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SAFED MUSLI (Chlorophytum Borivilianum)


Safed Musli is an herb with sub-erect lance late leaves and tuberous root system.
It can grow unto a maximum height of 1.5 ft. Tubers can grow unto a depth of
10". Safed Musli is a tiny annual herb that grows well in tropical and sub-tropical
climates with altitudes unto 1500 meters. Safed Musli has its origin in the India
Safed Musli is an annual herb with Tubers, Crown, Leaf and Flowers as different
parts. Naturally occurs in forests of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharastra
States, which are listed in the endangered species of India. There are around
256 varieties of Chlorophytum in the world, which are yet known. In India, we
have around 17 of them, of which, borivilianum has got a good market demand.
Safed Musli belongs to family of Liliaceae. It was originally grown in thick forest in
natural form, and is a traditional medicinal plant. Mainly its tuberous roots are
used in ayurvedic medicines. Roots are used for the preparation of nutritive tonic
used in general sexual weakness. These roots contain spermatogenetic,
spermatorrhoea and chronic leucorrhoea due to some chemical content. It is
partly an herb with sub-erect lance late leaves. Nowadays, there is a very vast
demand all over the world (Specially gulf countries and cold countries). Due to its
vast demand it is very costly.
NANDAN BIOMATRIX Hyderabad has profuse number of franchises through out
India for better implementation of safed musli project at regional level. So that
staring from land selection to marketing level of the produce it will be easier for
the cultivator to get ensured assistances directly through only NANDAN
BIOMATRIX for Jharkhand Shivam Herbal Agrotech, 301-Urmila Apartment near
St. Anna school U.B lane Tharpakhna Ranchi-834001 has been authorized
officially to carry out all the activity of NANDAN BIOMATRIX starting from soil
analysis report to cultivations and its marketing in all over Jharkhand

Technical Specifications

 Hindi name of the Crop - Safed Musli

 Botanical name - Chlorophytum Borivilianum
 Application / Use - Tonic
 Growth of roots - Tuberous
 Seeds: Black triangular two seeds present in single locule
 Class: Monocotyledons
 Series: Coronary
 Family: Liliaceous
 Genus: Chlorophytum
 Species: Borivilianum
Nature and Description of Safed Musli

 Carbohydrates (35-45%)
 Proteins (5-10%)
 Fibre (25-35%)
 Saponins (2-20%)
 Alkaloids (15-25%)

The Saponins and Alkaloids present in the plant are the primary source of its
significant medicinal properties.

Farming of Safed Musli

During the last decade, some systematic efforts have been made to popularize
the cultivation of musli, which shows that its cultivation is much more profitable
than many of the traditional crops.

Vernacular Names

 Shaqaqule - (In Arabic)

 Dholi Musli - (In Gujrati)
 Khiruva - (In Hindi - U.P.)
 Safed Musli - (In Marathi)
 Shedheveli - (In Malyalam)
 Swetha Musli - (In Sanskrit)
 Swetha Musli - (In Telgu)
 Taniravi Thang - (In Tamil)

The World Market

The largest global markets for Maps are China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Spain, the UK and the US. Japan has the highest per capita consumption of
botanical medicines in the world. In the US and Europe, the trade has typically
been growing at an average of 10 per cent per annum, partly because of the
popularity of alternative treatments and partly because there is increasing official
recognition of the benefits of traditional medical systems involving herbal
preparations. The International Council for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
expects world growth during 2001 and 2002 to be approximately 8-10 per cent a
year. The US has recently been an exception, with a sharp drop in sales. In
1997, the five top-selling species in the US were Echinacea, Garlic, Ginkgo,
Golden seal and Saw palmetto. In 1999, the world market for herbal remedies
was US$19.4 billion, with Europe in the lead (US$6.7 billion), followed by Asia
(US$5.1 billion), North America (US$4.0 billion), Japan (US$2.2 billion) and the
rest of the world (US$1.4 billion).
The market in China is large and shared between public and private ownership.
Thirteen of the top companies producing Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs)
are listed publicly on the domestic stock exchange. Fourteen are state-owned.
China’s total output of medicinal plants from both cultivated and wild-harvested
sources is 1.6 million tones. The total value of the finished TCM sector in 1996
was US$3.7 billion. This estimate excludes domestic consumption, the inclusion
of which would result in a far higher figure. Overall sales of botanical medicine
products in China in 1995 were estimated at US$5 billion. The botanical medicine
market in Japan in 1996 was estimated at US$2.4 billion.
Japan has the highest per capita consumption of botanical medicines in the
world, and sales have grown rapidly in recent years, in part because doctors
increasingly incorporate TCM as a complement to western medicine. In 1983, 28
per cent of doctors used TCM, but by 1989 this figure had risen to 69 per cent.
India is a major exporter of raw Maps and processed plant-based drugs. Exports
of crude drugs from India in 1994-95 were valued at US$53,219 million and of
essential oils US$13,250 million. Important crude drugs included Plant ago ovate
(psyllium), Panax spp. (ginseng), Cassia spp. (senna) and Catharanthus roseus
(rosy periwinkle). Essential oils included Santalum album (sandalwood), Mentha
arvensis (peppermint) and Cymbopogon flexuous (lemongrass). Seventy-five per
cent of total exports from India are sent to six countries – France, Germany,
Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the US. Other major importers are Bangladesh,
Pakistan and Spain.

