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DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

JAI NARAIN VYAS UNIVERSITY


JODHPUR

A
TERM PAPER
ON

QUALITY ASSURANCE
AS A PART OF FULFILLMENT OF MASTER OF
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
2008-2010

Supervised by: Submitted by:


PROF. P.N. SAXENA DEEPAK
BHATI
Ph.D MBA 2nd
Semester
CERTIFICATE

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES


FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND MANAGEMENT

JAI NARAYAN VYAS UNIVERSITY


JODHPUR

This is to certify that the term paper titled QUALITY ASSURANCE has been
completed by Mr.DEEPAK BHATI ,student of M.B.A.2nd semester in partial
fulfillment of Master of Business Administration Examination 2009. This is a record
of his own work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

Place: PROF. P.N. SAXENA


Date: Department of Management
Studies
Jai Narayan Vyas University
Jodhpur
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With pleasure I extend my deep sense of gratitude to my supervisor PROF. P.N.


SAXENA, Dean, Department of management studies, J.N.V University, Jodhpur,
for her Honorable guidance and encouragement. Without her valuable views this
study would not have seen the light of day.

I would take this opportunity to thank Dr. (Mrs.) MEETA NIHALANI, Head of
the Department, DMS for giving me the opportunity to explore and get acquainted
to the corporate world.

Lastly, I would sincerely like to thank all the staff members and friends for their
valuable suggestions and cooperation given in doing the work on this term paper.

DEEPAK BHATI
M.B.A. 2nd Semester
CHAPTER SCHEME

1. Introduction
2. Evolution of Quality
3. What is Quality Assurance

4. Product Quality Assurance


5. Quality Assurance Process
6. Implementing QA in service & Mfg. Industry
7. Quality Surveillance
8. Quality Assurance Audit
9. Quality Assurance v/s Quality Control
10.Quality Assurance Standard
11.Case Study
12. Findings

13.Recommendations
14.Conclusion
15.References
16.Bibliography
INTRODUCTION

Quality assurance is the main pillar of any business. Whatever is the business, either
finance or a storage facility or any service, quality is the most important aspect,
which affects the level of success of the business. Being an entrepreneur, one should
never ever compromise with the quality aspect. The popularity of your product or
service will enhance, only if you provide quality. Low price is also another way to
increase sales. But, if your product or service does not have standard quality, then a
customer will never use it in future, even if it has the lowest price. Thus, you have to
assure the quality of your product or service by conducting some scientific
measures.

Quality assurance, QA, refers to planned and systematic production processes that
provide confidence in a product's suitability for its intended purpose. It is a set of
activities intended to ensure that products (goods and/or services) satisfy customer
requirements in a systematic, reliable fashion. QA cannot absolutely guarantee the
production of quality products, unfortunately, but makes this more likely.

Two key principles characterize QA: "fit for purpose" (the product should be
suitable for the intended purpose) and "right first time" (mistakes should be
eliminated). QA includes regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies,
products and components; services related to production; and management,
production and inspection processes.

Why Quality
QualityUp
Processing
Image up
Time down
Service Rework &
cost down Inventory
Scrapcost
Down[assume -goods sold]
Sales down
Volume up Complaint &
Inspection &
test cost down Warranty cost
down
Price(?)
Scale Capital
Competition Productivity
Economies cost down -?
down Up --- meaning?
up

Revenue Operation
up Cost down
Profits up

Evolution of Quality Management

Evolution of Quality Management Concept

Management of Quality by Segregate Despatch


Good
Inspection only Good and bad

Bad Rework Good

Bad scrap

Management of Quality Process under Poor


Final quality Product
during manufacturing control
is not ok design

Poor evaluation
Management of Design & Quality of customer
Quality during design Manufacturing: ok Still not ok needs

Management of Quality during design, manufacturing, & deployment

Management of quality thru company -wide quality mgmt system


Inspection

Quality control

Quality assurance

Total quality management (TQM)
Time Events

Prior to Quality is an art


20th Demand overcome potential production
century An era of workmanship

F. Taylor, Scientific approach to management resulting in the greater need for


1900s standardization, inspection and supervision.

Shewart, Statistical beginning and study of quality control


1930s

Late 1930s Quality standard and approaches are introduced in France and Japan.
Beginning of SQC, reliability etc

1942 Seminal work by Deming at the ministry of war in USA, concept of


acceptance sampling,

1944 Dodge and Deming carried out seminal work on acceptance sampling

1945 Founding of Japan Standards Association

1946 Founding of the ASQC (American Society for Quality Control)

1950 Visit of Deming in Japan at the invitation of K. Ishikawa

1951 Quality assurance increasingly acceptable

1954 TQC in Japan (Feigenbaum and Juran), book published in 1956

1957 Founding of European Organization for the control of quality (France,


Germany, Italy, Holland, England)

1961 The Martin Co. in USA introduced the zero-defect approach. Quality
motivation started in USA

1962 Quality Circles are started in Japan

1964 Ishikawa publishes a book on Quality Management

1970 Ishikawa publishes on basics of Quality circle, concepts of Total quality is


affirmed and devised in Japanese industries.
WHAT IS QUALITY ASSURANCE?

Quality assurance is the process of verifying or determining whether products or


services meet or exceed customer expectations. Quality assurance is a process-
driven approach with specific steps to help define and attain goals. This process
considers design, development, production, and service.

The most popular tool used to determine quality assurance is the Shewhart Cycle,
developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. This cycle for quality assurance consists of
four steps: Plan, Do, Check, and Act. These steps are commonly abbreviated as
PDCA.

