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Particuology 25 (2016) 5158

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Simulation of mass balance behavior in a large-scale circulating

uidized bed reactor
Artur Blaszczuk a, , Anna Zylka a , Jacek Leszczynski b
Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies, Dabrowskiego 73, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
AGH University Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Department of Hydrogen Energy, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland

a rti c l e in f o abstrac t

Article history: We determine using a compound model the inuence of the mass of granular matter on the behavior
Received 3 November 2014 of a supercritical circulating uidized bed (CFB) reactor. Population balance enables a stationary -regime
Received in revised form 10 March 2015 modeling of the mass ow of granular matter inside a CFB unit in a large-scale. The simulation includes
Accepted 9 April 2015
some important dynamic processes of gas-particle ows in uidized bed such as attrition, fragmenta-
Available online 20 July 2015
tion, elutriation, and fuel combustion. Numerical calculations with full boiler loading were performed
of operational parameters such as furnace temperature, furnace pressure, feeding materials mass ows,
and excess air ratio. Furthermore, three bed inventory masses were adopted as experimental variables in
Bed inventory mass
Mass ow of solids
the simulation model of mass balance. This approach enables a sensitivity study of mass ows of granular
Circulating uidized bed matter inside a CFB facility. Some computational results from this population balance model obtained for
Population mass balance model a supercritical CFB reactor are presented that show consistency with the operational data for large -scale
Sensitivity analysis CFB units.
2015 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of
Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Introduction the furnace chamber and heat transfer behavior inside the fur-
nace chamber. In this instance, the authors proposed using the
Bed inventory mass is a very important parameter in regard population balance to model the behavior in large-scale CFB reac-
to successfully operating a circulating uidized bed (CFB) reactor. tors. Based on the simulation model, it is possible to control bed
This operational parameter inuences the heat transfer (Blaszczuk hydrodynamics and monitor large-scale CFB boilers. Nevertheless,
& Nowak, 2014; Blaszczuk, Nowak, & Jagodzik, 2014; Lakatos, previous simulations of mass balance still have some limitations
Sle, & Mihlyk, 2008), the combustion process (Basu, 2006; when describing the particle properties and physical/chemical pro-
Myhanen & Hyppnen, 2011; Saastamoinen & Tourunen, 2012; cesses in CFB boilers (Yang, Yue, Xiao, Lu, & Liu, 2005). A 1D model
Scala & Chirone, 2010), and hydrodynamics (Chalermsinsuwan, of a CFB boiler, which is widely used in the literature, emphasizes
Boonprasop, Nimmanterdwong, & Piumsomboon, 2014; Qi, Zhu, some important factors that inuence the ash balance in CFB boil-
& Huang, 2008) in CFB reactors. The complex hydrodynamics and ers such as ash formation, attrition and size reduction, residence
combustion processes occurring inside a CFB boiler are very dif- time, and segregation in a dense bed. The model predicts only the
cult to model and obtain accurate numerical predictions. A few mass balance at different operating loads in the same boiler (Yang
numerical (Adamczyk et al., 2014; Nikku, Myhanen, Ritvanen, et al., 2005) but does not take into account combustion processes.
& Hyppnen, 2014; Redemann, Hartge, & Werther, 2009; Wang, The dynamic simulation model of the particle population in a CFB
Luo, Ni, & Cen, 2003; Yang & Gou, 2006) and experimental data combustor with an external heat exchanger is widely known. The
(Baszczuk, Komorowski, & Nowak, 2012) from large-scale CFB model enables the mass ows of solids to be calculated as well as the
reactors are available in the literature. According to these authors, corresponding particle-size distributions (PSDs) at any point inside
the bed inventory mass is one of the main parameters having an the combustion system (Grosschmidt, Habisreuther, & Bockhorn,
inuence on the solids concentration prole along the height of 2007). In another study by Klett, Hartge, and Werther (2005), the
particle population balance for a CFB combustor was analyzed. The
population balance of particles enables the behavior of individual
particles to be taken into account during attrition and transport.
Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 34 32 50 933; fax: +48 34 32 50933. Apart from particle operation conditions and the size distribution
E-mail address: (A. Blaszczuk). of particles, the residence time of particles in the CFB reactor is also
1674-2001/ 2015 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
52 A. Blaszczuk et al. / Particuology 25 (2016) 5158


A ash content in Eqs. (2) and (3)

