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FOUNDATIONS OF GREEK CIVILIZATION

I. EARLY GREECE - (CA 3000 B.C. - 1100 B.C.)

CRETAN CIVILIZATION

- THE FIRST IMPORTANT SOCIETY IN THE GREEK WORLD WAS BASED ON THE LARGE ISLAND OF
CRETE. THE PEOPLE OF CRETE WERE NOT GREEK (PROBABLY FROM ASIA MINOR) BUT THEIR
INFLUENCE ON GREEK CULTURE WAS VERY SIGNIFICANT.

- THE LEADING CITY OF ANCIENT CRETE WAS KNOSSOS WHICH WAS DISCOVERED, AFTER HAVING
DISAPPEARED FOR MANY CENTURIES, IN 1900 A.D. BY THE ENGLISH ARCHAEOLOGIST SIR ARTHUR
EVANS.

- THE CIVILIZATION FOUND ON CRETE WAS CALLED MINOAN.

- BY 2000 B.C., THE MINOANS BEGAN CONSTRUCTION OF A VAST PALACE IN KNOSSOS. THIS PALACE
INDICATED THAT THE MINOANS WERE GREAT TECHNICAL BUILDERS USING A RATHER
SOPHISTICATED PLUMBING SYSTEM.

- MINOANS ACHIEVED THEIR GREATEST DISTINCTION, HOWEVER, IN THE GRACE AND BEAUTY OF
THEIR ART. THEIR ART VALUED STYLE AND ELEGANCE AS CAN BE SEEN IN THE GREAT PALACE OF
KNOSSOS. THEIR POTTERY WAS HIGHLY DECORATIVE AND SHOWED MUCH SOPHISTICATION.

- THE MINOANS WERE BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN A PEACEFUL PEOPLE WHO DID NOT BUILD
FORTIFICATIONS.

- WOMEN PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN MINOAN SOCIETY AND THE RELIGION WAS MATRIARCHAL.

- BECAUSE OF THEIR STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION BETWEEN GREECE AND EGYPT,


MINOANIANS BECAME GREAT TRADERS. THERE WAS MUCH INTERACTION WITH THE GREEK
MAINLAND, AND EARLY MAINLAND GREEK ART, ARCHITECTURE AND RELIGION REVEAL MINOAN
INFLUENCE.

- THERE IS STILL DISAGREEMENT AS TO THE FATE OF MINOAN CIVILIZATION WHICH FELL AROUND
1380 B.C.

GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE

- THE GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SHAPING ITS CULTURE:

- GREECE IS VERY MOUNTAINOUS, HAS MANY SMALL VALLEYS, AND POOR QUALITY SOIL.

- THIS FACT AIDED THE GROWTH OF SMALL, INDEPENDENT, CITY-STATES.

- IT ALSO MADE THEM DEPEND ON OUTSIDE SOURCES FOR FOOD.

- GREECE LIES AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA.

- THIS NEARNESS TO THE SEA MADE MANY OF ITS PEOPLE NATURAL SAILORS.

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- THIS ALSO HELPED THE GREEKS TO DEVELOP IN ISOLATION TO OTHER PEOPLES, WHO THEY
REGARDED AS BARBARIANS.

- THE SOUTHERN MOST PART OF GREECE, THE PELOPONNESUS, HAD FERTILE SOIL.

- THIS FACT ENABLED THE SPARTANS TO LIVE ISOLATED BECAUSE THEY WERE SELF-SUFFICIENT.

MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION - THE FIRST GREEK MAINLAND CIVILIZATION (CA. 1600 - 1100 B.C.)

- THE ANCIENT GREEKS WERE MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEANS WHO SETTLED GREECE FROM
THE BALKAN AREA TO THE NORTH.

- THE MYCENAEANS SETTLED IN THE PELOPONNESUS.

- REFERRED TO THEMSELVES AS HELLENES AND THEIR COUNTRY AS HELLAS.

- ELABORATE FORTIFICATIONS AND LARGE NUMBERS OF WEAPONS SHOW THAT THE MYCENAEANS
WERE MUCH MORE WARLIKE THAN THE MINOANS.

- BETWEEN 1400 B.C. AND 1200 B.C., MYCENAE, A MAJOR CITY OF MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION,
REACHED ITS GREATEST HEIGHT. MASSIVE FORTIFICATIONS WERE BUILT AROUND THE CITY AT THIS
TIME.

- EACH OF THE CITIES DURING THE MYCENAEAN PERIOD ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN
INDEPENDENT OF EACH OTHER AND RULED BY POWERFUL SEPARATE KINGS WHO WERE PROBABLY
THE CHIEF RELIGIOUS OFFICER.

- THE ONLY TIME THE EARLY GREEK CITIES APPEARED TO HAVE UNITED WAS DURING THE WAR
AGAINST TROY, A PROSPEROUS CITY IN ASIA MINOR. THIS WAR AGAINST TROY WAS ROMANTICIZED
IN HOMER'S ILIAD.

- THE WAR AGAINST TROY WAS THE LAST FEAT OF THE MYCENAEAN AGE. NEAR 1100 B.C., MYCENAE
WAS OVERRUN. THE TRADITIONAL VIEW IS THAT ATTACKS ON MYCENAEAN TOWNS CAME FROM
THE DORIC INVASION. IT IS STILL NOT CLEAR WHO THESE DORIANS WERE.

DARK AGE OF GREECE (1100 - 800 B.C.)

- THERE WAS A SHARP CULTURAL DECLINE DURING THIS PERIOD. THE ART OF WRITING VANISHED
AND CONSTRUCTION OF MASSIVE BUILDINGS CEASED.

- THE DORIANS (THOSE WHO SPOKE DORIC GREEK) PLAYED A MAJOR PART IN ENDING MYCENAEAN
DOMINATION WHICH IS LOOKED UPON BY MANY HISTORIANS NOW AS A LIBERATION, i.e., THE
DOMINATION OF THE PALACE-CENTERED KINGS WAS ENDED THUS ENABLING THE EMERGENCE OF
SELF-GOVERNMENT WITHIN GREEK STATES.

THE GREEK RENAISSANCE (CA 800 - 600 B.C.)

- GREEK LITERATURE AFTER THE DARK AGE APPEARS IN THE FORM OF EPIC POETRY. TWO EPIC
POEMS ASCRIBED TO HOMER WERE THE ILIAD AND THE ODYSSEY.

ILIAD

- PORTRAIT OF A WARRIOR ARISTOCRACY IN WHICH GREATNESS IN COMBAT IS THE HIGHEST


VIRTUE. THE POEM FOCUSES ON THE GREEK AND TROJAN WARS WHICH HAD OCCURRED AT LEAST
FIVE CENTURIES BEFORE HOMER AND MANY ANACHRONISMS CAN BE FOUND.
- THE GODS FOUND IN THE STORY:

- ZEUS - FATHER OF THE GODS, CHIEF OF ALL THE GODS ON MT. OLYMPUS (JUPITER)

- HERA - JEALOUS WIFE OF ZEUS (JUNO).

- APOLLO - GOD OF THE SUN, MUSIC, POETRY, MEDICINE.

- APHRODITE - GODDESS OF LOVE AND BEAUTY (VENUS).

- POSEIDON - GOD OF THE SEA - SYMBOL OF HIS AUTHORITY IS THE TRIDENT (NEPTUNE).

- HADES - GOD OF THE UNDERWORLD AND THE DEAD (PLUTO).

- ATHENA - GODDESS OF WISDOM, ATHENS IS HER FAVORITE CITY (MINERVA).