The four quality assurance steps within the PDCA model stand for:

Plan: Establish objectives and processes required to deliver the desired


results.
Do: Implement the process developed.
Check: Monitor and evaluate the implemented process by testing the results
against the predetermined objectives
Act: Apply actions necessary for improvement if the results require changes.
Quality Assurance (QA) is a way for your organization to make sure that it is
always delivering the best it can to its service users, members, volunteers
and funders.
A QA system is a way of checking, through continuous monitoring and
evaluation of your performance and through the collection of evidence, that
your organization is continuously improving what it does and how it does it.
QA can also be a way of measuring what your organization does against
other organizations doing similar work or against set, recognized standards.
This system of checking your organizations quality is an ongoing process.
The monitoring of what your organization does and how it does it is
continuous to ensure that you are always meeting the new standards that are
always developing

PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE

Understanding Product Quality Assurance

The term Product Quality Assurance has a very wide scope. Let us try to
understand it. During the entire product lifecycle from concept to
obsolescence, various activities are performed. It is important to assure the
quality at each stage in order to meet the customer requirements consistently.

Given below are the product quality assurance activities at each stage of
product lifecycle

Introduction

In this stage, the concept is developed and the product is designed and
introduced into the market. Product quality assurance plays a critical role
during this stage. It decides the customer requirements and based on that
decides the product requirements. During the design stage, quality control
evaluates and validates the product i.e. the quality control engineer will
compare the product designed with respect to the product and customer
requirements and confirm whether the design would meet them. Once the
product is validated, it is released for manufacturing. Quality control also has
to make sure that the processes being used to manufacture and inspect the
product are correct. They also have to create the standard inspection
procedures, which are used by quality control to do periodic inspection of
the products.

Growth

During this stage, the demand for a product increases and so the quantity of
production increases. At this stage, the role of quality control is to make sure
that in the race to manufacture more, the organization does not compromises
on quality. The processes for higher production have to be implemented.
Since during this stage the competition increases and the costs have to be
kept low, various low cost alternatives are explored. If some processes
involved in manufacturing the product are outsourced then product quality
control also has to ensure that the processes followed by the vendor are
capable of delivering the required quality.

Maturity

During the maturity stage, the competition further increases and the pressure
on margins is felt. Moreover, with various options available, the customers
become more demanding. Value for money is the theme. Role of quality
control almost remains similar to the one during the growth stage.

Decline

During this stage, the alternate products start eating up the market share and
hence sales start declining. Product quality control has a little role to play
during this stage. The most important role to be played during this stage is
planning for the obsolescence of the existing product.

Apart from these roles, some product quality control roles remain active
throughout the life of the product. Product quality audit is one such role
wherein the quality control team does random audits of the products ready to
be dispatched to the customers. This is generally done in order to keep a
check on the entire process of procurement, production, and inspection.

Another such role is handling customer complaint. During the entire life of
the product, there will be customer complaints because of some errors during
the process or due to component quality or due to the misuse of the product.
The product quality control has to find out the root cause of the complaints
and put processes in place to ensure that such occurrences do not get
repeated.

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCESS

Steps In Quality Assurance Process

The product quality assurance process is a series of steps taken at the


different stages of the product life cycle i.e. from the product concept to the
launch of the product to its obsolescence.

Define the Objectives

The first step while undertaking QA of any project is to define its


requirements. For e.g. if the quality planning process has to be evolved for
launching a new product or service in the market, then the first step in
quality planning should be to understand and document the need of this
project and its ultimate goal. At this stage, it is necessary to document the
quality goals. These goals should be set according to the quality standards,
customer requirements, with reference to the organizations own benchmark
performance, competitors performance, according to the law and so on.

Understanding Customer Needs


The next step in product QA process involves knowing and understanding
the needs of the customers. All these needs should be fully explained and
documented so that it can be accessed by all the involved personnel
whenever required. There are two kinds of customers, i.e. internal and
external customers. For example, the manufacturing department is an
internal customer of the design department as the designs for manufacturing
are supplied by them. Similarly, there are many other internal customers in
an organization. So, it is necessary to understand the needs of both internal
and external customers.

Designing the Product

The product should be designed keeping in view the quality goals and needs
of the customers defined in step 1 and step 2 respectively. The cost benefit
analysis also has to be done in order to ensure that the product will be
manufactured at low cost with high quality in order to be successful in the
market.

Product Pilot Testing

Once the product design is ready, the next step of QA process is product
testing. The pilot batch of the product is manufactured. The product is tested
for various attributes in accordance with the standards, customer
requirements, and regulatory requirements. This is to ensure that the product
meets the set goals. Once everything is found satisfactory, the product is
approved.

Process Development
Once the product design has been approved, the entire lists of tasks and
activities that will be required for manufacturing the product are listed. The
workflow plan is developed. The teams are formed and given specific
responsibilities. The timelines for each and every task are specified. Process
capability is also measured during this stage of QA process to ensure that the
processes are capable of meeting design requirements.

Start Manufacturing

Once the processes are developed, the required process controls are put in
place. Tools like process failure mode and effects analysis are used to
identify the likely modes of failures of the process and the effect of those
failures on the product performance. Actions are initiated for high-risk items.
Audits are planned to periodically measure the performance and give
feedback to the manufacturing and design department.

Life Cycle Management

During the life of the product, the quality will be periodically monitored
through inspections and audits. These inputs will result in improvements of
the processes or the product design. Customer complaints, if any, will also
act as inputs for product and process corrections and improvements.

Hence, the product quality assurance process plays an important role during
the entire life of the product to ensure that the customer gets a quality
product.
QUALITY ASSURANCES

1) How Quality Assurances Are Implements in Service Industry

Quality assurances are very important for the service industry in order to
deliver services in accordance to the expectation of the customers. With so
much competition in the market today, the importance of delivering quality
service cannot be overlooked. However, maintaining and delivering quality
services is not very easy as the expectations and needs of customers are
different and ever-changing. Also, it is difficult to measure quality
parameters in the service industry.

