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# Clocked Synchronous State-Machine Analysis

i. The clocked synchronous state machines are also referred by their generic name: "State machine"
ii. "Clocked" refers to the fact that their storage elements (flip-flops) employ a clock input; and "synchronous" means that all of the
flip-flops use the same clock signal.
iii. Such a state machine changes state only when a "tick" occurs on the clock signal. What constitutes a tick depends on the flip-
flop type (edge triggered, pulse triggered, etc.).

Mealy Machine
i. A sequential circuit whose output depends on both state and input is called a Mealy machine.
ii. Figure 1 shows the general structure of a clocked synchronous mealy machine. The state memory is a set of n flip-flops that store
the current state of the machine, and it has 2n distinct states.
iii. The flip-flops are all connected to a common clock signal that causes them to change state at each tick of the clock. What
constitutes a tick depends on the flip-flop type (edge triggered, pulse triggered, etc.).

## Fig 1. Structure of Mealy Machine

iv. The next state of the state machine in Figure 7-35 is determined by the next-state logic F as a function of the current state and
input.
v. The output logic G determines the output as a function of the current state and input. Both F and G are strictly combinational
logic circuits. We can write
Next state = F(current state, input)
Output = G(current state, input)
vi. An example of a Mealy model is shown in Fig.2. Output y is a
function of both input x and the present state of A and B.
A (t + I) = A (t)x(t) + B (t)x (t)
B (t + I) = A'(t)x(t)
vii. The corresponding state diagram shown in Fig.3 has both the input
and output values included along the directed lines between the
circles.
Moore Mchine
i. In some sequential circuits the output depends on the state alone:
Output = G(current state)
Such a circuit is called a Moore machine, and its general structure is
shown in Fig. 4
ii. An example of a Moore model is shown in Fig. 5. Here the outputs
are taken from the flip-flops and are a function of the present state
only.
iii. The corresponding state diagram in Fig. 6 has only the inputs marked
along the directed lines. The outputs are the flip-flop states marked
inside the circles.
Fig 2. Example of Mealy Machine iv. The outputs of a Moore model can be a combination of flip-flop
variables such as A B. This output is a function of the present
generate it. state only even though it requires an additional exclusive-OR gate to
Fig 3. State diagram of Mealy Fig 4. Generic Structure of Moore
Machine Machine

## Fig 5. Example of Moore Machine Fig 5. State Diagram of Moore Machine

Characteristic Equation
. They define the next state as
a function of the inputs and present state. Q (t) refers to the present state prior to the
application of a pulse. Q (I + 1) is the next state one clock period later.