- HERMES - MESSENGER GOD OF ZEUS - IS AS FAST AS THE SPEED OF THOUGHT - PATRON GOD OF
RUNNERS (MERCURY).

- ARES - GOD OF WAR (MARS).

- MAJOR MORTALS IN THE STORY:

- AGAMEMNON - KING OF MYCENAE - COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE GREEK FORCES.

- HELEN - A GREEK WIFE OF THE KING OF SPARTA, MENELAUS, SHE HAD A "FACE THAT LAUNCHED A
THOUSAND SHIPS" IN HER DEFENSE.

- ACHILLES' - BEST FIGHTER ON GREEK SIDE - COULD ONLY BE HARMED IN HIS HEEL.

- ODYSSEUS - MOST CLEVER AND INTELLIGENT OF THE GREEK HEROES - A GOOD FIGHTER - WAS THE
SUBJECT OF HOMER'S OTHER GREAT EPIC POEM - THE ODYSSEY.

- AJAX AND DIOMEDES - FAMOUS BACK UP HEROES ON THE GREEK SIDE.

- PATROCLUS - GREEK BOY WONDER - WHOSE IDOL IS ACHILLES.

*** THE TROJAN SIDE ***

- PRIAM - NOBLE KING OF TROY.

- HECTOR - SON OF KING PRIAM - IS TROY'S GREATEST HERO -A GOOD FIGHTER, FAITHFUL HUSBAND,
LOVING FATHER, IS HOMER'S FAVORITE CHARACTER IN THE EPIC.

- PARIS - SON OF KING PRIAM AND BROTHER OF HECTOR - IS UNRELIABLE - AND THE CAUSE FOR
MUCH TROUBLE AS HE KIDNAPPED HELEN FROM THE KING OF SPARTA.

- CASSANDRA - DAUGHTER OF KING PRIAM, HAD THE ABILITY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE, BUT WAS
UNABLE TO GET ANYONE TO LISTEN TO HER.

- PRINCE AENEAS - COUSIN OF HECTOR, SON OF APHRODITE, WAS DESTINED TO BE ROME'S FOUNDER
IN VIRGIL'S EPIC POEM, THE AENEID.

ODYSSEY
- CELEBRATES THE HERO ODYSSEUS WHO TRIUMPHS THROUGH CLEVERNESS RATHER THAN
MILITARY POWERS.

SUMMARY OF HOMER'S GREAT EPIC POEMS. (WHY THEY HAVE ENDURED TO THIS PRESENT AGE).

1. HOMER OFFERS US TIMELESS INSIGHTS INTO OUR OWN HUMAN NATURE.

2. HIS STORY CHARACTERS ARE "UNIVERSAL TYPES."

3. MAJOR ETHICAL VALUES THAT PEOPLE LIVE BY ARE UNDERSCORED, i.e., VALUES SUCH AS
COURAGE, LOYALTY, JUSTICE, FAITHFULNESS IN MARRIAGE, RESPECT FOR THE DEAD, ETC.

4. HE WAS THE FIRST TO HAVE A BALANCED PLOT, TO CONTRAST HIS CHARACTERS, AND TO USE A
DEVICE FOR BUILDING SUSPENSE.

BESIDES HOMER, EARLY GREEK LITERATURE OWES MUCH TO HESIOD.

RELIGION

- IT WAS A POLYTHEISTIC RELIGION.

- GREEK GODS WERE NOT REMOTE BUT INTERVENED ACTIVELY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS.

- THEY ARE ANTHROPOMORPHIC AND GENERALLY CONSIDERED BENEVOLENT.

- MOST GODS WERE COMMON TO ALL GREEKS, BUT EACH LOCALITY HAD ITS OWN PATRON.

- THE GENERAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE VARIOUS GODS THROUGHOUT GREECE IS A SIGN OF THE
PANHELLENIC CULTURE THAT AROSE DURING THE GREEK RENAISSANCE.

- ANOTHER IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PANHELLENIC GAMES IN 776 B.C., i.e., THE OLYMPICS.

- ANOTHER SYMBOL OF GROWING PANHELLENISM WAS THE CONSULTING OF THE ORACLE OF


DELPHI (APOLLO SPEAKING THROUGH THE MOUTH OF A PEASANT GIRL THAT WAS CHOSEN BY THE
PRIESTS) WHICH BECAME COMMON AMONG THE GREEKS.

COLONIZATION

- THE OVERPOPULATION THAT OCCURRED ON THE GREEK MAINLAND DURING THE DARK AGE WAS
SOLVED BY EXPORTING SURPLUS POPULATION.

- THIS COLONIZATION WAS VERY WIDESPREAD PARTICULARLY AROUND THE BLACK SEA, WESTERN
ASIA MINOR, SICILY AND SOUTHERN ITALY.

- ALWAYS COLONIES WERE SETTLED NEAR THE EDGE OF THE SEA AND NOT THE INTERIOR.

- THIS OVERSEAS EXPANSION LED TO A REVIVAL OF TRADE.

- A COLONY BECAME A WHOLLY INDEPENDENT STATE.

ALPHABET

- THE GREEKS ADAPTED THE PHOENICIAN ALPHABET TO THEIR OWN LANGUAGE. TWO VERSIONS OF
THIS ALPHABET EMERGED:
1. WESTERN VERSION - USED AND MODIFIED BY THE ETRUSCANS, ROMANS AND EVENTUALLY THE
WESTERN WORLD.

2. EASTERN VERSION - USED BY THE GREEKS AND LATER THE RUSSIAN AND OTHER SLAVIC
LANGUAGES.

ART

- NEARLY ALL SURVIVING EXAMPLES OF GREEK PAINTING CAME FROM VASES. LIKE SCULPTURE
AND ARCHITECTURE, GREEK POTTERY BORROWED FROM OTHER CULTURES AND GREATLY
ENHANCED IT.

- THE OLDEST ARCHITECTURAL STYLE WAS DORIC - COLUMNS RESTED DIRECTLY ON THE
FOUNDATION WITHOUT ANY BASE AND TOPPED WITH A SIMPLE CAPITAL.

II. THE POLIS

- BETWEEN 800 AND 323 B.C., GREEK LIFE WAS ORGANIZED AROUND THE POLIS OR CITY-STATE.
THERE WERE AT LEAST 700 OF THEM IN GREECE DURING THIS TIME.

- A COMMUNITY OF CITIZENS (ONLY MEN) AND WOMEN AS WELL AS SLAVES AND RESIDENT ALIENS
WHO HAD NO RIGHTS.

- SLAVES WERE USUALLY OBTAINED FROM WARS.

- THE GREEK POLEIS USUALLY SHARED THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS:

- THEY WERE USUALLY SMALL IN GEOGRAPHICAL SIZE.

- THEY HAD SMALL POPULATIONS (ATHENS AND SURROUNDING AREAS WAS THE MOST POPULOUS
WITH BETWEEN 200,000 - 300,000 PEOPLE).

- THERE WAS USUALLY AN ACROPOLIS - A FORTIFIED HILL IN WHICH THE PEOPLE COULD DEFEND
THEMSELVES.

- THERE WAS A PUBLIC MEETING PLACE, OR MARKET PLACE, CALLED AN AGORA - IT WAS ALWAYS A
SACRED PLACE.

- THE CITY-STATES WERE FIERCELY INDEPENDENT, AND SELF-GOVERNING.

- THERE WAS STRONG ECONOMIC COMPETITION AMONG THEM.

- THEY FREQUENTLY FOUGHT WITH EACH OTHER.

THE GREEK PEOPLE THEMSELVES DID SHARE A COMMON HERITAGE:

- THEY SPOKE A COMMON LANGUAGE.