Hence, more and more service industries are nowadays implementing QA


systems that help them to improve their services and woo their customers.
Each service industry is different and has different ways to implement
quality assurances procedures and systems.

Steps To Implement QA in Service Industry

Identify the Expectations of the Customers

The company has to first identify the expectations of their customers. To


know the feedback and expectations of the clients and customers, the
organizations can use feedback forms, market surveys, secret shoppers etc.
The customer feedback can also be used to set performance standards. Like,
the organization can set the performance standard as 90 percent of customer
satisfaction score and so on.

Determine the Standards

Depending on the feedback and the expectations, the organization can


determine its quality standards. For example - A restaurant that wants to
improve its quality should set goals for itself like minimum time to deliver
the orders, quality of food, providing good experience to the customers,
reducing wastage etc. In a similar manner each industry like hospitals, spas,
property management services, banks etc should set their own quality
standards.

Measure and Compare Performance

The current performance should then be measured. This current performance


can be also compared with target quality standards to find the gap.
Analyze

The organization should find the cause of the gap. The entire workforce
should be encouraged to participate in the process so that they can help to
find the root cause of customer complaints and dissatisfaction. The various
departments of the organizations should work proactively to analyze the
present situation.

Plan

Depending upon the gap and the problems, the organization should plan to
achieve its set quality goals. Various teams can be formed in order to address
different areas identified in the gap. These teams should be given a time
target to bridge that gap.

Control

Once the organization achieves its set quality goals, the final step should be
to maintain it consistently. This can only be possible if the changes made to
achieve the target have been made part of the quality systems and are
reviewed periodically.

This type of approach used in service industry for quality assurances is also
known as DMAIC approach, which means Define, Measure, Analyze,
Improve, and Control. The organization can implement these systems on its
own, if it has trained and experienced QA staff. Else, the organization can
hire the QA management services. These services help the organizations to
improve their quality, increase customer satisfaction, train employees, ensure
compliance with standards, market surveys etc. The organizations that have
successfully implemented QA systems benefit from the increased margins,
customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, expansion, and satisfied workforce.
2) Importance of Quality Assurance in Manufacturing

Quality assurance is the process of using systems and methodologies that


ensure that the manufactured products meet the required quality standards
consistently. The aim of QA is to produce goods right at the first time,
without any rework. Organizations, usually, have a separate department to
assure the quality of their products. For this they may also use the services of
the consultants.

QA is crucial for the manufacturing industry. With so much competition and


such few margins, no manufacturing industry can afford to spend time and
money on rework. Every activity in the industry costs money and so does
rework, but customers do not pay for rework. Customers pay for the value
addition by the company and if they see more valuable additions by some
other company being offered at same or lower costs, they move to that
company. Hence to assure good quality to customers, quality assurance plays
a significant role.

Benefits of Quality Assurance some of the benefits the organization derives


from this role are:

o Improve Quality

QA professionals are involved in all critical activities of the organizations


like design, manufacturing, material procurement, packaging, logistics etc.
Since all the processes are being tracked and monitored properly, there are
fewer chances of bad quality or non-compliance of products with respect to
the requirements. These requirements could be standard requirements,
customer requirements, or even legal requirements.
o Low Cost

It reduces the overall costs to the organization. When the product is right the
first time, there are no rework costs, no wastage of material, no wastage of
manpower, and no disruptions in the production process. There are fewer
claims for warranties and guaranties. In short, the cost of poor quality goes
down. All this reduces the operating costs of the organizations and hence
results in increased operating profits.

o Reputation

Since the organizations are able to manufacture good quality products that
are made according to the requirements of the customers, the market
reputation of those organizations improves. This helps the organizations to
retain the existing customers and get more business from them. At the same
time this also helps them in attracting new customers. These in turn increase
the revenue and profit of the organizations.

o Reduce Execution Time

The systems implemented to improve quality reduce the cycle time i.e. time
taken for the execution of the orders. If the quality of products is bad then
there will be more customer complaints and more production downtime.
This results in huge loss of time and resources. Hence, if QA systems are
implemented properly in the organization, the order execution time
automatically gets reduced.

o Compliance To Standards

It ensures that the organizations meet all the standards and guidelines
required for different quality management systems like ISO and other quality
certifications awarded to it.In short, to meet customer requirements
effectively and consistently, it is very important for every manufacturing
industry to have a QA department. This will ensure that the efforts and
processes are moving in right direction so that the end product not only
meets but exceeds the customers expectations.
QUALITY ASSURANCE SURVEILLANCE

Steps In Quality Assurance Surveillance Plan

Quality assurance surveillance plan is an important plan that is meant to


ensure conformance to the performance statement of work. This plan is
beneficial for the government as they conform whether the deliverables from
contractors are according to the set standards that they agreed upon while
giving the contract or as stated in the performance statement of work. This
plan can be an inspection before taking the delivery or it can be a series of
regular or random inspections.

While agreeing on this plan for surveillance, the frequency of inspections,


the standards that will be followed while inspecting and the quality
requirements are given in detail.

Steps in QA Surveillance Plan

Review of Processes, Products, or Services

This involves the inspection of the processes and products or services of the
contractor by representatives of the government. The entire technical and
managerial processes are reviewed to know how the quality systems are
implemented in organizations and how effective they are in delivering good
quality.

Adherence to Contract

Once the entire systems, products or services are reviewed, the next step in
QA surveillance plan is to check whether the products or services conform to
the quality levels and requirements of the contract. If any non-conformance
is observed, the same is reported with the help of non-conformance report.
The cause of low quality is determined. It is determined whether the problem
is due to the negligence of the contractor or due to miscommunication from
the government.

