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UNIT-I: Amplitude Modulation:
Review of modulation theorems in Fourier Transforms. Baseband and carrier communication. DSB, AM, SSB
and VSB systems. Carrier acquisition. Superhetrodyne AM receiver. Television.

Angle Modulation:
Concept of instantaneous frequency. Bandwidth of Angle Modulated waves. Generation of FM waves.
Demodulation of FM signals. Interference in angle modulated systems. FM receiver.
Sampling and Pulse Code Modulation:
Sampling Theorem. The interpolation formula for signal reconstruction. Aliasing. Pulse Code Modulation.
Differential Pulse Code Modulation. Delta Modulation.

UNIT-III: Digital Data Transmission:

Digital Communication system. Line coding. Pulse shaping. Scrambling. Regenerative repeater. Digital
Carrier Systems. Digital Multiplexing.

UNIT-IV: Random Signals & Processes, Probability Distribution and Density Functions:
Statistical independence, Random and stochastic processes, Stationary and ergodic processes, Auto and
cross-correlation, Spectral density and its relation with auto-correlation, Mean-square value, White noise,
Gaussian processes, Response of linear systems to random inputs.

UNIT-V: Behavior of Analog & Digital Systems in the Presence of Noise

AM & FM systems. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM/PM systems. Pulse modulated systems. Optimum
threshold detection. Carrier systems ASK, FSK, PSK and DPSK.

Suggested Reading:
1. Lathi, B.P. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems
2. Haykin. S. Communication Systems
3. Sam Shanmugam, K. Digital and Analog Communication Systems
4. Taub & Schilling Principles of Communication Systems


1. (a) What is meant by modulation of signals? Why are baseband message signals modulated? Explain.
(b) Describe various types of modulation performed on analog signals.

2. Explain Amplitude Modulation. Describe various methods of generating AM signals. Derive expressions
for power content of the carrier and the sidebands in an AM signal as well as the transmission

3. An AM signal is generated by modulating a carrier signal ACosct with the modulating signal m(t)
shown below in Fig P-3. If the modulation index is 0.8, (i) find the amplitude and power of the carrier; (ii)
find the power of the sidebands as well as the transmission efficiency.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 t in ms

-1 Fig.P-3

4. How is the modulating signal recovered from an AM signal? Describe various methods used for this
purpose and also discuss their relative merits and demerits.

5. The message signal m(t) = 2Cos400t+4Sin(500t+/3) modulates the carrier signal c(t)= AcCos(8000t)
using DSB-SC modulation. Find the time domain and frequency domain representations of the
modulated signal and plot its frequency spectrum. What is the power content of the modulated signal?

6. An AM signal has the form s(t) = [ 20+2Cos3000t+10Cos6000t ]cos2fct where fc = 105 Hz. Sketch
the spectrum of s(t). Determine the power in each of the frequency components and the modulation
index. Also, determine the power in the sidebands, the total power and transmission power efficiency.

7. What is the advantage of DSB-SC modulation over AM? How are DSB-SC signals generated?
Describe various techniques used.

8. The output signal of an AM modulator is given by s(t) = 5cos1800t+20cos2000t+5cos2200t.

Determine the modulating signal m(t), carrier c(t), modulating index and transmission power efficiency.

9. A normalized signal mn(t) having a bandwidth of 10KHz and power content of 0.5W modulates a carrier
Acos2fct having a power content of 200W. What will be the bandwidth and power content of the
modulated signal if the modulation scheme is (a) SSB (b) DAB-SC (c) AM with = 0.6 (d) FM with kf =

10. In what respect does SSB modulation score over DSB-SC and AM? If a baseband signal m(t)
modulates a carrier Cosct using SSB modulation show that the modulated signal
s(t)= m(t)Cosct + mh(t)Sinct where mh(t) is the Hilbert Transform of m(t).
11. Describe the frequency discrimination and phase shift techniques used to generate SSB signals. What
is the limitation of the frequency discrimination technique? Explain.

12. Explain how DSB-SC and SSB signals are demodulated with the help of suitable block diagrams.

13. What is Vestigial Sideband transmission? How does it compare with DSB-SC and SSB transmission?
Derive an expression for the filter characteristic required to convert DSB-SC signals to VSB signals.
Discuss the shape of the VSB signal spectrum.

14. A DSB-SC signal m(t)Cosct generated using H(f)

a modulating signal of bandwidth 4 KHz and 2
a carrier of frequency 10KHz is passed 3/2
through a vestigial filter having the
characteristic shown below in Fig.P-14. 1
Determine the corresponding characteristic of
the equalizer filter to be used in the
0 Fig.P-14 9 11 12 14 f KHz
demodulator to recover the message signal
using a local carrier of frequency 10KHz.