- THEY HAD SIMILAR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS.

- THEY HAD COMMON GAMES - THE OLYMPICS.

- THEY SHARED A COMMON LITERATURE - IN THE WRITINGS OF HOMER AND HESIOD.

BY 700 A.D., KINGS HAD VANISHED IN NEARLY ALL POLEIS (SPARTA WAS AN EXCEPTION).
- DURING THIS TIME, THE ARISTOCRACY REPLACED THE MONARCHIES, AND THEY IN TURN WERE
REPLACED BEGINNING IN THE 600's B.C. WITH "TYRANTS" WHICH DID NOT HAVE A PEJORATIVE
MEANING BUT SIMPLY IMPLIED THAT THEY HELD ABSOLUTE POWER.

- THE TYRANTS HELPED TO UNDERMINE THE SYSTEM IN WHICH BIRTH WAS A PREREQUISITE TO
LEADERSHIP - PERSONAL ABILITY AND MILITARY SUCCESS BECAME THE KEY CRITERIA.

- THE BASIC MEAN OF LIVELIHOOD FOR THE POLEIS WAS AGRICULTURE DESPITE THE THIN AND
ROCKY SOIL THROUGHOUT MUCH OF GREECE.

- UNLIKE ROME, GREECE DID NOT USE GANGS OF SLAVES FOR AGRICULTURE BUT RATHER FOR
MINING AND STONE QUARRYING.

- IN THE POLEIS, WOMEN PLAYED NO ACTIVE ROLE IN POLITICS AND DID NOT VOTE. TWO OF THE
MOST FAMOUS POLEIS WERE SPARTA AND ATHENS.

SPARTA

- LEADER OF THE DORIAN STATES IN THE PELOPONNESUS.

- GEOGRAPHICALLY, THIS POLIS WAS CUT OFF FROM OTHER GREEK POLEIS BY TWO MOUNTAIN
RANGES AND THUS ISOLATED.

- THINLY POPULATED COMPARED TO ATHENS.

- TRADE WITH OTHER POLEIS WAS DISCOURAGED.

- ONLY ONE SPARTAN COLONY (IN ITALY) HAS EVER BEEN DISCOVERED.

- SPARTA BECAME HIGHLY MILITARISTIC AND RIDGID AS A RESULT OF THEIR CONQUERING A


NEIGHBORING PEOPLE, THE MESSENIANS AROUND 720 B.C. RATHER THAN SENDING OUT COLONIES
TO RELIEVE THE PRESSURE OF OVERPOPULATION.

- THE MESSENIANS COMPRISED THE BOTTOM CLASS OF SPARTA AND MADE UP MOST OF WHAT WERE
REFERRED TO AS HELOTS.

- THEY HAD NO RIGHTS AND WERE VIRTUAL SLAVES ALTHOUGH THEY WERE NOT PRIVATELY
OWNED.

- IN 650 B.C., THE MESSENIANS REVOLTED AGAINST SPARTA BUT FAILED.

- SPARTA BECAME EVEN MORE MILITARISTIC AND RIDGID AFTER THIS SINCE THEY WERE GREATLY
OUTNUMBERED BY THE MESSENIANS.

- SPARTA BECAME AN OLIGARCHY (RULED BY A SMALL NUMBER) INCLUDING TWO KINGS.

- A RIDGID CONSTITUTION ATTRIBUTED TO A LAWGIVER NAMED LYCURGUS WAS PUT IN PLACE


AROUND 600 B.C.

- WHILE EVERY MALE CITIZEN OVER 30 HAD SOME VOTING POWER IN THE ASSEMBLY, THE LIMITED
DEMOCRACY OF SPARTA YIELDED TO FAITH IN AN OLIGARCHY.

- IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SPARTA TRIED TO DOMINATE OTHER PELOPONNESIAN STATES BY CONQUEST.


WHEN THIS FAILED, IT SOUGHT STRENGTH THROUGH ALLIANCES, e.g., PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE
AROUND 530 B.C.
- SPARTAN SOCIAL LIFE BECAME ONE OF STRICT DISCIPLINE AND HARDSHIP.

- BARRACKS LIFE FOR BOYS BEGAN AT AGE 7, WITH EMPHASIS ON PHYSICAL ENDURANCE, AND
MILITARY TRAINING. SPARTA HAD THE BEST ARMY IN ALL OF GREECE. IT WAS SAID OF THEM THAT
"THEY ASKED NOT HOW MANY ENEMIES THERE WERE, ONLY WHERE THEY WERE."

- SPARTAN WOMEN WERE EXPECTED TO SHOW ABSOLUTE OBEDIENCE FIRST TO THEIR FATHER AND
LATER THEIR HUSBANDS.

- SPARTAN WOMEN TOOK PART IN PUBLIC GROUP EXERCISES AND MILITARY DRILLS.

ATHENS

- THE PRINCIPAL CITY OF THE REGION KNOWN AS ATTICA AND A LARGE POLIS WITH WIDESPREAD
TRADING INTEREST.

- ITS POLITICAL HISTORY IS THE MOST VARIED OF ALL THE CITY-STATES OF GREECE.

- THE MONARCHY ENDED AROUND 683 B.C. AND WAS REPLACED BY AN OLIGARCHY UNDER
ARCHONS (ADMINISTRATORS) WHO BECAME MEMBERS OF THE AREOPAGUS.

- THE AREOPAGUS WAS ACTUALLY MORE INFLUENTIAL THAN THE ARCHONS IN DETERMINING
PUBLIC POLICY.

- IT WAS COMPOSED OF SENIOR MEN WITH PERMANENT MEMBERSHIP.

- AROUND 621 B.C., DRACO, A STATESMAN, PUBLISHED/CODIFIED THE LAW ON HOMICIDE WHICH
WAS VERY SEVERE (DRACONIAN).

- IN 570 B.C., SOLON, A FORMER ARCHON, AVOIDED CIVIL WAR IN ATHENS BY CANCELING ALL
AGRICULTURAL DEBTS.

- SOLON ALSO DIVIDED ALL CITIZENS INTO 4 CLASSES BASED ON THEIR INCOME FROM LAND.

- MEMBERS FROM THE THREE HIGHER CLASSES COULD HOLD PUBLIC OFFICE.

- THUS SOLON'S NEW SYSTEM ENDED PRIVILEGES BASED ON BIRTH.

- BECAUSE SOLON'S REFORMS DID NOT COVER LAND DISTRIBUTION FOR THE POOR, PISISTRATUS
SEIZED CONTROL OF ATHENS IN 546 B.C. WITH THE AID OF THE LANDLESS.

- PISISTRATUS TOOK LAND AWAY FROM THE WEALTHY ARISTOCRATS AND DISTRIBUTED IT TO THE
POOR.

- IT WAS UNDER PISISTRATUS THAT ATHENS BECAME AN IMPORTANT COMMERCIAL CENTER.

- HE ALSO INITIATED A SPLENDID PROGRAM OF PUBLIC WORKS.

- ALTHOUGH ARCHONS WERE STILL ELECTED TO THE AREOPAGUS, PISISTRATUS RULED AS A


DICTATOR.

- AFTER PISISTRATUS' SON WAS OVERTHROWN, CLEISTHENES LED A REFORM MOVEMENT THAT
ESTABLISHED THE BASIS OF ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY.

- HIS BASIC REFORM WAS THE CREATION OF A COUNCIL OF 500 BY WHICH ALL MALE CITIZENS OVER
THE AGE OF 30 COULD SERVE FOR ONE YEAR.
- THE COUNCIL WAS CHOSEN AFRESH EVERY YEAR AND NO MAN COULD SERVE MORE THAN TWICE.