Corrective Action

Based on the results of the inspection, various discussions are held to find
the solution i.e. how the products or services can match to the required
standards. All the shortcomings in the products or services are then corrected
through proper rework as decided so that they conform to the standards of
the government.

Different Methods of Surveillance

Random Inspections

The government, sometimes, performs random inspection to ensure that the


contractor follows the right procedures to ensure quality. For this the
inspector may take random samples to check whether they meet the specified
requirements or not. The inspectors also follow guidelines as how to select
the random inspection lot, how they should be tested for conformance etc.

Planned Inspections

Some inspections are planned with the contractor beforehand while chalking
out the quality assurance surveillance plan. What kind of inspection will be
conducted and how it will be done, is also conveyed to the contractor, well in
advance. The outcome of the surveillance is measured against the standard
set in performance worksheet.

Customer Inputs
Sometimes, customer inputs are also treated as method of surveillance. In
this case, the government takes inputs from customers on the quality of
service provided by the contractor and based on that the performance of the
contractor is judged. Properly documented customer complaints become
performance indicator of the contractors work.

100 Percent Inspection

100 percent inspection of any work is very rarely done, since it is a very
costly affair. However, in cases of health and safety, it may be unavoidable.

In short, QA surveillance plan is the most important document in any


contract work since it defines all the requirements related to the deliverables
of the contractor. The method of measurement of performance is also made
clear so that there is no dispute later. This also ensures that there is minimum
wastage for the government as well as the contractor.
Types of Quality Assurance Audits

Quality assurance audit is performed in order to ensure that the systems are
in place and being followed religiously to provide good quality to the
customers. It also highlights the need for any improvement in the systems in
order to consistently deliver good quality products or services. The audits are
also performed to make sure that the organization is following the legal and
regulatory requirements. Some audits are conducted by internal auditors
whereas some are performed by external ones.

Various Quality Assurance Audit Types Are

System Audit
The organization has various systems which when put together make a
whole system. A system audit is an audit performed on any of these systems.
Any non-conformity during a system audit is critical, since if the system
itself is wrong, the output is likely to be wrong.

Product or Service Audit

The product or service audit is performed on the product or service to find


out if the product or service meets the requirements of the customers and the
standards set by the organization. There are various stages at which this can
be performed. It could be during the process of product manufacturing, after
the product has been manufactured, or even after the product is packed and
ready to be delivered to the customer. The nonconformities found during this
quality assurance audit are taken very seriously, since all these
nonconformities are equivalent to customer complaints.

Department Audit

As the name suggests, the department audit is performed with a focus on a


given department. The scope of the audit covers all the activities performed,
all the procedures followed and all the systems available in the department.
This audit highlights the areas for improvement in that department.

Process Audit

Various processes are critical for the smooth running of an organization.


Actually speaking, all the activities from order inquiry to delivery of
products follow a defined process in any organization. Hence, an audit of
such processes is performed to identify the areas for improvement. Process
audit also covers the audit of some special manufacturing processes that are
critical for the quality of the end product. These processes may be in-house
or at the suppliers place, the one to whom that process has been outsourced
to.

Conformance Audit

The external parties normally perform this QA audit. It is a form of third


party audit where the auditing party evaluates if the organization does meet
the requirements as are supposed to by the systems. This could also be for
any kind of system certifications that organizations wish to apply for. The
certificate-awarding agency also conducts the conformance audit
periodically to make sure that the organization is meeting the certification
requirements.

Compliance Audit

Compliance audit is performed by regulatory agencies to confirm if the


organization is meeting the legal and regulatory requirements. In case of any
non-conformity, a re-audit may be required. The purpose of the re-audit is to
ensure the effectiveness of the corrective actions taken.

The output of the audit is an audit report that is circulated to all the
concerned people. The purpose of any type of QA audit is not to find
mistakes, but to find the areas for improvements. If it is taken by the auditor
and the audited party in this spirit, the organization can be sure that it is on
the path to improvement and will be able to consistently meet all customers,
system, legal or regulatory requirements.
QUALITY CONTROL V/S QUALITY ASSURANCE

Quality Assurance (QA) refers to the process used to create the


deliverables, and can be performed by a manager, client, or even a third-
party reviewer. Examples of quality assurance include process checklists,
project audits and methodology and standards development.
Quality Control (QC) refers to quality related activities associated with the
creation of project deliverables. Quality control is used to verify that
deliverables are of acceptable quality and that they are complete and correct.
Examples of quality control activities include inspection, deliverable peer
reviews and the testing process.

Quality Control v/s Quality Assurance - The Difference Between Them

Many people including some quality professionals do not know what


quality control v/s quality assurance is. Both these terms are often used
interchangeably. However, both terms are different in meaning as well as
purpose.

Given here are main points of quality control v/s quality assurance

Approach

Quality guarantee or assurance is based on process approach. Quality


monitoring and its assurance ensure that the processes and systems are
developed and adhered in such a way that the deliverables are of good
quality. This process is meant to produce defect-free goods or services which
means being right the first time with no or minimum rework. Quality control
is product-based approach. It checks whether the deliverables satisfy the
quality requirements as well as the specifications of the customers or not.
Depending upon the results, suitable corrective action is taken by quality
control personals.

Sequence

One of the major points of quality control vs. QA is that assurance of quality
is done before starting a project whereas the quality control begins once the
product has been manufactured. During assurance of quality or monitoring
process, the requirements of the customers are defined. Based on those
requirements, the processes and systems are established and documented. All
this is done to ensure that the requirements of the customers are met
stringently. After manufacturing the product, the quality control process
begins. Based on the customer requirements and standards developed during
the quality guarantee process, the quality control personal check whether the
manufactured product meets all those requirements or not. So, assurance of
quality is a proactive or preventive process to avoid defects whereas quality
control is a corrective process to identify the defects in order to correct them.