15. Discuss the effect of the local oscillator not being in synchronism with the carrier used for modulating
the message signal on the shape of the recovered message signals in DSB-SC and SSB transmission?

16. What is meant by carrier acquisition and why is it required? Describe the signal squaring technique and
the Costas receiver used to acquire the carrier signal from a DSB-SC signal? Why are these
techniques not valid for SSB and VSB signals?

17. Describe the principle and operation of the Superhetrodyne receiver used for the reception of RF AM
signals broadcast by radio stations with the help of a neat block diagram. What is the problem with this
type of a receiver?

18. Discuss the shape of the composite signal produced in a B/W TV transmitter and the types of
modulation used. Also describe the functioning of the TV transmitter and the receiver with the help of
suitable block diagrams.


19. Explain the concepts of instantaneous frequency and angle modulation. Describe the two types of
angle modulation commonly used. Show that FM and PM are inseparable.

20. Show that the bandwidth of an FM signal generated by a band-limited modulating signal of bandwidth B
Hz is theoretically infinite, but can be approximated as 2(f+B). Hence show that, for narrow-band FM,
the bandwidth BFM is approximately 2B while that of wide-band FM is approximately twice that of the
frequency deviation f.
a a a

21. Sketch FM(t) and PM(t) for

the modulating signal
shown in Fig.P-21 given
t in seconds
c = 108, kf = 105 & kp =25.
Estimate the bandwidth of
these two signals.
22. An angle-modulated signal with a carrier frequency c = 2 x106 is described by the equation
EM(t) = 5 cos (ct+20Sin1000 t+10Sin2000 t). Find the power of the modulated signal, the frequency
deviation , the phase deviation , and the deviation ratio . Also estimate the bandwidth of EM(t).

23. Discuss various methods of generating FM waves.

24. Explain how FM signals can be demodulated using (a) an envelope detector, (b) a slope detector (c) a
ratio detector & (d) a PLL.

25. Why is it essential that the amplitude of the incoming FM signal be made constant before
demodulation? Explain how this achieved using a bandpass limiter.

26. Explain the principles of the FM transmitter and the receiver for stereo broadcast with the help of neat
block diagrams. Discuss the spectrum of the baseband stereo signal used for modulation.

27. (i) Show that a band-limited signal having maximum frequency B Hz can be reconstructed without any
error if the sampling rate > 2B Hz.
(ii) What do you understand by aliasing? Why does it occur when time-limited signals are sampled?
How can this be overcome?

28. (i) Discuss the advantages of digital communication over analog communication.
(ii) Explain the terms quantization error, quantization noise & pulse detection error.

29. (i) Justify the need for non-uniform quantization in audio signals. How is achieved in practice using
compandors? Explain.
(ii) Show that in binary PCM, SNR is dependent on transmission bandwidth. Derive the
corresponding relationship.
30. Describe Differential Pulse code Modulation (DPCM), Delta Modulation (DM) and Adaptive Delta
Modulation (ADM). Discuss their relative merits and demerits. How do they compare with PCM?

31. Determine the Nyquist sampling rate and the Nyquist sampling interval for the signals:
(a) Sinc(100t) (b) Sinc2(100t) (c) Sinc(100t)+Sinc(50t)
(d) Sinc(100t)+3 Sinc (60t)
(e) Sinc(50t)Sinc(100t)

32. A signal g(t) band-limited to B Hz. is sampled by a periodic pulse train pTs(t) made up of a rectangular
pulse of width (1/8)B seconds (centered at the origin) repeating at the Nyquist rate. Show that the
sampled signal gS(t) is given by g (t ) = 1 g (t ) + 2 sin n g (t ) cos n t , where s = 4B .

4 4
s s
n =1 n
Also, show that the signal g(t) can be recovered by passing gS(t) through an ideal low-pass filter of
bandwidth B Hz and gain of 4.

33. A television signal has a bandwidth of 4.5MHz. The signal is sampled, quantized and binary coded to
obtain a PCM signal.
(a) Determine the sampling rate if the signal is to be sampled at a rate 20% above the Nyquist rate.
(b) If the samples are quantized into 1024 levels, determine the number of binary pulses required
encode each sample.
(c) Determine the binary pulse rate of the binary-coded signal, and the minimum bandwidth required
to transmit this signal.
34. Five telemetry signals, each of bandwidth 1KHz. are to be transmitted simultaneously by binary PCM.
The maximum tolerable error in sample amplitudes is 0.2% of the peak signal amplitude. The signals
must be sampled at least 20% above the Nyquist rate. Framing and synchronizing requires an
additional 0.5% extra bits. Determine the minimum possible data rate that must be transmitted and the
minimum bandwidth required to transmit this signal.

