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RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

NDE PROCEDURE -
RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION DESCRIPTION

1.0 PURPOSE
2.0 SCOPE
3.0 REFERENCE
4.0 DEFINITION
5.0 PROCEDURE
5.1 PERSONAL QUALIFICATION
5.2 RADIATION SAFETY
5.3 IMAGE QUALITY INDICATOR (IQI)
5.4 FILM IDENTIFICATION
5.5 QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPH
5.6 FILM PROCESSING
5.7 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE
5.8 INTERPRATION
5.9 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

6.0 SPECIAL REQUIREMENT


7.0 RECORD
7.1 REPORTING

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 - RADIOGRAPH INDENTIFICATION &
IQI PLACEMENT
APPENDIX 2 RADIOGRAPH EXPOSURE
TECHNIQUE
APPENDIX 3 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
APPENDIX 4 - RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING FROM
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1.0 PURPOSE

This procedure establishes the requirements, techniques and


processes for quality radiographic examination on welds of plates,
beams, tubular and pipes.

2.0 SCOPE

This procedure is applicable to radiographic examination using Ir-


192 Isotope on ferrous and non ferrous material. Amendments may be
made to this general procedure to meet special requirements
specifically. Such amendments, if any, shall receive prior consent of
CLIENT.

3.0 REFERENCE

ASME Section V - Nondestructive Examination


ANSI / ASME B31.3 (2007) - Process Piping
AWS D1.1 2006 Edition - Structural Welding Code- Steel
PTS 50.014 - PTS Radiographic Inspection

4.0 DEFINITION

CSB : Calidad Sdn Bhd


JPK : Jabatan Pembangunan Kemahiran
MLVK : Majlis Latihan Vokasional Kebangsaan
ASNT : The American Society for Nondestructive Testing
AELB : Atomic Energy Licensing Board
ASME : The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
AWS : American Welding Society

5.0 PROCEDURE

5.1 Qualification of Personnel

CSBs Quality Assurance Department (QAD) shall use qualified


NDT subcontractor to perform the gamma ray Radiographic
Testing (RT).
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All RT Personnel with the exceptions of assistant shall be


qualified to ASNT Level II certified by ASNT Level III as per
Contractors Written Practice and JPK/MLVK Level I in Industrial
Radiography. They shall be licensed with Atomic Energy
Licensing Board (AELB) of Malaysia and radiographer shall have
at least 2 years experience in industrial radiography.

Above requirement shall be valid only for maximum source


strength of 40Ci. However, if the high source strength is required
above 40Ci with a maximum of 60Ci, the RT personnel shall be
qualified to JPK/MLVK Level II and having at least 3 years
experience in industrial radiography.

The employer of the radiographers shall submit his Written


Practice for personnel qualification and certification, radiation
safety and other working procedure to CSB for review, approval
and audit.

Radiography Film Interpreters shall posses a valid PCN / CSWIP


3.4 Level II Certificate or equivalent.
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5.2 Radiation Safety

All personnel performing Radiographic Testing shall be aware


of the potential hazard of radiation and requirement of safe
practices, AELB Regulation, CSB Health, Safety, and Environment
Management. Radiation safety procedures shall be submitted
and emergency drill shall be conducted prior to work
commencement.

Radiation protection requirement set forth by the AELB. The


Contractor shall provide each radiographer with a film badge.
Each team shall have a Radiation Beeper. Each team, comprising
a radiographer and assistant radiographer shall be provided in
accordance with paragraph 5.3.

Radiographic testing personnel must be certified to AELB


requirements. The isotope projector shall store in the storage pit
built inside the CSB property and the transport to and from the
pit to work location shall be only by approved Radiographers. It
shall be transport in a suitable container by a vehicle with the
radiation warning sign. The removal and return of the isotope
shall be recorded in the registry at the safety room.

