrics, three electric vectors and relationship among them, Gausss law

for dielectrics, boundary conditions for dielectrics, polarizability, Clausius-Mossotti relation, Langevin-

Debye equation, Capacitors: Parallel plate capacitors filled with (a) a dielectric of linearly increasing

dielectric constant and (b) a composite dielectric.

Electric current, current density, continuity equation and attainment of electrostatic equilibrium, transient

currents, growth and decay of d.c. in LCR circuits, resistive circuits and Kirchhoffs laws, current

sources, Thevenins theorem, Nortons theorem, superposition theorem, and maximum power transfer

theorem, loop and nodal analyses, Kelvins double bridge for the measurement of low resistance and

leakage method for high resistance.

Unit IV: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetic Properties

Ampere circuital law and its applications: Magnetic field due to a long straight current carrying

conductor and a toriod, Gausss law of magnetostatics, energy stored in a magnetic field, magnetic

moment and angular momentum, three magnetic vectors and relationship among them, magnetic

susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis curves (physical significance), magnetic materials and their

properties, theories of magnetism (qualitative idea), Langevin theory of paramanetism, Weiss molecular

field theory of paramagnetism and Curie-Weiss law of ferromagnetism.

Laws of electromagnetic induction, self inductance and its calculation for a long solenoid and two long

parallel wires, mutual inductance, Neumanns formula, calculation of mutual inductance for two

solenoids, relation between self and mutual inductances in case of a toroid.

Alternating currents: Representation of sinusoids by complex numbers, sinusoidal voltage applied to a

series RL, RC and LCR circuits, series resonance, sharpness of resonance and Q-factor, parallel

resonance, power in AC circuits.

Idea of displacement current and Maxwells modification of Amperes law, Maxwells equations

(integral and differential forms) and their physical significance, Poynting vector and Poyntings theorem,

classical wave equation, electromagnetic waves in free space and in isotropic non-conducting dielectric

medium. Production and detection of electromagnetic waves, Hertzs experiment.

Books Recommended:

and Rakshit, P.C. (P) Ltd.)

2. Tewari, K.K. : Electricity and Magnetism (S. Chand)

3. Mahajan, A.S. and Electricity and Magnetism (Tata McGrawHill)

Rangawala, A.A.

4. Resnick, R. and : Physics, Vol. II (John Wiley)

Halliday, D.

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) II Year (Physics)

Paper-I: (PH205)Optics and Electromagnetic Theory

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Unit-I: Geometrical Optics

Fermats principle and its application to obtain laws of reflection and refraction, matrix method in paraxial optics,

cardinal points of an optical system, system of two lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations, coma, astigmatism,

curvature of the field, distortion (qualitative), Huygens and Ramsden eye pieces (qualitative).

Maxwells equations and their significance, scalar and vector potentials, gauge transformations and gauge

condition, oscillating dipole, energy density and intensity, plane e.m. waves in free space, isotropic non-conducting

medium and conducting medium. Behaviour of field vectors across the boundary of two media, reflection and

refraction of plane e.m. waves at a plane interface of two dielectric media (only laws of reflection and refraction).

Unit-III: Polarization

Polarization of light waves, production of plane polarized light by reflection, Brewsters law, Malus law,

superposition of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves, elliptically and circularly polarized light. The

phenomenon of double refraction: Positive and negative crystals, cases of normal and oblique incidence of plane

waves on a negative uniaxial crystal, Nicol prism, polaroids. Interference of polarized light, quarter and half wave

plates, production of elliptically and circularly polarized light, experimental detection of different types of

polarized light, optical activity.

Unit-IV: Interference

Principle of superposition and interference of light waves, coherence and its realization (Youngs double hole

arrangement), temporal and spatial coherence, localized fringes in thin films, fringes of equal thickness and equal

inclination. Fresnels biprism. Newtons rings, Michelsons interferometer, multiple beam interferometry, principle

of Fabry-Perot interferometer.

Unit-V: Diffraction

Fraunhofer diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction at one, two and N slits, diffraction grating, Fraunhofer diffraction at

circular aperture (no derivation), Rayleigh criterion of resolution, resolving power of grating.

Fresnel diffraction: Fresnels half period zones, zone plate, Fresnel diffraction at circular aperture, opaque disc and

straight edge, explanation of rectilinear propagation.