Activities

Most activities falling under the purview of quality guarantee or its


assurance are performed by managers, customers, and third party auditors.
These activities include process documentation, establishing standards,
developing checklists, conducting internal audits, conducting external audits,
failure mode effect analysis and training. Engineers, inspectors, and
supervisors on the shop floor perform quality control activities. Their
activities include performing and receiving inspection, final inspection, in-
process inspection etc.

Interdependence
Both, quality control and assurance of quality are largely interdependent.
The quality guarantee department relies mostly on the feedback provided by
the quality control department. For example, if there are recurrent problem
with the quality of the products, then the quality control department provides
feedback to the quality monitoring and assurance personnel that there is a
problem in the process or system that is causing product quality problems.
Then the assurance of quality department determines the root cause of the
problem and then brings changes to the process to ensure that there are no
quality issues in future. Similarly, the quality control department follows the
guidelines and standards established by assurance of quality department to
check whether deliverables meet the quality requirements or not. Hence,
both these departments are essential to maintain good quality of the
deliverables.

Although both quality control and quality guarantee are different processes,
but because of their strong interdependence, it becomes difficult to pin point
the differences between the two. In fact, there is a very thin line that
separates the two functions. Moreover in some organizations, one
department performs the functions of both. All this leads to confusion
between quality assurance and quality control.
QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDS

Quality Assurance Standard for ISO 9001

Quality assurance standard is a written set of instructions and guidelines


followed by various industries in order to maintain the quality of their
products or services. Big as well as small businesses adopt these quality
standards worldwide and get certification after audit from the authorized
body that ensures the company and its manufacturing or service delivery
steps and procedures are in compliance with the laid down standards and
polices. This certification enhances the brand value of the organization, its
products or services and it also instills confidence in the customers. Some
QA standard documents are industry specific while some apply to all
organizations. One such universal standard that applies to all types of
organizations is ISO 9001.

What Is ISO 9001

ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization. ISO standards


for quality are recognized worldwide and hence ISO certified organizations
have far better opportunities to trade in the international market. ISO 9001,
quality assurance standard can be followed by any kind of industry, whether
it is service or manufacturing industry. Each organization should develop its
own quality management system in order to adhere to ISO 9001 guidelines.
To get ISO 9001 certification, the organization has to undergo three audits.
The first audit is conducted by the quality monitoring and inspection
professional from within the organization i.e. internal auditor. The second
such audit is conducted by the customers using the product or service in
question, and the third audit is conducted by the organization that is
authorized to grant ISO certifications for quality maintenance.
Benefits Of ISO 9001 2008

The ISO 9001 standard was first published in 1987. The latest edition of the
standard is ISO 90012008, which was released in December 2008. This
edition has minor changes as compared to the earlier one i.e., ISO 90012000.

Adhering to this standard benefits the organizations in the following


way

Systematic Approach

The standard helps the organizations to function in a more systematic


manner. There are defined systems, processes, and procedures in the
organizations to do each and every task. Teams are designated to perform
these tasks. Hence, it results in more organized and systematic approach to
work which improves employee satisfaction and retention.

Improved Quality

The systems are integrated in the whole organization to deliver good quality
products or services. This leads to improved quality and less rework. All this
helps the organization to reduce wastage and increase margins.

Customer Satisfaction

The customers trust the organizations that are ISO 9001 certified because
this QA standard certification offers a sort or a assurance of the good
practices and systems in organizations. When customers get good products
or services in accordance to their requirements, their loyalty towards the
organization increases. This results in more business for the organization.
The profits of the organization also increase.
Increased Margins

Margins of the organization improve due to multiple effects. Some of the


reasons for increase in margins are

o When good quality products or services are manufactured or


delivered, there is very little rework and fewer customer complaints.
This results in lesser wastage and hence increased margins.
o Since according to the requirement of QA standard , there are set
procedures, it results in greater employee satisfaction, which in turn
results in greater productivity and improved margins. It also reduces
the cost of training the employees.
o Since organization gets more business, their margins improve.

JQA, as a pioneer in the certification of management systems, provides advanced


certification services that are capable of responding to all your requests, and offers
the certification services of management systems against various standards and
criteria, not only ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, but also sector standards such as those
for automotives, aerospace, telecommunications, medical devices, etc., as well as
the certification of management systems for food safety, occupational health and
safety, information security, IT services, etc.

ISO9001 (Quality)
The quality management system standard that aims to enhance the level of customer
satisfaction through products or services. If you obtain the certification of ISO 9001,
it will help you to enhance not only the level of your quality assurance and customer
satisfaction but also the value of your organization, because it is effective also for
the improvement in your work efficiency and for the reinforcement of your
organizational structure.

ISO14001 (Environment)
ISO 14001 is an environmental management system standard that aims to enable the
simultaneous pursuit of business achievements and contribution to the reduction of
environmental risks and the environment. The certification to this standard will
contribute to the enhancement of confidence by a wide range of stakeholders
(interested parties) and to the enhancement of the value of the organization aspiring
to realize sustainable development.

ISO27001 (Information Security)


An information security management system standard for the continuous assurance
and maintenance of the "confidentiality", "integrity" and "availability" of
information. This standard is effective for the appropriate control of risks related to
information, enabling the effective utilization of information, and at the same time
for the development of a structure for internal control and compliance.