Safety checklist shall be exercised and be reported to CSB as per


following:

i. Daily check/prior to use on guide tube


ii. Daily check/ prior to use on winding cable
iii. Daily check /prior to use on projector
iv. Service record shall be properly documented
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5.3 Image Quality Indicator (I.Q.I)

IQIs shall be selected from either the same alloy material


group or from an alloy material group or grade with less
radiation absorption than the material being radio graphed.
Other types of IQI may be used upon approval from CLIENT.

Selection of IQIs shall be as per table 6.5 and T-276 for AWS
D1.1 and ASME V respectively. Radiography technique and
equipment shall provided sufficient sensitivity to clearly show
the required wire.
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IQI Shall be selected as per following table:


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5.3.1 IQI Placement

IQI shall normally be placed on the source side. In the


case when this is not possible due to in accessibility , the IQI
may be placed on the film side with the a lead letter F at
least as high as the IQI identification number and shall be
placed adjacent to or on the IQI , but shall not mask the
essential wire to denote this change. A procedure test will
be performed to determine the equivalent IQI to be visible
at the required sensitivity. The thinnest wire shall be placed
at the extreme edge of the film.

For the material of equal thickness and transition


thickness .two (2) IQI shall be used for welds length of ten
(10) inches or more. Only one (1) inch IQI is required for
others (less than 10 inches length), refer to Appendix 2.
Fig.2 & Fig.3. For single wall single image (Panoramic)
exposure, four IQI equally spaced shall be placed on the
source side.
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5.4 Film Identification

Lead marker shall be used for radiograph identification. CSB


shall incorporate radiographic film identification as follows:

i. Client
ii. Project Contract No
iii. Spool No.- Indicate spool number as per requested
iv. Weld Identification of repair -R1 or R2 for repair, RS for
reshoot Joints, RW for re-welded joints, etc.
v. Date of Exposure date radiographic taken
vi. IQI to indicate image quality of radiograph.
vii. Welder Identification indicate welder number as per
requested.
viii. Material thickness indicate thickness of material as per
requested.

Refer to Appendix 1 for radiography identification (layout and


description). These identifications shall not obscure the area of
interest.
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5.5 Quality of Radiograph

5.5.1 All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical


or other blemishes to the extent that they mask or confuse
with the image of any discontinuity in the area of interest of
the object being radio graphed

Such blemishes include but not limited:

a. Fogging;
b. Water marks, streaks or chemical stains
c. Scratches, finer marks , crimps, dirtiness, static marks or
tears;
d. Loss of detail due to poor screen to film contact
e. False indication due to defective screens.

5.5.2 Back Scatter

When radiography is carried out in a direction, which may


create back scattering (e.g film placed between source and
concrete floor) lead sheets shall be attached to the back of
each film cassette to reduce or cut off such scatter.

A lead letter B with minimum dimensions of 1.6 mm


thickness by 12.7 mm height shall be placed on the back of
each film holder.

If the lead B appears on the radiograph as a lighter image


than the background, protection from backscatter is
insufficient and shall be considered unacceptable. A new
exposure shall be taken with additional backings. A new
exposure shall be taken with additional backings. A dark
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image of the B on the lighter background is not cause for


rejection.
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5.5.3 Geometrical Unsharpness


The source to object to film distance and the effective
source size should be such that geometric unsharpness
does not exceed the following (ASME V. 2007 Article 2):

Material Thickness in. Ug Maximum in.(mm)


(mm)
Under 2 (50) 0.200(0.51)
2 through 3 (50.75) 0.030(0.76)
Over 3 through 4 0.040(1.02)
(75.100)
Greater than 4 (100) 0.070(1.78)

Note: Material thickness is the thickness on which the IQI is


based.
Ug= (F x d)/D
Where F= Source Size
d= Distance from source side of weld to film
(Or average weld thickness in inches)
D= distance from source to weld (in inches)

D and d shall be determined at the approximate center


of the area of interest.