35. A sinusoidal message signal m(t) is transmitted by binary PCM without compression. If the SNR is
required to be at least 47dB, determine the minimum value of L (no. of quantization levels) required as
well as the corresponding SNR. If the signal is compressed with a compression parameter =100,
determine L for a minimum SNR of 45dB. Also, determine the output SNR for this value of L.

36. A signal band-limited to 1MHz is sampled at a rate 50% higher than the Nyquist rate and quantized into
256 levels using a -law quantizer with = 255. Determine the SNR. This SNR was found to be
unsatisfactory and is desired to be increased by at least 10dB without increasing the transmission
bandwidth. How can this be achieved with a sampling rate 20% higher than the Nyquist rate? Explain.
What is the maximum SNR that can be realized in this way?

37. In a single-integration DM system, the voice signal is sampled at a rate of 64KHz. The maximum signal
amplitude Am = 1.
(a) Determine the minimum value of the step size to avoid slope overload.
(b) Determine the granular noise power NO if the signal bandwidth is 3.5KHz.
(c) Assuming the voice signal is sinusoidal, determine SO and the SNR.
(d) Determine the minimum transmission bandwidth.


38. Describe the various components of a digital communication system. Describe the format of the various
codes used for transmission. Discuss the properties desired from a line code.

39. Derive an expression for the power spectral density (PSD) of a general pulse train constructed by
passing a train of impulses apart of arbitrary strength spaced Tb seconds through a system having as
its impulse response a pulse p(t) of duration Tb seconds. Use this result to determine the PSD of a
polar signal having p(t) as a full-width rectangular pulse.

40. Explain the terms pulse shaping and inter-symbol interference. How does pulse shaping control the
PSD of a digital signal? Derive an expression for roll-off factor r for a practical zero ISI pulse satisfying
the Nyquist criterion.

41. What is a duo-binary pulse? Which problem of zero ISI Nyquist pulse does this pulse try to rectify and
how? What is the limitation of this type of scheme? Discuss.

42. Explain the purpose of scrambling digital information. Describe the block diagrams of a scrambler and
the corresponding descrambler.

43. Describe the various functions of a regenerative repeater. Explain how these functions are
accomplished with the help of a block diagram.

44. In a certain telemetry system, there are eight analog measurements, each of bandwidth 2 KHz.
Samples of each of these signals are time-division multiplexed, quantized and binary-coded. The error
in the sample amplitude cannot be greater than 1% of the peak amplitude. (a) Determine L, the number
of quantization levels. (b) Find the transmission bandwidth BT if Nyquist criterion pulses with roll-factor
of 0.2 are used. The sampling rate must be at least 25% above the Nyquist rate.

45. A data rate in bits/sec. that can be transmitted if we use (a) polar signal with rectangular half-width
pulses, (b) polar signal with rectangular full-width pulses, (c) polar signal having Nyquist criterion pulses
of r = 0.25, (d) bipolar signal with rectangular half-width pulses & (e) bipolar signal with rectangular full-
width pulses

46. A scrambler is shown in Fig.P-46. Design the

corresponding descrambler. If a sequence
S=101010100000111 is applied to the input of this
scrambler, determine the output sequence T. Verify if
this T is applied to the input of the descrambler, the S Fig.P-46 T
output sequence is S.

47. The figure Fig.P-47 shows a binary data transmission scheme in which the base-band signal generator
uses full-width pulses and polar signaling. The data rate is 1Mbits/sec.
(a) If the modulator generates a PSK signal, what is the bandwidth of the modulated output?
(b) If the modulator generates FSK with the difference fc1 fc0 = 100 KHz, determine the modulated
output bandwidth.

Binary Baseband Modulator Modulated

Data Signal Output
Source Generator




48. Define (a) sample space, (b) event, (c) random variable, (d) cumulative distribution function. Illustrate
your answers with examples.

49. (a) Determine the probability of the sum being seven when two dice are thrown together.
(b) Determine the probability of getting exactly two heads when a coin is tossed four times in

50. A random experiment consists of drawing two cards from a deck in succession without replacing the
first card. What is the probability of drawing two aces in succession? If the first card is replaced
between the second is drawn, what is the probability now?

