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Sira Srinives

CHAPTER2:

Distributions in Laminar Flow.

Shell Momentum Balances and Velocity

Distributions in Laminar Flow.

-In this part, we would focus on defining velocity

profiles of fluid in simple flow systems

making use of

molecular fluxes

convective momentum fluxes

momentum balances

Its highly recommended that a student should go

through the all examples (2.2-2.6) and develop a

sense of transport phenomena.

Basic principles

parameters that could affect the flow velocity.

-Do the momentum balance over the shell.

and making use of the definition of the first

derivative to obtain the corresponding

differential equation for the momentum flux.

dx

Basic principles

momentum-flux ( ) distribution.

yx

dv x

dy

-Insert Newton's law of viscosity and

obtain a differential equation for the velocity.

-Integrate this equation to get the velocity

distribution.

-Use the velocity distribution to get other

quantities, such as the maximum velocity, average

velocity, or force on solid surfaces.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

conditions are needed.

No-Slip condition; solid-liquid interface

Liquid-Liquid interface

also is a no-slip condition-

two fluid moving along at

the same flow velocity.

Liquid-Gas interfacial

Since Gas<< Liquid

, no stress condition is

assumed reasonably.

ConservationofMomentum

-The combined momentum flux () is, then, defined

as a combination of the molecular and convective

transport of momentum.

Pressure from

stagnant fluid

Shear stress

Mass in motion

- This can be considered as a summation of

tensors.

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-The disturbances in this case came from the

edges.

-If the film thickness () was a lot thinner than L

and W and vz is independent of z, then,

vz = vz(x), vx = 0, and vy = 0 making P = P(x).

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

viscosity. (page 843)

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

viscosity. (page 843)

Fluid flows only in z direction making vz 0.

-Checking table 1.7-1, 1.2-1, and table B.1 in

appendix B.

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

z y

: Combined

momentum flux tensor.

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

After combining all terms,

approaching zero.

Then,

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

- General forms of the shear stress () can be found

in Table B.1 (Appendix B).

So,

I. vx = vy = 0

II. vz = vz(x)

III. vz=0 = vz=L

IV. pz = p(x)

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

-This equation is easily integrated

to obtain

B.C.1: xz = 0 for all x = 0,

we get that C1 = 0.

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

-According to the Newtons law of viscosity,

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

-Using one more boundary condition, defining the

water film thickness to be .

B.C. 2: x = ; vz = 0

That leads to

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

Parabolic curves

I. vz = vz(x)

II. vy = v x = 0

III. vz 0 for x =

IV. vz is steady throughout

the defined length L.

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

Velocity profile:

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

Velocity profile:

W

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

Velocity profile:

Is determined from average velocity or maximum

velocity equation that it is a function of.

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

-Shell balance:

Velocity profile:

FLOW OF A FALLING FILM

experimental results show a validation of our

assumption when the Reynolds number less than

20.

EXAMPLE 2.2-2

position-dependent viscosity,

is a constant

Postulating condensate film falling..

z y

x

EXAMPLE 2.2-2

-Differential equation:

, which becomes

EXAMPLE 2.2-2

-What would happen if = 0?

However,

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