The Market in Europe

Europe is a major world trader in Maps. At least 2,000 MAP species are traded,
of which two-thirds (1,200-1,300 species) are native to the continent. In recent
years some 347 tax are reported to have been in commercial trade in Turkey
alone. The most popular botanical medicines sold in Europe in 1996 were
formulated from gingko, ginseng, garlic, Echinacea and evening primrose.
About a quarter of global imports of Maps each year are into Europe. In 1992-96,
imports to Europe came from more than 120 countries, with 60 per cent of
material coming from outside Europe, mainly from Africa and Asia. Between
1985 and 1995, the average annual growth rate in the European market was 10
per cent, with 440,000 tones imported in 1996 valued at US$1.3 billion. This is
now likely to have risen to well above 500,000 tones. Germany is the leading
European importer, accounting for a third of both the total volume and the total
value of European imports, with France, Italy, Spain and the UK among the other
12 leading importing countries. The 12 leading exporting countries in Europe are
led by Germany, Bulgaria and Poland, with Germany accounting for a fifth of the
volume and a third of the value. Germany has a large re-export trade. Between
1992 and 1996, Europe exported an average of 70,000 tones of Maps annually,
20 per cent to non-European destinations, mainly north America.
Sixty per cent of exports were from just five European countries – Germany,
France, Italy, Spain and the UK. Germany is the major European trader in Maps,
being the pivotal country in intra-European trade and acting as a link between
markets in eastern and southeastern Europe and those in the north and west.
The German phytomedical market grew at 30 per cent between 1993 and 1995,
from a value of US$2.5 billion to US$3.26 billion. The estimated growth rate in
1998-99 was 5- 10 per cent. Twenty-one companies dominate the German
The UK is the fourth largest market in Europe. Britain lost direct access to
suppliers in Eastern Europe after the fall of communism, the trade becoming
directed to an even greater extent than previously through Germany. Activities
are currently under way to re-establish and strengthen former trade links
between the UK and Eastern Europe.
UK trade restrictions differ from those of the rest of Europe. For example
Bloodroot, Sanguinary Canadensis is restricted in the UK and much of the small
trade in this product is re-exported to Europe. There is very little overlap in the
UK between trading systems for traditional European herbal medicines, TCMs,
Ayurvedic and Unani medicines (Dennis 1998). Of the 704 medicinal plant
species, which have been identified as being traded in the UK, 290 species are
used exclusively in TCM with only 33 “cross-over” species used both in TCM and
western herbal medicine. Imports of TCM materials were reported to be worth
about £3 million per annum, which is far smaller than the western herbal trade
(Dennis 1998). Raw materials for Ayurvedic and Unani medicines tend to be
imported directly by individual practitioners on an informal basis.
Bulgaria is the most important source country for European Maps, with average
net exports of 7,000 tones per annum. Sixty to seventy per cent of Maps
produced or harvested in Bulgaria are exported, mainly to wholesalers in
Germany. Bulgarcoop, a cooperative enterprise instituted under the communist
regime, is still the main national dealer in Maps, even in this post-communist era.
This cooperative helps growers with cultivation and guarantees to buy an agreed
harvest. Since the fall of communism, 50-60 private and small companies, often
family-owned, have joined the MAP trade and founded the Private Herb
Exchange, which provides similar help to growers to Bulgarcoop and also
organises courses for collectors. Turkey exports approximately 28,000 tones of
Maps annually, generating nearly US$50 million.

Structure of the trade in Europe

In Europe the trade structure is complex and dominated by a few wholesalers

(Germany 21, Bulgaria 10, Albania 4). In producer countries generally, various
types of Traders, including Local Dealers, Village Cooperatives and District
Traders, buy the plant material from collectors and cultivators. It is then passed
on to Wholesalers, Manufacturers or directly to Retailers. The wide range of
manufacturers involved can include those engaged in the production of
Pharmaceuticals, Extracts, Cosmetics, Foods and Coloring agents. The number
of outlets for Maps reflects their diversity of uses. Material of a species, which
has entered the wholesale, or manufacturing sectors, may have originated from
various harvesting areas within countries or it could even have been imported.
This makes it very difficult to identify sources of materials and to impose quality
The lengths of trade chains and the perceived need to protect information lead to
a lack of transparency. A direct consequence is that those at the start of the
chains (Producers and Collectors) have little idea of the market value of the
Maps, which they are supplying, nor the means to discover the value added from
source to end-use. In India and Nepal, some NGOs are working to make market
information available to collectors in order to give them more bargaining power.
The lack of transparency means that it is difficult to influence the trade easily in
order to improve the sustainability of the sources of Maps.
In former Eastern Bloc countries, the trade has changed in recent years from
strictly organized, state-controlled systems based mostly on country-wide
networks, to free and diversified markets with an increasing number of competing
private companies. This has had significant negative effects on the sustainability
and conservation of Maps because previous quotas and controls are now largely
ignored. Only Bulgaria still has a relatively well-controlled MAP trade.