5.5.4 Diagnostic Film Length (DFL)


In order to meet the density requirements and to allow
for the fall off in flaw sensitivity towards the ends of the
radiograph due to an increase in penetrated thickness and
to geometric effects, the diagnostic film length (DFL) shall
be limited to thickness not more than 110% of the
penetrated thickness at the center of the radiograph.
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5.5.5 Density

The density measured shall be HRD density. The


minimum and maximum transmitted film density at area
and interest for single wall viewing shall be between 2.0 and
4.0 either single or composite viewing. For composite
viewing of multiple film exposures, each film of the
composite set shall have a minimum density of 1.3. The
maximum density shall be 4.0 for either single or composite
viewing. A tolerance of 0.05 in density is allowed for
variations between densitometer readings. The density of
the radiography anywhere through the area of interest shall
not varies by more than 15% or + 30 % only applicable for
piping and vessel.

Densitometers shall be calibrated at least every 90 days


during using a national standard step tablet or a step wedge
calibration film, traceable to a national or international
standard step tablet and having at least 5 steps with natural
densities from at least 1.0 through 4.0, shall be used.
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5.5.6 Location Marker

Location Marker shall be placed on the part. Their


location shall be permanently marked on the surface of the
part to be radio graphed. Each radiographic film shall show
reference markers indicating the correct location of the film
on the weld.

5.5.7 Contrast

The contrast of radiograph shall be acceptable level as


not to reduce the quality and maintain the required
sensitivity and density.

5.5.8 Procedure Compliance

A Procedure Qualification shall be performed for each


radiography technique before commencement of RT work.
Each technique shall be assessed by at least thinnest and
thickest to be used in production.
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5.6 Film Processing


Manual processing shall be used. Films shall be processed to a
quality whereby they remain to be interpretable for at least 5
years under normal storage condition. Processing chemicals
(Developer, fixer and replenished) shall be at a standard type
from recognized manufacturer such as Kodak, Alfa Fuji or
equivalent.

5.6.1 Developing

Films will be placed in hangers and immersed in developer


solution with constant agitation for even development.
Time should be adjusted to the manufacturer
recommendation. Proper technical exposure should allow
the processing time for about 5 min at least at a
temperature of20c.

5.6.2 Stop Bath or Rinse

After development is completed, the films shall be


immersed in stop bath or rinsed in clean running water to
stop the activity of the developer.

5.6.3 Fixing

Fixing shall be done for at least twice the clearing time


but not more than 15 minutes in fresh fixer.

5.6.4 Washing

Washing shall be done with constant flow of clean water.


Rate of water flow shall be approximately 5 to 6 times the
volume of water tank per hour.

Washing time shall be minimum 10 minutes. Dilution or


mixture of chemicals shall be in accordance to that
recommended by the chemical manufacturer.

5.6.5 Wetting Agent

Dip the film approximately 30 second in a wetting agent.


This makes water drain evenly off film, which facilitates
quick even drying.
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5.6.6 Drying of films

a) Care shall be taken to avoid causing any mechanical damage


to the emulsion and to prevent causing marks from uneven
drying.

b) Drying shall be carried out in a normal even drying.

c) Other method of drying can also be achieved (rapid drying by


placing the film. in a special drying cabinet, in which a
constant stream of air is forced over both sides of the film.

d) Once drying has commenced. The film shall not be


removed from the cabinet until it is completely dry.

e) No films shall be subjected to continued exposure to a


temperature higher than40C.

5.6.7 Temperature o f chemical a n d w a t e r used shall be


maintained t o 20 -25 throughout the processing activity.
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5.7 Radiographic Technique

5.7.1 Single Wall Single Image (SWSI)

This is the preferred method whenever possible. In the


single-wall technique, the radiation passes through only
one wall of the weld (material), which is viewed for
acceptance on the radiograph. However, it requires that
both side of the weld or component be accessible with the
source shall be placed on one side and the film in close
contact on the other side.

In the case when the inside of a pipe is accessible, with


the source placed on one side and the film in close contact
on the other side.

