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INTRODUCTION TO NODAL ANALYSIS

Systems analysis has been used for many years to analyze the performance of systems
composed of multiple interacting components. Gilbert was perhaps the first to introduce the
approach to oil and gas wells but Mach, Proano, and Brown and Brown popularized the
concept, which is typically referred to as Nodal Analysis within the oil and gas industry.
The objective of systems analysis is to combine the various components of the production
system for an individual well to estimate production rates and optimize the components of the
production system.

POSSIBLE PRESSURE LOSSES IN COMPLETE SYSTEM

After a well is drilled and completed, itrequires a great effort to transport or flow fluid through
the reservoir until the piping system and ultimately flow into a separator for gas-liquid
separation which are placed on the surface. the movement of these fluids requires energy to
overcome friction losses and to lift the products. The pressure drop in the total system at any
time will be the initial fluid pressure minus the final fluid pressure. This pressure drop is the
sum of the pressure drops occurring in all of the components of the system. The selection and
sizing of the individual component varies with producing rate.

The final desing of a production system cannot be separated into reservoir performance
and piping system performance and handle independently. The amount of oil and gas flowing
into well from the reservoir relies more on the pressure drop in the piping system, and the
pressure of the piping system depends on the amount of fluid flowing through it. Therefore;
the entire production system must be analyzed as a unit.
Gravel Packed Oil and Gas Well

The Ledlow and Grager have prepared an excellent summary of background materials of gravel
packing, include details on mechanical running procedures and selection of gravel size.

The following procedures that is valid for either oil or gas well with solution node at the bottomhole
:

1. Prepare the node IPR curve. (Fig. 2)


2. Prepare the node outflow curve. (Fig. 3)

3. Transfer the differential pressure between the node inflow and node outflow on same plot.
(Fig. 4)
4. Using appropriate equations, calculate pressure drops for various rate. Variables need to
considered is :
a. Shot per foot
b. Gravel permeability
c. Viscosity and density of fluid
d. Length of perforation tunnel for linear flow
5. Evaluate this completion (Fig. 5) to determine whether the objective rate can be achieve.
Maximum allowable p from 200 to 300 psi (1379 to 2068 kPa) for single-phase gas or
liquid flow. *has given good result
6. Evaluate another shot densities until appropriate p is obtained at the objective rate.
Perforation efficiency should be considered. (Fig. 6)
7. The p across the pack can be included in IPR curve. (Fig. 7)