ISO/TS16949 (Automotive)
The quality management system standard for the automotive industry for evaluating
the organization's management system to see if it is in satisfaction of the
requirements of the standard and the customer specific requirements of each
manufacturer, as well as the regulatory requirements and others. This standard is
such that answers to the requirements of almost all automotive manufacturers in the
world.
OHSAS18001 (Occupational Health and Safety)
This is a standard for occupational health and safety management systems for the
purpose of reducing the number of reduction of occupational accidents and
associated management risks and is adopted by the largest number of organizations
in the world. The introduction of OHSAS 18001 enables the enhancement of the
level of satisfaction by employees and to create a good work environment, to win
the social confidence in the organization.

ISO20000 (IT Service)


The international standard for IT service management systems developed on the
basis of "ITIL" that makes the overall summary of the best practices of IT service
management. The standard enables to steadily provide high quality IT services and
enhances the level of the confidence held by customers and the competitiveness of
the organization

JIS Q 9100 (Aerospace)


This standard was established in Japan as the quality management system standard
for the aerospace industry and is applicable worldwide like AS 9100 and EN 9100
and is technically equivalent to both standards of AS and EN.

ISO13485 (Medical Devices)


A quality management system standard for the industry of medical devices. This
standard is developed on the basis of ISO 9001 specialized in specific requirements
assuring the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. This standard will lead to
the development of systems that respond to the legal regulations of medical devices
that are different from one country to another, and is effective also for the expansion
of the international transactions of such products.
ISO22000 (Food Safety)
A management system standard for the safety of foods that integrates the approach
to management systems of ISO 9001, to the HACCP system of the Codex
Committee that is widely adopted in the world as a tool for controlling the safety of
foods.

TL9000 (Telecommunications)
This standard was established by QuEST Forum that was established for the
improvement of quality of telecommunication by the telecommunications industry
mainly of the USA.

QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR STRAWBERRIES: A CASE


STUDY

The two most important factors for quality assurance of strawberries are temperature
and rapid marketing. Fresh strawberries are one of the most popular items in the
produce case; however, strawberries are also one of the most perishable of fresh
commodities. The berries are very fragile and susceptible to mechanical injury,
their thin skin results in rapid loss of Water in low humidity environments and
strawberries has one of the highest respiration rates of all fresh commodities. For
these reasons, establishment of a successful quality assurance program is essential to
a profitable marketing program for strawberries.

Will quality assurance cost me money? Actually, quality assurance should save you
money. Estimates of losses at wholesale, retail and consumer levels range from 28
to 41% with 9 to 11% at the wholesale and retail levels. The major cause of loss
was grey mold which was associated with bruising and soft or leaky berries. If a
shipper sells 100,000 strawberry trays per month at $6.50 per tray and was able to
cut product losses by 3% (from 7% to 4%) by implementing a successful quality
assurance program, he would save$19,500 per month or $234,000 per year.
Assuming extra costs are incurred with a quality assurance
program of $60,000/year associated with salaries
and$8,000/year, associated with equipment and supplies, the
net increase would be $166,000. Quality assurance can really
pay for itself and also improve product quality to the
customer.

What are the quality factors for strawberries? The factors which are important for
strawberry quality include:
degree of ripeness, generally judged by percentage of pink or red color
gloss, an indication of freshness and absence of water loss
absence of defects such as decay, bruising, and shriveling
flavor, determined by sugars, acidity and flavor volatiles (see Table 1)
berry size and uniformity
firmness, absence of soft, overripe or leaky berries
price and availability

Table 1. Influence of relative levels of sugars and acids on strawberry flavor.

Determining quality specifications.


The first step in setting up a quality assurance program is to determine the
companys criteria for quality for the product. What do your customers want? Are
they more concerned with price and availability than quality? Is ripeness and flavor
important or is appearance most important? There may be different quality factors
for different types of customers. Once the critical quality factors are determined,
develop objective means to measure those quality factors. Keeping records of
quality-related factors can allow evaluation of company performance and assist in
management decisions regarding quality assurance.

Varieties and ripeness at harvest.


Quality assurance for strawberries begins in the field with variety selection.
Strawberry varieties vary greatly in berry firmness when ripe, sugar and acid
content, disease susceptibility, and yield. Selection of the varieties to grow can have
a tremendous impact on potential fruit quality. Fruit with better flavor may have
lower yields or less disease resistance. Management must determine which varieties
will be grown and at which stage of ripeness fruit will be harvested to best meet
their goals for fruit quality. Strawberry fruit do not continue to ripen after harvest
and will not increase in sugar content. There-fore, riper fruit will have higher sugar
content and better flavor quality. Several commodity groups have found that a
percentage of customers will pay more for riper fruit with higher sugar content
(soluble solids content). To supply consistent flavor quality to these customers,
soluble solids content (SSC) should be monitored to ensure a minimum SSC is
reached. A minimum of 7%SSC is recommended for strawberry and 10% would be
excellent. The level of ripeness should be monitored in harvested trays to check
picker performance.

Cultural practices affect quality.


Cultural practices and pre harvest disease control can have a tremendous influence
on post harvest quality and storage life. Because post harvest fungicides are not used
on straw-berries, pre harvest disease control is very important. Low light intensity
has been associated with lower levels of ascorbic acid, red color and SSC. High
nitrogen fertilization has been associated with softer fruit, lower SSC and less
flavor.

Avoiding berry injury and diseased fruit.


Careful handling and sorting during harvest to prevent berry injury and avoid
placing injured or diseased berries in the tray is needed. Training and supervision is
critical. Harvesters should be given an incentive to harvest with care. Monitoring of
harvested trays for the presence of defects provides critical information to crew
supervisors to give them the tools necessary to improve overall harvested quality.

Rapid cooling and prompt marketing are critical.