5.7.2 Double Wall Double Image (DWDI)

This technique applies to materials or welds having 2 1/2


inches or less in outside diameter. In this technique, the
radiation passes through two walls and the material or weld
in both walls is viewed on the same radiograph. For this
technique, only a source side IQI shall be used. For welds,
the radiation beam may be offset from the plane of the
weld at an angle sufficient to separate the images of the
source side and film side portions of the weld so that
there is no overlap of areas to be interpreted. For
complete coverage minimum of two exposures at 90
degrees to each other shall be made for each joint.

As alternative, the weld may be radiographed with the


radiation beam positioned so that the images of both walls
are superimposed. For complete coverage, a minimum of
three exposures at either 60 or 120 degrees to each
other shall be made for each joint. This technique shall
be used for thick walled pipe welds of diameters equal to
or less than 1 inch.
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5.7.3 Double Wall Single Image (DWSI)

This method is recommended for pipe welds greater than


2 1/2 inches nominal diameter. In this technique, the
radiation passes through two walls, but only the material
or weld near the film side is viewed. An adequate number
of exposures shall be made to ensure that the required
coverage has been obtained. For complete coverage a
circumferential weld o r materials, a minimum three
exposures at 120 degrees to each other shall be made.

Radiographic exposure technique sketch refer to Appendix


2.

5.8 Interpretation

5.8.1 Viewing of Radiography

The processed radiographs shall be interpreted and


evaluated by a qualified radiography interpreter and to be
reviewed by CLIENT. Viewing shall be done on the
radiograph using radiograph viewers. The radiograph
viewer shall provide sufficient light for viewing the
essential IQI image and all pertinent details of a
radiograph with a density of 2.0 to 4.0 H & D.
5.9 Acceptance Criteria

Acceptance I Rejection Criteria shall be as follows:

i. Chapter VI, Table 341.3.2 of ASME I ANSI B31.3 (2006) for


piping and;
ii. Section 6, clause 6.12.1 (non-tubular) and clause 6.12.3
(tubular), AWS Dl.l (2006) for structural. (Refer Appendix
3).
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6.0 SPECIAL REQUIREMENT

1) Risk to any radiography work, a permit shall be obtained


from the Calidad Safety Department.

2) The blinkers light shall be functioning throughout the


radiography work to worn people from entering the area.

3) Contractor to submit copy of the AELB License to CLIENT


before commence of work.

4) Re-examination for repaired welds shall be tested as per


original test method and the same technique and quality
acceptance criteria shall be applied. For stages of repair or
re-repair, the radiographic reports shall be marked with 'Rl ',
'R2' etc. Where Re-shoot is required, the film(s) shall be
marked with the letter 'RS'.

5) Progressive sampling:

a) Two additional welds by the same welder or operator shall


be given the same type of examination; and

b) If the items examined as per the requirements of (a) above,


are acceptable, the defective item shall be repaired or
replaced and re-examined and all items represented by these
two additional samples shall be accepted; but

c) If any of these items examined as required by (a) above


reveal a defect, two further samples of the same kind shall
be re-examine for each of the defective items found by that
sampling; and

d) If all the items examined as required by (c) above are


acceptable, the defective items(s) shall be repaired or
replaced and re-examined and all items represented by these
two additional samples shall be accepted; but

e) If any of the items examined as required by (c) above


reveals a defect, all the items represented by the progressive
sampling shall be:
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f) Fully examined and repaired or replaced as necessary and re


examined
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7.0 RECORDS

7.1 Reporting

Written reports for all radiographs shall include the following


information

i. Project Identification.
ii. Report Number.
iii. Date of Radiography.
iv. Weld Identification.
v. Welder Identification.
vi. Applicable Code
vii. Exposer technique for radiograph shall be reported.
viii. Details of S F D film type, curie strength, source size,
material thickness and IQI used.
ix. Date of interpretation of radiograph.
x. Radiographers and interpreter.
xi. Sensitivity.
xii. Density of each radiograph.