- THUS CLEISTHENES ENFORCED ROTATION OF SERVICE TO ENSURE THAT MOST MALE CITIZENS
SERVED.

- THE COUNCIL OF 500 REPLACED THE AREOPAGUS IN POLITICAL POWER AND BECAME THE BASIS
FOR DEMOCRACY IN ATHENS.

- THE ULTIMATE POWER IN CLEISTHENES' "DEMOKRATIA" WAS THE "DEMOS," THE MASS
POPULATION WHICH MET IN THE ASSEMBLY. ALL ADULT MALE CITIZENS COULD ATTEND AND
VOTE.

- HE INTRODUCED OSTRACISM IN WHICH CITIZENS COULD VOTE TO TEMPORARILY EXILE A FELLOW


CITIZEN.

- JAILING WAS RARE.

- BY STAGES THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM CAME INTO THE HANDS OF THE PEOPLE.

- THE GREAT MAJORITY OF ATHENIANS SUPPORTED DEMOCRACY BUT BOTH PLATO AND ARISTOTLE
CONSIDERED DEMOCRACY A CORRUPT FORM OF CONSTITUTION.

- WOMEN IN ATHENS HAD NO POLITICAL OR LEGAL RIGHTS.

- COULD NOT ATTEND THE ASSEMBLY, HOLD OFFICE, OWN PROPERTY OR CONDUCT ANY LEGAL
BUSINESS.

- THEY LIVED IN SECLUSION ATTENDING ONLY OCCASIONAL RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS.

HUSBANDS AND WIVES LIVED IN SEPARATE PARTS OF THE HOUSE.

- GIRLS USUALLY MARRIED BETWEEN AGES 14-16 TO A MAN CHOSEN BY THEIR PARENTS.

A CONTRAST OF THE ATHENIAN AND SPARTAN WAY OF LIFE:

- ATHENS STRESSED THE INDIVIDUAL - SPARTA THE GROUP.

- ATHENS ENCOURAGED FREE INQUIRY - SPARTA WANTED UNQUESTIONED OBEDIENCE.

- ATHENS HAD EDUCATION FOR THE MIND AND BODY - SPARTA HAD EDUCATION FOR WARFARE.

- ATHENS HAD GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE - SPARTA HAD GOVERNMENT BY OLIGARCHY.

- ATHENS HAD FAMILY LIFE - SPARTA HAD BARRACKS LIFE BEGINNING AT AGE 7 FOR MALES.

- ATHENS HAD HIGH ARTISTIC DEVELOPMENT - SPARTA BELIEVED THAT ARTISTIC DEVELOPMENT
WAS "AFFECTATION" (ARTIFICIAL).
DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEK POLIS: SPARTA &
ATHENS 2

I. SPARTA: A "MIXED CONSTITUTION" OR "OLIGARCHY"

ca. 725-710 B.C. - 1st Messenian War -- Population pressure on the land led Sparta to conquer
neighboring MESSINA. Messenian land divided among Spartan warriors, providing each with an
allotment for subsistence. Messenians reduced to HELOTS who worked the land so that Spartans
could devote their lies to military service.

ca. 650-625 B.C. - 2nd Messenian War -- Messenian revolt crushed by Sparta. This is probable
occasion for the establishment of the LYCURGAN CONSTITUTION.

by 550 B.C. - Sparta had a mixed constitution. There were 2 kings whose power was limited by
law. Their function was cheifly religious & military. The aristocratic or oligarchic element was
represented by a COUNCIL OF ELDERS consisting of 28 men over 60 who were elected for life.
The Council had important judicial functions and was consulted before any proposal was put before
the assembly. The people were represented by the ASSEMBLY of all males over 30 who were the
sons of a Spartan citzen. In theory, the assembly was the final authority. In reality, its power was
limited. Since debate was carried on by the magistrates, elders, and kings and the assembly only
voted yes ot no, it just ratified decisions already taken or decided between postions favored by
leading figures. The leaders could dismisss the assembly if thet disliked its decisions.

Sparta had a unique institution - THE BOARD OF EPHORS (overseers), consisting of 5 men
elected annually by the assembly. Any Spartan citizen could be a candidate. Originally they were to
check the kings, but grradually they acquired additional functions: inittiatioon of legislation,
summoning the assembly and Council, and judicial powers as well as a foreign policy role.

Due to the need of the Spartans to dominate the numerically-superior Messian HELOTS, Sparta
became a GARRISON STATE. Children were reaered communally by the state. No coinage or
luxury. Sparta was admired for the stability of its constitution and its military prowess. Service to the
state subordinated the individual to the state. Austerity and duty admired.

ca. 560-550 B.C. - Sparta defeated Tegea; origins of the PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE.

II. ATHENS: DEMOKRATIA OR RULE OF THE DEMOS OR PEOPLE

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ca. 7th Cent B.C. - End of Monarchy. Aristocratic Polis. Athenian king lost power to aristocrats,
who monopolized the magistracies. The state was governed by the AREOPAGUS, a council
recruited from the former aristocratic magistrates. 3, later 9, ARCHONS, elected annually. After one
year, they became members of the Council of the Areopagus. The Archons were elected by an
assembly of adult male citizens.

621 B.C. - Draco codified & published the laws. The aim was to end the blood feuds between
clans. It dealt mainly with homocide. It reduced the ability of the tribal aristocratic magistrates to
interpret the law arbitrarily.

594 B.C. - Solon's Reforms Class warfare caused by an agrariar crisis and over-population was
avoided by conciliation. Debt-ridden farmers who had lost their land wanted cancellation of debts
and land redistribution. SOLON, one of the ARCHONS, was given special powers of arbitration.
ECONOMIC REFORMS: Abolition of debt slavery. Cancellation of debts, but no land
redistribution. He forbade the export of wheat and encouraged that of olive oil and wine.
POLITICAL REFORMS: All Athenians whose fathers were citizens were citizens, plus a few
immigrants. SOLON DIVIDED THE CITIZENS INTO FOUR GROUPS BASED ON INCOME
FROM LAND. (Even merchants and atisans were deprived of certain political rights due to the
basing full politcial rights on land ownership. Only the 2 richest groups could become Archons
and members of the Council of Areopagus. The 3rd group could serve as Hoplites (soliders who
bought their own weapons) and as members of the new Council of 400. The 4th group was
exclude from the Archonship and the Areopagus, but it could vote on legislation and elect
Archons nad members of the Council of 400. About half the population could vote but not hold
office. POLITICAL RIGHTS NO LONGER BASED ON BIRTH BUT MORE ON LANDED
WEALTH.

Solon established a COUNCIL OF 400, 100 chosen from each of the four tribes, to prepare the
agenda for the assembly. It was to check the Areopagus.

Solon also create a "POPULAR" COURT OF APPEALS. All citizens had the right to sit on juries
and decide cases on appeal from the magistrates. (In the 5th cent, almost all cases came before courts
of paid jurors.) Noble magistrates no longer had the power to make legal decisions without appeal.

546-527 B.C. - Tyranny of Pisistratus A mercenary army enabled the nobleman PISISTRATUS to
establish the first "tyranny" in Athens. He kept Solon's reforms, but he ruled by force and an appeal
for popular support against his fellow-nobles. He banished many of his noble opponents, confiscated
their land, and redistributed their land to farmers. He built temples and public works.

510 B.C. - Hippias, Pisistratus' son, driven from power with Spartan help. Attempt at oligarchic or
aristocratic rule failed.

