Integrated Electrical Assignment – Laboratory worksheet 9 Module Code : EEC6211

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Integrated Electrical Assignment (Laboratory 9)

Title: Printed Circuit Board Drawing Objective To create a Power Supply PCB drawing from a schematic drawing using the EAGLE Layout Editor and its Autorouter. Introduction Manually laying large circuit board can be a very time consuming task and is susceptible to error. Numerous routing tools have been developed on PC platform and quite many of them incorporate intelligent algorithm for the automatic routing task. The Autorouter in EAGLE can easily achieve 100% routing if enough area is provided on the board. Procedure 1. Start the EAGLE program by pressing the familiar Windows <Start> button, followed by moving the mouse pointer to <EAGLE Layout Editor | EAGLE> in the pop-up menu. Electrical Rule Check Click <File | Open | Schematic> to open file a:\powersup.sch you had created in the last lesson. The circuit drawing shown is a 5 V DC power supply. Press the ERC button to perform an electrical rule check on the schematic. You should see the message "0 error, 0 warning" appear in the command/status line. With no errors in the schematic, you may proceed to the next step. It is important not to close the schematic drawing until you finish with the board. 3. Press the BOARD button in the action toolbar to enable the Board Layout Editor. Press the OK button when the program asks you to create a board from the schematic. Now you will see a rectangle blank board on the right and components on the left of the screen. These components are the ones used in the schematic. The “rubber bands” among the components are called airwires. Each of them establishes a wiring connection between two component leads. The board has a default dimension of 4" x 3" and should not be made bigger when using the EAGLE freeware. Define a Grid for Placement & Routing Before placing components, it is important to set up the grid for component placement. Press the GRID button and select mil as the unit of measurement and 50 for the size. The DIP ICs use 100 mils lead-to-lead distance, a selection of 50 mils between grid lines allows only one signal track goes between two leads.

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EEC6211 IEA / Laboratory 9

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Integrated Electrical Assignment – Laboratory worksheet 9 Module Code : EEC6211

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Component Placement Press the MOVE button to start placing components inside the board outlines. The freeware will prompt you if you place any component temporarily outside the board area for placement convenience. The following is a suggestion for you to make your component placement: • • • • • • • Divide the circuit in schematic into circuit groups. Place components of the same group close to each other. Place components that have large number of connections first. Usually, they are the large ICs. Place the big components before placing the small ones. Place components in an array format and use same orientation of horizontal or vertical position as possible. Place parallel-connected components side by side to each other. Keep short airwires, no twisted buses. Keep airwires as short as possible for high frequency pin connections (e.g. between crystal and microprocessor)

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Auto-routing Press the AUTO button to trigger the Autorouter Setup menu. Do not change any parameter values at this moment. Press the START button to begin the automatic routing process. If your component placement is good, the Autorouter can finish routing the board 100%. The percentage that the router can achieve largely depends on how good is your component placement. Look for the percentage figure in the command/status line. If it is less than 100%, you will see some airwires left on the board. They show the connections that are not routed successfully.

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Rip up tracks You can rip up single track, a group of tracks or all tracks on the board.

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RIPUP button , click a few tracks and see how they are ripped up. To rip up a group of tracks, you press the GROUP button, then click (without release) near the tracks and drag out a rectangle to define the group. When the group is highlighted, press the RIPUP button and do a right mouse click on the group. Now, perform a rip-up for all tracks on the board, click the RIPUP button followed by the GO button times. 8. . Then undo all rip-up by pressing the UNDO button a number of

Routing If your board is not completely routed, you may rip up all tracks, perform the component placement again and use the Autorouter to do the routing. Sometimes, this process has to be repeated many times before a 100% routing is achieved. In practice, you may rip up only a group of tracks, alter the position of some components, and then pass the job to the Autorouter. You also have to do it many times in order to get good results. Alternatively, you may use the following method:

EEC6211 IEA / Laboratory 9

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Integrated Electrical Assignment – Laboratory worksheet 9 Module Code : EEC6211

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Rip out a group of tracks tied to the component that has an airwire attached. Move the component a little from its position. In case, it is a discrete component, you may rotate it. Then start the Autorouter to see if there is any routing improvement. 9. View you result Press the DISPLAY button to show a menu with names of all layers. Deselect the bottom layer and press the OK button. All layers are shown except the bottom layer. Note that the top layer tracks are in red color. Now press the DISPLAY button again and hide only the top layer. What tracks do you see on the board and what is its color? Turn the top layer back on after viewing. 10. Forward & Back Annotation Press the VALUE button and click the capacitor C1 to change the capacitance to 2200 uF on the board. Go back to the schematic and observe a corresponding change to capacitor C1. This action is known as back annotation. Press the VALUE button in the schematic editor and alter the resistance of R1 to 220 ohms. Observe its corresponding change on the board. This action is termed as forward annotation. Both annotations are done automatically by EAGLE while the board file and its corresponding schematic are open. 11. Change the wiring rules The track width, pad diameter, via diameter, minimum track-to-track width, minimum track-to-pad width etc. are all part of the wiring rules. These distances can be changed in the Autorouter Setup. Now, rip up all tracks. Press the AUTO button, change Wire Width to 32.00 mils and follow by a press on the START button. Observe the width of the tracks. If the board is not completely routed, a new component placement is necessary. Design Rule Check followed by the OK After you finish routing on the board, press the DRC button button to perform a design rule check. The check items are listed when you press the DRC button. Read the result message on the command/status line. Press the ERROR button to show details of the errors. You should get no errors except OFFGRID errors due to X1 & X2 connectors. The pins of the connectors are not made to fit on the 50-mil grid. Make corrections to the drawing if there are other error(s).

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Single layer board Rip up all tracks of the double layer board and then press the AUTO button. Note that a single layer board usually has its tracks routed in the bottom layer. Use 32 mils as the wire width and change the symbol inside the small box N/A for the top layer as shown below, then starts the Autorouter. The N/A indicates no track to be routed for the layer. You may have to repeat the placement & routing processes until you end up with 100% routed tracks for the board. Be careful not to delete the un-routed airwire.

EEC6211 IEA / Laboratory 9

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Integrated Electrical Assignment – Laboratory worksheet 9 Module Code : EEC6211

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Use the SAVE AS command to save your single layer PCB drawing in the file single.brd and make a 2X print from it. Then close both the schematic & board drawings. 14. Manual routing To get the best result for a PCB layout, manual routing is usually preferred. Open the schematic manual.sch, create the board file from the schematic and make routes manually for the airwires shown. It is important not to close the schematic drawing until you finish with the board. , then select bottom layer You start by pressing the ROUTE MANUALLY button and route orientation in the selection box (shown below) for the route you are going to make. Choose 16 mils for the wire width. Click at one end of an airwire to begin routing. Finish making routes for all the airwires shown. Remember the power supply tracks on the board are usually made thicker than signal tracks in order to minimize their resistance and inductance.

Selection Box

Route orientation

Wire Width

Via shape

Save your manual routed PCB layout in the file manual.brd and make a 2X print from it.

EEC6211 IEA / Laboratory 9

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