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INTRODUCTION

In conventional two way flat slab constructions, the need of longer spans and/or

the necessity for heavier loads demands increased slab thickness in order to limit

deflections. As a solution to this, concrete below the neutral axis is eliminated, this

allows an economic increase on the total thickness of the slab with the creation of

voids in a rhythmic arrangement. Therefore, there occurs a reduction on the

structure self-weight and a more efficient use of materials, steel and concrete. The

resulting slab system is typically denoted as waffle slab construction. For long span

structures like auditorium ,car parking slots and meeting hall which are having

spans more than 20 m, providing columns within short spans for the structure will

not be appealing and it occupies more space. If flat slab construction is employed,

the columns can be provided without soffit beams and at the corners of the floor

system. Waffle and grid slabs are forms of flat slab construction and hence, the

columns need not be provided and the entire floor is supported at the corner

columns. This reduces the space occupied by the columns and also reduces the

concrete quantity incurred by columns. Providing waffle slabs give aesthetic

appearance and provides easier provision for false roof ceiling.

1

Two way slabs supported on columns include flat plates, flat slabs, waffle labs and

solid slabs with beams along the column lines. Such slabs may be designed by any

procedure which satisfies the basic conditions of equilibrium and geometrical

compatibility, and the code requirements of strength and serviceability. Specific

design procedures have been laid out in the code for the design of flat slabs, which

are defined, according to the code as follows:

The term flat slab means a RCC slab with or without drops, supported generally

without a beams, by columns with or without flared column heads. A flat slab may

be a solid slab or may have a recesses formed on the soffit so that soffit

compromises a series of rib in two directions. The above definition is very broad

and encompasses the various possible column-supported two way slabs mentioned

earlier, including slabs with beam. Flat slabs may have an edge beam, which helps

in stiffening the discontinuous edge, increasing the shear capacity at the critical

exterior column supports and in supporting exterior walls, cladding, etc. They also

provide resistant at the slab edge, reducing the slab moments.

The following two methods are recommended for determining the bending

moments in the slab panel.

2. Equivalent Frame Method or Elastic Frame Method(EFM)

These methods are applicable only to two way rectangular slabs, and in the case of

Direct Design Method, the recommendations apply to the gravity loading condition

alone. Both methods based on the equivalent frame concept. The slab panel is

defined as that part of the slab bounded on each of its four sides by the column

centerlines. Each slab panel is divided into column strips and middle strip. A

column strip is defined as a design strip having a width equal to the lesser of 0.25l1

or 0.25l2 on each side of the column centre lines , and includes within this width

any drop panel or beam. Here, l1 and l2 are the two span of the rectangular panel,

2

measured centre to centre of the column supports. The middle strip is defined as

a design strip bound o each of its sides by the column strip (Fig 1.2)

The direct design method and equivalent frame method for gravity load analysis

differ essentially in the manner of determining the distribution of bending moments

along the span in the slab beam member. The procedure for apportioning the

factored moments between the middle strip and the column strip is identical for both

design methods. Both methods require the values of several relative stiffness

parameters in order to obtain the longitudinal and transverse distribution of factored

moments in the design strips. These dimensions may need to be modified

subsequently, and the analysis and design may therefore need to be suitably revised.

Drop Panels

The drop panel is formed by local thickening of the slab in the neighborhood of the

supporting column. Drop panels are provided mainly for the purpose of reducing

3

shear stresses around the column supports. They also help in reducing the steel

requirement for negative moments at the column supports.

Column Capital

The column capital, provided at the top of the column is intended primarily to

increase the capacity of the slab to resist punching shear. The useful portion of the

column capital is restricted structurally to that portion which lies within the largest

pyramid or right circular cone which has a vertex angle of 90 degrees and can be

included entirely within the outlines of the column and the column head. This is

based on the assumption of a 45 degree failure plane outside which enlargements

of the support are considered ineffective in transferring shear to the column.

At any column support, the total unbalanced moment in the slabs must be resisted

by the columns above and below in proportion to their relative stiffness. In slabs

without beams along the column line, the transfer of the unbalanced moment from

the slab to the column takes place partly through direct flexural stresses, and partly

through development of non-uniform shear stresses around the column head.

The DDM is simplified procedure of determining the negative and positive design

moments at critical sections in the slab using empirical moment coefficients. The

following conditions must be satisfied by the 2-way slab systems for the application

of DDM.