508 B.C. - Clisthenes' Refoms An aristocat he undermined his fellow-nobles. HE BROKE UP


THE ANCESTRAL RIBAL SYSTEM, WHICH WAS THE BASIS OF NOBLE POWER. He
deprived the old tribes of all political functions. All Athenians were divided into TEN new tribes.
The basic unit was the deme, which took over the functions of local gov't. The demes were grouped
into 30 sets of trittyes geograpically seperated from each other. The composition of the each tribe
guaranteed that no one region would dominate. Because the tribes had common religious ceremonies
and fought together, they diminished regional loyalty and personal loyalty to tribal leaders.
CLISHENES SEPERATED RELIGIOUS AND KINSHIP TIES FROM POLITICAL
ORGANIZATION, THEREBY REDUCING THE POWER OF THE NOBLES AND TRIBAL
LEADERS.

CLISTHENES replaced Solon's Council of 400 with a Council of 500. It replaced the Areopagus
in political power. All male citizens over 30 could serve for one year. No one could serve more than
twice. Each of the 10 tribes elected 50 members of the Council annually. It prepared legislation for
debate in the assembly.

CLISTHENES IS CONSIDERED "THE FATHER OF ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY".


Although he did not change Solon's property qualifications for office, he dismissed the influence of
the nobility, increased the role of the assembly, and made the Council of 500 more important.

ca. 500 B.C. - Introduction of Ostracism The assembly voted once a year whether it wanted to
ostracize anyone, i.e., exile him for ten years. If the vote was affirmative, the names of the
candidates for exile were written on potsherds. The individual against whom a majority voted was
exiled for ten years. The purpose of ostracism was to deter factional menaces to democracy by the
treat of ostracizing factional leaders.

487 B.C. - Archons were no longer elected but chosen by lot. Selection by lot became widespread
in the 5th cent. A new BOARD OF GENERALS was created, with ten members, or one per tribe.
The generals were elected annually by the assembly of citizens. Anyone could be reelected
indefinitely. This new office was very powerful. It was the basis of Pericles' power.

462 B.C. - Pericles extended Democracy In 457, the 3rd of Solon's groups, the HOPLITE CLASS,
was made eligibe for the Archonship, hence the Areopagus. The 4th group was still excluded. Pay
was given to the jurors, who were chosen by lot. The powers of the Areopagus were further reduced.
Citizenship was limited to those who had 2 parents who were Athenian citizens.

ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY WAS EXTENDED IN THE 5TH CENTURY B.C. DUE TO THE
NEED FOR ROWERS FOR THE FLEET, WHICH WAS NEEDED FOR THE ATHENIAN
EMPIRE. THERE WAS AN INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEA-POWER,
IMPERIALISM, AND DEMOCRACY. IN ADDITION, ARISTOCRATIC POLITICAL LEADERS
USED POPULAR SUPPORT AND DEMOCRATIC REFORMS TO GAIN POLITICAL POWER
AT THE EXPENSE OF THEIR ARISTOCRATIC RIVALS, e.g., PERICLES.

Athenian democracy was direct democracy not representative gov't. The assembly of citizens could
be attended by any male citizens who could vote for laws, war and peace, and elect archons,
members of the Council of 500, and generals. They could debate. The highest magistracies were
closed to them, however.

Citizenship was jealously guarded. Women, slaves, and foreigners were excluded.

Popular participation in gov't was widespread since all decisions were approved by the assembly
of citizens. Every judicial decision was subject to appeal to popular juries.

Athenian democracy was gov't by amateurs since most offices were chosen by lot. There was much
rotation in office. All citizens were deemed competent to serve and participate. Most offices were
only for one year.

There was no standing army, no police force, and no obvious way to coerce the people. The
people tended to choose aristocratic leaders like Pericles for their military prowess and their
ability to persuade in the assembly not simply due to birth and wealth.

All public officials were subject to scrutiny before taking office, could be called to account and
remove from office during their tenure, and were subject to a compulsory exam and accounting at the
end of their term. Most offices were only for one year.

3
CLASSICAL AND HELLENISTIC GREECE

I. PERSIAN WARS

IN 499 B.C., THE IONIAN GREEKS IN ASIA MINOR (MODERN DAY TURKEY) REBELLED AGAINST THEIR
PERSIAN OVERLORDS (THE IONIAN REVOLT).

- KING DARIUS OF PERSIA CRUSHED THE REVOLT IN 493 B.C.

- KING DARIUS NEXT INVADED THE GREEK MAINLAND IN 490 B.C. TO PUNISH ATHENS FOR HELPING
THE IONIANS.

- THE PERSIANS LANDED AT MARATHON (26 MILES NORTH OF ATHENS).

- THE PERSIANS, ALTHOUGH SUPERIOR IN NUMBER, WERE DEFEATED BY THE GREEKS (MOSTLY
ATHENIANS) UNDER MILTIADES.

- ALL MALE CITIZENS BETWEEN 18 AND 60 OF THE GREEK CITY STATES COULD BE CALLED ON FOR
DUTY.

- THE INFANTRY WAS THE BACKBONE OF THE ARMY IN FIGHTING THE PERSIANS.

- ANY CITIZEN WHO COULD AFFORD ARMOUR BECAME A HOPLITE.

- HOPLITES IN BATTLE WERE GROUPED IN PHALANXES.

- KING DARIUS' SON, XERXES, LED THE SECOND AND MAJOR INVASION OF THE GREEK MAINLAND IN
480 B.C.

- BY THIS TIME, HOWEVER, THE GREEKS HAD UNITED (FEARING ANNIHILATION FROM PERSIA) INTO
30 STATES WITH SPARTA, ATHENS AND CORINTH AS ITS MOST POWERFUL MEMBERS.

3
http://www.wpunj.edu/~history/study/ws1/set3a.htm
- ADDITIONALLY, THE ATHENIAN, THEMISTOCLES, PERSUADED ATHENS TO BUILD A NAVY AND TO
FORTIFY ITS HARBOR.

- KING XERXES' INVASION OF APPROXIMATELY 60,000 MEN AND 600 SHIPS WOULD BE THE LARGEST
INVASION OF EUROPE BY SEA UNTIL WWII.

- THE GREEKS DECIDED TO MAKE THEIR STAND IN CENTRAL GREECE AT THERMOPYLAE - A NARROW
MOUNTAIN PASS.

- FOR THREE DAYS, A SMALL BAND OF 5,000 GREEKS INCLUDING KING LEONIDAS OF SPARTA HELD
UNTIL THEY WERE BETRAYED AND NEARLY ALL WERE KILLED.

- ATHENS WAS THEN ABANDONED AND THE PERSIANS ENTERED THE CITY AND BURNED IT.

- SHORTLY AFTER THIS, THE GREEKS WON A DECISIVE NAVAL VICTORY OVER THE PERSIANS AT
SALAMIS WHICH LARGELY CUT OFF THE PERSIAN ARMY FROM BEING RESUPPLIED.

- UNLIKE LANDLOCKED CITY-STATES, ATHENS BASED HER POWER MAINLY ON HER NAVY.

- THE TRIREME WAS THE STANDARD WARSHIP USED BY ATHENS IN THE PERSIAN WARS.

- THE RAM OF THE TRIREMES WROUGHT HAVOC ON THE PERSIAN SHIPS AT SALAMIS.

- IN 479 B.C., THE GREEKS WON A DECISIVE LAND BATTLE OVER THE PERSIANS AT THE BATTLE OF
PLATAEA.

- THIS DECISIVE VICTORY WAS FOLLOWED UP BY ANOTHER MAJOR GREEK VICTORY ALSO IN 479 B.C.
AT THE BATTLE OF MYCALE ON THE SHORE OF ASIA MINOR.