Abed cross-sectional area of the bed inventory (m2)
C parameter in Eq. (5)
dk equivalent diameter of the k-th particle class (m)
f probability density function (m1)
f l modied probability density function (m1)
bed(dk) an unknown particle distribution of the l-th granular
material (m1)
g acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
H height of furnace (m)
Hsep separator height (m)
h geometric coefcient for the cross-section of solids
separator 1
attr k ) attrition rate constant of granular materials (s )
Kbott (dk) discharge constant (s )
com(dk) combustion-rate constant of the k-th particle class
Kelut (dk) elutriation constant (s )
j (dk) a characteristic function of some internal processes
KR solid recirculation rate
M moisture content in Eq. (3)
m total mass of mixture of granular materials (kg)
m1, m2; n1, n2; s1, s2 characteristic constants in Rosin
Rammler function
taken into account in modeling the abrasion and shrinkage of par-
ml (dk ) mass ow rate for the k-th particle class (kg/s)
ticles. The impact of these operational parameters was described
mbed total uidized bed inventory mass (kg)
ml f (dk ) mass ow function of feeding process (kg/s) in detail in Klett et al. (2005) and will not be presented here.
In this work, numerical calculations for full boiler loadings were
milj (dk ) mass ow function of internal process (kg/s)
performed for four basic operational parameters: furnace tempera-
melj (dk ) mass ow function of external process (kg/s)
ture, furnace pressure, mass ow rate of the feeding materials, and
p mass fraction of the l-th granular material excess air ratio. Moreover, the physical (i.e., attrition, fragmenta-
RR(dk) RosinRammler function tion, and elutriation) and chemical (i.e., fuel combustion) processes
Rrur a vortex diameter (m) that mainly occur in CFB reactors were taken into account. The key
sac coefcient for accumulation function (m1) objective of this work was to use three different levels of bed inven-
Umf minimum uidization velocity (m/s) tory masses, which were considered as experimental parameters
U0 supercial gas velocity (m/s) in the simulation model of mass balance. This approach enables a
Ut terminal velocity (m/s) sensitivity study to be performed of mass ows of solids inside a
SA/PA secondary air to primary air ratio large-scale CFB facility.
Tbed furnace temperature (K)
Qb thermal power (kW)
Description of population balance model
Wcd lower heating value (LHV) (kJ/kg)
V volume (m3)
The approach taken in modeling a supercritical CFB reactor
Vg gas stream volumetric ow rate through compact assumes the transport of granular matter between the combus-
separator (m3/h) tion chamber and the return leg. The population balance takes into
Xb CFB reactors load account the dynamics of gas-particle ows (e.g., attrition, fragmen-
Xl mass fraction of the l-th granular material in total tation, and elutriation) and combustion processes. The quantities
mass in the CFB system
occurring in the bed inventory are a result of the mass ows of the
x ratio
feeding materials (i.e., fuel, sorbent, and ash obtained from burned
Z height above the air distributor (m)
fuel) and of the two solids exiting the CFB facility (specically, bot-
tom ash and the y ash). In our study, the simulation assumes the
Greek symbols
particles are spherical and classies all particles in terms of their
drag a function described by Bis (2010)
mean size (Blaszczuk, Leszczynski, & Nowak, 2013). This partition-
6dk length of the k-th particle class (m)
ing is necessary to obtain balance formulae for a given particle class.
yb CFB reactor efciency
In the current approach, the balance equations take into account the
6p pressure drop (kPa)
external and internal processes occurring in the CFB reactor. These
p density (kg/m3)
two groups of processes depend on the unknown distribution of
particles which depends on the mutual coupling between feed-
ing, and the external and internal processes. An internal process
ac accumulation
is a process involving transitions between classes of particles; see
ad air dried basis
Leszczynski (2013) for details. External processes are responsible
for changes in the quantitative features of the particle distribution.
For each distinct particle class of solids considered (i.e., fuel, sor-
bent, ash from burnt out fuel) balancing equations are established
A. Blaszczuk et al. / Particuology 25 (2016) 5158 53

for the external processes using mathematical difference equations

(Lakshmikantham & Trigiante, 2002):

mel (dk ) = ml (dk ) ml (dk ) + ml (dk ) ml (dk )

j feed elut down bott
l l l
m (d ) + m (dk) + m (dk)
com k re rebod
ml (dk 1 ) m
l (d )
frag + frag
+ 6d k
mlattr (dk 1 ) ml (dk)
+ attr
+ 6dk = 0 (1)