2. Each panel must be rectangular, with long to short span ratio not exceeding

2.0; i.e., there should be significant 2 way slab action.

3. The columns must not be offset by more than 10 % of the span from either

axis between centre lines of successive columns.

4. The successive span length, in each direction, must not differ by more than

one-third of the longer span.

4

5. The factored live load must not exceed 3 times of factored dead load.

The equivalent frame method(EFM) of design of two way beam supported, flat

slabs, flat plates and waffle slabs is a more general method than DDM, and it is not

subjected to the limitations of DDM. Under lateral loads, recourse has to be taken

to the design by EFM. The equivalent frame concept has already been introduced

in section. Such a concept simplifies the analysis of a 3D RCC building by sub-

dividing it into a series of 2D frames centred on column lines in longitudinal as well

as transverse direction. The EFM differs from DDM in the determination of total

negative and positive design moments in the slab panels for the condition of

gravity loading. However the apportioning of the moment to column strips and

middle strips is common to both methods.

In the present study, the finite element models of waffle slab with openings at

different locations were developed and analysis was performed by using SAP2000

software. The results obtained from analysis were then compared to study the

variation in strength of waffle slab when openings are provided at different

locations. The static analysis of waffle slabs aims to determine the range and

distribution of displacements and stresses, and ultimate load carrying capacity of

the structure, considering a non-linear behaviour.

The advantages of using waffle slabs from the conventional flats slabs are savings

on the weight and materials if we design for longer spans of structures like

auditorium, car parking slots, theatres, meeting hall, etc. It has attractive soffit

appearance if exposed and economical when reusable formwork pans are employed.

The vertical penetrations which are used for providing electrical cables in the floor

between the ribs are easy. The waffle slab gives aesthetic appearance and provides

easier provision for false roof ceiling

The disadvantages of using the waffle slabs include the depth of slab between the

ribs which may control the fire rating and also requires special or proprietary

5

framework. The construction of waffle slabs need skilled labours as it has greater

floor to floor height. Sometimes, larger vertical penetration is more difficult to

handle.

The waffle slabs are designed similar to grids where the actual moment distribution

is taken as for slabs on rigid supports. These may be inaccurate since, for the large

spans, the deflection of the supports around the panels cannot be neglected. Use of

grid (3D beam) elements to get the actual moment distribution on the floor would

predict more accurately. But this is tedious from a design perspective. It is felt that

availability of aids as available for two-way slabs would be beneficial from the

design point of view.

1.5 OBJECTIVES

The objective of the project is to study the rib-slab behavior under gravity loads

while determining the effect of geometrical parameters on the moment distribution

on ribs and slabs and to estimate the moment coefficient for waffle slabs of simple

geometry.

1.6 SCOPE

1. Aspect ratio for each panel is kept same as that of overall slab.

6

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

Chowdhury and Singh (2012) reported that when a large space within a building

needs to be covered without hindrance and supports, architects often deploy waffle

slabs to construct floors and ceilings. Structural designers analyse such slabs,

assuming the grid work as simply supported system (all four edges) and deriving

solutions based on displacement compatibility of beams or plates to arrive at an

approximate solution or performing a detailed finite element analysis (FEM) of the

slab beam system using any of the generalized finite element software available in

the market. This is so because no analytical solution or quick computational tool

exists, except for the case of slabs with all edges simply supported.

Galeb and Atiyah (2011) Waffle slab construction consists of rows of concrete

joists at right angles to each other with solid heads at the column (needed for shear

requirements) or with solid wide beam sections on the column centrelines for

uniform depth construction. Waffle slab construction allows a considerable

reduction in dead load as compared to conventional flat slab construction since the

slab thickness can be minimized due to the short span between the joists.

waffle slab construction for large areas. As a result of the evolution in architectural

design and new building management concepts, waffle slabs are on increasing

demand for structural designers, though it requires laborious numerical modelling.

Therefore, it becomes essential to fully understand its structural behaviour.

Sometimes openings have to be provided in these floor slabs, but its effect on the

response of waffle slabs is not fully explored.