II. ATHENIAN EMPIRE

AFTER THE VICTORIES OVER PERSIA, MANY GREEK POLEIS (EXCLUDING SPARTA) FORMED THE
DELIAN LEAGUE UNDER ATHENIAN LEADERSHIP.

- THIS WAS A UNION OF THE CITY-STATES TO CONTINUE THE WAR AGAINST PERSIA.

- MILITARY CAMPAIGNS AGAINST PERSIA WERE SUCCESSFUL AND BY 450 B.C., WARFARE BETWEEN
GREEKS AND PERSIA ENDED.

- GREEKS LIBERATED THE CITIES IN ASIA MINOR HELD BY THE PERSIANS.

- EVENTUALLY ATHENS MANIPULATED THE LEAGUE, INTERFERED WITH OTHER POLEIS, AND
DEMANDED TRIBUTE FROM OTHER MEMBERS FROM 443 TO 429 B.C.

- PERICLES DOMINATED THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE AS GENERAL (ARCHONS WERE LESS IMPORTANT
NOW). PERICLES STRENGTHENED THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE THROUGH AGGRESSIVE IMPERIALISM
INCLUDING THE ATHENIAN HOLD ON THE DARDANELLES.

- THE BASIS OF ATHENIAN MILITARY POWER REMAINED ITS NAVY.

- PERICLES' RULE ALSO COINCIDED WITH THE ZENITH OF ATHENIAN LITERATURE.

- DRAMA REACHED ITS HIGHEST DEVELOPMENT IN THE PLAYS OF SOPHOCLES AND EURIPIDES.
- PERICLES REBUILT MANY TEMPLES OF THE ACROPOLIS THAT HAD BEEN DESTROYED DURING
WARS WITH PERSIA. THE PARTHENON, THE MOST MAGNIFICENT TEMPLE OF THE ACROPOLIS, WAS
BUILT AT THIS TIME.

THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR (431 - 404 B.C.)

- SPARTA AND OTHER POLEIS VIEWED THE GROWTH OF THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE WITH SUSPICION
AND FEAR. THERE HAD BEEN SKIRMISHES BETWEEN ATHENS AND SPARTA DURING THE 450s B.C.
WHICH LED TO A TREATY OF NON-AGGRESSION IN 446 B.C. TWO EVENTS LED TO THE BREAKING OF
THIS TREATY:

1) ATHENS' ALLIANCE WITH CORCYRA AGAINST SPARTA'S ALLY - CORINTH.

2) ATHENS BESIEGING THE POLEIS OF POTIDAEA (WHICH WAS A COLONY OF CORINTH).

- FIGHTING BEGAN IN 431 B.C. WITH ATHENS HAVING THE STRONGEST NAVY AND SPARTA THE
STRONGEST ARMY.

- OF FAR GREATER DAMAGE TO ATHENS THAN SPARTAN OFFENSES WAS A SERIOUS PLAGUE WHICH
KILLED THOUSANDS OF ATHENIANS.

- NEITHER SIDE POSSESSED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH TO DEFEAT ITS RIVAL AND IN 421 B.C., AN
ARMISTICE WAS REACHED.

- WAR RESUMED IN 414 B.C. AS ATHENS SOUGHT TO EXPAND ITS INFLUENCE IN SICILY.

- IN 413 B.C., ATHENS LOST A CRUCIAL NAVAL BATTLE AT SYRACUSE (SICILY) FOLLOWED BY A
MASSACRE OF MANY ATHENIAN LAND TROOPS.

- IN 405 B.C., THE ATHENIAN FLEET SUFFERED A MAJOR DEFEAT AT THE HELLESPONT BY SPARTA
AND IN 404 B.C., ATHENS SUED FOR PEACE.

RESULTS OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR:

- THE WAR WAS A MAJOR CATASTROPHE FOR GREEK UNITY.

- ATHENS LOST ITS EMPIRE, MOST OF ITS NAVY AND MUCH OF ITS TRADE.

- A SPIRIT OF PESSIMISM AND DISILLUSION AMONG ATHENIAN INTELLECTUALS PREVAILED WITH


MANY OF THEM BLAMING DEMOCRACY FOR THE MILITARY DISASTER AND SOCIAL DECLINE.

- BOTH ATHENS AND SPARTA WERE DRAINED OF THEIR MANPOWER AND THE ENTIRE CITY-STATE
SYSTEM BECAME DOOMED FROM CONSTANT STRUGGLES.

III. CLASSICAL GREEK CULTURE (CA. 500 - 323 B.C.)

DRAMA

- THE GREATEST POETRY OF THE EARLY CLASSICAL GREEK CULTURE WAS FOUND IN DRAMATIC
TRAGEDIES CENTERING AROUND RELIGIOUS THEMES.

- DRAMAS WERE PRESENTED TO AUDIENCES OF SEVERAL THOUSAND.

- DRAMAS WERE COMMONLY PRESENTED IN SETS OF 3 AND ONE SUCH FAMOUS TRILOGY IS THE
TRAGEDY OF ORESTES (SON OF AGAMEMNON) CALLED THE ORESTEIA BY AESCHYLUS.
- ANOTHER FAMOUS EARLY DRAMATIST WAS SOPHOCLES. HIS FAMOUS WORK IS OEDIPUS THE KING.

- THE THIRD ATHENIAN TRAGIC POET WAS EURIPIDES. HIS MOST FAMOUS PLAY IS MEDEA.

- HE SHOWED MUCH GREATER INTEREST IN THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE PASSIONS OF THESE
CHARACTERS DETERMINE THE COURSE OF EVENTS IN HIS PLAYS.

COMEDY

- THE MOST FAMOUS COMEDIES WERE PRODUCED BY ARISTOPHANES OF ATHENS. UNLIKE TRAGEDY,
COMEDY DEALT WITH THE REAL WORLD.

- ARISTOPHANES SATIRIZED MANY OF THE EVENTS AND PEOPLE OF HIS DAY.

HISTORICAL WRITING

- HERODOTUS IS CALLED THE "FATHER OF HISTORY."

- HE WAS THE FIRST TO WRITE AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL EVENTS IN THE GREEK WAR WITH
PERSIA. HE WAS A CURIOUS AND OPEN-MINDED INQUIRER WHO TRAVELED FREQUENTLY IN PURSUIT
OF FACTS.

- HE TRIED TO JUDGE EACH SOCIETY ON ITS OWN TERMS.

- THUCYDIDES WAS HERODOTUS' SUCCESSOR.

- HE WROTE ABOUT THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR AND TREATED THE WAR AS THE LUST FOR POWER
WHICH OFTEN ENDS IN TRAGEDY, e.g., ATHENIAN BARBARIC TREATMENT OF NEUTRAL MELOS IN 416
B.C.

ART AND ARCHITECTURE

- ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE BECAME THE LEADING ART FORMS OF THE 5TH CENTURY B.C.

- THE STATUARY OF THE PARTHENON IS THE BEST KNOWN COLLECTION OF CLASSICAL GREEK
SCULPTURE.

- GREEK SCULPTORS HUMANIZED THE GODS.

- AS MENTIONED, TEMPLES WERE RESTORED ON THE ACROPOLIS AND THE PARTHENON, A TEMPLE
DEDICATED TO ATHENS, WAS BUILT DURING THE CLASSICAL AGE.

SOPHISTS

- EMPHASIS ON SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OF MATERIAL IN THE UNIVERSE TURNED


TOWARD STUDY OF HUMAN BEINGS.

- FIRST GREEKS TO UNDERTAKE THE STUDY WERE SOPHISTS.

