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# Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.

) I Semester (Physics)
Paper-I: Electromagnetism (PHB101)

Lectures: 40
Tutorials:08

## Unit I: Electrostatics in Dielectric Medium

Gausss law, electric potential, multipole expansion of electrostatic potential, linear quadrupole and
potential due to it.
Dielectrics, polarization of dielectrics, three electric vectors and relationship among them, Gausss law
for dielectrics, Poisson and Laplaces equations in dielectric, boundary conditions for dielectrics,
polarizability, Clausius-Mossotti relation, Capacitors: Parallel plate capacitors filled with (a) a dielectric
of linearly increasing dielectric constant and (b) a composite dielectric.

## Unit II: Steady and Alternating Currents

Continuity equation and attainment of electrostatic equilibrium, transient currents, growth and decay of
d.c. in LCR circuits, Thevenins theorem, superposition theorem and maximum power transfer theorem,
Kelvins double bridge for the measurement of low resistance and leakage method for high resistance.
Alternating currents: Representation of sinusoids by complex numbers, sinusoidal voltage applied to a
series RL, RC and LCR circuits, series resonance, sharpness of resonance and Q-factor, power in AC
circuits.
Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetic Properties
Ampere circuital law and its applications: Magnetic field due to a long straight current carrying
conductor and a toriod, Gausss law of magnetostatics, magnetic moment and angular momentum, three
magnetic vectors and relationship among them, magnetic susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis
curves (physical significance), theories of magnetism (qualitative idea), Langevin theory of
paramanetism, Weiss molecular field theory of paramagnetism and Curie-Weiss law of ferromagnetism.

## Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Maxwells Equations

Laws of electromagnetic induction, self inductance and its calculation for a long solenoid and two long
parallel wires, mutual inductance, Neumanns formula, calculation of mutual inductance for two
solenoids, relation between self and mutual inductances in case of a toroid.
Idea of displacement current and Maxwells modification of Amperes law, Maxwells equations and
their significance, propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space and isotropic non-conducting
dielectric medium, Poynting vector and Poyntings theorem.
Books Recommended:

## 1. Chattopadhyay, D. : Electricity and Magnetism (New Central Book Agency

and Rakshit, P.C. (P) Ltd.)
2. Tewari, K.K. : Electricity and Magnetism (S. Chand)
3. Mahajan, A.S. and Electricity and Magnetism (Tata McGrawHill)
Rangawala, A.A.
4. Resnick, R. and : Physics, Vol. II (John Wiley)
Halliday, D.
Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) II Semester (Physics)
Paper-II: Mechanics (PHB201)
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08

## Unit I: Conservation Laws

Concept of inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces, conservative and non-
conservative forces, concept of potential energy, energy diagrams, law of conservation of total energy.
System of particles: Centre of mass for a system of particles, motion of the centre of mass, Expressions
for kinetic energy, linear momentum and angular momentum for a system of particles in terms of centre
of mass values. Central forces and the law of conservation of angular momentum.

## Unit II: Special Relativity

Galilean transformations (velocity, acceleration) and its inadequacy. Postulates of special theory of
relativity, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition, length contraction and time dilation, variation of
mass with velocity, relativistic form of Newtons second law, equivalence of mass and energy, relativistic
transformations of momentum and energy. Relation between relativistic momentum and energy.

## Unit III: Rotational Motion

Transformation equations for a frame of reference rotating with respect to an inertial frame of reference,
coriolis force. Rotation of a rigid body: Energy and moment of inertia and moment of inertia as a tensor,
principal axes, angular momentum and kinetic energy of rotation with respect to principal axis, moment
of inertia for a spherical shell and solid sphere, rolling bodies.
Differential equation of the elliptical orbit of a particle moving under an attractive central force, Keplers
laws, deduction of Newtons law of gravitation from Keplers laws.

## Unit IV: Oscillations and Wave Motion

Differential equation and the solution for a simple harmonic oscillator, some examples (simple
pendulum, and compound pendulum). Damped Oscillator: Equation of motion and its solution,
qualitative description of the effect of different amounts of damping on the motion. Forced oscillations
and resonance: Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator and variation of amplitude with
frequency and damping, Q factor. Classification of waves, expression for a plane progressive harmonic
wave, particle velocity and acceleration. Differential equation of a wave, wave velocity, energy density
and intensity of a wave.

Books Recommended:
1. Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. : Physics Vol.1 (Wiley-Eastern)
2. Mathur, D.S. : Mechanics (S. Chand)
3. Kittel, C., Knight, W.D. and : Berkley Series Vol.1 Mechanics (McGraw
Ruderman, M.A. Hill)

## 4. French, A.P. : Vibration and Waves : M.I.T. Introductory

Physics series (Arnold-Heinemann)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) III Semester (Physics)
Paper-III: Optics (PHB-301)
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08
Unit-I: Geometrical Optics and Nature of Light
Fermats principle and its application to obtain laws of reflection and refraction. Cardinal points of an
optical system. Chromatic and spherical aberrations, removal. Coma, astigmatism, curvature of the field,
distortion (qualitative).
Nature of light: Idea of wave, electromagnetic and quantum theory of light.
Scattering: Compton effect, Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering.

Unit-II: Interference
Interference of light waves: Intensity distribution, coherence. Fresnels biprism. Interference with white
light. Phase change on reflection: Stokes relations, Interference in thin film (parallel and wedge-shaped),
cosine law, fringes of equal inclination (Hadinger fringes) and equal thickness (Fizeau fringes), localized
fringes. Newtons rings, determination of wavelength and refractive index of liquid. Michelsons
interferometer, determination of wavelength and wavelength difference. Multiple beam interferometry,
Fabry-Perot interferometer, Lumer-Gehrecke plate.

Unit-III: Polarization
Polarization of light waves. Production of plane polarized light by reflection, refraction and scattering,
Brewsters law, Malus law. Superposition of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves. The
phenomenon of double refraction: Positive and negative crystals, normal incidence of plane waves on a
negative uniaxial crystal, Nicol prism, polaroids. Interference of polarized light, quarter and half wave
plates, production of elliptically and circularly polarized light. Analysis of polarized light. Optical

## Unit-IV: Diffraction and Lasers

Fraunhofer diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction at one, two and N slits, diffraction grating, grating
spectrum, Rayleigh criterion of resolution, resolving power of grating.
Fresnel diffraction: Fresnels half period zones, zone plate, Fresnel diffraction at circular aperture and
straight edge using Fresnels half period zones.
Lasers: Basic principle, Ruby laser. He-Ne laser. Properties of laser beam.

## Holography: Recording of hologram, reconstruction process.

Books Recommended:

## 1. Ghatak, A. : Optics (Tata McGraw-Hill)

2. Laud, B.B. : Electromagnetics (Wiley Eastern)
3. Mathur, B.K. : Optics (Gopal Printing Press)
4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) IV Semester (Physics)
Paper-IV: Electronics (PHB-401)
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 8
Unit-I: BJT Amplifier and Biasing
Current flow in BJT; , and their relation, small signal low frequency hybrid parameters. BJT as an
amplifier, amplifier configurations, equivalent circuits and their analysis, characteristics of their simple
circuits, load line, Q-point and its change due to temperature variation. BJT biasing: fixed biasing, self-
bias, stability factor (all for CE configuration).

## Unit-II: RC Coupled Amplifier and FET

RC coupled amplifier, its equivalent circuit and its gain in low, mid (derivative) and high frequency
regions (non-derivative). Feedback in amplifiers, expression for the gain positive and negative
feedback, advantages of negative feedback amplifier (non-derivative).
Construction of JFET, idea of channel formation, physical explanation of different regions of I-V curves,
definitions of rd and gm. Basic construction of MOSFET and its working, physical explanation of
characteristics, enhancement and depletion modes.

## Unit-III: Oscillators and OPAMP

Positive feedback and Barkhausen criterion for oscillations, circuit diagrams and working for RC phase-
shift, Weins bridge oscillators. Types of multivibrators, operation of astable multivibrator. RC
differentiator and integrator.
Operational amplifier (black box approach) and its ideal characteristics, virtual ground, inverting and
non-inverting amplifiers, adder, integrator and differentiator.

## Unit-IV: Power Supply, CRO and Modulation

Power supply: action of a capacitor filter, design of Zener regulator, transistor series regulators. CRO:
CR tube, block diagram of CRO, working of triggered sweep scopes, frequency and phase measurements
using Lissajous figure.
Modulation: amplitude modulation and analysis of A.M. wave, A.M. diode detection, tuned radio

Books Recommended:
1. Bagde, M.K., Singh, S.P. & : Elements of Electronics (S. Chand)
Singh, Kamal
2. Mehta, V.K. : Principles of Electronics (S. Chand)
3. Theraja, B.L. : Basic Electronics, Solid State (S. Chand)
4. Millman, M. : Micro-Electronics (McGraw Hill)
5. Boylested, R. & Nashelksky, L. : Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Prentice
Hall)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) V Semester (Physics)
Paper-V: Mathematical Methods
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08

## Unit-I: Complex Variables

Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann differential equations, line integrals of complex function, Cauchys
integral theorem, Cauchys integral formula, Problems based on Cauchys integral theorem and integral
formula, Taylor and Laurent series, Use of Taylor and Laurent series for a few simple functions. Singular
points, classification of singularities, residues, Cauchys residue theorem, contour integrations, evaluation
of some definite integrals.

## Unit-II: Vector Calculus and Curvilinear Coordinates

Differential vector operators: Gradient, divergence and curl. Gausss theorem, Greens theorem, Stokes
theorem, Some simple examples based on these theorems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, cylindrical
and spherical polar coordinates, divergence, gradient, curl and Laplacian in these coordinates.

## Unit-III: Bessel Functions and Hermite Polynomials

Beta function and Gamma function. Method of obtaining series solution of second order differential
equation. Bessel functions: Series solution and Bessel function of the first kind, recurrence relations,
second solution of Bessels equation, spherical Bessel functions, generating function. Hermite
polynomials: The generating function, Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation.

## Unit-IV: Legendre and Laguerre Functions

Legendre function: The polynomial solution of the Legendre equation, the Legendre function of the
second kind, the generating function, upper bound for Pn(x), Rodrigues formula, orthogonality
relation. Associated Legendre functions and its orthogonality property. Laguerre functions.

Books Recommended:

## 1. Kreyszig, E. : Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Wiley Eastern).

2. Arfken, G.B. & Weber, H.J. : Mathematical Methods for Physicist (Academic Press).

## 3. Ghatak, A.K., Goyal, I.C. & : Mathematical Physics (Macmillan India).

Ghua, S.J.
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) V-Semester (Physics)
Paper-VI: Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08
(A) CLASSICAL MECHANICS
Unit-I: Lagrangian Dynamics and Variational Principles
Constraints holonomic and non-holonomic, time independent and time dependent. Generalized
coordinates, Lagrange equations from DAlemberts principle, velocity dependent potentials, velocity
dependent potential for e.m. field, applications of Lagrangian formalism to simple mechanical systems.