In this balance equation, subscripts feed, elut, down, bott, com,

re, rebod, frag, and attr signify feeding, elutriation of the bed
inventory, circulation of the bed inventory between the CFB furnace
and the return system, discharge of bottom ash, fuel combustion,
recirculation of y ash, recirculation of bottom ash, fragmenta-
tion of granular materials, and attrition of solids, respectively.
Superscript l index indicates the three granular materials, namely,
bituminous coal as a main fuel, ash obtained from burned coal, and
limestone as sorbent. Subscript k enumerates the particle classes
and subscript j denotes the number for both external and internal
processes. Moreover, the parameter 6dk denotes the length of the
k-th particle class.
The balancing equations take into account the characteristics of
the CFB facility. A sketch of a supercritical CFB reactor with a capac-
ity of 966 MWth is shown in Fig. 1; a precise description is given
(Baszczuk et al., 2012; Blaszczuk et al., 2013; Baszczuk, Nowak, &
Jagodzik, 2013).
Some fundamental equations, Eqs. (2)(9), for the external pro-
cesses used in the population balance are given in Table 1. However,
formulae needed for estimating several factors (i.e., elutriation con-
stant, discharge constant, combustion constant, and attrition rate)
and also the thermal properties of typical ue gas of a coal-red u- Fig. 1. Sketch of the 966-MWth supercritical CFB reactor indicating certain basic
idized bed can be found in (Basu, 2006; Bis, 1991; Blaszczuk et al., processes.
2013; Ghadiri & Zhang, 2002; Leszczynski, 2013; Tomeczek, 1992;
Wirth, 1991; Zhang & Ghadiri, 2002) and will not be given here. supercritical CFB reactor. In our work, mbed is calculated using the
The CFB reactor was operated under stationary conditions with- semi-empirical formula (Howard, 1989):
out recirculation of the bottom ash and y ash into the furnace mbed(pp pg )g
chamber. Therefore, the following components of the balancing 6pbed = (10)
Eq. (1), mlre(dk ) and ml rebod (dk ), are not taken into account in the
simulation mass balance model. In Eqs. (6)(9), the total uidized where 6pbed is the pressure drop inside the furnace chamber, mbed
bed mass mbed is estimated from the pressure data (i.e., pres- the mass of the bed inventory, pp the bed particle density, pg the
sure drop 6pbed) inside the furnace chamber of the CFB reactor uidizing gas density, Abed the cross-sectional area of the bed inven-
which were established during performance tests of the 966-MWth tory, and g the gravitational acceleration.

Table 1
Formulation of balance equations for external processes.

External processes Formula

Xb Qb f
Feeding process mf1 (dk ) = Af1 (dk )6dk for ash (2)
y bW c
Xb Qb f
mf2 (dk ) = (1 A M)Af2 (dk )6dk for coal (3)
y bW c
mf3 (dk ) = m f 3(dk )6dk for sorbent (4)
. , . .,.
2wC 2Hsep
Recirculation of bed inventory mldown (dk ) = mlelut (dk ) 1 exp h R2 (5)
drag nur Vg
Elutriation m lelut (dk ) = XlmbedKelut
l l
(dk )fbed (dk )6dk (6)
Discharge ml (dk ) = XlmbedKl (dk )f
(dk )6dk (7)
bott bott
l l l
Combustion mcom (dk ) = XlmbedKcom (dk )fbed (dk )6dk (8)
l l (dk )f l (dk )6d k
Attrition m attr (dk ) = XlmbedKattr bed
54 A. Blaszczuk et al. / Particuology 25 (2016) 5158

The unknown PSD of the l-th granular material is a non-linear

function calculated using the following expression:
mfj (dk ) + ml (dk 1 ) + 6m
(dk )
(dk ) = attr +
attr (11)
l ( ) l l (dk ))
Xlmbed6dk ((1 ys )Kelut dk + K bott (dk ) + Kcom (dk ) + Kattr

Here, 6mlattr(dk ) denotes the mass ow for the accumulation pro-

cess and is calculated using the following formulae:
6ml (d ) = 0 for k > h (12)
attr k j

ac k h
exp sj d .