Lasers: Basic principle, Ruby laser. He-Ne laser. Properties, applications.

Holography: Recording of hologram, reconstruction process, applications.

Fibre Optics: Optical fibre, fibre optic communication systems and their advantages.

Scattering: Compton effect, Raman scattering (qualitative).

Non-linear Optics: Non-linear polarization, second harmonic generation (qualitative).

Books Recommended:

2. Laud, B.B. : Electromagnetics (Wiley Eastern)

3. Mathur, B.K. : Optics (Gopal Printing Press)

4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)

Paper-II : (PH206)Electronics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I

Overview of semi-conductor physics, p-n junction, depletion layer, discussion of the diode equation I = Io [exp

(eV/nkT) 1] and its piece-wise linear approximation. Diode rectification, half wave, full wave and bridge

rectifiers, their ripple factor and efficiency, breakdown mechanisms, Zener diode and its applications, idea about

light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodiodes, clipping and clamping circuits using diodes.

UNIT-II

Current flow in BJT, , and their relation, small signal low frequency hybrid parameters. BJT as an amplifier,

amplifier configurations, equivalent circuits and their analysis, characteristics of their simple circuits, BJT biasing,

fixed biasing, self bias, load line, Q-point and its change due to temperature variation, stability factor (all for CE

configuration).

UNIT-III

Class A, B and C operation of amplifiers. RC coupled amplifier, its equivalent circuit and its gain in low, mid and

high frequency regions. Feedback in amplifiers, expression for the gain positive and negative feedback,

advantages of negative feedback amplifier (non-derivative). Voltage gain in case of CE amplifier without bypass

capacitor across RE.

UNIT-IV

Construction of JFET, idea of channel formation, physical explanation of different regions of I-V curves,

definitions of rd and gm. Basic construction of MOSFET and its working, physical explanation of characteristics,

enhancement and depletion modes.

Binary number system, binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversions. Logic gates: AND, OR, NOT,

NAND, NOR and XOR gates and their truth tables, Boolean algebra, De Morgans theorem, NAND and NOR as

universal gates, diode circuits for AND and OR gates, logic families TTL and CMOS characteristics (No

circuits).

UNIT-V

Positive feedback and Barkhausen criterion for oscillations, circuit diagrams and working for RC phase-shift,

Weins bridge, Hartley oscillators. Types of multivibrators, operation of astable multivibrator. RC differentiator

and integrator.

Operational amplifier (black box approach) and its ideal characteristics, virtual ground, inverting and non-inverting

amplifiers, adder, integrator and differentiator etc.

UNIT-VI

Power supply action of a capacitor filter, design of Zener regulator, transistor series regulators, modulation, need of

modulation, amplitude modulation and analysis of A.M. wave. A.M. diode detection, tuned radio frequency

receiver, super heterodyne receiver (block diagram only).

CR tube, block diagram of CRO, working of triggered sweep scopes, frequency and phase measurements using

Lissajous figure.

Books Recommended:

1. Bagde, M.K., Singh, S.P. & : Elements of Electronics (S. Chand)

Singh, Kamal

2. Mehta, V.K. : Principles of Electronics (S. Chand)

3. Theraja, B.L. : Basic Electronics, Solid State (S. Chand)

4. Millman, M. : Micro-Electronics (McGraw Hill)

5. Boylested, R. & Nashelksky, L. : Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Prentice Hall)

Paper-I : (PH311) Mathematical Methods

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Functions of complex variables, De Moivres theorem, limits and continuity, Cauchy-Riemann

differential equations, line integrals of complex function, Greens theorem in the plane, Cauchys integral

theorem, Cauchys integral formula, problems based on Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula,

Taylor and Laurent series, use of Taylor and Laurent series for a few simple functions. Singular points,

classification of singularities, residues, Cauchys residue theorem, contour integrations, evaluation of

some definite integrals.

Differential vector operators: Gradient, divergence and curl. Surface and volume integrals, integral

definition of gradient, divergence and curl. Gausss theorem, Greens theorem, Stokes theorem, some

simple examples based on these theorems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, cylindrical and spherical

polar coordinates, divergence, gradient, curl and Laplacian in these coordinates.

