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Digital Filter Design handout

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Practical Frequency

1 Selective Filter

p Specifications

{p , s ,p ,s }

Tune

s Coefficients

0 p s

Design Implementation Check Specifications

|H(ej)|2 Filter Structure & |H(ej)|

H(z)

(Approximation) (Realization) Coefficients

H (z )z =e j

Specifications

1 {p , s , ,s }

1/(1+2)

Yes

No

s2

0 p s FIR

Semi analytical Method

Linear Phase.

Stable.

Large order (N).

Specifications not guaranteed.

IIR

Only approximate solution.

Design Analog Filter and Convert to Digital Filter

Rely on empirical formula.

(Analytical method)

Optimal specifications Guaranteed Box-0b: FIR Filter Design {p , s ,p ,s }

(only limited by finite word length).

Conversion of specs to

Low order (N).

empirical format

|H(ej)|

1 p 1+1 FIR Digital Filter

Impulse Invariant Transformation (IIT) 1 =

Linear analog to digital 1+ p 1 Specifications

frequency mapping 1-1 { ,1 ,2 }

= T 2

2 = s 2

1+ p 2

H(z) does not depends on T. H(z) depends on T.

s p

= 0 p s

Compressed frequency axis: Aliasing may occur. 2 Guess order N

Whole analog freq axis (0 to

Hz) mapped to digital frequency (or use an

10 log 10 (1 2)15 empirical formula

axis (0 to ) (no aliasing). N= +1 To find an

14 approximate

order)

Increase N N

Conversion of specifications from/to dB:

Change ideal response Ideal Hd(ej)

p to A p (dB): 20 log 10 ( p)=A p (dB) Windowing Frequency

A method Sampling

( p ) method

20

A p (dB) to p : p=10 IDTFT Sampling

Hd(k+)

hd[n]

N point

Apply window IDFT

See Box-8 for

w[n] Window types

And Time shift

h[n] h[n]

DFT With zero

padding

To observe

Z-transform H(ej)

H1(k)

H(z)

Check with specs

Tune Tune

H(ej)

Box-1: IIR Digital Filter Design Methods

Digital Filter Digital to Analog Analog Filter Analog Filter Design Analog to Digital

Specifications Specifications Filter Transformation HLP(Z)

Specification conversion { , Normalized Analog Ha(S)

{p , s ,p ,s } p

s ,p ,s , } LPF NALPF BLT or IIT

Prototype

(See Box -2) Digital LPF

Filter Type:

Box-3: Characteristics of different analog (See Box-3)

LPF,HPF,BPF,BS

filter types

Analog Filter

(See Box-4)

(Butterworth,

NALPF to

Chebyshev,

Bessel, Elliptic, )

Filter Order:

Coefficients of Ha(S)

(See Box 5 and 6)

Ha(s)

IIT BLT

Inverse

Filter Transformation

ha(t) Laplace

Analog to Digital

Sample

BLT or IIT

(aliasing) 2(1z1)

s=

T (1+z 1 )

ha(nT) h[n]

Z-transform

Check frequency response Z = g(z)

|H(ej)| with specifications H(z)

LPF to LPF, HPF, BPF, BSF

(See Box-7)

tune coefficients (stop band frequency spec

not guaranteed)

Phase correction

with All-Pass

filters

H(z)A(z)

IIR Filters Box-4: Analog Filter Type Conversion (S = f(s))

= T

(IIT)

Digital Filter s

Specifications = 2 tan-1(T/2)

{p , s ,p ,s } (BLT)

p

|H(e )|

j

0

1 p s

|H()|

1 Analog Filter

p

Specifications

{p , s ,p ,s }

0 p s

Box-6: Analog Chebychev Low Pass Filter Design Box 5: Analog Butterworth Low Pass Filter Design

Designing Analog (Type 1) Low Pass Chebychev Filters: Designing Analog Butterworth Filters:

Convert analog filter specifications ( p , s , p , s) into ( N , ) where, Convert analog filter specifiations( p , s , p , s) into(N ,c ) where,

1

1

2s 1

cosh1 1

1 2s

1 log 10

2p

( ) 1

Filter Order: N , 1

2p

cosh 1

( ) s

p

Filter Order: N

1

2

log 10

( )

s

p

( )

1 p

= 1 , Cutoff frequency (-3dB): c = 1

2p 1 2N

1

N 1

2p

( )

2

N

p C 0 C k

k=1 Nc

N 1

for odd N

N 1

for odd N

2

2

( s+ p C 0) (s 2+bk p s+ p2 ) (s+c ) (s 2+b k c s+c2 )

k =1

N 1 Transfer Function: H a ( s)= k=1

Transfer Function: H a (s)=

2 Nc

N 1 for even N

p

C0 C k N

k=1 1+2 2

N

for even N

(s 2+b k c s+c 2)

2 k =1

Where,

{ ( s 2+bk p s+ p2 )

k=1

} Where,

{ }

(2k1)

(2k1) 2 2 b k =2sin ;

C 0= y N ; C k = y +cos ;N

( 2N )

2N ( )

(2k1)

b k =2 y N sin ;

(2N )

1 1

1 1 1 N 1 1 N

yN = 1+ 2 + 1+ 2 +

2 [( ) ( )]

Box-7: Digital Low Pass Filter to Other Type Transformation

type width lobe

Box 9: Demonstration of the effects of constant phase shift and constant time delay

in shape of the signal

Box 10: Four types of linear phase FIR filter unit sample responses

Box 11: Discrete time domain multiplication with rectangular window is equal to

frequency domain convolution with periodic Sinc function

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