6ml (d ) = ml (d )(1 xac ) for k hj

attr k
. h
j k
attr k j

where sj is the coefcient for the accumulation function
introduced by Leszczynski (2013).
For the dense region in a CFB furnace, the total mass of particu- Fig. 2. Temperature distribution inside the furnace chamber of a supercritical CFB
late solids within the bed (i.e., fuel, ash, and sorbent) is the sum of reactor.
three components:
mbed = ml = mc + ma + ms (14) included, some process data used in testing are given in dimen-
sionless scale and normalized by the maximum value of furnace
data. The furnace data such as temperature and pressure were
where mc denotes the mass of fossil fuel within the bed, ma the recorded by an ADAM-6000 data acquisition system (Advantech
mass of ash in the bed inventory, and ms the mass of limestone in Equipment Corporation, Taiwan, China) located between 0.2 and
the bed. The mass fraction of the l-th granular material within the 42.2 m above the primary air distributor level. All measurement
bed is calculated using: ports were 25 mm in diameter and were purged regularly with
Vl compressed air. To measure the bed temperature, nine probes with
Xl = (15) K-type thermocouples (type 206, Czaki Thermoproduct, Poland)
V bed
were installed on the front wall of the CFB reactor. Probes were
where Vl denotes the l-th solid volume in the bed and Vbed the bed placed along the vertical direction in the furnace chamber at non-
volume estimated based on the bed height in the dense region of dimensional spacings Z/H of 0.005, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.16, 0.50,
the furnace chamber and the cross-sectional area of the bed inven- 0.64, 0.87, and 1.00, respectively. Fig. 2 gives the vertical prole
tory. In this study, the bed height for the dense region inside the of the temperature in the furnace chamber at 100% MCR unit load.
furnace chamber Hbed = 0.47 m and the cross-sectional area of the The highest bed temperature was recorded at Z/H = 0.64. This was
bed inventory Abed equals 292.5 m2. because the zero pressure area within the CFB furnace and gas-solid
ow structure is localized, as is the active heat transfer surfaces
Performance test on supercritical CFB reactor (superheaters) in this region of the combustion chamber.
In the bottom region of the combustion chamber, the high bed
A performance test was necessary to validate the impact of the temperature results from the effect of secondary air on the fuel
mass of the granular matter in simulations modeling the behavior of combustion process. The combustion reaction in the bottom region,
a large-scale supercritical CFB facility. The study was performed for where the oxidant concentration is high, is much stronger than near
a supercritical CFB reactor with a capacity of 966 MWth, located at the exit region of furnace chamber. The O2 concentration changes
the Tauron Generation S.A. Lagisza Power Plant, Poland. This reactor rapidly near the secondary air inlet (i.e., the region between 2 m
has a height of 48.0 m and a cross-sectional area has 27.6 m 10.6 m and 6 m above the level of the air distributor). During performance
in the transport zone, where the heat transfer surfaces in form of testing, the furnace temperature difference 6T is 24 K. The regis-
the membrane water-walls are located. The uidization grid with tered furnace temperature was in the range typical for CFB boilers
nozzles for primary air is on the bottom of the combustion cham- (Sekret, 2011).
ber, whereas secondary air nozzles are located at three levels above Pressure taps were provided at 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0,
the grid in the two sidewalls. The CFB reactor design incorporates 8.3 , 24.0, 31.0, and 42.4 m above the air-distributor level and were
altogether eight INTREXTM heat exchangers, one for each solids sep- connected to the transducers by a shielded cable of 6.3-mm diame-
arator. Furthermore, the CFB steam generator contains a furnace ter. The variation of pressure with height in the furnace chamber is
and a low-temperature ue-gas heat recovery system. The solids shown in Fig. 3, decreasing exponentially, with a dense phase at the
separators are arranged in parallel, four separators on two opposite bottom and a dilute phase in the upper region of the CFB furnace.
walls of the furnace. The separators are formed of membrane walls This trend is consistent with the results obtained for large-scale CFB
which are covered with a thin refractory lining of high heat con- facilities (Basu, 2006). Fig. 3 also indicates that in the furnace cham-
ductivity and are resistant to erosion. The INTREXTM integrated heat ber, the pressure drop equals 6.62 kPa. Moreover, a high pressure
exchanger is located in the furnace and serves to extract heat from gradient was observed in the bottom region. This situation arises
the hot circulating material that is returned from the separator, or because of the highly turbulent ow and high circulation ux of
solids taken directly from the lower part of the furnace. solids in this region of the furnace chamber.
The performance test was carried out with a maximum- In Table 2, the mass fractions of solids are given for the super-
continuous-rating (MCR) load of 100% to investigate the effect of critical CFB reactor. These parameters were determined based on
bed inventory mass in simulations of population balance. Four mea- the mass ows of feed materials (coal and limestone) and mate-
surement series under stable operation conditions lasting 8 h were rials led out of the furnace chamber (y ash and bottom ash).
conducted. In this work, as condential commercial information is Bottom ash and y ash collected in the storage silos were used to
A. Blaszczuk et al. / Particuology 25 (2016) 5158 55