Beta function and gamma function. Method of obtaining series solution of second order differential

equation. Series solution and Bessel function of the first kind, recurrence relations, second solution of

Bessels equation, spherical Bessel functions, asymptotic formulae, the generating function. Hermite

polynomials: The generating function, Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation.

The Polynomial solution of the Legendre equation, the Legendre function of the second kind, the

generating function, upper bound for Pn(x), Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation, the associated

Legendre functions, orthogonality property of associated Legendre function, spherical harmonics,

properties of spherical harmonics, Laguerre functions, Associated Laguerre Polynomails.

Fourier series: General properties, completeness, Sturm-Liouville theory, summation of a Fourier series,

periodic functions, applications of Fourier series. Partial differential equations: Laplace and Poission

equations, solution of Laplace equation for simple problems-steady flow of heat in one and two

dimensions, variable linear heat flow, vibration of a circular membrane.

Development of the Fourier integral, Fourier integral Exponential form, complex form of Fourier

integral, Fourier transforms, inversion theorem, Fourier transform of derivatives, Laplace transform,

Laplace transform of derivative and inverse Laplace transformation, Classification of integral equations,

transformation of a differential equation into an integral equation integral equation with degenerate

(separable) Kernels, symmetric Kernels, Kernels reducible to symmetric Kernels, solution of symmetric

integral equations.

Books Recommended:

2. Arfken, G.B. & : Mathematical Methods for Physicist (Academic Press).

Weber, H.J.

3. Ghatak, A.K., : Mathematical Physics (Macmillan India).

Goyal, I.C. &

Ghua, S.J.

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year

Paper-II: (PH312) Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

(C) CLASSICAL MECHANICS

UNIT-I

Lagrange Equations: Review of mechanics of a system of particles, Constraints holonomic and non-holonomic, time

independent and time dependent. Generalized coordinates, kinetic energy in terms of generalized coordinates, Lagrange

equations from DAlemberts principle, velocity dependent potentials, velocity dependent potential for e.m. field, applications

of Lagrangian formalism to simple mechanical systems.

UNIT-II

Variational Principle: Technique of the calculus of variation, Hamiltons variational principle, Lagrange equations using

Hamiltons principle. Symmetry and Conservation Laws: Conservation theorems and symmetry properties, generalized

momenta, cyclic coordinates, definition of Hamiltonian and its physical significance, conservation of energy, conservation of

linear and angular momenta.

UNIT-III

Two-body Problem: Bound State, reduction of two-body problem to the one-body problems, equations of motion for relative

motion. Central force problem, conservation of angular momentum and Keplers second law, the Kepler problem inverse

square law of force, Keplers first and third lawsl the Virial theorem and its simple applications.

UNIT-IV

Two-body Problem: Scattering, Scattering cross-section, scattering by a central force, Rutherford scattering formula,

transformation of the scattering problem from centre of mass to laboratory coordinates. Hamiltonian formulation: Hamiltons

equations of motion from variational principle, cyclic coordinates and the conservation theorems, Hamiltonian as a constant of

the motion.

UNIT-V

Elementary idea of tensors; covariant, contra-variant and mixed tensors, addition, subtraction, multiplication and contraction

of tensors, quotient law. Four dimensional formulation of mechanics: Four dimensional representation of the Lorentz

transformations, covariance of the laws of nature, four vectors: velocity, momentum, force and their transformations, equation

of motion of a point particle in four vector form, relativistic Lagrangian. Collision Kinematics: Energy in C.M. system,

Lorentz factor of the C.M., threshold of a reaction, kinematics of two body decays.

UNIT-VI

Relativistic Electromagnetism: Equation of continuity in covariant form, electromagnetic field tensor, dual field tensor,

Maxwells equations in covariant form, transformation of electromagnetic fields, four potential, gauge transformation.

Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an e.m. field, Lagrange equation of motion of a charged

particle in uniform static electromangnetic field, electromagnetic fields of a uniformly moving charged particle.

Books Recommended:

2. Marion, J.B. & : Classical Dynamics of Particles Systems (Saundeu)

Thornton, S.T.

3. Joshi, J.W. : Matrices and Tensors in Physics (New Age)

B.Sc. (Hons) III Year (Physics)

Paper-III: (PH313) Quantum Mechanics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Unit-I:

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics:

Failures of Classical Mechanics: Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric effect, Compton Effect

Wave nature of particles: de-Broglie waves and their experimental confirmation (Davisson-Germer

Experiment and Thomson Experiment).