Variational Principle: Technique of the calculus of variation, Hamiltons variational principle, Lagrange
equations using Hamiltons principle. Generalized momenta, Cyclic coordinates, Definition of
Hamiltonian and its physical significance, conservation of energy, conservation of linear and angular
momenta.

## Unit-II: Humiltonian Dynamics and Two-body Central Force Problems

Hamiltons equations of motion from variational principle, Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates,
Hamiltonian as a constant of the motion.

Two-body Problem: Central force problem, conservation of angular momentum and Keplers second law,
the Kepler problem inverse square law of force, Keplers first and third laws, the Virial theorem and its
simple applications.
Two-body Collisions:- Scattering by a central force, Rutherford scattering formula, transformation of the
scattering problem from centre of mass to laboratory coordinates.

## (B) SPECIAL RELATIVITY

Unit-III: Four Dimensional Formulation and its Applications
Elementary idea of tensors; covariant, contra-variant and mixed tensors, addition, subtraction, multiplication and
contraction of tensors, quotient law. Four dimensional formulation of mechanics: Four dimensional representation
of the Lorentz transformations, covariance of the laws of nature, four vectors: velocity, momentum, force and their
transformations, equation of motion of a point particle in four vector form, relativistic Lagrangian. Collision
Kinematics: Energy in C.M. system, Lorentz factor of the C.M., threshold of a reaction, kinematics of two body
decays.
Unit-IV: Relativistic Electrodynamics and Applications of Relativistic Mechanics
Relativistic Electromagnetism: Equation of continuity in covariant form, electromagnetic field tensor, dual field
tensor, Maxwells equations in covariant form, transformation of electromagnetic fields, four potential, gauge
transformation. Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an e.m. field, Lagrange equation
of motion of a charged particle in uniform static electromagnetic field, electromagnetic fields of a uniformly
moving charged particle.

Books Recommended:

## 1. Goldstein, H. : Classical Mechanics, 2nd Ed. (Narosa)

2. Marion, J.B. & : Classical Dynamics of Particles Systems (Saundeu)
Thornton, S.T.
3. Joshi, J.W. : Matrices and Tensors in Physics (New Age)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) V Semester (Physics)
Paper-VII: Thermal and Statistical Physics
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08
Unit-I: First Law of Thermodynamics
Fundamental concepts of thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems, (homogeneous/ heterogeneous/
open/ closed/ isolated), state of a system, state variables: extensive and intensive variables,
thermodynamic equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics, empirical and thermodynamic
temperatures. Processes: reversible, irreversible and quasi-static.
First law of thermodynamics: Mathematical formulation of the first law, dependence of heat flow on
path, heat capacities, internal energy of an ideal gas, Carnot cycle, efficiency of reversible heat engine
and refrigerator; flow diagrams

## Unit-III: Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

Need for a second law of thermodynamics, shortcomings of the first law, entropy, entropy changes in
reversible and irreversible processes, entropy and the statement of the second law of thermodynamics,
Clausius and Kelvin-Planck statements of the second law, T-S diagrams, entropy of an ideal gas, entropy
of a mixture of two gases, Gibbs paradox, entropy and disorder.
Combined I and II laws: TdS equations, energy equations, expressions for the difference and the ratio of
heat capacities, enthalpy, porous plug experiment, Joule-Thomson coefficient, Helmholtz and Gibbs
functions, Maxwells equations.
Third law of thermodynamics: Statement of the third law and absolute value of entropy.
Phase Transition: First order phase transitions, Clapeyron equation and its applications.

## Unit-III: Kinetic Theory of Gases and Formalism of Statistical Physics

Review of the fundamentals of the kinetic theory : Basic assumptions, molecular flux, equation of an
ideal gas (using expression for the molecular flux), Van der Waals equation, critical constants, law of
corresponding states, collision cross-section and mean free path, transport phenomena: viscosity,
conduction and diffusion.
System and ensemble, phase space, micro- and macro-states, Postulates of classical and quantum
statistics, thermodynamic probability. Expressions (no derivation) for thermodynamic probability of a
macrostate in Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. Statistical definition of
entropy, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution functions,

## Unit-VI: Applications of Statistical Physics

Partition function, thermodynamical quantities in terms of the partition function. Monoatomic ideal gas,
the law of equi-partition of energy, quantized linear oscillator, Specific heat of a diatomic gas, rotational
and vibrational specific heats.
Black-body radiation: Black body radiation as thermodynamic substance, Plancks law. Rayleigh Jeans
law and Wiens law as special cases of Plancks law.

Books Recommended:
1. Sears, F.W. and : Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Statistical
Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, 3rd Edn. (Narosa)
2. Zemansky, M.W. : Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th Edn. (McGraw Hill)
B.Sc. (Hons) VI Semester (Physics)
Paper-VIII: Quantum Mechanics
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08

## Unit-I: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

Failures of classical mechanics: Blackbody radiation, Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Wave nature
of particles: de-Broglie waves and their experimental confirmation (Davisson-Germer Experiment and
Thomson Experiment).
Discreteness of energy levels: Bohr model of hydrogen atom, energy levels of hydrogen atom, Frank and
Hertz experiment.
Localized wave packets, Wave packets and the uncertainty principle.

## Unit-II: Postulates and Operators in Quantum Mechanics

The basic postulates of quantum mechanics, properties, physical significance and Born interpretation of
wave functions in quantum mechanics, probability density.
Operators: Adjoint, Projection and Hermition operators. Commutator algebra [x, px], [y, py]. Eigen
values and eigen vectors of an operator.
Ehrenfest theorem, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle (Derivation) and its simple applications (size and
energy of hydrogen atom, electrons in nucleus, range of nuclear force).

## Unit-III: Schrodinger Equation-I

Time dependent and independent Schrodinger equations. Stationary states, continuity equation.
One dimensional problem: Free particle, particle in a box, potential step, potential barrier (tunneling).
Particle in One dimensional infinite square well, Finite Square well, linear harmonic oscillator.

## Unit-IV: Schrodinger Equation-II

Schrodinger equation for two particles and its reduction in terms of central of mass and relative motion.
Schrodinger equation in spherical coordinates with central potential. The free particle in spherical
coordinates. Orbital angular momentum operators and their communication relations, Eigen values and
eigen functions of L2 and Lz.
Schrodinger equation for hydrogen like atoms, solution of the radial equation for the hydrogen atom, its
eigen values and eigen functions, degeneracy of the bound states of hydrogen.

Books Recommended:

1. Eisberg, R and Resnick, R : Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons 2004.
2. Zettili, N. : Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons 2006.
B.Sc. (Hons.) VI Semester (Physics)
Paper-IX: Spectroscopy and Condensed Matter Physics
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08

## Unit - I: Atomic Physics

Quantum numbers n,l,s,j and magnetic quantum numbers. One valence electron atom: Electronic
configuration and atomic states, spin-orbit interaction (qualitive), fine structure, intensity rules for
structure doublts, selection rule for electrical dipole transitions.
Two valence electron atoms: LS and jj coupling scheme, vector model of atom, terms and levels for non-
equivalent electron system (sp,pd and spd configuration) and equivalent electrons (p2,d2
configurations).Hunds rules. Zeeman effect.

## Unit - II: Molecular and Laser Physics

Diatomic molecule as rigid and non-rigid rotator, rotational spectrum.The vibrating diatomic molecule:
harmonic and anharmonic oscillator models, vibrating-rotator and its spectrum. Infrared spectrum of
diatomic molecules. Classical theory of Raman effect, rotational Raman spectra of diatomic
molecules.Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: Vibrational structure (progressions and sequences),
Franck-Condon principle (qualitative).

Laser Physics: Einsteins A and B coefficients, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, population
inversion, Resonator Laser pumping: Two, three and four level system (qualitative) ammonia maser,
principal and working of He-Ne and N2 lasers.

## B) Condensed Matter Physics

Unit - III: The crystalline state and diffraction from crystals
Crystalline and amorphous structure: Lattice, basis, primitive cell, unit cell, Wigner-Seitz cell, two and
three dimensional lattice types (Bravais Lattices), common crystal structures (NaCl, CsCl , HCP ), index
system for directions and planes.

Atomic cohesion and crystal binding: Cohension of atoms, primary bonds (covalent, metallic, ionic),
secondary bonds (van der Waals, hydrogen), potential energy of ionic crystals (derivation), estimation of
cohesive energy, concept of reciprocal lattice, Bragg law, Laves theory of x-ray diffraction, Brillouin
zones.

## Unit-IV: Laltice Vibration, Electronic Properties and Energy Bands

Lattice vibrations: The Ball and Springs model of a harmonic crystal. Normal modes of a one-
dimensional monatomic chain, the periodic boundary condition, dispersion curve, salient features, normal
modes of a diatomic chain, acoustical and optical modes, dispersion curves, salient features.
Electronic properties: Drude model, dc electrical resistivity, difficulties of classical theory, Fermi-Dirac
distribution and its variation with temperature, Sommerfeld model of free electron gas, electron density
of states, Hall effect.

Electron energy bands: Failures of free electron theory, formation of energy bands (wave mechanical
interpretation), Bloch theorem, calculation of band gap in nearly free electron model for a linear
monatomic crystal.

Books Recommended:

## 1. White, H.E. : Introduction to Atomic Spectra (McGraw-Hill)

2. Haken, H. & : Atomic and Quantum Physics (Springer-Verlag)
Wolf, H.C.
3. Banwell, C.A. : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Tata McGraw-
Hill)
4. Hollas,J.M : Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy(RS.C)
5. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)
6. Kittel, C. : Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Ed. (John Wiley)
7. Srivastava, J.P. : Elements of Solid State Physics (Prentice Hall)
8. Levy, R.A. : Principles of Solid State Physics (Academic Press)
9. Myers, H.P. : Introductory Solid State Physics (Viva)
Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) VI Semester (Physics)
Paper-X: Nuclear, Particle and Astrophysics
Lectures: 40
Tutorials: 08
Unit-I : Properties of Nuclues
General properties of the atomic nuclei: Constituents of the nucleus (n,p hypothesis). Size of the nucleus from high
energy electron scattering experiment.
Nuclear charge: Measurement of nuclear charge; -scattering method. Nuclear mass, Bainbridge and Aston mass
spectrograph, mass defect and binding energy, variation of binding energy with atomic mass, elementary idea of
nuclear fission and fusion.
Nuclear angular momentum, Nuclear magnetic dipole moment, nuclear electric quardrupole moment: definition,
units, significance of +ve and ve values.
Qualitative discussion of the nature of nuclear forces: Experimental evidence of short range, saturation, charge
independence, charge symmetry, state dependence, tensor nature.