Table 4
Analysis data of Polish limestone (wt%) on performance test (Czatkowice limestone

Component Value

Ca 38.07
CaO 53.30
Mg 0.49
MgO 0.82

Table 5
Model input data.

Parameter Value

Capacity (MWth) 966

CFB reactor efciency (%) 94.21
Bed temperature (K) 1139
Excess air ratio 1.21
Bed pressure (kPa) 6.16
Pressure drop (kPa) 6.62
Supercial gas velocity (m/s) 5.21
Fig. 3. Pressure prole versus relative furnace height in a supercritical CFB reactor.
Fuel density (kg/m3) 1300
Sorbent density (kg/m3) 2530
Table 2 Ash density (kg/m3) 2690
Solids mass fraction (wt%) at the 966-MWth supercritical CFB reactor.

Solids Value
characteristics of Czatkowice limestone from Poland, in which CaO
Bituminous coala 90.0
is the main component; both Mg and MgO content were substan-
Limestonea 10.0
tially lower (<1.0%). The XRF analysis of a limestone sample was
Circulating materialb 99.86 performed to an accuracy of 0.02%.
Fly ashb 0.13
Bottom ashb 0.01
Results and discussion
Feeding materials.
Materials led out of furnace chamber.
Our mass balance model along with the performance test results
was used in the simulations of the 966-MWth CFB reactor. To per-
determine these ows. By closing the damper, which is installed form the sensitivity study, some geometrical construction data and
under each silo, the increase in mass inside the silo can be mea- process data of the coal-red CFB reactor were used. The model
sured. Mass ows of solids of feeding materials (i.e., coal and input data listed in Table 5 were obtained from the performance
limestone) were determined based on 5-min-interval changes in
test of this CFB reactor.
weight contained in each silo. In contrast, the mass ow of the
Fig. 4 shows the PSD of the test granular materials, which were
circulating material was calculated from the recirculation rate of
obtained from the performance test and sieve analysis. Details
solids and the compact separator efciency from the performance
about the procedure and device applied to the sieve analysis were
presented by Blaszczuk and Nowak (2014) and will not be described
During the performance test, fossil fuel from the Ziemowit coal
here. Nonetheless, the PSD of ash was obtained from 2-kg fuel sam-
mine in Poland was used. The ultimate and proximate analysis data
ple, which was incinerated in a mufe furnace at 850 C. In Fig. 4, the
are given in Table 3. Determination of proximate parameters of the
corresponding PSDs of three solids samples are presented. These
bituminous coal was made in accordance with normalized stan-
experimental data were used as an indispensable starting point to
dards for fossil fuel in Poland, whereas the ultimate analysis data
estimate the steady-state size distribution of the bed inventory and
were obtained by means of the LECO TrueSpecTM analyzer (LECO
Corporation, St. Joesph, MI, USA). All analytical data for fossil fuel
are averages from four repetitions for each fuel component giv-
ing an accuracy of 0.01 wt%, the exception being the caloric value
parameter. For a lower heating value, this parameter was measured
with an accuracy of 0.20 MJ/kg.
Limestone as sorbent was used in the performance test for
in situ sulfur capture in the supercritical CFB reactor. The collected
limestone samples were subjected to an XRF analysis performed
using an X-ray uorescence spectrometer (PW 4025/00 MiniPal,
Philips, Netherlands) with a semiconductor detector at ambient
pressure in the presence of an inert gas (helium). Table 4 gives the

Table 3
Ultimate and proximate analysis of the tested Polish coal (Ziemowit coal mine).