Discreteness of Energy levels: Bohr model of Hydrogen atom, Energy levels of Hydrogen atom, Frank

and Hertz experiment. The Correspondence principle.

Unit-II: Wave

packets: Localized wave packets, Wave packets and the uncertainty principle, Motion of wave packets,

Group and Phase velocities.

Postulates of quantum mechanics: The basic postulates of quantum mechanics, Properties, Physical

significance and Born Interpretation of wave functions in quantum mechanics, Probability density.

Operators: Adjoint, Projection and Hermition operators. Commutator algebra [x, px], [y, py]. Eigen

values and eigen vectors of an operator.

Ehrenfest theorem, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle (Derivation) and its simple applications (Size and

Energy of Hydrogen atom, electrons in nucleus, range of nuclear force).

Unit-III:

Schrodinger Equation: Time dependent and independent Schrodinger equations. Stationary states,

Continuity Equation.

One dimensional problem: Free Particle, Potential step, Potential Barrier (Tunneling). Particle in One

dimensional Infinite Square well, Finite Square well, Linear Harmonic Oscillator.

Unit-IV:

Angular Momentum: Orbital angular momentum operators and their commutation relations, Eigen

values and Eigen functions of L2 and LZ.

Spherical Coordinates, Schrodinger equation for two particles and its reduction in terms of central of

mass and relative motion.

Schrodinger equation for Hydrogen like atoms, Solution of the Radial equation for the Hydrogen atom,

its Eigen values and Eigen functions, degeneracy of the bound states of Hydrogen.

Unit-V: (10 Lectures)

Spin Angular Momentum: Magnetic moment and angular momentum. Stern-Gerlach experiment, Spin

angular momentum operators and their Algebra, Eigen states of spin of particles.

Total angular momentum, its commutation relation, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of J2 and Jz.

Stationary state perturbation theory (only first order) and its simple applications (Anharmonic Oscillator,

Normal Zeeman effect)

Basics of scattering theory: Elastic and Inelastic scattering (simple idea), CM and laboratory reference

frame.

Differential and total cross sections, Scattering wave function and Scattering amplitude.

Relation between Scattering amplitude and cross section. Phase Shift, Partial wave analysis, Optical

theorem.

Books Recommended:

1. Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons 2004.

2. Nouredine Zettili, Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons 2006.

Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year

Paper-IV : (PH314) Thermal and Statistical Physics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I: Kinetic Theory of Gases

Review of the fundamentals of the theory : Basic assumptions, molecular flux, equation of an ideal gas,

principle of equipartition of energy, specific heats of mono, di- and triatomic gases, kinetic theory versus

thermodynamics, Andrews experiment, intermolecular forces, Van der Waals equation, critical

constants, law of corresponding states, collision cross-section and mean free path, transport phenomena:

viscosity, conduction and diffusion.

UNIT-II

(c) Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems,

(homogeneous/heterogeneous/open/closed/isolated), state of a system, state variables: extensive and

intensive variables, general equation of state (ideal gas and Van der Waals equations as examples),

thermodynamic equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, empirical and thermodynamic

temperatures. Processes: reversible, irreversible and quasi-static.

(d) First Law of Thermodynamics: Mathematical formulation of the first law, heat capacities,

applications: energy equations (expressions for internal energy in terms of heat capacities), internal

energy of (i) an ideal gas (ii) Van der Waals gas, Joule free expansion.

Carnots cycle, efficiency of a reversible heat engine, Carnots theorem, thermodynamic temperature

existence, the need for a second law, shortcoming of the first law, entropy, entropy changes in reversible

and irreversible processes, entropy and the statement of the second law of thermodynamics, Clausius and

Kelvin-Planck statements of the second law, T-S diagrams, entropy of an ideal gas, entropy of a mixture

of two gases, Gibbs paradox, entropy and disorder.

UNIT-IV

(d) Combined I and II Laws: TdS equations, energy equations, expressions for the difference and the

ratio of heat capacities, enthalpy, porous plug experiment, Joule-Thomson coefficient, principle of

regenerative cooling, Helmboltz and Gibbs functions, Maxwells equations.

