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Properties of Natural Gas

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Estimating Gas Properties:

Matter has three states, solid form, liquid form and gaseous form. One single
material can exist in the three states. The most known material to have the three
states is water. In the normal conditions, water is in the liquid state as in oceans,
rivers and lakes. Under low temperatures at the same pressure (Atmospheric
pressure) water may exist in the solid state (Ice). At 100 oC water starts to be in
the gaseous phase (Steam).

Fusion Liquid
P Phase Critical Point
Line
r
e
s Solid
s Phase
u Vaporization line
r
e Vapor Phase
Triple Point

Sublimation Line

Temperature
Phase Diagram Showing the States of Matter

At normal conditions natural gas is in the gaseous form as obviously by name.


Gases generally obey the general law of gases for pressure-volume-temperature
relationship.

ZmRT
PV ZnRT
MW

Gas density can be calculated accordingly as follows:

MW P

RTZ

Z or compressibility factor can be obtained by generalized charts using the


pseudo-critical properties and molecular weight as follows:

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For single components:

Reduced Temperature: Tr = T/Tc


Reduced Pressure: Pr = P/Pc
For gas mixtures:

Reduced Temperature: Tr = T/(yiTci) = T/Tpc

Reduced Pressure: Pr = P/( yiPci) = P/Ppc

In general, compressibility for gases with less than 5% non-condensable non-


hydrocarbons, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, are
predicted with less than 2% error. When molecular weight is above 20 and
compressibility is below 0.6, errors as large as 10% may occur.

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