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# |H(ej)|

## Box-0: Digital Filter Design

Practical Frequency
1 Selective Filter
p Specifications
{p , s ,p ,s }
Tune

s Coefficients

0 p s
Design Implementation Check Specifications
|H(ej)|2 Filter Structure & |H(ej)|
H(z)
(Approximation) (Realization) Coefficients
H (z )z =e j
Specifications
1 {p , s , ,s }
1/(1+2)

Yes
No
s2

0 p s FIR
Semi analytical Method
Linear Phase.
Stable.
Large order (N).
Specifications not guaranteed.
IIR
Only approximate solution.
Design Analog Filter and Convert to Digital Filter
Rely on empirical formula.
(Analytical method)
Optimal specifications Guaranteed Box-0b: FIR Filter Design {p , s ,p ,s }
(only limited by finite word length).
Conversion of specs to
Low order (N).
empirical format

|H(ej)|
1 p 1+1 FIR Digital Filter
Impulse Invariant Transformation (IIT) 1 =
Linear analog to digital 1+ p 1 Specifications
frequency mapping 1-1 { ,1 ,2 }
= T 2
2 = s 2
1+ p 2
H(z) does not depends on T. H(z) depends on T.
s p
= 0 p s
Compressed frequency axis: Aliasing may occur. 2 Guess order N
Whole analog freq axis (0 to
Hz) mapped to digital frequency (or use an
10 log 10 (1 2)15 empirical formula
axis (0 to ) (no aliasing). N= +1 To find an
14 approximate
order)
Increase N N
Conversion of specifications from/to dB:
Change ideal response Ideal Hd(ej)
p to A p (dB): 20 log 10 ( p)=A p (dB) Windowing Frequency
A method Sampling
( p ) method
20
A p (dB) to p : p=10 IDTFT Sampling
Hd(k+)
hd[n]
N point
Apply window IDFT
See Box-8 for
w[n] Window types
And Time shift
h[n] h[n]
DFT With zero
To observe
Z-transform H(ej)

H1(k)
H(z)
Check with specs
Tune Tune
H(ej)
Box-1: IIR Digital Filter Design Methods

Digital Filter Digital to Analog Analog Filter Analog Filter Design Analog to Digital
Specifications Specifications Filter Transformation HLP(Z)
Specification conversion { , Normalized Analog Ha(S)
{p , s ,p ,s } p
s ,p ,s , } LPF NALPF BLT or IIT
Prototype
(See Box -2) Digital LPF

## Type Conversion (S = f(s))

Filter Type:
Box-3: Characteristics of different analog (See Box-3)

LPF,HPF,BPF,BS
filter types

Analog Filter
(See Box-4)
(Butterworth,

NALPF to
Chebyshev,
Bessel, Elliptic, )
Filter Order:
Coefficients of Ha(S)
(See Box 5 and 6)

Ha(s)
IIT BLT

Inverse

Filter Transformation
ha(t) Laplace

Analog to Digital
Sample

BLT or IIT
(aliasing) 2(1z1)
s=
T (1+z 1 )
ha(nT) h[n]
Z-transform

## Digital Filter Transformation

Check frequency response Z = g(z)
|H(ej)| with specifications H(z)
LPF to LPF, HPF, BPF, BSF
(See Box-7)
tune coefficients (stop band frequency spec
not guaranteed)
Phase correction
with All-Pass
filters

H(z)A(z)

## Box-2: Digital to Analog Specification conversion for

IIR Filters Box-4: Analog Filter Type Conversion (S = f(s))

= T
(IIT)

Digital Filter s
Specifications = 2 tan-1(T/2)
{p , s ,p ,s } (BLT)

p
|H(e )|
j

0
1 p s
|H()|

1 Analog Filter
p
Specifications
{p , s ,p ,s }

0 p s
Box-6: Analog Chebychev Low Pass Filter Design Box 5: Analog Butterworth Low Pass Filter Design
Designing Analog (Type 1) Low Pass Chebychev Filters: Designing Analog Butterworth Filters:

Convert analog filter specifications ( p , s , p , s) into ( N , ) where, Convert analog filter specifiations( p , s , p , s) into(N ,c ) where,
1
1
2s 1
cosh1 1
1 2s
1 log 10
2p
( ) 1
Filter Order: N , 1
2p
cosh 1
( ) s
p
Filter Order: N
1
2
log 10
( )
s
p
( )
1 p
= 1 , Cutoff frequency (-3dB): c = 1
2p 1 2N
1
N 1
2p
( )
2
N
p C 0 C k
k=1 Nc
N 1
for odd N
N 1
for odd N
2
2
( s+ p C 0) (s 2+bk p s+ p2 ) (s+c ) (s 2+b k c s+c2 )
k =1
N 1 Transfer Function: H a ( s)= k=1
Transfer Function: H a (s)=
2 Nc
N 1 for even N
p
C0 C k N
k=1 1+2 2
N
for even N
(s 2+b k c s+c 2)
2 k =1

Where,
{ ( s 2+bk p s+ p2 )
k=1
} Where,
{ }
(2k1)
(2k1) 2 2 b k =2sin ;
C 0= y N ; C k = y +cos ;N
( 2N )
2N ( )
(2k1)
b k =2 y N sin ;
(2N )
1 1

1 1 1 N 1 1 N
yN = 1+ 2 + 1+ 2 +
2 [( ) ( )]
Box-7: Digital Low Pass Filter to Other Type Transformation

type width lobe

## Blackman 12/M -58dB -74 dB

Box 9: Demonstration of the effects of constant phase shift and constant time delay
in shape of the signal

Box 10: Four types of linear phase FIR filter unit sample responses
Box 11: Discrete time domain multiplication with rectangular window is equal to
frequency domain convolution with periodic Sinc function