## Unit-II : Radioactive Decay and Interaction of Nuclear Radiation with Matter

Radioactive series decay: Growth and decay of the daughter product, yield, ideal, transient and secular equilibrium.
Qualitative discussion of alpha, beta and gamma-decays, basic features of and decays, idea of continuous
nature of particle spectrum.
Energy loss of heavy charged particles due to excitation and ionization, semi-empirical formula for energy loss due
to ionization, dependence of stopping powers on energy, projectile and medium, range and straggling, Braggs
curve, Interaction of gamma radiation with matter: photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production,
attenuation.
Nuclear radiation detectors: Geiger- Muller detector and scintillation detector.

## Unit-III: Particle Physics

Basic interactions and their mediating quanta, classification of particles; Fermions and Bosons, leptons and
hadrons, particles and antiparticles, idea of resonances, conservation rules in fundamental interactions,
determination of spin and parity of pions, strange particles, isospin and its conservation, quarks, their quantum
numbers and quark model.

## Unit-IV: Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

Primary cosmic rays: Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays, secondary cosmic rays, Production secondary
cosmic rays, Rossi transition curve, electromagnetic cascade showers.
Structure of the sun, stellar energy source, p-p and C-N-O cycles and their temperature dependence, H-R diagram,
white dwarf and Chandrasekhar mass limit, neutron star and pulsar, Schwarzschild radius and Black Holes.

Books Recommended:
1. Enge, H.A. : Introduction to Nuclear Physics (Addison Wesley)
2. Evans, R.D. : Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill)
3. Kapoor, S.S. & : Nuclear Radiation Detectors (New Age)
Ramamurthy, V.S.
4. Knoll, G.F. : Radiation Detectors
5. Dodd, J.E. : Ideas of Particle Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press)
6. Martin, B.R. & Shaw, : Particle Physics (John Wiley)
R.G.
7. Rossi, B. : Cosmic Rays (George Allen and Unwin)
8. Pomerantz, M.A. : Cosmic Rays (van Nostrand Reinhold)
9. Bass, B. : An Introduction to Astrophysics (Harper and Row)
10. Zeilik, M. : Conceptual Astronomy
11. Ghosal, S.N. : Atomic and Nuclear Physics (S. Chand & Company, Ltd.)
Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) I Year (Physics)
Paper-I: (PH106) Mechanics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

## Unit I: Conservation Laws

Concept of inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces, conservative and non-
conservative forces, concept of potential energy, energy diagrams, law of conservation of total energy.
System of particles: centre of mass for a system of particles, motion of the centre of mass, c.m. frame of
reference, expressions for kinetic energy, linear momentum and angular momentum for a system of
particles in terms of centre of mass values. Central forces and the law of conservation of angular
momentum.

## Unit II: Rotational Motion

Review of rotational kinetic and dynamic variables, transformation equations for a frame of reference
rotating with respect to an inertial frame of reference, coriolis force, foucaultss pendulum. Rotation of a
rigid body: Energy and moment of inertia and moment of inertia as a tensor, principal axes, angular
momentum and kinetic energy of rotation with respect to principal axis, moment of inertia for a spherical
shell, sphere (hollow and solid) and a cylinder (hollow and solid), rolling sphere, idea of precessional
motion.

## Unit III: Oscillations

Differential equation and the solution for a simple harmonic oscillator, some examples (mass-spring,
simple pendulum, and compound pendulum), variation of particles displacement, velocity, acceleration
and its potential and kinetic energy with time, idea of phase. Damped Oscillator: Equation of motion and
its solution, qualitative description of the effect of different amounts of damping on the motion. Forced
oscillations and resonance: Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator and variation of
amplitude with frequency and damping, Q factor, superposition of two perpendicular S.H.Ms, coupled
pendulum and superposition of the normal modes.

## Unit IV: Wave Motion

Classification of waves, expression for a plane progressive and transverse harmonic wave, particle
velocity and acceleration, path difference and phase difference, velocity of transverse waves in a string.
Differential equation of a wave, wave velocity, energy density and intensity of a wave. Longitudinal
waves in gases, calculation of speed of sound, superposition of waves, interference and beats, stationary
waves and modes of vibration, group velocity and phase velocity of a wave, electromagnetic wave
equation and physical significance of the speed of e.m. waves.

Unit V: Gravitation
Law of gravitation, gravitational field and potential, gravitational potential energy, gravitational field
intensity and potential due to a spherical shell (inside, outside), a solid sphere (inside, outside) and a disc
at a point distant r from the centre. Two body problem reduced to one-body problem, reduced mass,
differential equation of the elliptical orbit of a particle moving under an attractive central force, Keplers
laws, deduction of Newtons law of gravitation from Keplers laws.
Unit VI: Special Relativity
Galilean transformations (velocity, acceleration), invariance of the laws of conservation of momentum
and energy to Galilean transformation and inadequacy of Galilean transformations, the principles of
special relativity, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition, length contraction and time dilation,
relativistic Doppler effect, variation of mass with velocity, relativistic form of Newtons second law,
work and energy. equivalence of mass and energy, relativistic transformations of momentum and energy.
Relation between relativistic momentum and energy. Mass, velocity, momentum and energy of a particle
of zero rest mass.

## Books and Recommended:

1. Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. : Physics Vol.1 (Wiley-Eastern)

## 2. Mathur, D.S. : Mechanics (S. Chand)

3. Kittel, C., Knight, W.D. and : Berkley Series Vol.1 Mechanics (McGraw
Ruderman, M.A. Hill)

## 4. French, A.P. : Vibration and Waves : M.I.T. Introductory

Physics series (Arnold-Heinemann)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) I Year (Physics)
Paper-II : (PH107) Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Waves

Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
Unit I: Vector Fields and Electrostatics
Scalar and vector fields, gradient, divergence and curl with their physical significance, divergence and
Stokes theorems. Gausss law and its applications: Field due to a uniformly charged sphere, charged
infinite plane and charged infinite cylinder, electrostatic potential, potential gradient, potential and field
due to an electric dipole, multipole expansion of electrostatic potential, linear quadrupole and potential
due to it, potential energy due to charge distribution, Laplace and Poisson equations and their properties,
uniqueness theorem.

## Unit II: Electrostatics in Dielectric Medium

Dielectrics, polarization of dielectrics, three electric vectors and relationship among them, Gausss law
for dielectrics, boundary conditions for dielectrics, polarizability, Clausius-Mossotti relation, Langevin-
Debye equation, Capacitors: Parallel plate capacitors filled with (a) a dielectric of linearly increasing
dielectric constant and (b) a composite dielectric.

Electric current, current density, continuity equation and attainment of electrostatic equilibrium, transient
currents, growth and decay of d.c. in LCR circuits, resistive circuits and Kirchhoffs laws, current
sources, Thevenins theorem, Nortons theorem, superposition theorem, and maximum power transfer
theorem, loop and nodal analyses, Kelvins double bridge for the measurement of low resistance and
leakage method for high resistance.

## Unit IV: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetic Properties

Ampere circuital law and its applications: Magnetic field due to a long straight current carrying
conductor and a toriod, Gausss law of magnetostatics, energy stored in a magnetic field, magnetic
moment and angular momentum, three magnetic vectors and relationship among them, magnetic
susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis curves (physical significance), magnetic materials and their
properties, theories of magnetism (qualitative idea), Langevin theory of paramanetism, Weiss molecular
field theory of paramagnetism and Curie-Weiss law of ferromagnetism.

## Unit V: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Laws of electromagnetic induction, self inductance and its calculation for a long solenoid and two long
parallel wires, mutual inductance, Neumanns formula, calculation of mutual inductance for two
solenoids, relation between self and mutual inductances in case of a toroid.
Alternating currents: Representation of sinusoids by complex numbers, sinusoidal voltage applied to a
series RL, RC and LCR circuits, series resonance, sharpness of resonance and Q-factor, parallel
resonance, power in AC circuits.

## Unit VI: Maxwells Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

Idea of displacement current and Maxwells modification of Amperes law, Maxwells equations
(integral and differential forms) and their physical significance, Poynting vector and Poyntings theorem,
classical wave equation, electromagnetic waves in free space and in isotropic non-conducting dielectric
medium. Production and detection of electromagnetic waves, Hertzs experiment.
Books Recommended:

## 1. Chattopadhyay, D. : Electricity and Magnetism (New Central Book Agency

and Rakshit, P.C. (P) Ltd.)
2. Tewari, K.K. : Electricity and Magnetism (S. Chand)
3. Mahajan, A.S. and Electricity and Magnetism (Tata McGrawHill)
Rangawala, A.A.
4. Resnick, R. and : Physics, Vol. II (John Wiley)
Halliday, D.
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) II Year (Physics)
Paper-I: (PH205)Optics and Electromagnetic Theory
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
Unit-I: Geometrical Optics
Fermats principle and its application to obtain laws of reflection and refraction, matrix method in paraxial optics,
cardinal points of an optical system, system of two lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations, coma, astigmatism,
curvature of the field, distortion (qualitative), Huygens and Ramsden eye pieces (qualitative).

## Unit-II: Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwells equations and their significance, scalar and vector potentials, gauge transformations and gauge
condition, oscillating dipole, energy density and intensity, plane e.m. waves in free space, isotropic non-conducting
medium and conducting medium. Behaviour of field vectors across the boundary of two media, reflection and
refraction of plane e.m. waves at a plane interface of two dielectric media (only laws of reflection and refraction).

Unit-III: Polarization
Polarization of light waves, production of plane polarized light by reflection, Brewsters law, Malus law,
superposition of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves, elliptically and circularly polarized light. The
phenomenon of double refraction: Positive and negative crystals, cases of normal and oblique incidence of plane
waves on a negative uniaxial crystal, Nicol prism, polaroids. Interference of polarized light, quarter and half wave
plates, production of elliptically and circularly polarized light, experimental detection of different types of
polarized light, optical activity.

Unit-IV: Interference
Principle of superposition and interference of light waves, coherence and its realization (Youngs double hole
arrangement), temporal and spatial coherence, localized fringes in thin films, fringes of equal thickness and equal
inclination. Fresnels biprism. Newtons rings, Michelsons interferometer, multiple beam interferometry, principle
of Fabry-Perot interferometer.

Unit-V: Diffraction
Fraunhofer diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction at one, two and N slits, diffraction grating, Fraunhofer diffraction at
circular aperture (no derivation), Rayleigh criterion of resolution, resolving power of grating.
Fresnel diffraction: Fresnels half period zones, zone plate, Fresnel diffraction at circular aperture, opaque disc and
straight edge, explanation of rectilinear propagation.