After harvest, the most critical factors to monitor for strawberry quality maintenance
are pulp temperature sand time delays in the system. The faster the fruit are cooled
and the closer the pulp temperature is maintained to 0C (32F), the higher the fruit
quality and the longer the shelf life. Low temperatures slow fruit softening and slow
growth of decay-causing pathogens. The time between harvest and cooling of the
berries is critical for quality and shelf life. A record of harvest time and picker
number should be kept with each tray harvested. The elapsed time from harvest to
cooler should be recorded along with fruit pulp temperatures. A management
decision must be made regarding the acceptable time from harvest to cooler. Less
than a one hour delay is recommended to avoid losses in strawberry quality and post
harvest life. An investment in additional small trucks and drivers may be necessary
to ensure more frequent trips to the cooler.

Cooling of berries.
Upon arrival at the cooling facility, pallets should be transported immediately to the
forced-air cooler. Cooler temperature should be maintained at-1 to 0C (30 to 32F)
and 90 to 95% relative humidity. Fruit should be cooled to 0 to 1C (32 to 34F)
before movement to the cold storage room. Separate cooler and cold storage rooms
can allow for more efficient cooling. If the refrigeration system cannot keep cooler
air temperatures near 0C (32F), additional refrigeration capability may be
necessary, requiring a capital investment in quality. Cooler air temperature and pulp
temperatures of the warmest berries upon removal from the cooler should be
monitored regularly. Cold storage air temperatures should also be monitored and
records maintained.

Management of shipping temperatures.


Management must also determine the temperature at which fruit will be allowed to
be shipped. It is highly recommended to cool berries to 0C (32oF) before
shipment, especially if pallet covers and modified atmosphere (MA) are to be used.
Transport vehicles do not have the capability to cool product but only have the
capability to maintain product temperature. This is a critical area where
commitment to quality must be balanced with market demands and volume flow.
Shipping strawberries across country at temperatures warmer than 0C (32F)will
greatly reduce fruit quality and shelf-life.
See Figure 1 for a sample Wholesale Shipping Checklist

Truck loading.
Careful attention to the transport vehicle at product loading is essential. Trucks
should be cooled to near 0C (32F) prior to product loading. The condition of the
insulation, doors, refrigeration system and air delivery shoot should be checked on
each load. Strawberries should be center loaded, to prevent warming or freezing of
product during transit, and well secured. If the truck condition fails to meet the
criteria established to maintain fruit quality during shipment, the buyer should be
notified that the seller cannot guarantee the arrival condition of the fruit due to truck
conditions.

Wholesale and Retail Quality Assurance:


Incoming product should be inspected immediately for pulp temperature. If berries
are warmer than 4C(39F), fruit quality would be benefited by forced-air cooling.
A small, portable forced-air cooler can be use din the cold room to recool
strawberries which have warmed during transit. Alternatively, pallets or trays can
be spread in the cold room to facilitate rapid cooling. Cooler temperature should be
maintained at0C (32F) with 90 to 95% relative humidity. The condition of the
transport vehicle should also be checked, including incoming air temperature. If
MA pallet bags are present, they should be checked for arrival condition and then
removed to allow for product recooling. After product has been transferred to the
cooler, an inspection of berry condition should be conducted. Fruit should be
evaluated for color, firm-ness, gloss, shrivel and decay. If decay is discovered, trays
should be repacked as quickly as possible avoiding excessive warming of the fruit
during this period. The temperature of outgoing product and the condition of
delivery vehicles should also be carefully monitored, as described previously for
shippers

Discarding inferior product.


One of the most important quality assurance decisions that management must make
is to determine the minimum level of quality at which product will continue to be
marketed. The difficult decision to discard inferior quality product ,especially when
additional product is unavailable and demand is high, requires a firm commitment to
quality. The causes of product losses should be recorded as this information can be
useful for management decisions to improve product quality. The length of time
product I shield in the cooler should also be recorded

At the retail level, strawberries should be displayed in refrigerated cases or returned


to the cold storage room at night. If relative humidity in this room is lower than
85%, placing clean, plastic film over the strawberry trays may help to reduce water
loss by creating a humid environment around the trays
source: Pam Moyer, Post harvest Outreach Program , University of California, Davis, CA
95616 or Fax 916 752-8502, 4 pages.
FINDINGS

Understanding the mechanism and the emotional energies required to make the
change needed to become a QUALITY ASSURANCE organization is critical, but
part of the difficulties inherent in making the move to QUALITY ASSURANCE is
a result of the potential conflicts with the culture of the organization. Culture is the
common behaviors and internalized codes of conduct that guide peoples daily
actions. Organizational behaviors are shaped by the way people internalize the
assumptions and values that define, either explicitly or not, the culture of the
organization.

It would be recall that the objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of
QUALITY ASSURANCE on corporate performance and productivity. A thorough
review has been carried out on all available opportunities and other factors that
would boost productivity and enhance performance generally since quality is
regarded as a key element of competitiveness. Similarly, repeated studies have
shown the central role quality plays in improving market shares and raising
profitability. Based on the analysis of the data collected, and revelation from
interactions with employees in the cause of research, the following findings
emerged:

The study revealed that there are ample opportunities for training of staff on
QUALITY ASSURANCE to enhance corporate performance and productivity in
the company.

The study also revealed that quality is regarded or taken as a way of life,
hence every one in the company is quality conscious.
It was also further observed that high level of cross functional co-operation
in the company with the top level executives leading the way to total quality
management exist.

The company measure quality by the level of customers satisfaction at


lowest overall cost;

The study further revealed that the company based its high level of
performance and productivity on positive determination of its staff through
cooperation and high level of motivation.

Also revealed in the study is the fact that the company has continued to
promote the concept of continuous improvement towards error free output.