- ATTACKED ACCEPTED BELIEFS.

- TAUGHT RHETORIC, GRAMMAR, MATHEMATICS AND MUSIC.

- PROTAGORAS (MID 5TH CENTURY) STATED "MAN IS THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS."
SOCRATES (CA. 469 - 399 B.C.)

- MAIN CRITIC OF SOPHISTS.

- TRANSFORMED PHILOSOPHY INTO INQUIRY ABOUT MORAL RESPONSIBILITY OF PEOPLE.

- HELD THAT NO MAN IS WISE WHO CANNOT GIVE A LOGICAL ACCOUNT OF HIS ACTIONS.

- ENCOURAGED ATHENIAN YOUTHS TO EXAMINE THEIR LIVES IN PURSUIT OF MORAL TRUTH, i.e.,
"UNEXAMINED LIFE IS NOT WORTH LIVING."

- WAS BROUGHT TO TRIAL ON CHARGES OF CORRUPTING ATHENIAN YOUTH AND FORCED TO DRINK
HEMLOCK.

PLATO (CA. 429 - 347 B.C.)

- MOST FAMOUS PUPIL OF SOCRATES WHO CONTINUED TO INVESTIGATE MORAL CONDUCT.

- WAS AN OPPONENT OF DEMOCRACY LIKE OTHER ATHENIAN INTELLECTUALS.

- GREATLY RESENTED EXECUTION OF SOCRATES AT THE HANDS OF A POPULAR COURT.

- BELIEVED THERE WAS HIGHER ORDER BEHIND EXTERNAL EVENTS AND THUS THE GOAL OF
PHILOSOPHY WAS TO PENETRATE THROUGH THE REALM OF EVERYDAY APPEARANCES TO THE REAL
NATURE OF THINGS.

- HIS MOST FAMOUS WORK IS THE REPUBLIC IN WHICH HE DEVELOPED THE IDEAL STATE. THE
POLEIS SHOULD BE DIVIDED INTO 3 CLASSES:

1) PHILOSOPHERS - THESE SHOULD BE THE RULERS OF THE STATE. THESE PEOPLE POSSESSED
REASON. "THE STATE WILL BE RULED WELL WHEN KINGS BECOME PHILOSOPHERS AND
PHILOSOPHERS BECOME KINGS."

2) WARRIORS - DEFENDERS OF THE STATE WHO POSSESSED SPIRIT.

3) WORKERS - PRODUCE THE NEEDED MATERIAL TO SUSTAIN THE STATE.

ARISTOTLE (CA. 384 - 322 B.C.)

- MOST FAMOUS PUPIL OF PLATO.

- DEPARTED FROM PLATO'S THEORY OF EXTERNAL EVENTS (FORMS THAT CANNOT BE PERCEIVED
BY THE SENSES).

- INVESTIGATED ALL FIELDS OF LEARNING. HE AND HIS PUPILS MET IN THE LYCEUM (IN ATHENS)
DEVOTING THEMSELVES TO COLLECTING AND SYSTEMATIZING KNOWLEDGE IN ALL FIELDS
INCLUDING:

- POLITICS - A STUDY OF GOVERNMENT OF OVER 150 CONTEMPORARY STATES. OF THE THREE PURE
FORMS OF GOVERNMENT, i.e., MONARCHY, ARISTOCRACY, AND MODERATE DEMOCRACY, HE
EXPRESSED PREFERENCE FOR MODERATE DEMOCRACY. CHIEF GOAL OF GOVERNMENT IS TO
CREATE THE GOOD LIFE FOR BOTH THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE GOVERNMENT.

- ETHICS - HAPPINESS IS THE GREATEST GOOD OF THE INDIVIDUAL. PEOPLE MUST SEEK
MODERATION TO ACHIEVE THIS.
- POSTULATED ON HIS CONCEPTION OF THE UNIVERSE MADE UP OF 5 ELEMENTS. STARS MOVE IN A
CIRCULAR FASHION AND OUTSIDE THE WHOLE UNIVERSE THERE EXISTS AN EXTERNAL "PRIME
MOVER", i.e., GOD WHO DOES NOT MOVE OR CHANGE.

- ALSO WROTE EXTENSIVELY ON BIOLOGY.

FAMILY LIFE - ATHENS

- FATHER EXERTED TOTAL CONTROL OVER HIS HOUSEHOLD.

- WOMEN HAD NO LEGAL POWER.

- NEW BORN CHILDREN COULD LEGALLY BE ABANDONED (PARTICULARLY IF SICKLY).

- FAMILY OFTEN SPENT THE DAY IN THE COURTYARD DURING SUMMER.

- AS MENTIONED PREVIOUSLY, HUSBANDS AND WIVES LIVED IN SEPARATE PARTS OF THE HOUSE.

- MOST RICHLY FURNISHED ROOM WAS THE DINING ROOM.

- MEN FREQUENTLY ENJOYED A SYMPOSIOM (A DRINKING PARTY) THERE.

- MEN DID MOST OF THE SHOPPING AT THE MARKETPLACE.

- WOMEN SPENT MOST OF THEIR TIME SPINNING AND WEAVING AT HOME.

- FORMAL EDUCATION WAS CONSIDERED IMPORTANT ONLY FOR BOYS.

- GIRLS WERE EDUCATED AT HOME MAINLY LEARNING HOW TO DO DAILY TASKS REQUIRED FOR
RUNNING THE HOME.

IV. RISE OF MACEDONIA

- QUARRELS AMONG THE POLEIS MADE THEM VULNERABLE TO MACEDONIAN EXPANSION.

- THE MACEDONIANS WERE A GREEK PEOPLE WHO WERE CONSIDERED SEMI-BARBARIC BY THEIR
SOUTHERN GREEK NEIGHBORS.

- BETWEEN 357 B.C. AND 336 B.C., PHILIP II OF MACEDONIA LAUNCHED SUCCESSFUL CAMPAIGNS
AGAINST THE POLEIS TO THE SOUTH. HE GATHERED THE MORE IMPORTANT POLEIS, EXCEPT SPARTA,
INTO THE LEAGUE OF CORINTH WHICH RECOGNIZED PHILIP AS THEIR LEADER.

- BEFORE PHILIP COULD BEGIN HIS PERSIAN CAMPAIGNS, HE WAS MURDERED IN 336 B.C.

- PHILIP'S SON, ALEXANDER THE GREAT, NOW BECAME HEAD OF THE EMPIRE CREATED BY HIS
FATHER.

- HE WAS 20 YEARS OLD AT THIS TIME.

- ALEXANDER, DURING HIS REIGN, CREATED THE LARGEST EMPIRE THE ANCIENT WORLD HAD
KNOWN, AND HE WAS RESPONSIBLE MORE THAN ANYONE ELSE FOR THE DIFFUSION OF GREEK
CULTURE.
- HE DROVE THE PERSIANS FROM THE COAST OF ASIA MINOR, AND OUT OF EGYPT. AFTER THE
DEFEAT OF THE PERSIANS AT GAUGAMELA, HE OCCUPIED THE PERSIAN CAPITAL OF PERSEPOLIS
AND ASSUMED THE TITLE OF KING OF PERSIA.

- HE CONTINUED EAST WHERE HE CROSSED THE INDUS RIVER INTO INDIA.

- IN 326 B.C., HIS TROOPS THREATENED TO MUTINY, SO HE BEGAN HIS MARCH BACK WEST.

- IN 324 B.C., THE ARMY REACHED BABYLON AND HIS ATTEMPTS TO ORGANIZE A NEW ARMY ENDED
WHEN HE DIED OF FEVER IN 323 B.C. AT THE AGE OF 32.