## Unit-VI: Modern Optics

Lasers: Basic principle, Ruby laser. He-Ne laser. Properties, applications.
Holography: Recording of hologram, reconstruction process, applications.
Fibre Optics: Optical fibre, fibre optic communication systems and their advantages.
Scattering: Compton effect, Raman scattering (qualitative).
Non-linear Optics: Non-linear polarization, second harmonic generation (qualitative).
Books Recommended:

## 1. Ghatak, A. : Optics (Tata McGraw-Hill)

2. Laud, B.B. : Electromagnetics (Wiley Eastern)
3. Mathur, B.K. : Optics (Gopal Printing Press)
4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) II Year (Physics)
Paper-II : (PH206)Electronics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
UNIT-I
Overview of semi-conductor physics, p-n junction, depletion layer, discussion of the diode equation I = Io [exp
(eV/nkT) 1] and its piece-wise linear approximation. Diode rectification, half wave, full wave and bridge
rectifiers, their ripple factor and efficiency, breakdown mechanisms, Zener diode and its applications, idea about
light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodiodes, clipping and clamping circuits using diodes.

UNIT-II
Current flow in BJT, , and their relation, small signal low frequency hybrid parameters. BJT as an amplifier,
amplifier configurations, equivalent circuits and their analysis, characteristics of their simple circuits, BJT biasing,
fixed biasing, self bias, load line, Q-point and its change due to temperature variation, stability factor (all for CE
configuration).

UNIT-III
Class A, B and C operation of amplifiers. RC coupled amplifier, its equivalent circuit and its gain in low, mid and
high frequency regions. Feedback in amplifiers, expression for the gain positive and negative feedback,
advantages of negative feedback amplifier (non-derivative). Voltage gain in case of CE amplifier without bypass
capacitor across RE.

UNIT-IV
Construction of JFET, idea of channel formation, physical explanation of different regions of I-V curves,
definitions of rd and gm. Basic construction of MOSFET and its working, physical explanation of characteristics,
enhancement and depletion modes.
Binary number system, binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversions. Logic gates: AND, OR, NOT,
NAND, NOR and XOR gates and their truth tables, Boolean algebra, De Morgans theorem, NAND and NOR as
universal gates, diode circuits for AND and OR gates, logic families TTL and CMOS characteristics (No
circuits).

UNIT-V
Positive feedback and Barkhausen criterion for oscillations, circuit diagrams and working for RC phase-shift,
Weins bridge, Hartley oscillators. Types of multivibrators, operation of astable multivibrator. RC differentiator
and integrator.
Operational amplifier (black box approach) and its ideal characteristics, virtual ground, inverting and non-inverting
amplifiers, adder, integrator and differentiator etc.

UNIT-VI
Power supply action of a capacitor filter, design of Zener regulator, transistor series regulators, modulation, need of
modulation, amplitude modulation and analysis of A.M. wave. A.M. diode detection, tuned radio frequency
CR tube, block diagram of CRO, working of triggered sweep scopes, frequency and phase measurements using
Lissajous figure.

Books Recommended:
1. Bagde, M.K., Singh, S.P. & : Elements of Electronics (S. Chand)
Singh, Kamal
2. Mehta, V.K. : Principles of Electronics (S. Chand)
3. Theraja, B.L. : Basic Electronics, Solid State (S. Chand)
4. Millman, M. : Micro-Electronics (McGraw Hill)
5. Boylested, R. & Nashelksky, L. : Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Prentice Hall)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) III Year (Physics)
Paper-I : (PH311) Mathematical Methods
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

## UNIT-I: Complex Variables

Functions of complex variables, De Moivres theorem, limits and continuity, Cauchy-Riemann
differential equations, line integrals of complex function, Greens theorem in the plane, Cauchys integral
theorem, Cauchys integral formula, problems based on Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula,
Taylor and Laurent series, use of Taylor and Laurent series for a few simple functions. Singular points,
classification of singularities, residues, Cauchys residue theorem, contour integrations, evaluation of
some definite integrals.

## UNIT-II: Vector Calculus and Curvilinear Coordinates

Differential vector operators: Gradient, divergence and curl. Surface and volume integrals, integral
definition of gradient, divergence and curl. Gausss theorem, Greens theorem, Stokes theorem, some
simple examples based on these theorems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, cylindrical and spherical
polar coordinates, divergence, gradient, curl and Laplacian in these coordinates.

## UNIT-III: Bessel Functions and Hermite Polynomials

Beta function and gamma function. Method of obtaining series solution of second order differential
equation. Series solution and Bessel function of the first kind, recurrence relations, second solution of
Bessels equation, spherical Bessel functions, asymptotic formulae, the generating function. Hermite
polynomials: The generating function, Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation.

## UNIT-IV: Legendre and Laguerre Functions

The Polynomial solution of the Legendre equation, the Legendre function of the second kind, the
generating function, upper bound for Pn(x), Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation, the associated
Legendre functions, orthogonality property of associated Legendre function, spherical harmonics,
properties of spherical harmonics, Laguerre functions, Associated Laguerre Polynomails.

## UNIT V: Fourier Series and Partial Differential Equation

Fourier series: General properties, completeness, Sturm-Liouville theory, summation of a Fourier series,
periodic functions, applications of Fourier series. Partial differential equations: Laplace and Poission
equations, solution of Laplace equation for simple problems-steady flow of heat in one and two
dimensions, variable linear heat flow, vibration of a circular membrane.

## UNIT VI: Integral Transform and Integral Equations

Development of the Fourier integral, Fourier integral Exponential form, complex form of Fourier
integral, Fourier transforms, inversion theorem, Fourier transform of derivatives, Laplace transform,
Laplace transform of derivative and inverse Laplace transformation, Classification of integral equations,
transformation of a differential equation into an integral equation integral equation with degenerate
(separable) Kernels, symmetric Kernels, Kernels reducible to symmetric Kernels, solution of symmetric
integral equations.
Books Recommended:

## 1. Kreyszig, E. : Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Wiley Eastern).

2. Arfken, G.B. & : Mathematical Methods for Physicist (Academic Press).
Weber, H.J.
3. Ghatak, A.K., : Mathematical Physics (Macmillan India).
Goyal, I.C. &
Ghua, S.J.
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year
Paper-II : (PH312) Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
(A) CLASSICAL MECHANICS
UNIT-I
Lagrange Equations: Review of mechanics of a system of particles, Constraints holonomic and non-holonomic, time
independent and time dependent. Generalized coordinates, kinetic energy in terms of generalized coordinates, Lagrange
equations from DAlemberts principle, velocity dependent potentials, velocity dependent potential for e.m. field, applications
of Lagrangian formalism to simple mechanical systems.

UNIT-II
Variational Principle: Technique of the calculus of variation, Hamiltons variational principle, Lagrange equations using
Hamiltons principle. Symmetry and Conservation Laws: Conservation theorems and symmetry properties, generalized
momenta, cyclic coordinates, definition of Hamiltonian and its physical significance, conservation of energy, conservation of
linear and angular momenta.

UNIT-III
Two-body Problem: Bound State, reduction of two-body problem to the one-body problems, equations of motion for relative
motion. Central force problem, conservation of angular momentum and Keplers second law, the Kepler problem inverse
square law of force, Keplers first and third lawsl the Virial theorem and its simple applications.

UNIT-IV
Two-body Problem: Scattering, Scattering cross-section, scattering by a central force, Rutherford scattering formula,
transformation of the scattering problem from centre of mass to laboratory coordinates. Hamiltonian formulation: Hamiltons
equations of motion from variational principle, cyclic coordinates and the conservation theorems, Hamiltonian as a constant of
the motion.

## (B) SPECIAL RELATIVITY

UNIT-V
Elementary idea of tensors; covariant, contra-variant and mixed tensors, addition, subtraction, multiplication and contraction
of tensors, quotient law. Four dimensional formulation of mechanics: Four dimensional representation of the Lorentz
transformations, covariance of the laws of nature, four vectors: velocity, momentum, force and their transformations, equation
of motion of a point particle in four vector form, relativistic Lagrangian. Collision Kinematics: Energy in C.M. system,
Lorentz factor of the C.M., threshold of a reaction, kinematics of two body decays.
UNIT-VI
Relativistic Electromagnetism: Equation of continuity in covariant form, electromagnetic field tensor, dual field tensor,
Maxwells equations in covariant form, transformation of electromagnetic fields, four potential, gauge transformation.
Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an e.m. field, Lagrange equation of motion of a charged
particle in uniform static electromangnetic field, electromagnetic fields of a uniformly moving charged particle.

Books Recommended:

## 1. Goldstein, H. : Classical Mechanics, 2nd Ed. (Narosa)

2. Marion, J.B. & : Classical Dynamics of Particles Systems (Saundeu)
Thornton, S.T.
3. Joshi, J.W. : Matrices and Tensors in Physics (New Age)
B.Sc. (Hons) III Year (Physics)
Paper-III : (PH313) Quantum Mechanics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

Unit-I:
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics:
Failures of Classical Mechanics: Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric effect, Compton Effect
Wave nature of particles: de-Broglie waves and their experimental confirmation (Davisson-Germer
Experiment and Thomson Experiment).
Discreteness of Energy levels: Bohr model of Hydrogen atom, Energy levels of Hydrogen atom, Frank
and Hertz experiment. The Correspondence principle.

Unit-II: Wave
packets: Localized wave packets, Wave packets and the uncertainty principle, Motion of wave packets,
Group and Phase velocities.
Postulates of quantum mechanics: The basic postulates of quantum mechanics, Properties, Physical
significance and Born Interpretation of wave functions in quantum mechanics, Probability density.
Operators: Adjoint, Projection and Hermition operators. Commutator algebra [x, px], [y, py]. Eigen
values and eigen vectors of an operator.
Ehrenfest theorem, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle (Derivation) and its simple applications (Size and
Energy of Hydrogen atom, electrons in nucleus, range of nuclear force).

Unit-III:

Schrodinger Equation: Time dependent and independent Schrodinger equations. Stationary states,
Continuity Equation.
One dimensional problem: Free Particle, Potential step, Potential Barrier (Tunneling). Particle in One
dimensional Infinite Square well, Finite Square well, Linear Harmonic Oscillator.

Unit-IV:

Angular Momentum: Orbital angular momentum operators and their commutation relations, Eigen
values and Eigen functions of L2 and LZ.

## 3D Problems in Spherical Coordinates: Central Potential (Separation of variables),The Free Particle in

Spherical Coordinates, Schrodinger equation for two particles and its reduction in terms of central of
mass and relative motion.
Schrodinger equation for Hydrogen like atoms, Solution of the Radial equation for the Hydrogen atom,
its Eigen values and Eigen functions, degeneracy of the bound states of Hydrogen.
Unit-V: (10 Lectures)

Spin Angular Momentum: Magnetic moment and angular momentum. Stern-Gerlach experiment, Spin
angular momentum operators and their Algebra, Eigen states of spin of particles.
Total angular momentum, its commutation relation, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of J2 and Jz.