The Demand of Safed Musli

In Ayurvedic literature, safed musli is renowned as Divya Aushad with enormous

importance in the preparation of over one hundred different medicines. There is
no gainsaying the fact that Safed Musli is an inevitable ingredient in any
immunity-strengthening drugs. By virtue of being the home of Ayurveda, India
has naturally been a huge market for Safed Musli. Also in western India,
especially in Gujarat, people are given to the habit of taking a spoon of Safed
Musli along with milk twice a day as a part of routine health-care. There are also
instances of Safed Musli being used in various ways in varied parts of the
country. That underlines the reason for a great deal of demand for Safed Musli in
Many countries in the Gulf, Europe including USA have been major importers of
the dry roots of Safed Musli for a very long time, for its use in the making of
various herbal products and thanks to the increasing awareness and appreciation
of the goodness of herbal products, the demand for Safed Musli has been
phenomenally growing across the globe.
Of late, Pfizer's Viagra has been a sensation all over the world for its aphrodisiac
qualities. It has proved to highly useful for people suffering from Erectile
Dysfunction. But, as the drug has a chemical base, it has many potential side
effects. It is reported to have serious effects on nerves and grave repercussions
for cardiac patients. On the contrary, Safed Musli is a safe and effective drug,
with similar benefits and without any side effects. Alive to it, the Gujarat State
Forest Development Corporation launched a potency drug by name NAI
CHETNA (The Indian Express 1st December 1999) that has been enjoying
widespread and increasing acceptance as an alternative to Viagra.
Uses of Safed Musli

 For Therapeutic application in Ayurveda, Unani and Allopathy

 As a Curative for Physical weakness and many illnesses
 As a Curative for Natal and Post-natal problems
 As an Aphrodisiac Agent and Vitalizer
 As an Effective alternative to Viagra
 As a General Sex tonic
 As an Immunity-improving drug
 As a Remedy for Diabetes

Tax Deduction
Being a Medicinal plant coming under horticultural crops, Safed Musli cultivation
entitles you to tax-free returns. Financial support from Banks and Agri-financial
institutions is available for the cultivation of Musli. Safed Musli is an endangered
species and cultivation of this rare medicinal herb will cover the way for natural
conservation of it and will earn a global support and recognition for the cultivators
of this plant.

As Musli grows naturally in most parts of Central region of India, the normal
climate of the central region suits the crop most and as per practical experience it
can also grow successfully in the wide range of temperature and rainfall. Sandy
loam soil with proper drainage system facilitates its growth. We can divide the
cultivation in four major parts namely:
Land Preparation
Land Preparation
Land preparation takes almost 2-3 months:

 Deep Ploughing, Tillering is must to give land a better Pulverization and

Dryness in the month of March and April.
 At least fifteen trolleys of Cow dung manure should be mixed in the month
of April or May.
 Raised beds should be prepared (as per planning of plantation) in the end
of Month May.
 All the raised Beds should be well irrigated before sowing the planting

The complete yield depends upon the plantation of crop. Planting Material
required per acre is 500kg, which has to be booked before as it is given on
first-come-first-serve basis.
 Booking of planting material.
 Separate the material from sand, which is given by us.
 This material is then operated in pieces of 15 to 20 Gms. This technique
must be observed at SHIVAM HERBAL AGROTECH Ranchi before trying
it on any farm.
 These cutted pieces are of two to three fingers approximately attached to
a part of crown.
 This is the actual planting material, which is then treated with growth
hormones for better germination & contact fungicide to protect it from any
kind of fungus.
 Then each single piece is sowed at a distance of 10 inches X 12 inches on
the raised bed. The actual sowing method must be observed at our farm.


 Weeds should be controlled either by weeding by labour or at the time of

land preparation.
 Any kind of deficiency should be immediately traced and the required
element should be supplied.
 Some few especial techniques practiced have to be observed either by
training or by frequently visiting.
 The first three months from the sowing date are very important and the
field needs most care.

Harvesting is nothing but combination of three processes namely -

 Digging: This means digging the bunch of safed musli from ground.. The
complete process should be seen by the labour so as to enable him to get
the complete yield safely.
 Drying: Part of the yield dogged out is peeled and then dried to almost
80%. This dried musli is then sent to the market. There should be a clear
understanding of this process.
 Replantation: As the experience regarding the crop cultivation is gained
therefore the planting material obtained from the digging process should
be sown in the ready fields within two days.

With the end of this process you enter into the cultivation - circle of safed musli.