A report form that clearly identifies the work and the area of
inspection shall be completed by the technician at the time of
inspection. Written reports shall be maintained in the Quality
Records and shall be available for auditing of the data.
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APPENDICES
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APPENDIX-1

Figure 1: Radiography identification & placement of pentameters


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APPENDIX-2

Figure 1: Radiographic identification and wire penetrameter location on


transition joints 250 mm and greater length.

Figure 2: Radiographic identification and wire penetrameter location on


transition joints less than 250 mm and in length.
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Figure 1: Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) Exposure Technique for pipes and tubes of 75 mm
and less

Figure 2: Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) Exposure Technique for pipes and tubes of a
diameter greater than 50 mm
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Figure 3: Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) Exposure Technique for plates.

Figure 4: Single Wall Single Image (SWSI). Panoramic Exposure Techniques for pipes and tubes
of 400mm (16 inches) diameter and greater.
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APPENDIX-3

ACCEPTANCE I REJECTION CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL (AS PER AWS Dl.l)

6.12.1 Acceptance Criteria for Statically Loaded Nontubular


Connections

6.12.1.1Discontinuities. Welds that are subject to RT in addition to


visual inspection shall have no cracks and shall be
unacceptable if the RT shows any discontinuities exceeding the
following limitations (E =weld size).

(1)Elongated discontinuities exceeding the maximum size of


Figure 6.L
(2)Discontinuities closer than the minimum clearance allowance
of Figure 6.1.
(3)Rounded discontinuities greater than a maximum of size of
E/3, not to exceed 1/4 in. [6 mm]. However, when the
thickness is greater than 2 in. [50 mm], the maximum
rounded indication may be 3/8 in. [10 mm]. The minimum
clearance of this type of discontinuity greater than or
equal to 3/32 in. [2.5 mm] to an acceptable elongated
or rounded discontinuity or to an edge or end of an
intersecting weld shall be three times the greatest dimension
of the larger of the discontinuities being considered.
(4)Isolated is continuities such as a cluster of rounded
indications, having a sum of their greatest dimensions
exceeding the maximum size single discontinuity allowed in
Figure 6.1. The minimum clearance to another cluster or an
elongated or rounded discontinuity or to an edge or end of
an intersecting weld shall be three times the greatest
dimension of the larger of the discontinuities being
considered.
(5)The sum of individual discontinuities each having a greater
dimension of less than 3/32 in. [2.5 mm] shall not exceed
2E/3 or 3/8 in.[10 mm], whichever is less, in any linear I in.
[25 mm] of weld. This requirement is independent of (l),
(2), and (3) above.
(6) In-line discontinuities, where the sum of the greatest
dimensions exceeds E in any length of 6E. When the length
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of the weld being examined is less than 6E, the allowable


sum of the greatest dimensions shall be proportionally Jess.
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6.12.3 Acceptance Criteria for Tubular Connections

6.12.3.1 Discontinuities. Welds that are subject to RT in addition to


visual inspection shall have no cracks and shall be
unacceptable if the RT shows any discontinuities exceeding
the following limitations (E =weld size).

(1) Elongated discontinuities exceeding the maximum size of


Figure 6.6.
(2) Discontinuities closer than the minimum clearance
allowance of Figure 6.6.
(3) At the intersection of a weld with another weld or a free
edge (i.e., an edge beyond which no material extension
exists), acceptable discontinuities shall:
(a) Conform to the limitations of Figure 6.6 for each
individual weld
(b)Conform to the intersecting weld limitations of Figure 6.6,
Case I or II, as applicable
(4) Isolated discontinuities such as a cluster of rounded
indications, having a sum of their greatest dimensions
exceeding the maximum size single discontinuity allowed fn
Figure 6.6. The minimum clearance to another cluster or an
elongated or rounded discontinuity or to an edge or end of
an intersecting weld shall be three times the greatest
dimension of the larger of the discontinuities being
considered.
(5) The sum of individual discontinuities each having a greater
dimension of less than 3/32 in. [2.5 mm] shall not exceed
2Fl3 or 3/8 in. [10 mm], whichever is less, in any linear 1 in.
[25 mm] of weld. This requirement is independent of (l),
(2), and (3) above.
(6) In-line discontinuities, where the sum of the greatest
dimensions exceeds E in any length of 6E. When the length
of the weld being examined is less than 6E, the allowable
sum of the greatest dimensions shall be proportionally less.