## Unit-VI (14 Lectures)

Stationary state perturbation theory (only first order) and its simple applications (Anharmonic Oscillator,
Normal Zeeman effect)
Basics of scattering theory: Elastic and Inelastic scattering (simple idea), CM and laboratory reference
frame.
Differential and total cross sections, Scattering wave function and Scattering amplitude.
Relation between Scattering amplitude and cross section. Phase Shift, Partial wave analysis, Optical
theorem.

Books Recommended:

1. Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons 2004.
2. Nouredine Zettili, Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons 2006.
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year
Paper-IV : (PH314) Thermal and Statistical Physics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
UNIT-I: Kinetic Theory of Gases

Review of the fundamentals of the theory : Basic assumptions, molecular flux, equation of an ideal gas,
principle of equipartition of energy, specific heats of mono, di- and triatomic gases, kinetic theory versus
thermodynamics, Andrews experiment, intermolecular forces, Van der Waals equation, critical
constants, law of corresponding states, collision cross-section and mean free path, transport phenomena:
viscosity, conduction and diffusion.

UNIT-II
(a) Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems,
(homogeneous/heterogeneous/open/closed/isolated), state of a system, state variables: extensive and
intensive variables, general equation of state (ideal gas and Van der Waals equations as examples),
thermodynamic equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, empirical and thermodynamic
temperatures. Processes: reversible, irreversible and quasi-static.

(b) First Law of Thermodynamics: Mathematical formulation of the first law, heat capacities,
applications: energy equations (expressions for internal energy in terms of heat capacities), internal
energy of (i) an ideal gas (ii) Van der Waals gas, Joule free expansion.

## UNIT-III: Second Law of Thermodynamics

Carnots cycle, efficiency of a reversible heat engine, Carnots theorem, thermodynamic temperature
existence, the need for a second law, shortcoming of the first law, entropy, entropy changes in reversible
and irreversible processes, entropy and the statement of the second law of thermodynamics, Clausius and
Kelvin-Planck statements of the second law, T-S diagrams, entropy of an ideal gas, entropy of a mixture
of two gases, Gibbs paradox, entropy and disorder.

UNIT-IV

(a) Combined I and II Laws: TdS equations, energy equations, expressions for the difference and the
ratio of heat capacities, enthalpy, porous plug experiment, Joule-Thomson coefficient, principle of
regenerative cooling, Helmboltz and Gibbs functions, Maxwells equations.

(b) Third Law of Thermodynamics: Statement of the third law and absolute value of entropy, adiabatic
demagnetisation.

(c) Phase Transitions: First order phase transitions, Clapeyron equation, tripple point, second order phase
transition.
UNIT-V: Formalism of Statistical Physics
System and ensemble, phase space, micro- and macro-states, Postulate of classical and quantum statistics,
thermodynamic probability, thermodynamic probability of a macrostate in B-E, F-D and M-B statistics
and its application to the systems of few particles. Statistical definition of entropy, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-
Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution functions, partition function, thermodynamical quantities in
terms of the partition function.

## UNIT-VI: Applications of Statistical Physics

Monatomic ideal gas, Maxwells formula for the distribution of velocities, Experimental verification of
Maxwell formula, the law of equipartition of energy, quantized linear oscillator, Specific heat of a
diatomic gas, rotational and vibrational specific heats. Black-body radiation Black body radiation as
thermodynamic substance, Plancks law. Rayleigh Jeans law and Wiens law as special cases of Plancks
law. Paramagnetism, Negative temperatures.

Books Recommended:

## 1. Sears, F.W. and : Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Statistical

Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, 3rd Edn. (Narosa)
2. Zemansky, M.W. : Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th Edn. (McGraw Hill)
B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year (Physics)
Paper-V (PH315) : Atomic, Molecular, Laser and Condensed Matter Physics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

## Unit - I: Atomic Physics

Quantum numbers n,l,s,j and magnetic quantum numbers, spectroscopic terms, spin-orbit interaction
energy, idea of relativistic correction and Lamb Shift, fine structure of hydrogen and sodium spectra,
intensity rule for structure doublets, excitation and ionization potentials.
LS and jj coupling scheme: Terms and levels for non-equivalent electron systems (sp, sd, sf, pp and spd
configurations), Paulis exclusion principle applied to equivalent electrons (s2.p2). Breits scheme of
magnetic quantum numbers applied to terms derivation (p2,d2), Hunds, rules, selection rules for electric
dipole transitions, normal and anomalous, Zeeman effect (no derivation).

## Unit - II: Molecular Physics

Diatomic molecule as rigid and non-rigid rotator, rotational spectrum, the vibrating diatomic molecule:
harmonic and anharmonic oscillator models, vibrating-rotator and its spectrum, infrared spectrum of
diatomic molecules, classical theory of Raman effect, rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules.
Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: Vibrational structure (progressions and sequences), Franck-
Condon principle (qualitative), shapes of molecular orbitals, electronic structure of H2 and N2, modes of
vibration of CO2 and H2O (qualitative).

## Unit - III: Laser Physics

Einsteins A and B coefficients, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, population inversion, Laser
pumping: Optical and electrical. Two level system, three and four level system (qualitative) ammonia
maser, Resonator: vibtational modes of a resonator, number of modes per unit volume, open resonators,
properties of laser beams, principle and working of Ruby, He-Ne and N2 lasers, application of lasers.
Laser safety.

## B) Condensed Matter Physics

Unit - IV: The Crystalline State
Crystalline and amorphous structure: Lattice, basis, basis vector, primitive cell, unit cell, Wigner-Seitz
cell, two and three dimensional lattice types (Bravais Lattices), common crystal structures (NaCl, CsCl
Common metals, HCP and Diamond), index system for directions and planes, interplanar distance, idea
of quasi-crystal.

Atomic Cohesion and Crystal Binding: Cohension of atoms, primary bonds (covalent, metallic, ionic and
mixed) secondary bonds (van der Waals, hydrogen), potential energy of ionic and noble gas crystals
(derivation), estimation of cohesive energy.

## Unit-V: Diffraction from Crystals and Lattice Vibrations

Crystal Diffraction: Bragg diffraction, description of Laues experiment and Laue photograph, origin of
the concept of reciprocal lattice, Brillouin Zones, Bragg law, use of x-rays, neutrons and electrons for
studying Bragg diffraction.
Lattice Vibrations: The Ball and Springs model of a Harmonic Crystal, normal modes. Normal modes
of a one-dimensional monatomic chain, the periodic boundary condition, dispersion curve, salient
features, normal modes of a diatomic chain, acoustical and optical modes, dispersion curves, salient
features, quantization of lattice vibrations, concept of zero point energy.

## Unit-VI: Electronic Properties and Energy Bands

Electronic Properties: Classical free electron theory, Drude model, collisions or relaxation times, dc
electrical resistivity, Mathiessens rule, Hall effect, difficulties of classical theory, Fermions, Fermi-Dirac
distribution and its variation with temperature, Sommerfeld model of free electron gas, electron density
of states.

Electron Energy Bands: Failures of free electron theory, formation of energy bands (wave mechanical
interpretation), consequences of periodicity, Bloch theorem, occurrence of energy gaps, calculation of
band gap in nearly free electron model for a linear monatomic crystal. Simple properties of
superconductors (zero dc resistance and Meissner effect).

Books Recommended:

## 1. White, H.E. : Introduction to Atomic Spectra (McGraw-Hill)

2. Haken, H. & : Atomic and Quantum Physics (Springer-Verlag)
Wolf, H.C.
3. Banwell, C.A. : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Tata McGraw-
Hill)
4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)
5. Kittel, C. : Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Ed. (John Wiley)
6. Srivastava, J.P. : Elements of Solid State Physics (Prentice Hall)
7. Levy, R.A. : Principles of Solid State Physics (Academic Press)
8. Myers, H.P. : Introductory Solid State Physics (Viva)
Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year

## Paper-VI : (PH316) Nuclear, Particle and Astrophysics

Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I

General properties of the atomic nuclei: Constituents of the nucleus (n,p hypothesis). Size of the
nucleus: high energy electron scattering.
Nuclear charge: Measurement of nuclear charge; -scattering method. Nuclear mass, Bainbridge and Aston mass
spectrograph, mass defect and binding energy, variation of binding energy with atomic mass, elementary idea of nuclear
fission and fusion.

Nuclear Angular Momentum, Nuclear magnetic dipole moment, idea of nuclear g-factor. Nuclear electric
quardrupole moment: definition, units, significance of +ve and ve values. Elementary idea of nuclear
statistics and parity.

Qualitative discussion of the nature of nuclear forces: Experimental evidence of short range,
saturation, charge independence, charge symmetry, state dependence, tensor nature.

UNIT-II

Radioactive Series Decay: Growth and decay of the daughter product, yield, ideal, transient and
secular equilibrium. Bateman equations and their application to activation analysis.

Qualitative discussion of alpha, beta and gamma-decays, basic features of and -decays, energy
spectrum of alpha particles, fine structure, continuous nature of particle spectrum-neutrino, excited
states of nuclei, selection rules for decay.
Nuclear Reactions: Energy balance, Q-value, negative Q-value reactions and threshold energy, energetics
of ,+,- and EC decays, reaction cross section.

## UNIT-III: Interaction of radiations with matter

Energy loss of charged particles due to excitation and ionization, semi-empirical formula for energy loss
due to ionization, range and straggling, qualitative idea of radiation loss, Cerenkov radiation. Interaction
of gamma radiation with matter: photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production.

## Nuclear radiation detectors: G.M. counter, scintillation counters, principle of semi-conductor

detectors, position sensitive gas filled detector.

## UNIT-IV: Particle Physics

Basic interactions and their mediating quanta, classification of particles; Fermions and Bosons, leptons
and hadrons, particles and antiparticles, idea of resonances, conservation rules in fundamental
interactions, determination of spin and parity of pions, strange particles, associated production,
strangeness and decay modes of charged Kaons, isospin and its conservation, quarks, their quantum
numbers and quark model.

## UNIT-V: Cosmic Rays

Primary cosmic rays: Energy and charge spectrum of primary cosmic rays, secondary cosmic rays,
composition of secondary cosmic rays, variation of intensity of cosmic rays, quantitative discussion of
geomagnetic effect, Rossi transition curve, electromagnetic cascade showers and extensive air showers,
elementary idea of origin of primary cosmic rays.