In spite of the above positive findings, there were also some areas of weakness still
requiring attention from the management. The following weaknesses were observed
in the cause the study:

The study revealed that the company is yet to put in place, strong cultural
commitment to QUALITY ASSURANCE;

The study also revealed that traditional management style still dominate the
companys operations which equally affects its decisions;

The analysis also reveals that the company needs to do more in areas of
employees participation or involvement in areas of policy formulation,
implementation and evaluation.

The study further reveals that the company needs to improve on creating
QUALITY ASSURANCE awareness among its staff.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the research findings and the above conclusion, on the impact of
QUALITY ASSURANCE on corporate performance and productivity, the following
are highly recommended towards improving QUALITY ASSURANCEin the sector:

The practice of QUALITY ASSURANCE should be regarded as an ongoing


activity. As long as there are new ideas, innovations, developments, there should
be no end to QUALITY ASSURANCE process, so as to be able to cope with the
dynamism of the modern world;

There is need for top management to be more committed to QUALITY


ASSURANCE, as well as providing an enabling environment to incorporate all
within the system in the QUALITY ASSURANCE process. Similarly, there
should be QUALITY ASSURANCE awareness campaign a well as QUALITY
ASSURANCE meetings where programmes/ideas can always be discussed.

The company should intensify efforts on cost reduction exercise. This can be
done by providing regular staff training programmes for the staffs as this will
help increase their knowledge, skills and prepare them for future challenges.

The benefits of QUALITY ASSURANCE should not be over stated, rather


the whole quality effort should be dedicated to and judged by predetermined
results. Hence, there should be reasonable focus in setting strategic objectives
and building organizational routing that link many units and levels as much as
possible. And there should be no organizational barriers between departments
and managerial operational procedure within the company.

The QA approach to any process should be based on the requirements of


external customers for the sake of their satisfaction because if the QUALITY
ASSURANCE activities are not geared towards customers satisfaction, the
concept will fail.

Finally, management of organizations, irrespective of size, structure, and operations


should bear in mind that success only comes to firms that can fully internalize and
adopt QUALITY ASSURANCE strategies to their own business environment. It is
only those that maximize quality to their customers while at the same time meeting
the needs of its staffs that will succeed. It must also be borne in mind, that it is not
just implementation of QUALITY ASSURANCE that matters. The recipes for
success require enhanced organizational staff cooperation for improved
customers/clients satisfaction. This is what adds to product and quality services,
reduces or increases revenue. Internalization of QUALITY ASSURANCE strategies
is also the recipes that provide long-term approach to improving shareholders value
by ensuring corporate survival and growth. Success requires the company literally
builds customers needs and expectations (including meeting of these needs and
expectation) into daily organizational routines with the aim of enhancing corporate
performance and increasing productivity in the market.
CONCLUSION

In evaluating data gathered and systematic analysis of the reports in the course of
the study regarding the impact of QUALITY ASSURANCEon corporate
performance and productivity in the brewery sectors in Nigeria, the following
conclusion can be drawn:

There are signs that QUALITY ASSURANCE concepts improves the


performance of an organization in terms of cost reduction, increase in corporate
performance and productivity, profitability and market shares, competitiveness
and customer satisfaction;

The concept of QUALITY ASSURANCE has been highly welcomed in the


company as a way of life for customer satisfaction, making the customer
delighted as well as staff and in achieving corporate goals and objectives.

Finally, the importance of QUALITY ASSURANCE in achieving business success


can hardly be denied. Peters and Waterman (1982) found quality to be an important
element in the pursuit of excellence. Quality is therefore the best assurance of
customer allegiance, strongest defence against competition and the only path to
sustained company growth and earnings. Involvement of all members of the
company in the system is crucial if improvement in the performance and
productivity is ever to be achieved with the adoption of QUALITY ASSURANCE.
Though, this is not easy to achieve but it must come from personal example and
commitment. In addition, there must be consistency in the system, as this can help
change the entire process and maintain the competitive edge which the company
seek to attain.

REFERENCES

Sistrunk, W.A. and J.R. Morris. 1985. Strawberry quality influence of


cultural and environmental factors. In: Pattee, H.E., ed. Evaluation of
Quality of Fruits and Vegetables. Wesport, CT: AVI Pub. Co. 217-256.

Harvey, J.M. 1982. CO2 atmospheres for truck shipments of strawberries.


In: Richardson, D.G. and M.Meheriuk, eds. Controlled Atmospheres for
Storage and Transport of Perishable Agricultural Commodities. Port land,
OR: Timber Press. 359-365.

AASHTO, 1996, Implementation Manual for Quality Assurance,


American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials,
Washington, D.C
Weed, Richard M., 1996, Quality Assurance Software for The Personal
Computer. Demonstration Project 89, Quality Management, FHWA-SA-
96-026.

The Man Who Discovered Quality (1990) by Andrea Gabor. Times Books
(a division of Random House, N.Y.) ... a comprehensive review of the
influence Deming has had to date in America and Japan, [and] an acute
assessment of how his theories might be implemented in the future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WEBSITES
www.totalqualityassuranceservices.com/some-basic-quality-assurance-testing-
concepts

http://www.iso.org/iso/en/iso9000-
14000/understand/selection_use/selection_use.html

www.quality-assurance-solution.com

www.qualityassurancemag.com
http://www.asq.org/

http://www.wfl.fha.dot.gov/ql-pay/index.htm

http://www.deming.org/deminghtml/wedi.html

http://www.juran.com/main.html

BOOKS
Godfrey, A. B., "Juran's Quality Handbook", 1999

Ishikawa, Kaoru. 1982. Guide to Quality Control. Tokyo: Asian Productivity


Organization

James & james, 2001 Total quality, south western

P.L. Jain, production management, Cbs publisher

Dale H. Besterfield, Quality Control