Moldovan and Mathe (2015) finds that the post-tensioned construction has for a

long period of time occupied a significant position, especially in the construction of

7

bridges, storage tanks, but also in buildings. In this paper are presented the aspects

of a square shaped waffle slab calculation, supported punctually and having a two-

way post tensioning reinforcement disposed parabolically. The paper describes the

characteristics of waffle slab systems, preliminary design of composing elements,

technological aspects regarding the manufacturing of precast panels, details

regarding used materials, the reinforcement layout and the calculation of

prestressing force.

Sapountzakis and Katsikadelis (1999) finds that the interest in structural plate

systems stiffened by beams has been widespread in recent years due to the economic

and structural advantages of such systems. Stiffened plate structures are efficient,

economical, functional and readily constructed of most common materials.

Stiffened plates are commonly used for the construction of long river or valley

bridge decks, of long span slabs or of retaining wall structures. In most of the

aforementioned cases, for example, prestressing of the plate of the deck, retaining

wall structures used as abutments of a bridge, the ribbed plate is subjected to

simultaneous transverse and inplane loading. The extensive uses of the

aforementioned plate structures necessitate a rigorous analysis.

Katsikadelis and Sapountzakis (2001) state that stiffened plate structures are

efficient, economical, functional and readily constructed of most common

materials. Two design parameters of stiffened plates, namely effective breadth and

effective width, are commonly used in structural engineering for thoroughly

different engineering purposes. Both of these parameters are used to describe the

effectiveness of a breadth or width of stiffened plate structures in which the axial

stress distribution across the plate is not uniform.

8

2.2 CODAL RECOMMENDATIONS

The code recommendations for flat slabs in this regard are based mainly on studies

reported based on the direct design method and the recommendations provided are

all empirical.

Column strip

Half middle strip - Mhms,int = 0.125 M0,int

Half middle strip - Mhms = 0.20 M0

the external equivalent frame, the design of the half column strip adjoining and

parallel to the discontinuous edge, as well as the middle strip in the panel, depends

on whether a marginal bema or a wall supporting the slab at the edge. If such

stiffening of the edge exists, the bending moment in the half column strip should be

taken as one quarter of that for the first interior column strips and the moment in

the middle trip as twice that assigned to the half middle strip corresponding to the

first row of the interior column.

9

2.2.2 Canadian code recommendations

for the ability of slabs to redistribute moments, is given in the Canadian code (CSA

A23.3). Slabs are highly statically indeterminate and usually greatly under

reinforced. This ability of slab gives the designer considerable leeway in adjusting

the moment field and designing the reinforcement accordingly. The Canadian code

gives a range of values for the column strip share of moment, from which the

designer can choose an appropriate value; the balances apportioned to the middle

strip. For slabs with beams, the distribution is between the beam part and the slab

part, the proportions being depended on the beam stiffness ratio and the aspect ratio.

This procedure is applicable to both DDM and EFM.

10

CHAPTER 3

ANALYSIS IN SAP2000

3.1 SAP2000

The first numerical analysis was done using SAP2000 software with finite elements.

The SAP2000 is a structural engineering software for linear and nonlinear static and

dynamic analyses of several types of structures, simulating their behaviour when

submitted to a wide range of demands.

The Shell element is an area element used to model shells, membranes and plates

in structures in two and three dimensions. The SAP2000 software defines two types

of Shell element. They are denominated as homogeneous shell, used for

homogenous materials, and as layered shell, used when the element is formed by

heterogeneous materials or by more than one material. However, the software only

allows nonlinear analyses when the element is a layered shell. Each element has its

local coordinate system for the definition of material properties, loads and output

of results. Tensions, internal forces and moments are determined by the Gauss

quadrature method and extrapolated to the nodes.

The Frame Element is a tridimensional element with six degrees of freedom per

node: three degrees of freedom for translation and three degrees of freedom for

rotation. It is used for two or three dimensional modelling of frames, trusses and

grids.

bending, torsion, axial and shear stress, through the integration of the tensions

along the section. Those stresses are determined at the ends of each element and at

points along the element chosen by the user.

11

In the FE model of the waffle slab under study, the slabs were modelled using shell

elements, and the ribs were modelled with frame elements. A linear analysis of the

structure was carried out, applying two types of loads in the following sequence:

dead load, a live load applied both directly applied on the shell elements as a

distributed load.

12

3.2 CONVERGENCE STUDY

The convergence study was carried out to find the optimum mesh size with which

the further analysis is done. With this study, it is found that there is not much

difference between the 6X6 and 8X8 mesh and the convergence value is very

narrow between them. So, for easier and accurate analysis, 6X6 mesh has been

adopted throughout the entire analysis.