UNIT-VI: Astrophysics

Structure of the sun, sunspots, solar flares, stellar energy source, p-p and C-N-O cycles and their
temperature dependence, stars and their temperatures and magnitudes, H-R diagram, stellar evolution
(hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium), white dwarf, Chandrasekhar mass limit, neutron star, pulsars,

Books Recommended:

## 1. Enge, H.A. : Introduction to Nuclear Physics (Addison Wesley)

2. Evans, R.D. : Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill)
3. Kapoor, S.S. & : Nuclear Radiation Detectors (New Age)
Ramamurthy, V.S.
4. Knoll, G.F. : Radiation Detectors
5. Dodd, J.E. : Ideas of Particle Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press)
6. Martin, B.R. & : Particle Physics (John Wiley)
Shaw, R.G.
7. Rossi, B. : Cosmic Rays (George Allen and Unwin)
8. Pomerantz, M.A. : Cosmic Rays (van Nostrand Reinhold)
9. Bass, B. : An Introduction to Astrophysics (Harper and Row)
10. Zeilik, M. : Conceptual Astronomy
11. Ghosal, S.N. : Atomic and Nuclear Physics (S. Chand & Company,
Ltd.)
Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) I Year (Physics)
Paper-I : (PH106) Mechanics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

## Unit I: Conservation Laws

Concept of inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces, conservative and non-
conservative forces, concept of potential energy, energy diagrams, law of conservation of total energy.
System of particles: centre of mass for a system of particles, motion of the centre of mass, c.m. frame of
reference, expressions for kinetic energy, linear momentum and angular momentum for a system of
particles in terms of centre of mass values. Central forces and the law of conservation of angular
momentum.

## Unit II: Rotational Motion

Review of rotational kinetic and dynamic variables, transformation equations for a frame of reference
rotating with respect to an inertial frame of reference, coriolis force, foucaultss pendulum. Rotation of a
rigid body: Energy and moment of inertia and moment of inertia as a tensor, principal axes, angular
momentum and kinetic energy of rotation with respect to principal axis, moment of inertia for a spherical
shell, sphere (hollow and solid) and a cylinder (hollow and solid), rolling sphere, idea of precessional
motion.

## Unit III: Oscillations

Differential equation and the solution for a simple harmonic oscillator, some examples (mass-spring,
simple pendulum, and compound pendulum), variation of particles displacement, velocity, acceleration
and its potential and kinetic energy with time, idea of phase. Damped Oscillator: Equation of motion and
its solution, qualitative description of the effect of different amounts of damping on the motion. Forced
oscillations and resonance: Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator and variation of
amplitude with frequency and damping, Q factor, superposition of two perpendicular S.H.Ms, coupled
pendulum and superposition of the normal modes.

## Unit IV: Wave Motion

Classification of waves, expression for a plane progressive and transverse harmonic wave, particle
velocity and acceleration, path difference and phase difference, velocity of transverse waves in a string.
Differential equation of a wave, wave velocity, energy density and intensity of a wave. Longitudinal
waves in gases, calculation of speed of sound, superposition of waves, interference and beats, stationary
waves and modes of vibration, group velocity and phase velocity of a wave, electromagnetic wave
equation and physical significance of the speed of e.m. waves.

Unit V: Gravitation
Law of gravitation, gravitational field and potential, gravitational potential energy, gravitational field
intensity and potential due to a spherical shell (inside, outside), a solid sphere (inside, outside) and a disc
at a point distant r from the centre. Two body problem reduced to one-body problem, reduced mass,
differential equation of the elliptical orbit of a particle moving under an attractive central force, Keplers
laws, deduction of Newtons law of gravitation from Keplers laws.
Unit VI: Special Relativity
Galilean transformations (velocity, acceleration), invariance of the laws of conservation of momentum
and energy to Galilean transformation and inadequacy of Galilean transformations, the principles of
special relativity, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition, length contraction and time dilation,
relativistic Doppler effect, variation of mass with velocity, relativistic form of Newtons second law,
work and energy. equivalence of mass and energy, relativistic transformations of momentum and energy.
Relation between relativistic momentum and energy. Mass, velocity, momentum and energy of a particle
of zero rest mass.

## Books and Recommended:

1. Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. : Physics Vol.1 (Wiley-Eastern)

## 2. Mathur, D.S. : Mechanics (S. Chand)

3. Kittel, C., Knight, W.D. and : Berkley Series Vol.1 Mechanics (McGraw
Ruderman, M.A. Hill)

## 4. French, A.P. : Vibration and Waves : M.I.T. Introductory

Physics series (Arnold-Heinemann)
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) I Year (Physics)
Paper-II: (PH107) Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Waves

Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
Unit I: Vector Fields and Electrostatics
Scalar and vector fields, gradient, divergence and curl with their physical significance, divergence and
Stokes theorems. Gausss law and its applications: Field due to a uniformly charged sphere, charged
infinite plane and charged infinite cylinder, electrostatic potential, potential gradient, potential and field
due to an electric dipole, multipole expansion of electrostatic potential, linear quadrupole and potential
due to it, potential energy due to charge distribution, Laplace and Poisson equations and their properties,
uniqueness theorem.

## Unit II: Electrostatics in Dielectric Medium

Dielectrics, polarization of dielectrics, three electric vectors and relationship among them, Gausss law
for dielectrics, boundary conditions for dielectrics, polarizability, Clausius-Mossotti relation, Langevin-
Debye equation, Capacitors: Parallel plate capacitors filled with (a) a dielectric of linearly increasing
dielectric constant and (b) a composite dielectric.

Electric current, current density, continuity equation and attainment of electrostatic equilibrium, transient
currents, growth and decay of d.c. in LCR circuits, resistive circuits and Kirchhoffs laws, current
sources, Thevenins theorem, Nortons theorem, superposition theorem, and maximum power transfer
theorem, loop and nodal analyses, Kelvins double bridge for the measurement of low resistance and
leakage method for high resistance.
Unit IV: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetic Properties
Ampere circuital law and its applications: Magnetic field due to a long straight current carrying
conductor and a toriod, Gausss law of magnetostatics, energy stored in a magnetic field, magnetic
moment and angular momentum, three magnetic vectors and relationship among them, magnetic
susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis curves (physical significance), magnetic materials and their
properties, theories of magnetism (qualitative idea), Langevin theory of paramanetism, Weiss molecular
field theory of paramagnetism and Curie-Weiss law of ferromagnetism.

## Unit V: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Laws of electromagnetic induction, self inductance and its calculation for a long solenoid and two long
parallel wires, mutual inductance, Neumanns formula, calculation of mutual inductance for two
solenoids, relation between self and mutual inductances in case of a toroid.
Alternating currents: Representation of sinusoids by complex numbers, sinusoidal voltage applied to a
series RL, RC and LCR circuits, series resonance, sharpness of resonance and Q-factor, parallel
resonance, power in AC circuits.

## Unit VI: Maxwells Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

Idea of displacement current and Maxwells modification of Amperes law, Maxwells equations
(integral and differential forms) and their physical significance, Poynting vector and Poyntings theorem,
classical wave equation, electromagnetic waves in free space and in isotropic non-conducting dielectric
medium. Production and detection of electromagnetic waves, Hertzs experiment.
Books Recommended:

## 1. Chattopadhyay, D. : Electricity and Magnetism (New Central Book Agency

and Rakshit, P.C. (P) Ltd.)
2. Tewari, K.K. : Electricity and Magnetism (S. Chand)
3. Mahajan, A.S. and Electricity and Magnetism (Tata McGrawHill)
Rangawala, A.A.
4. Resnick, R. and : Physics, Vol. II (John Wiley)
Halliday, D.
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) II Year (Physics)
Paper-I: (PH205)Optics and Electromagnetic Theory
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
Unit-I: Geometrical Optics
Fermats principle and its application to obtain laws of reflection and refraction, matrix method in paraxial optics,
cardinal points of an optical system, system of two lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations, coma, astigmatism,
curvature of the field, distortion (qualitative), Huygens and Ramsden eye pieces (qualitative).

## Unit-II: Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwells equations and their significance, scalar and vector potentials, gauge transformations and gauge
condition, oscillating dipole, energy density and intensity, plane e.m. waves in free space, isotropic non-conducting
medium and conducting medium. Behaviour of field vectors across the boundary of two media, reflection and
refraction of plane e.m. waves at a plane interface of two dielectric media (only laws of reflection and refraction).

Unit-III: Polarization
Polarization of light waves, production of plane polarized light by reflection, Brewsters law, Malus law,
superposition of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves, elliptically and circularly polarized light. The
phenomenon of double refraction: Positive and negative crystals, cases of normal and oblique incidence of plane
waves on a negative uniaxial crystal, Nicol prism, polaroids. Interference of polarized light, quarter and half wave
plates, production of elliptically and circularly polarized light, experimental detection of different types of
polarized light, optical activity.

Unit-IV: Interference
Principle of superposition and interference of light waves, coherence and its realization (Youngs double hole
arrangement), temporal and spatial coherence, localized fringes in thin films, fringes of equal thickness and equal
inclination. Fresnels biprism. Newtons rings, Michelsons interferometer, multiple beam interferometry, principle
of Fabry-Perot interferometer.

Unit-V: Diffraction
Fraunhofer diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction at one, two and N slits, diffraction grating, Fraunhofer diffraction at
circular aperture (no derivation), Rayleigh criterion of resolution, resolving power of grating.
Fresnel diffraction: Fresnels half period zones, zone plate, Fresnel diffraction at circular aperture, opaque disc and
straight edge, explanation of rectilinear propagation.

## Unit-VI: Modern Optics

Lasers: Basic principle, Ruby laser. He-Ne laser. Properties, applications.
Holography: Recording of hologram, reconstruction process, applications.
Fibre Optics: Optical fibre, fibre optic communication systems and their advantages.
Scattering: Compton effect, Raman scattering (qualitative).
Non-linear Optics: Non-linear polarization, second harmonic generation (qualitative).
Books Recommended:

## 1. Ghatak, A. : Optics (Tata McGraw-Hill)

2. Laud, B.B. : Electromagnetics (Wiley Eastern)
3. Mathur, B.K. : Optics (Gopal Printing Press)
4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)

## Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) II Year (Physics)

Paper-II : (PH206)Electronics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
UNIT-I
Overview of semi-conductor physics, p-n junction, depletion layer, discussion of the diode equation I = Io [exp
(eV/nkT) 1] and its piece-wise linear approximation. Diode rectification, half wave, full wave and bridge
rectifiers, their ripple factor and efficiency, breakdown mechanisms, Zener diode and its applications, idea about
light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodiodes, clipping and clamping circuits using diodes.

UNIT-II
Current flow in BJT, , and their relation, small signal low frequency hybrid parameters. BJT as an amplifier,
amplifier configurations, equivalent circuits and their analysis, characteristics of their simple circuits, BJT biasing,
fixed biasing, self bias, load line, Q-point and its change due to temperature variation, stability factor (all for CE
configuration).