- HE PROVIDED FOR NO SUCCESSOR AND HIS EMPIRE WAS DIVIDED BY THREE OF HIS HIGHEST
RANKING GENERALS.

- BY 30 B.C., ALL OF THE SUCCESSOR STATES HAD FALLEN TO ROME.

ALEXANDER'S ACHIEVEMENTS:

- HELLENISTIC CULTURE WAS DISSEMINATED BOTH EAST AND WEST.

- ROADS WERE BUILT TO INCREASE TRADE IN HIS LARGE EMPIRE.

- MORE THAN 70 CITIES WERE FOUNDED INCLUDING THE COSMOPOLITAN CITY OF ALEXANDRIA,
EGYPT WHICH WAS POPULATED WITH GREEKS AND BECAME THE HELLENISTIC CENTER OF
CULTURE.

- GAVE RISE TO A GOLDEN AGE OF SCIENCE.

V. HELLENISTIC AGE (323 - 30 B.C.)

THE CLASSICAL AGE OF GREECE ENDED WITH THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT IN 323 B.C.

DISSOLUTION OF EMPIRE

- AFTER ALEXANDER'S DEATH, A STRUGGLE RESULTED IN CARVING THE EMPIRE INTO 3 KINGDOMS
CONTROLLED BY GREEK RULERS:

1) MACEDONIA - NORTHERN GREECE

2) EGYPT

3) SELEUCIDS - WESTERN ASIA

A 4TH KINGDOM WAS FORMED SLIGHTLY LATER IN WESTERN ASIAN MINOR.

- THESE HELLENISTIC MONARCHS RULED THROUGH STRONG ARMIES.

- AN IMPORTANT TREND IN THE HELLENISTIC AGE WAS THE RE-EMERGENCE OF WOMEN AS RULERS.

HELLENISTIC CULTURE

- A BLEND OF EASTERN AND WESTERN INFLUENCES.

- INCLUDED PERSIAN, EGYPTIAN, INDIAN, AND GREEK.


- HELLENISTIC CULTURE WAS WIDELY DISSEMINATED THROUGHOUT CIVILIZED WORLD.

ECONOMIC LIFE

- SHARP CONTRAST BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND HELLENISTIC WORLD.

- CLASSICAL GREECE = FARMERS WORKED SMALL PLOTS.

- HELLENISTIC STATES = VAST ESTATES PREDOMINATED.

- EMIGRATING GREEKS DOMINATED THE HELLENISTIC WORLD.

- NEW CROPS AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUES WERE INTRODUCED.

- GROWTH OF INDUSTRY AND TRADE EVEN GREATER, i.e., ESTABLISHED SOUND MONEY SYSTEM,
BUILDING ROADS AND CANALS.

- RULERS AND MEMBERS OF THE UPPER CLASS (MOSTLY GREEKS) BENEFITTED BUT LITTLE WAS
SHARED WITH PEASANTS. MAINLAND GREECE DID NOT SHARE IN THIS NEW PROSPERITY.

HELLENISTIC CITIES

- LIKE CLASSICAL GREECE, HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION WAS PREDOMINANTLY URBAN.

- MOST OF THE NEW CITIES WERE IN WESTERN ASIA, IN THE SELEUCID KINGDOM.

- HELLENISTIC CITIES WERE CENTERS OF GOVERNMENT, TRADE AND CULTURE.

- ALEXANDRIA (EGYPT) WAS THE LARGEST CITY WITH A HALF-MILLION INHABITANTS AND MANY
OTHER CITIES WERE MUCH LARGER THAN THE AVERAGE POLEIS IN GREECE.

- ALEXANDRIA BECAME THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE HELLENISTIC AGE.

- GREEK, BASED ON THE ATTIC DIALECT, BECAME AN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE.

- HELLENISTIC CITIES LACKED THE COHESIVENESS OF THE CLASSICAL POLEIS.

LITERATURE AND ART

- HELLENISTIC AGE WAS NOT NOTABLE IN LITERATURE.

- MOST NOTEWORTHY WAS SCHOLARSHIP PARTICULARLY IN ALEXANDRIA. THE HUGE LIBRARY AND
SCHOLARS PRESERVED THE LITERATURE OF EARLIER TIMES.

- HELLENISTIC ARCHITECTURE EMPHASIZED SIZE AND GRANDEUR.

- ARTISTS SHOWED INDIVIDUALITY OF FACES AND BODIES, OFTEN DEPICTING IMPERFECTIONS.

SCIENCE

- THIS WAS AN AREA OF REMARKABLE ACHIEVEMENT WHICH WAS NOT SURPASSED UNTIL THE 1600s
A.D.

- EUCLID - COMPILED TEXTBOOK OF GEOMETRY.


- ARCHIMEDES - GREATEST MATHEMATICIAN OF ALL ANTIQUITY CALCULATED THE VALUE OF PI,
DEVELOPED SYSTEM FOR EXPRESSING LARGE NUMBERS, AND DEMONSTRATED LAWS OF PHYSICS,
e.g., PRINCIPLE OF THE LEVER.

- ARISTARCHUS - ADVANCED HELIOCENTRIC THEORY OF PLANET MOVEMENT (UNFORTUNATELY


GREEK ASTRONOMIC TRADITION CONTINUED TO FOLLOW GEOCENTRIC THEORY).

- COPERNICUS IN THE 16TH CENTURY A.D. PROVED THAT ARISTARCHUS WAS CORRECT.

- MEDICAL ADVANCES WERE MADE THAT WERE NOT MATCHED IN WESTERN EUROPE FOR 1,800
YEARS, e.g., SURGICAL PROCEDURES USING ANESTHETICS.

- OTHER HELLENISTIC SCIENTISTS DEVELOPED MORE PRECISE MEASUREMENTS, e.g., ERATOSTHENES


COMPUTED CIRCUMFERENCE OF EARTH.

PHILOSOPHY

- TWO MOST IMPORTANT SCHOOLS OF HELLENISTIC PHILOSOPHY:

1 - EPICUREANISM

2 - STOICISM

1) EPICUREANISM - FOUNDED BY EPICURUS (341 - 270 B.C.).

- PEOPLE SHOULD STRIVE FOR TRANQUILITY.

- ADOPTED ATOMIC THEORY OF LEUCIPPUS AND DEMOCRITUS.

- WE SHOULD NOT FEAR DEATH SINCE THERE IS NO AFTERLIFE.

- CONCERN FOR LEADING PLEASURABLE LIFE WHILE AVOIDING PAIN.

- WISE PEOPLE WITHDRAW FROM THE WORLD TO STUDY PHILOSOPHY.

2) STOICISM - FOUNDED BY ZENO (335 - 263 B.C.)

- A SIMPLE DIVINE PLAN GOVERNS THE UNIVERSE AND ONE MUST FOLLOW THIS PLAN TO FIND
HAPPINESS.

- CULTIVATING SELF-DISCIPLINE, PEOPLE LEARN TO ACCEPT THEIR FATE AND BECOME IMMUNE TO
EARTHLY ANXIETIES AND ACHIEVE INNER FREEDOM AND TRANQUILITY.

- STOICS DID NOT ADVOCATE WITHDRAWAL FROM THE WORLD BUT RATHER CONSIDERED IT A
DUTY TO PARTICIPATE IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

- STOICS ADVOCATED TOLERANCE AND COMPASSION FOR LESS FORTUNATE.

- BECAME THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHY AMONG EDUCATED OF HELLENISTIC AGE AND
ACHIEVED GREAT INFLUENCE AMONG ROMANS.