Ultimate analysis (air dried basis) Proximate analysis (as-received)

Carbon, Cad (wt%) 57.33 Caloric value, Qar (MJ/kg) 22.28

Hydrogen, Had (wt%) 4.62 Volatile matter, Var (wt%) 26.07
Oxygen, Oad (wt%) 5.70 Ash, Aar (wt%) 8.09
Nitrogen, Nad (wt%) 0.97 Total moisture, Mar (wt%) 18.47
Sulfur, Sad (wt%) 1.31 Fig. 4. Measured PSDs in the combustion chamber of a 966-MWth supercritical CFB
56 A. Blaszczuk et al. / Particuology 25 (2016) 5158

Table 6
RosinRammler parameters for the three granular materials.

Parameter Solids samples

Coal Ash Limestone

p 0.47523 0.76781 0.81273

m1 0 0 0
n1 1.77746 1.9123 2.50604
s1 0.00277 2.66237 104 2.49457 104
m2 0.00488 2.7315212 104 3.00905 104
n2 2.40659 0.8254 5.04351
s2 0.00395 0.00221 1.12489 104

the simulation of population balance for the commercial supercrit-

ical CFB reactor. The PSDs of coal, ash, and limestone are marked
by different symbols for each granular material and were approxi-
mated by the RosinRammler function, Fig. 6. Distributions of feeding material mass ow rate for the 966-MWth supercrit-
. . n1 ical CFB reactor.
dk m1
RR(dk ) = (1 p) 1 exp errors between the computed values for cumulative oversize and
the experimental data for bottom ash do not exceed 20%. The main
. . n2 reason for this is the occurrence of particles with soft structure.
Moreover, this indicates that the proposed mass-balance model is

+ p 1 exp (16) a useful tool to assess and monitor the PSDs during operations of
large-scale CFB reactors.
Fig. 6 depicts the distribution of feeding material mass ow at
where m1, m2; n1, n2; and s1, s2 are the characteristic constants for the 966-MWth supercritical CFB reactor. Changes in granular mat-
the solids and p represents the mass fraction of the l-th granular ter mass have no impact on feeding material mass ow in the CFB
reactor. Simulations were performed to establish process condi-
The individual parameters of RosinRammler function were
tions that prevail in the combustion chamber at full unit load. To
estimated using a least-squares technique. The obtained param-
stabilize operations within the CFB reactor, feeding material mass
eters for the RR functions are given in Table 6. The slope of the
ow should be almost at the same level. Reducing the height of the
PSD function for coarse particles (i.e., above the 0.5 oversize) is
bed inventory is equivalent to decreasing the CFB-reactor load and
unique to each granular material. However, the RR functions have
also dropping the pressure within the combustion chamber.
a similar shape for ne particles below the 0.2 oversize for all gran-
Fig. 7 shows the mass ow rate of bed inventory trans-
ular materials. The cumulative oversize curve of the RR function for
ported by elutriation from the region of dense uidized bed to
limestone indicates that the sorbent has more coarse particles with
the region of a dilute phase in the upper part of the CFB com-
hard structure than coal and ash. bustion chamber. Clearly, the optimum particle size of the bed
Fig. 5 shows a comparison between the mean PSDs predicted by inventory, which is elutriated to the region with low suspension
the mass-balance model and the sieve analysis data. The computer
density (ps < 4 kg/m3) in the furnace chamber, is in the range from
results from population mass balance model for y ash were in
5.0 105 to 2.05 104 m.
good agreement with the experimental data obtained based on the
The amount of bed inventory elutriated from the bottom to the
sieve analysis. However, there are deviations between modeled and
top of the combustion chamber is directly related to the mass of
measured PSDs for bottom ash.
the bed inventory located in the connes of the furnace chamber.
From Fig. 5, attrition has an essential inuence on the PSD of
Increases in the bed inventory mass proportionately increases the
bottom ash. For mean particle size of bottom ash covered in a
mass ow rate of particles elutriated. Within the range of changes in
range of d60d80, simulation results exhibit good agreement with
bed inventory mass analyzed, the maximum particle size elutriated
the sieve analysis data. For ne and coarse particles, the calculated

Fig. 7. Elutriated bed inventory mass ow rate for a large-scale CFB facility at dif-
Fig. 5. Measured and modeled PSDs for y ash and bottom ash. ferent bed inventory masses.
A. Blaszczuk et al. / Particuology 25 (2016) 5158 57