51. The error probability of a binary-symmetric channel is P. The probability of transmitting 1 over the
channel is Q and that of transmitting 0 is (1-Q). Determine the probabilities of receiving 1 and 0 at the

52. The symbol 0 is transmitted over a binary communication with probability 0.4 while 1 is transmitted with
a probability of 0.6. It is given that P(/0) =10-6 and P(/1) = 10-4, where P(/xi) is the probability of
detecting the error given that xi is transmitted. Determine P(), the error probability of the channel.
e x / 2 . This signal is applied
2 2
53. The PDF of the amplitude x of a Gaussian signal is given by P( x) =
to the input of a half-wave rectifier circuit. Assuming the diode to be ideal, determine Fy(y) and Py(y) of
the output amplitude y.

54. Define (a) random process (b) ergodicity (c) stationarity (d) wide sense stationarity. Explain with
suitable examples.

55. Two independent random voltage processes x1(t) and 1

x2(t) are applied to an R-C network shown in + +
Fig.P-55. It is given that Sx1() = K and Sx2() =
2 . Determine the PSD and the power Py of the vi(t) 1F vo(t)
2 2

output random process y(t). Assume that the resistors - -

in the circuit contribute negligible thermal noise. Fig.P-55

56. Describe various digital carrier communication techniques like ASK, PSK, FSK & DPSK and discuss
methods to demodulate them.


57. A certain channel has a uniform noise power density spectrum Sn() = 10-3 Watts/Hz. Over this
channel, a DSB-SC signal is transmitted. The modulating signal f(t) is bandlimited to 5 kHz and the
carrier frequency is 200 kHz. The power of the modulated signal (sidebands) is given to be 10 kW. The
incoming signal at the receiver is filtered through an ideal bandpass filter before it is fed to the
demodulator. What must be the transfer function of the filter, signal to noise ratio at the demodulator
input and the signal to noise power ratio at the demodulator output? Find and sketch the noise power
density spectrum at the output of the demodulator.

58. Show that for the same power transmitted and same transmission bandwidth, baseband, DSB-SC &
SSB systems have the same SNR.

59. For a DSB-SC system with a channel noise PSD = 10-10 and a baseband signal of bandwidth 4KHZ, the
receiver output SNR is required to be at least 30dB. What must be the signal power Si at the receiver
input? What is the receiver output noise No? What is the minimum transmitted power ST if the channel
transfer function is Hc() = 10-4 over the transmission band?

60. Show that for tone modulation and for fixed power transmitted, the output SNR of AM is 6dB below that
of DSB-SC and 9dB below that of SSB.

61. Derive an expression for the output SNR of an FM system and shoe the ratio becomes equal to
(3/2)2 for tone modulation.

62. For a modulating signal m(t) = Cos3ct, show that PM is superior to FM by a factor of 2.25 in terms of
SNR for the same transmission bandwidth.

63. Explain what is meant by threshold in angle modulated systems. In a certain FM system used in space
communication, the output SNR is found to be 23.4dB with = 2. The modulating signal is Gaussian
with a bandwidth of 10 KHz and 3 loading is used. The system with = 2 is in the non-threshold
region of operation. The output SNR is required to be at least 40dB. Because space is at a premium in
space communication, it is decided to increase the output SNR by increasing as much as possible.
What are the maximum values of & the transmission bandwidth that can be used without running into
the threshold? What must be the minimum increase in the transmitted power required o attain an output
SNR of 40dB? What are the corresponding values of and the transmission bandwidth?

64. A TV signal band-limited to 4.5MHz is to be transmitted by binary PCM. The receiver output signal-to-
quantization noise ratio is required to be at least 55dB. If all brightness levels are assumed to be
equally likely, find the minimum number of quantization levels required. Select the nearest value of L to
satisfy L = 2n. For this value of L, compute the output SNR and the transmission bandwidth. Assume
non-threshold region of operation. If the output SNR is to be increased by 6dB, what are the new values
of L and the corresponding transmission bandwidth?

65. A message signal m(t) with Sm() = 2/(2+2), =3000, DSB-SC modulates a carrier of 100KHz.
Assume an ideal channel with Hc = 10-3 and the channel noise PSD Sn() = 2x10-9. The transmitted
power is required to be 1KW and G =10-2. Determine the transfer function of the optimum pre-emphasis
and de-emphasis filters. Determine the output signal power, noise power & SNR. Determine at the
demodulator output.

66. Discuss optimum threshold detection in binary communication. Derive an expression for the filter used
in an optimum binary detector for polar signaling.