(e) Third Law of Thermodynamics: Statement of the third law and absolute value of entropy, adiabatic

demagnetisation.

(f) Phase Transitions: First order phase transitions, Clapeyron equation, tripple point, second order phase

transition.

UNIT-V: Formalism of Statistical Physics

System and ensemble, phase space, micro- and macro-states, Postulate of classical and quantum statistics,

thermodynamic probability, thermodynamic probability of a macrostate in B-E, F-D and M-B statistics

and its application to the systems of few particles. Statistical definition of entropy, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-

Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution functions, partition function, thermodynamical quantities in

terms of the partition function.

Monatomic ideal gas, Maxwells formula for the distribution of velocities, Experimental verification of

Maxwell formula, the law of equipartition of energy, quantized linear oscillator, Specific heat of a

diatomic gas, rotational and vibrational specific heats. Black-body radiation Black body radiation as

thermodynamic substance, Plancks law. Rayleigh Jeans law and Wiens law as special cases of Plancks

law. Paramagnetism, Negative temperatures.

Books Recommended:

Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, 3rd Edn. (Narosa)

2. Zemansky, M.W. : Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th Edn. (McGraw Hill)

B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year (Physics)

Paper-V (PH315) : Atomic, Molecular, Laser and Condensed Matter Physics

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

Quantum numbers n,l,s,j and magnetic quantum numbers, spectroscopic terms, spin-orbit interaction

energy, idea of relativistic correction and Lamb Shift, fine structure of hydrogen and sodium spectra,

intensity rule for structure doublets, excitation and ionization potentials.

LS and jj coupling scheme: Terms and levels for non-equivalent electron systems (sp, sd, sf, pp and spd

configurations), Paulis exclusion principle applied to equivalent electrons (s2.p2). Breits scheme of

magnetic quantum numbers applied to terms derivation (p2,d2), Hunds, rules, selection rules for electric

dipole transitions, normal and anomalous, Zeeman effect (no derivation).

Diatomic molecule as rigid and non-rigid rotator, rotational spectrum, the vibrating diatomic molecule:

harmonic and anharmonic oscillator models, vibrating-rotator and its spectrum, infrared spectrum of

diatomic molecules, classical theory of Raman effect, rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules.

Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: Vibrational structure (progressions and sequences), Franck-

Condon principle (qualitative), shapes of molecular orbitals, electronic structure of H2 and N2, modes of

vibration of CO2 and H2O (qualitative).

Einsteins A and B coefficients, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, population inversion, Laser

pumping: Optical and electrical. Two level system, three and four level system (qualitative) ammonia

maser, Resonator: vibtational modes of a resonator, number of modes per unit volume, open resonators,

properties of laser beams, principle and working of Ruby, He-Ne and N2 lasers, application of lasers.

Laser safety.

Unit - IV: The Crystalline State

Crystalline and amorphous structure: Lattice, basis, basis vector, primitive cell, unit cell, Wigner-Seitz

cell, two and three dimensional lattice types (Bravais Lattices), common crystal structures (NaCl, CsCl

Common metals, HCP and Diamond), index system for directions and planes, interplanar distance, idea

of quasi-crystal.

Atomic Cohesion and Crystal Binding: Cohension of atoms, primary bonds (covalent, metallic, ionic and

mixed) secondary bonds (van der Waals, hydrogen), potential energy of ionic and noble gas crystals

(derivation), estimation of cohesive energy.

Crystal Diffraction: Bragg diffraction, description of Laues experiment and Laue photograph, origin of

the concept of reciprocal lattice, Brillouin Zones, Bragg law, use of x-rays, neutrons and electrons for

studying Bragg diffraction.

Lattice Vibrations: The Ball and Springs model of a Harmonic Crystal, normal modes. Normal modes

of a one-dimensional monatomic chain, the periodic boundary condition, dispersion curve, salient

features, normal modes of a diatomic chain, acoustical and optical modes, dispersion curves, salient

features, quantization of lattice vibrations, concept of zero point energy.

Electronic Properties: Classical free electron theory, Drude model, collisions or relaxation times, dc

electrical resistivity, Mathiessens rule, Hall effect, difficulties of classical theory, Fermions, Fermi-Dirac

distribution and its variation with temperature, Sommerfeld model of free electron gas, electron density

of states.

