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EGCH 403

Sira Srinives
CHAPTER2:

Shell Momentum Balances and Velocity


Distributions in Laminar Flow.
Shell Momentum Balances and Velocity
Distributions in Laminar Flow.
-In this part, we would focus on defining velocity
profiles of fluid in simple flow systems
making use of
molecular fluxes
convective momentum fluxes
momentum balances

- The examples in this chapter are well organized.


Its highly recommended that a student should go
through the all examples (2.2-2.6) and develop a
sense of transport phenomena.
Basic principles

-To start solving the problem is to first indentify all


parameters that could affect the flow velocity.
-Do the momentum balance over the shell.

-Let the thickness of the shell approach zero


and making use of the definition of the first
derivative to obtain the corresponding
differential equation for the momentum flux.

dx
Basic principles

-Integrate the differential equation to obtain the



momentum-flux ( ) distribution.
yx
dv x
dy
-Insert Newton's law of viscosity and
obtain a differential equation for the velocity.
-Integrate this equation to get the velocity
distribution.
-Use the velocity distribution to get other
quantities, such as the maximum velocity, average
velocity, or force on solid surfaces.
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

-Since the integration is required, boundary


conditions are needed.
No-Slip condition; solid-liquid interface
Liquid-Liquid interface
also is a no-slip condition-
two fluid moving along at
the same flow velocity.
Liquid-Gas interfacial
Since Gas<< Liquid
, no stress condition is
assumed reasonably.

*No mass transfer involved


ConservationofMomentum
-The combined momentum flux () is, then, defined
as a combination of the molecular and convective
transport of momentum.

Pressure from
stagnant fluid
Shear stress
Mass in motion
- This can be considered as a summation of
tensors.
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-An inclined flat plate of length L and width W.


-The disturbances in this case came from the
edges.
-If the film thickness () was a lot thinner than L
and W and vz is independent of z, then,
vz = vz(x), vx = 0, and vy = 0 making P = P(x).
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Checking Table B.1 for list of Newtons law of


viscosity. (page 843)
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Checking Table B.1 for list of Newtons law of


viscosity. (page 843)
Fluid flows only in z direction making vz 0.
-Checking table 1.7-1, 1.2-1, and table B.1 in
appendix B.
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

z y

: Combined
momentum flux tensor.
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
After combining all terms,

Divide the equation with LWx, defining x


approaching zero.

Then,
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
- General forms of the shear stress () can be found
in Table B.1 (Appendix B).
So,

I. vx = vy = 0
II. vz = vz(x)
III. vz=0 = vz=L
IV. pz = p(x)
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
-This equation is easily integrated
to obtain

-Using Boundary condition: No-slip condition:


B.C.1: xz = 0 for all x = 0,
we get that C1 = 0.
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
-According to the Newtons law of viscosity,

this equation becomes

that can be integrated to


FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
-Using one more boundary condition, defining the
water film thickness to be .

B.C. 2: x = ; vz = 0

That leads to
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
Parabolic curves

I. vz = vz(x)
II. vy = v x = 0
III. vz 0 for x =
IV. vz is steady throughout
the defined length L.
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
Velocity profile:

I. Maximum value: vz,max

II. The average velocity:


FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
Velocity profile:

III. Mass flow rate: wz

W
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
Velocity profile:

IV. Water film thickness:


Is determined from average velocity or maximum
velocity equation that it is a function of.
FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:
Velocity profile:

V. Shear force exerted on the surface: Fz


FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Validity: In case of the falling film system,


experimental results show a validation of our
assumption when the Reynolds number less than
20.
EXAMPLE 2.2-2

-Reworking of the falling film problem with a


position-dependent viscosity,

, whereas 0 is the viscosity at the film surface


is a constant
Postulating condensate film falling..

z y

x
EXAMPLE 2.2-2

-Differential equation:

, which becomes

The above eqn can be integrated to


EXAMPLE 2.2-2
-What would happen if = 0?

However,