UNIT-III
Class A, B and C operation of amplifiers. RC coupled amplifier, its equivalent circuit and its gain in low, mid and
high frequency regions. Feedback in amplifiers, expression for the gain positive and negative feedback,
advantages of negative feedback amplifier (non-derivative). Voltage gain in case of CE amplifier without bypass
capacitor across RE.

UNIT-IV
Construction of JFET, idea of channel formation, physical explanation of different regions of I-V curves,
definitions of rd and gm. Basic construction of MOSFET and its working, physical explanation of characteristics,
enhancement and depletion modes.
Binary number system, binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversions. Logic gates: AND, OR, NOT,
NAND, NOR and XOR gates and their truth tables, Boolean algebra, De Morgans theorem, NAND and NOR as
universal gates, diode circuits for AND and OR gates, logic families TTL and CMOS characteristics (No
circuits).

UNIT-V
Positive feedback and Barkhausen criterion for oscillations, circuit diagrams and working for RC phase-shift,
Weins bridge, Hartley oscillators. Types of multivibrators, operation of astable multivibrator. RC differentiator
and integrator.
Operational amplifier (black box approach) and its ideal characteristics, virtual ground, inverting and non-inverting
amplifiers, adder, integrator and differentiator etc.

UNIT-VI
Power supply action of a capacitor filter, design of Zener regulator, transistor series regulators, modulation, need of
modulation, amplitude modulation and analysis of A.M. wave. A.M. diode detection, tuned radio frequency
CR tube, block diagram of CRO, working of triggered sweep scopes, frequency and phase measurements using
Lissajous figure.

Books Recommended:
1. Bagde, M.K., Singh, S.P. & : Elements of Electronics (S. Chand)
Singh, Kamal
2. Mehta, V.K. : Principles of Electronics (S. Chand)
3. Theraja, B.L. : Basic Electronics, Solid State (S. Chand)
4. Millman, M. : Micro-Electronics (McGraw Hill)
5. Boylested, R. & Nashelksky, L. : Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Prentice Hall)

## Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons) III Year (Physics)

Paper-I : (PH311) Mathematical Methods
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

## UNIT-I: Complex Variables

Functions of complex variables, De Moivres theorem, limits and continuity, Cauchy-Riemann
differential equations, line integrals of complex function, Greens theorem in the plane, Cauchys integral
theorem, Cauchys integral formula, problems based on Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula,
Taylor and Laurent series, use of Taylor and Laurent series for a few simple functions. Singular points,
classification of singularities, residues, Cauchys residue theorem, contour integrations, evaluation of
some definite integrals.

## UNIT-II: Vector Calculus and Curvilinear Coordinates

Differential vector operators: Gradient, divergence and curl. Surface and volume integrals, integral
definition of gradient, divergence and curl. Gausss theorem, Greens theorem, Stokes theorem, some
simple examples based on these theorems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, cylindrical and spherical
polar coordinates, divergence, gradient, curl and Laplacian in these coordinates.

## UNIT-III: Bessel Functions and Hermite Polynomials

Beta function and gamma function. Method of obtaining series solution of second order differential
equation. Series solution and Bessel function of the first kind, recurrence relations, second solution of
Bessels equation, spherical Bessel functions, asymptotic formulae, the generating function. Hermite
polynomials: The generating function, Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation.

## UNIT-IV: Legendre and Laguerre Functions

The Polynomial solution of the Legendre equation, the Legendre function of the second kind, the
generating function, upper bound for Pn(x), Rodrigues formula, orthogonality relation, the associated
Legendre functions, orthogonality property of associated Legendre function, spherical harmonics,
properties of spherical harmonics, Laguerre functions, Associated Laguerre Polynomails.

## UNIT V: Fourier Series and Partial Differential Equation

Fourier series: General properties, completeness, Sturm-Liouville theory, summation of a Fourier series,
periodic functions, applications of Fourier series. Partial differential equations: Laplace and Poission
equations, solution of Laplace equation for simple problems-steady flow of heat in one and two
dimensions, variable linear heat flow, vibration of a circular membrane.

## UNIT VI: Integral Transform and Integral Equations

Development of the Fourier integral, Fourier integral Exponential form, complex form of Fourier
integral, Fourier transforms, inversion theorem, Fourier transform of derivatives, Laplace transform,
Laplace transform of derivative and inverse Laplace transformation, Classification of integral equations,
transformation of a differential equation into an integral equation integral equation with degenerate
(separable) Kernels, symmetric Kernels, Kernels reducible to symmetric Kernels, solution of symmetric
integral equations.
Books Recommended:

## 1. Kreyszig, E. : Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Wiley Eastern).

2. Arfken, G.B. & : Mathematical Methods for Physicist (Academic Press).
Weber, H.J.
3. Ghatak, A.K., : Mathematical Physics (Macmillan India).
Goyal, I.C. &
Ghua, S.J.
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year
Paper-II: (PH312) Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
(C) CLASSICAL MECHANICS
UNIT-I
Lagrange Equations: Review of mechanics of a system of particles, Constraints holonomic and non-holonomic, time
independent and time dependent. Generalized coordinates, kinetic energy in terms of generalized coordinates, Lagrange
equations from DAlemberts principle, velocity dependent potentials, velocity dependent potential for e.m. field, applications
of Lagrangian formalism to simple mechanical systems.

UNIT-II
Variational Principle: Technique of the calculus of variation, Hamiltons variational principle, Lagrange equations using
Hamiltons principle. Symmetry and Conservation Laws: Conservation theorems and symmetry properties, generalized
momenta, cyclic coordinates, definition of Hamiltonian and its physical significance, conservation of energy, conservation of
linear and angular momenta.

UNIT-III
Two-body Problem: Bound State, reduction of two-body problem to the one-body problems, equations of motion for relative
motion. Central force problem, conservation of angular momentum and Keplers second law, the Kepler problem inverse
square law of force, Keplers first and third lawsl the Virial theorem and its simple applications.

UNIT-IV
Two-body Problem: Scattering, Scattering cross-section, scattering by a central force, Rutherford scattering formula,
transformation of the scattering problem from centre of mass to laboratory coordinates. Hamiltonian formulation: Hamiltons
equations of motion from variational principle, cyclic coordinates and the conservation theorems, Hamiltonian as a constant of
the motion.

## (D) SPECIAL RELATIVITY

UNIT-V
Elementary idea of tensors; covariant, contra-variant and mixed tensors, addition, subtraction, multiplication and contraction
of tensors, quotient law. Four dimensional formulation of mechanics: Four dimensional representation of the Lorentz
transformations, covariance of the laws of nature, four vectors: velocity, momentum, force and their transformations, equation
of motion of a point particle in four vector form, relativistic Lagrangian. Collision Kinematics: Energy in C.M. system,
Lorentz factor of the C.M., threshold of a reaction, kinematics of two body decays.
UNIT-VI
Relativistic Electromagnetism: Equation of continuity in covariant form, electromagnetic field tensor, dual field tensor,
Maxwells equations in covariant form, transformation of electromagnetic fields, four potential, gauge transformation.
Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an e.m. field, Lagrange equation of motion of a charged
particle in uniform static electromangnetic field, electromagnetic fields of a uniformly moving charged particle.

Books Recommended:

## 1. Goldstein, H. : Classical Mechanics, 2nd Ed. (Narosa)

2. Marion, J.B. & : Classical Dynamics of Particles Systems (Saundeu)
Thornton, S.T.
3. Joshi, J.W. : Matrices and Tensors in Physics (New Age)
B.Sc. (Hons) III Year (Physics)
Paper-III: (PH313) Quantum Mechanics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

Unit-I:
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics:
Failures of Classical Mechanics: Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric effect, Compton Effect
Wave nature of particles: de-Broglie waves and their experimental confirmation (Davisson-Germer
Experiment and Thomson Experiment).
Discreteness of Energy levels: Bohr model of Hydrogen atom, Energy levels of Hydrogen atom, Frank
and Hertz experiment. The Correspondence principle.

Unit-II: Wave
packets: Localized wave packets, Wave packets and the uncertainty principle, Motion of wave packets,
Group and Phase velocities.
Postulates of quantum mechanics: The basic postulates of quantum mechanics, Properties, Physical
significance and Born Interpretation of wave functions in quantum mechanics, Probability density.
Operators: Adjoint, Projection and Hermition operators. Commutator algebra [x, px], [y, py]. Eigen
values and eigen vectors of an operator.
Ehrenfest theorem, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle (Derivation) and its simple applications (Size and
Energy of Hydrogen atom, electrons in nucleus, range of nuclear force).

Unit-III:

Schrodinger Equation: Time dependent and independent Schrodinger equations. Stationary states,
Continuity Equation.
One dimensional problem: Free Particle, Potential step, Potential Barrier (Tunneling). Particle in One
dimensional Infinite Square well, Finite Square well, Linear Harmonic Oscillator.

Unit-IV:

Angular Momentum: Orbital angular momentum operators and their commutation relations, Eigen
values and Eigen functions of L2 and LZ.

## 3D Problems in Spherical Coordinates: Central Potential (Separation of variables),The Free Particle in

Spherical Coordinates, Schrodinger equation for two particles and its reduction in terms of central of
mass and relative motion.
Schrodinger equation for Hydrogen like atoms, Solution of the Radial equation for the Hydrogen atom,
its Eigen values and Eigen functions, degeneracy of the bound states of Hydrogen.
Unit-V: (10 Lectures)

Spin Angular Momentum: Magnetic moment and angular momentum. Stern-Gerlach experiment, Spin
angular momentum operators and their Algebra, Eigen states of spin of particles.
Total angular momentum, its commutation relation, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of J2 and Jz.

## Unit-VI (14 Lectures)

Stationary state perturbation theory (only first order) and its simple applications (Anharmonic Oscillator,
Normal Zeeman effect)
Basics of scattering theory: Elastic and Inelastic scattering (simple idea), CM and laboratory reference
frame.
Differential and total cross sections, Scattering wave function and Scattering amplitude.
Relation between Scattering amplitude and cross section. Phase Shift, Partial wave analysis, Optical
theorem.

Books Recommended:

1. Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons 2004.
2. Nouredine Zettili, Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons 2006.
Syllabus for B.Sc.(Hons.) III Year
Paper-IV : (PH314) Thermal and Statistical Physics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12
UNIT-I: Kinetic Theory of Gases

Review of the fundamentals of the theory : Basic assumptions, molecular flux, equation of an ideal gas,
principle of equipartition of energy, specific heats of mono, di- and triatomic gases, kinetic theory versus
thermodynamics, Andrews experiment, intermolecular forces, Van der Waals equation, critical
constants, law of corresponding states, collision cross-section and mean free path, transport phenomena:
viscosity, conduction and diffusion.