13

Fig 3.5 6 X 6 mesh

The convergence of the bending moment along 1-1 direction with mesh size is

shown in Fig. 3.7.

14

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

The frame dimension was taken as 80mm X 120mm with the spacing of the

beam at 2m in x-direction and 2m in y-direction throughout in the aspect ratio

of 1. The total length of the grid is 20m with each panel divided equally of 2m

length. The shell thickness is taken as 150mm throughout the analysis. Each

panel was divided into 6X6 mesh and the maximum moments about x-direction

were found.

15

Fig 4.2 - Slab Dimension 80mm X 140mm

16

Fig 4.4 - Slab dimension 100mm X 175 mm

17

`

In this aspect ratio, the length of the slab in x-direction is kept constant of 20m and

the length of the grid in y-direction is taken as 14.28m. For analysis, the thickness

of beam is varied as 80,100 and 150 mm and the depth is varied as 1.5, 1.75, 2 and

3 times the thickness of the beam. Few of the moment variation pictures are posted

here. The slab thickness is150mm and spacing in x-direction is 2m and in y-

direction is 1.43m.

18

Fig 4.7 - Slab dimension 80mm X 140mm

19

Fig 4.9 - Slab dimension 100mm X 175mm

20

Fig 4.11 - Slab dimension 150mm X 262.5m

In this aspect ratio, the length of the grid in x-direction is 20m and in y-direction is

12.5m. each panel consists of 6X6 meah and measuring 2m in x-direction and

1.25m in y-direction. The moments about both x and y direction were analyzed.

21

Fig 4.12 - Slab dimension 80mm X 120m

22

Fig 4.14 - Slab dimension - 100mm X 150mm

23

Fig 4.16 - Slab dimension 150mm X 225mm

24

4.1.4 Aspect Ratio 1.8

In this aspect ratio, the length of the slab in x-direction is kept constant of 20m and

the length of the grid in y-direction is taken as 11.11m. For analysis, the thickness

of beam is varied as 80,100 and 150 mm and the depth is varied as 1.5, 1.75, 2 and

3 times the thickness of the beam. Few of the moment variation pictures are posted

here. The slab thickness is150mm and spacing in x-direction is 2m and in y-

direction is 1.11m.

25

Fig 4.19 - Slab Dimension 80mm X 160mm

26

Fig 4.21 - Slab Dimension 100mm X 175mm

27

Fig 4.23 - Slab Dimension 150mm X 225mm

28

Fig 4.25 - Slab Dimension 150mm X 300mm

The maximum bending moments per unit width in a slab are given by the following

equations:

Mx = xwly2

My = ywly2

Where x and y are coefficients. Mx and My are moment on strips of unit width

spanning lx and ly respectively. ly is the length of longer span.

The maximum positive and negative moments about both the axes are found from

the software results and the coefficients are found respectively using that formula.