Fig. 10. Distributions of y-ash mass ow rate in a supercritical CFB reactor at

different bed inventory masses.
Fig. 8. Attrited bed inventory mass ow rate for a large-scale CFB reactor at different
bed inventory masses. tributions of circulating material mass ow rate as a function of
particle size of the solid phase. For each bed inventory mass, char-
under CFB conditions ranged from 1.23 104 to 1.5 104 m. For acteristic peaks appear that corresponded to a size of particle which
each analyzed bed inventory mass, there is a recognizable char- is recirculated in the combustion chamber by means of the return-
acteristic peak, which corresponds to maximal ow rate of that leg system. The results generated by the population balance model
particle size. Mass ow rate distributions of bed inventory elutri- conrm a certain regularity, i.e., an increase in bed inventory mass
ated to the dilute phase in the combustion chamber impacts particle is accompanied by a slight decrease in particle size, which can be
attrition, especially in the dense phase of solids at the bottom of the observed at maximum mass ow rate. With a vefold increase in
reactor. Fig. 8 presents the mass ow rate of bed inventory attrition. bed inventory mass in the combustion chamber, a decrease can
Over the range of particle sizes, there are four characteristic peaks. be observed in the dominant particle size in the circulating mate-
Each peak corresponds to a particle size that is dominant during rial mass ow rate from dmin = 1.23 104 m to dmax = 1.5 104 m.
attrition. The characteristic peaks in the PSD for the bed inventory Furthermore, the mass ow rate for particles in the range of bed
are a result of the structure of particles among the feeding granular inventory mass analyzed increased nearly four times, and these
materials. The higher mass ow rates during the attrition process large changes arise from the attrition process. The greater the bed
arise because of the soft structure of ne particles. The coarse par- inventory mass, the more importance the attrition process has on
ticles characterized by a hard surface structure have almost zero mass ow rate during solids separation in the compact separator.
mass ow rates, particularly those in one of two particle-size ranges There is a qualitative similarity of the mass ow rate distribu-
5 1045 103 m. The presence of these characteristic peaks is a tion for y ash to the distribution of circulating material mass ow
consequence of the variation in internal circulation of bed inventory rate (Fig. 10). This result from the fact that for both granular mate-
between the combustion chamber and the return leg system. rials, the distribution of mass ow affects the same parameters of
The results of the numerical calculations were generated for the return-leg system, i.e., the effectiveness of the compact sepa-
the solid recirculation-rate range of KR = 6368 and separation rator and the circulation rate of the bed inventory. Nevertheless, it
efciency of solid phase of 99.6899.84%. The operating parame- is worth noting that for the y-ash mass ow rate, there is only
ters of the return-leg system also have a signicant inuence on one dominant particle size in all cases of bed inventory masses
particle distributions within the circulating material between the analyzed. For each bed inventory mass, a characteristic peak in
combustion chamber and return-leg system. Fig. 9 presents the dis- the particle size at maximum mass ow rate was obtained. The
dominant particle size in the mass ow of granular material exit-
ing the CFB reactor was xed at 1.03 104 m for all uidized bed
inventory masses considered.
A completely different characteristic occurs for the mass ow
rate distribution of bottom-ash. From Fig. 11, it is impossible to
distinguish unambiguously only one characteristic particle size in
distributions of bottom-ash mass ow rate. Instead, three char-
acteristic peaks are distinguishable for bed inventory masses in
the range from 24.67 103 to 49.35 103 kg. Distributions of
bottom-ash mass ow rate for the highest bed inventory mass is
characterized by one dominant particle size, i.e., 1.45 104 m,
which corresponds to a maximal mass ow rate. The charac-
teristic peaks in the distributions of bottom-ash mass ow rate
for each analyzed bed inventory mass derive from the impact of
discharge from the combustion chamber. The results generated
by simulations using the population balance model have been
obtained assuming a constant discharge constant for ash removal
of 3.55 105 s1. Together with a decrease in bed inventory mass,
Fig. 9. Distributions of circulating material mass ow rate in a supercritical CFB a signicant inuence of discharge constant on bottom-ash mass
reactor at different bed inventory masses. ow can be seen in the function of particle size of the material.
58 A. Blaszczuk et al. / Particuology 25 (2016) 5158

operating data. This work was nancially supported by Scientic

Research Grant No. BS-PB-406/301/11.


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ation S.A. Lagisza Power Plant for technical support in supplying