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EGCH 403

Sira Srinives
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
Assumeaflowingfluid
withaconstantdensity
()andviscosity().

Averticaltubewitha
lengthofLanda
radiusofRallows
fluidtomovedownward
underaninfluenceof
pressuredifference
andgravity.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
-We postulate that vz = vz(r), vr = 0, v = 0, and
p = p(z).

-According to
Table B.1,
nonvanishing terms
include zr and rz.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
Ashell is set as a cylindrical shape
with a thickness of r and constant length
of L.
- Table 1.2-1 hints that zz must remain.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
Ashell is set as a cylindrical shape with a
thickness of r and constant length of L.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
,whichcanbesummedupto

Dividingtheequationwith
Andtakealimitat
,wethenobtain
ConservationofMomentum
-The combined momentum flux () is, then, defined
as a combination of the molecular and convective
transport of momentum.

Pressure from
stagnant fluid
Shear stress
Mass in motion
- This can be considered as a summation of
tensors.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
Since

,and

,but

(i) vr =0
(ii) vz =vz(r) vzvz isconstantwrpt z.
(iii) =0
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
Since

Summationofpressureandgravitationalterms.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
Integrationof

Withboundaryconditionof
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
Integrationof

yields
.

Tosolvethisequation,oneboundary
conditionisrequired,

LeadingtoC1 =0.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
So,

AccordingtoAPPENDIXB1,

So, whichcanbe
integratedto
yield
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
So

Pluggingintheboundarycondition:

toobtainthat
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE

I. vz ismaximumatr=0,

II.Theaveragevalueof vz,<vz>,isobtainedby
dividingthetotalvolumetricflowratebythecross
sectionalarea.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE

III.Themassflowrate(w) canalsobeobtainedby
multiplyingtheaveragevelocity<vz> withfluid
density() andcrosssectionalarea(R2).

IV.Thezcomponentoftheforce(Fz)isintegration
ofshearforceoverthewettedarea.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
-These answers are only as good as the
assumptions that we postulated from the very start.
vz = vz(r) and p = p(z)

-Experimental results revealed that these


postulates are legit provided that the Reynolds
number in a circular tube (Re = D vz p / ) is less
than 2,100.
FLOWTHROUGHACIRCULARTUBE
-Lists of our postulates:
(a). The flow is laminar (Re < 2100).
(b). The fluid density is constant.
(c). The flow is steady.
(d). The fluid is Newtonian.
(e). No effects from edges.
(f). The fluid is continuum.
(g). No-slip condition:
Solid-Liquid interface.