Electron Energy Bands: Failures of free electron theory, formation of energy bands (wave mechanical

interpretation), consequences of periodicity, Bloch theorem, occurrence of energy gaps, calculation of

band gap in nearly free electron model for a linear monatomic crystal. Simple properties of

superconductors (zero dc resistance and Meissner effect).

Books Recommended:

2. Haken, H. & : Atomic and Quantum Physics (Springer-Verlag)

Wolf, H.C.

3. Banwell, C.A. : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Tata McGraw-

Hill)

4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)

5. Kittel, C. : Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Ed. (John Wiley)

6. Srivastava, J.P. : Elements of Solid State Physics (Prentice Hall)

7. Levy, R.A. : Principles of Solid State Physics (Academic Press)

8. Myers, H.P. : Introductory Solid State Physics (Viva)

Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year

Lectures: 72

Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I

General properties of the atomic nuclei: Constituents of the nucleus (n,p hypothesis). Size of the

nucleus: high energy electron scattering.

Nuclear charge: Measurement of nuclear charge; -scattering method. Nuclear mass, Bainbridge and Aston mass

spectrograph, mass defect and binding energy, variation of binding energy with atomic mass, elementary idea of nuclear

fission and fusion.

Nuclear Angular Momentum, Nuclear magnetic dipole moment, idea of nuclear g-factor. Nuclear electric

quardrupole moment: definition, units, significance of +ve and ve values. Elementary idea of nuclear

statistics and parity.

Qualitative discussion of the nature of nuclear forces: Experimental evidence of short range,

saturation, charge independence, charge symmetry, state dependence, tensor nature.

UNIT-II

Radioactive Series Decay: Growth and decay of the daughter product, yield, ideal, transient and

secular equilibrium. Bateman equations and their application to activation analysis.

Qualitative discussion of alpha, beta and gamma-decays, basic features of and -decays, energy

spectrum of alpha particles, fine structure, continuous nature of particle spectrum-neutrino, excited

states of nuclei, selection rules for decay.

Nuclear Reactions: Energy balance, Q-value, negative Q-value reactions and threshold energy, energetics

of ,+,- and EC decays, reaction cross section.

Energy loss of charged particles due to excitation and ionization, semi-empirical formula for energy loss

due to ionization, range and straggling, qualitative idea of radiation loss, Cerenkov radiation. Interaction

of gamma radiation with matter: photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production.

detectors, position sensitive gas filled detector.

Basic interactions and their mediating quanta, classification of particles; Fermions and Bosons, leptons

and hadrons, particles and antiparticles, idea of resonances, conservation rules in fundamental

interactions, determination of spin and parity of pions, strange particles, associated production,

strangeness and decay modes of charged Kaons, isospin and its conservation, quarks, their quantum

numbers and quark model.

Primary cosmic rays: Energy and charge spectrum of primary cosmic rays, secondary cosmic rays,

composition of secondary cosmic rays, variation of intensity of cosmic rays, quantitative discussion of

geomagnetic effect, Rossi transition curve, electromagnetic cascade showers and extensive air showers,

elementary idea of origin of primary cosmic rays.

UNIT-VI: Astrophysics

Structure of the sun, sunspots, solar flares, stellar energy source, p-p and C-N-O cycles and their

temperature dependence, stars and their temperatures and magnitudes, H-R diagram, stellar evolution

(hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium), white dwarf, Chandrasekhar mass limit, neutron star, pulsars,

black hole, Schwarzschild radius.

Books Recommended:

2. Evans, R.D. : Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill)

3. Kapoor, S.S. & : Nuclear Radiation Detectors (New Age)

Ramamurthy, V.S.

4. Knoll, G.F. : Radiation Detectors

5. Dodd, J.E. : Ideas of Particle Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press)

6. Martin, B.R. & : Particle Physics (John Wiley)

Shaw, R.G.

7. Rossi, B. : Cosmic Rays (George Allen and Unwin)

8. Pomerantz, M.A. : Cosmic Rays (van Nostrand Reinhold)

9. Bass, B. : An Introduction to Astrophysics (Harper and Row)

10. Zeilik, M. : Conceptual Astronomy

11. Ghosal, S.N. : Atomic and Nuclear Physics (S. Chand & Company,

Ltd.)

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