UNIT-II
(c) Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems,
(homogeneous/heterogeneous/open/closed/isolated), state of a system, state variables: extensive and
intensive variables, general equation of state (ideal gas and Van der Waals equations as examples),
thermodynamic equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, empirical and thermodynamic
temperatures. Processes: reversible, irreversible and quasi-static.

(d) First Law of Thermodynamics: Mathematical formulation of the first law, heat capacities,
applications: energy equations (expressions for internal energy in terms of heat capacities), internal
energy of (i) an ideal gas (ii) Van der Waals gas, Joule free expansion.

## UNIT-III: Second Law of Thermodynamics

Carnots cycle, efficiency of a reversible heat engine, Carnots theorem, thermodynamic temperature
existence, the need for a second law, shortcoming of the first law, entropy, entropy changes in reversible
and irreversible processes, entropy and the statement of the second law of thermodynamics, Clausius and
Kelvin-Planck statements of the second law, T-S diagrams, entropy of an ideal gas, entropy of a mixture
of two gases, Gibbs paradox, entropy and disorder.

UNIT-IV

(d) Combined I and II Laws: TdS equations, energy equations, expressions for the difference and the
ratio of heat capacities, enthalpy, porous plug experiment, Joule-Thomson coefficient, principle of
regenerative cooling, Helmboltz and Gibbs functions, Maxwells equations.

(e) Third Law of Thermodynamics: Statement of the third law and absolute value of entropy, adiabatic
demagnetisation.

(f) Phase Transitions: First order phase transitions, Clapeyron equation, tripple point, second order phase
transition.
UNIT-V: Formalism of Statistical Physics
System and ensemble, phase space, micro- and macro-states, Postulate of classical and quantum statistics,
thermodynamic probability, thermodynamic probability of a macrostate in B-E, F-D and M-B statistics
and its application to the systems of few particles. Statistical definition of entropy, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-
Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution functions, partition function, thermodynamical quantities in
terms of the partition function.

## UNIT-VI: Applications of Statistical Physics

Monatomic ideal gas, Maxwells formula for the distribution of velocities, Experimental verification of
Maxwell formula, the law of equipartition of energy, quantized linear oscillator, Specific heat of a
diatomic gas, rotational and vibrational specific heats. Black-body radiation Black body radiation as
thermodynamic substance, Plancks law. Rayleigh Jeans law and Wiens law as special cases of Plancks
law. Paramagnetism, Negative temperatures.

Books Recommended:

## 1. Sears, F.W. and : Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Statistical

Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, 3rd Edn. (Narosa)
2. Zemansky, M.W. : Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th Edn. (McGraw Hill)
B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year (Physics)
Paper-V (PH315) : Atomic, Molecular, Laser and Condensed Matter Physics
Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

## Unit - I: Atomic Physics

Quantum numbers n,l,s,j and magnetic quantum numbers, spectroscopic terms, spin-orbit interaction
energy, idea of relativistic correction and Lamb Shift, fine structure of hydrogen and sodium spectra,
intensity rule for structure doublets, excitation and ionization potentials.
LS and jj coupling scheme: Terms and levels for non-equivalent electron systems (sp, sd, sf, pp and spd
configurations), Paulis exclusion principle applied to equivalent electrons (s2.p2). Breits scheme of
magnetic quantum numbers applied to terms derivation (p2,d2), Hunds, rules, selection rules for electric
dipole transitions, normal and anomalous, Zeeman effect (no derivation).

## Unit - II: Molecular Physics

Diatomic molecule as rigid and non-rigid rotator, rotational spectrum, the vibrating diatomic molecule:
harmonic and anharmonic oscillator models, vibrating-rotator and its spectrum, infrared spectrum of
diatomic molecules, classical theory of Raman effect, rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules.
Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: Vibrational structure (progressions and sequences), Franck-
Condon principle (qualitative), shapes of molecular orbitals, electronic structure of H2 and N2, modes of
vibration of CO2 and H2O (qualitative).

## Unit - III: Laser Physics

Einsteins A and B coefficients, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, population inversion, Laser
pumping: Optical and electrical. Two level system, three and four level system (qualitative) ammonia
maser, Resonator: vibtational modes of a resonator, number of modes per unit volume, open resonators,
properties of laser beams, principle and working of Ruby, He-Ne and N2 lasers, application of lasers.
Laser safety.

## B) Condensed Matter Physics

Unit - IV: The Crystalline State
Crystalline and amorphous structure: Lattice, basis, basis vector, primitive cell, unit cell, Wigner-Seitz
cell, two and three dimensional lattice types (Bravais Lattices), common crystal structures (NaCl, CsCl
Common metals, HCP and Diamond), index system for directions and planes, interplanar distance, idea
of quasi-crystal.

Atomic Cohesion and Crystal Binding: Cohension of atoms, primary bonds (covalent, metallic, ionic and
mixed) secondary bonds (van der Waals, hydrogen), potential energy of ionic and noble gas crystals
(derivation), estimation of cohesive energy.

## Unit-V: Diffraction from Crystals and Lattice Vibrations

Crystal Diffraction: Bragg diffraction, description of Laues experiment and Laue photograph, origin of
the concept of reciprocal lattice, Brillouin Zones, Bragg law, use of x-rays, neutrons and electrons for
studying Bragg diffraction.
Lattice Vibrations: The Ball and Springs model of a Harmonic Crystal, normal modes. Normal modes
of a one-dimensional monatomic chain, the periodic boundary condition, dispersion curve, salient
features, normal modes of a diatomic chain, acoustical and optical modes, dispersion curves, salient
features, quantization of lattice vibrations, concept of zero point energy.

## Unit-VI: Electronic Properties and Energy Bands

Electronic Properties: Classical free electron theory, Drude model, collisions or relaxation times, dc
electrical resistivity, Mathiessens rule, Hall effect, difficulties of classical theory, Fermions, Fermi-Dirac
distribution and its variation with temperature, Sommerfeld model of free electron gas, electron density
of states.

Electron Energy Bands: Failures of free electron theory, formation of energy bands (wave mechanical
interpretation), consequences of periodicity, Bloch theorem, occurrence of energy gaps, calculation of
band gap in nearly free electron model for a linear monatomic crystal. Simple properties of
superconductors (zero dc resistance and Meissner effect).

Books Recommended:

## 1. White, H.E. : Introduction to Atomic Spectra (McGraw-Hill)

2. Haken, H. & : Atomic and Quantum Physics (Springer-Verlag)
Wolf, H.C.
3. Banwell, C.A. : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Tata McGraw-
Hill)
4. Laud, B.B. : Lasers and Non-Linear Optics (Wiley Eastern)
5. Kittel, C. : Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Ed. (John Wiley)
6. Srivastava, J.P. : Elements of Solid State Physics (Prentice Hall)
7. Levy, R.A. : Principles of Solid State Physics (Academic Press)
8. Myers, H.P. : Introductory Solid State Physics (Viva)
Syllabus for B.Sc. (Hons.) III Year

## Paper-VI : (PH316) Nuclear, Particle and Astrophysics

Lectures: 72
Tutorials: 12

UNIT-I

General properties of the atomic nuclei: Constituents of the nucleus (n,p hypothesis). Size of the
nucleus: high energy electron scattering.
Nuclear charge: Measurement of nuclear charge; -scattering method. Nuclear mass, Bainbridge and Aston mass
spectrograph, mass defect and binding energy, variation of binding energy with atomic mass, elementary idea of nuclear
fission and fusion.

Nuclear Angular Momentum, Nuclear magnetic dipole moment, idea of nuclear g-factor. Nuclear electric
quardrupole moment: definition, units, significance of +ve and ve values. Elementary idea of nuclear
statistics and parity.

Qualitative discussion of the nature of nuclear forces: Experimental evidence of short range,
saturation, charge independence, charge symmetry, state dependence, tensor nature.

UNIT-II

Radioactive Series Decay: Growth and decay of the daughter product, yield, ideal, transient and
secular equilibrium. Bateman equations and their application to activation analysis.

Qualitative discussion of alpha, beta and gamma-decays, basic features of and -decays, energy
spectrum of alpha particles, fine structure, continuous nature of particle spectrum-neutrino, excited
states of nuclei, selection rules for decay.
Nuclear Reactions: Energy balance, Q-value, negative Q-value reactions and threshold energy, energetics
of ,+,- and EC decays, reaction cross section.

## UNIT-III: Interaction of radiations with matter

Energy loss of charged particles due to excitation and ionization, semi-empirical formula for energy loss
due to ionization, range and straggling, qualitative idea of radiation loss, Cerenkov radiation. Interaction
of gamma radiation with matter: photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production.

## Nuclear radiation detectors: G.M. counter, scintillation counters, principle of semi-conductor

detectors, position sensitive gas filled detector.

## UNIT-IV: Particle Physics

Basic interactions and their mediating quanta, classification of particles; Fermions and Bosons, leptons
and hadrons, particles and antiparticles, idea of resonances, conservation rules in fundamental
interactions, determination of spin and parity of pions, strange particles, associated production,
strangeness and decay modes of charged Kaons, isospin and its conservation, quarks, their quantum
numbers and quark model.

## UNIT-V: Cosmic Rays

Primary cosmic rays: Energy and charge spectrum of primary cosmic rays, secondary cosmic rays,
composition of secondary cosmic rays, variation of intensity of cosmic rays, quantitative discussion of
geomagnetic effect, Rossi transition curve, electromagnetic cascade showers and extensive air showers,
elementary idea of origin of primary cosmic rays.

UNIT-VI: Astrophysics

Structure of the sun, sunspots, solar flares, stellar energy source, p-p and C-N-O cycles and their
temperature dependence, stars and their temperatures and magnitudes, H-R diagram, stellar evolution
(hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium), white dwarf, Chandrasekhar mass limit, neutron star, pulsars,

Books Recommended:

## 1. Enge, H.A. : Introduction to Nuclear Physics (Addison Wesley)

2. Evans, R.D. : Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill)
3. Kapoor, S.S. & : Nuclear Radiation Detectors (New Age)
Ramamurthy, V.S.
4. Knoll, G.F. : Radiation Detectors
5. Dodd, J.E. : Ideas of Particle Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press)
6. Martin, B.R. & : Particle Physics (John Wiley)
Shaw, R.G.
7. Rossi, B. : Cosmic Rays (George Allen and Unwin)
8. Pomerantz, M.A. : Cosmic Rays (van Nostrand Reinhold)
9. Bass, B. : An Introduction to Astrophysics (Harper and Row)
10. Zeilik, M. : Conceptual Astronomy
11. Ghosal, S.N. : Atomic and Nuclear Physics (S. Chand & Company,
Ltd.)