29

4.2.1 Spacing of panels 1m

0.5

0.45

0.667

x+

0.4 0.5714

0.5

0.35 0.333

0.3

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

30

0.48

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.667

y+ 0.4

0.38 0.5714

0.36 0.5

0.34 0.333

0.32

0.3

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.18

0.17

0.16

0.15

x-

0.14 0.667

0.13 0.5714

0.12 0.5

0.11 0.333

0.1

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

31

0.18

0.17

0.16

0.15

y-

0.14 0.667

0.13 0.5714

0.12 0.5

0.11

0.333

0.1

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.45

0.4

0.35

x+

0.3 0.667

0.5714

0.25

0.5

0.2

0.333

0.15

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

32

Table 4.2 Slab Thickness 100mm

33

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.667

x- 0.3

0.5714

0.25

0.5

0.2

0.333

0.15

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.667

y+

0.3

0.5714

0.25

0.5

0.2

0.333

0.15

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

34

0.22

0.2

y- 0.18

0.16 0.667

0.5714

0.14

0.5

0.12

0.333

0.1

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.3

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22 0.667

x+

0.2 0.5714

0.18

0.5

0.16

0.14 0.333

0.12

0.1

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

35

Table 4.3 Slab Thickness 150mm

36

0.22

0.2

x- 0.18

0.16 0.667

0.14 0.5714

0.5

0.12

0.333

0.1

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.3

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22

y+

0.2 0.667

0.18

0.5714

0.16

0.14 0.5

0.12 0.333

0.1

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

37

0.23

0.21

0.19

0.17

0.15

y-

0.13 0.667

0.11 0.5714

0.09 0.5

0.07 0.333

0.05

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

x+,

0.2 0.667

0.15 0.5714

0.1 0.5

0.05 0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

38

4.2.2 Spacing of panels 2m

39

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2 0.667

y+

0.5714

0.15

0.5

0.1 0.33

0.05

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

x-

0.05

0.04 0.667

0.03 0.5714

0.02 0.5

0.01 0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

40

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

y-

0.04 0.667

0.03 0.5714

0.5

0.02

0.33

0.01

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.3

0.25

0.2

y+

0.15

0.667

0.1 0.5714

0.5

0.05

0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

41

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

x+

0.2

0.667

0.15 0.5714

0.1 0.5

0.05 0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.12

0.1

0.08

x-

0.06

0.667

0.04 0.5714

0.5

0.02

0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

42

Table 4.5 Slab Thickness 100 mm

43

0.12

0.1

0.08

y -

0.06

0.667

0.04 0.5714

0.5

0.02

0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.25

0.2

0.15

x+

0.1 0.667

0.5714

0.05 0.5

0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

44

Table 4.6 Slab Thickness 150mm

45

0.25

0.2

0.15

y +

0.667

0.1

0.5714

0.5

0.05

0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

x-

0.667

0.04

0.5714

0.03

0.5

0.02

0.333

0.01

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

46

0.1

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

y -

0.05

0.667

0.04

0.5714

0.03

0.02 0.5

0.01 0.333

0

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Ly/Lx

The above plots from Fig 4.26 to Fig 4.49 give the distribution of the positive and

negative moment coefficients along the long and short spans. The figures indicate

a decreasing trend in the distribution of short span moment after an aspect ratio of

1.4. Also the distribution of slab moments decrease as the stiffness (thickness) of

the ribs increase with respect to the slab thickness for all values of slab to rib

thickness ratios. Between the slabs with panel spacings of 1m and 2m, it is seen that

more slab moments exist in the 1m spaced panels than the 2m spaced panels, for all

values of slab to rib thickness.

47

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS

5. CONCLUSIONS

1. The moment coefficients for the various cases of aspect ratios and

thickness ratios have been estimated using SAP2000.

2. Unlike normal solid slabs, the attraction of moments towards short edge

does not constantly increase as aspect ratio increases.This is an effect of

the individual panels aspect ratio, which decides the values of the span

and edge moments.

3. As rib depth increases, the moment coefficient of the slab decreases for

the same aspect ratio. As ribs become stiffer than the slabs, more

moment is distributed to it, decreasing the slab moments. This result

may be useful for economical design of the slabs.

4. Since long span was maintained at same length, the long span coefficient

y decreases constantly with aspect ratio as compared to short span

coefficient. It is felt that with wider results could be used as useful

design aids.

48

CHAPTER 6

REFERENCES

slab structures, PII S0141-0296(96)00064-8.

2. Chowdury, I and Singh, JP. 2012. Analysis and Design of waffle slab with

different boundary conditions.

3. Galeb ,C Alaa and Atiyah, Z. 2011. Optimum design of reinforced concrete

waffle slabs, ISSN 0976 4399.

4. Climent, B and Avila, JD. 2008. Moment transfer and influence of

transverse beams in interior waffle flat plate-column connections under

lateral loading.

5. Anjaly, S and Prabhakaran, P. 2015. Analysis of reinforced concrete waffle

slabs with opening, ISSN 2250-2459.

6. BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318M-05).

7. Moldovana, I and Mathe, A. 2015. A Study on a Two-Way Post-Tensioned

Concrete Waffle Slab, Procedia Technology 22 (2016) 227 234.

8. Sapountzakis,E.J and Katsikadelis, J.T. 2000. Elastic deformation of ribbed

plates under static, transverse and in plane loading, Computers and

Structures 74, 571- 581.

9. Katsikadelis, J.T and Sapountzakis, J. 2002. A realistic estimation of the

effective breadth of ribbed plates, International Journal of Solids and

Structures 39, 897910.

10. Pillai, S and Menon, D. 2011. Reinforced Concrete Design, 3rd edition ,

ISBN(13): 978 0-07-014110-0.

49

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