6.12.3.2 Illustration. Figures 6.2 and 6.3 illustrate the application of


the requirements given in 6.12.3.1.
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Notes:
1. To determine the maximum size of discontinuity allowed in any joint or
weld size, project E horizontal to B
2. To determine the minimum clearance allowed between edges of
discontinuities of any size greater than or equal to 3-32 in [2.5 mm]
3. See Legend on page 225 for definitions.

Figure 6.1 Weld Quality Requirements for Elongated Discontinuities


Determined by Rt for Statically Loaded Nontubular
Structures (see 6.12.1.1)
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Notes:
1. To determine the maximum size of discontinuity allowed in any joint
or weld size, project E horizontal to B
2. To determine the minimum clearance allowed between edges of
discontinuities of any size greater than or equal to 3-32 in [2 mm]
project B vertically to C
3. See Legend on page 225 for definitions.

Figure 6.1 Weld Quality Requirements for Elongated Discontinuities


Determined by Rt for Statically Loaded Nontubular
Structures (see 6.12.3.1)
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KEY FOR FIGURE 6.6 CASES I, II, III AND IV

WELD A =LONGITUDINAL TUBULAR CJP GROOVE WELD


WELD B=TUBULAR GIRTH CJP GROOVE WELD

DISCONTINUITY A = ROUNDED OR ELONGATED DISCONTINUITY


LOCATED IN WELD A
DISCONTINUITY A = ROUNDED OR ELONGATED DISCONTINUITY
LOCATED IN WELD A

L AND W =LARGEST AND SMALLEST DIMENSIONS, RESPECTIVELY OF


DISCONTINUITY A
L AND W =LARGEST AND SMALLEST DIMENSIONS, RESPECTIVELY OF
DISCONTINUITY A

E = WELD SIZE
C=SHORTEST DISTANCE PARALLEL TO THE WELD A AXIS, BETWEEN THE
NEAREST DISCONTINUITY EDGES
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*The elongated discontinuity may be located in either the longitudinal


or girth weld. For the purpose of this illustration, discontinuity B was
located in the girth weld

Case I- Discontinuity at Weld Intersection

Figure 6.6(Continued) - Weld Quality Requirement for Elongated


Discontinuities as Determined by RT of Tubular
Joints (see6.12.3.1)
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Case II- Discontinuity at Free Edge of CJP Groove Weld

Figure 6.6 (Continued)Weld Quality Requirement for Elongated


Discontinuities as Determined by RT of Tubular
Joints (see 6.12.3.1)
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Case III- Discontinuity at Weld Intersection

Figure 6.6 (Continued)Weld Quality Requirement for Elongated


Discontinuities as Determined by RT of Tubular
Joints (see 6.12.3.1)
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Case IV- Discontinuity at Free Edge of CJP Groove Weld

Figure 6.6 (Continued)Weld Quality Requirement for Elongated


Discontinuities as Determined by RT of Tubular
Joints (see 6.12.3.1)
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ACCEPTANCE / REJECTION CRITERIA FOR PIPING (AS PER ASME B31.3)


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Table 341.3.2 Acceptance for Welds and Examination Methods for


Evaluating Weld Imperfections (Contd)
NOTES:
(1)Criteria given are for required examination more stringent criteria may
be specified in the engineering design. See also paras.341.5 and
341.53
(2)Branch connection weld includes pressure containing welds in branches
and fabricated laps
(3)Longitudinal groove weld includes straight and spiral seam .Criteria are
not intended to apply to welds made in accordance with a standard
listed in Table A:1 or Table 326.1. Alternative Leak Test requires
examination of these welds see para 345.9
(4)Fillet includes socket and seal welds, and attachment welds for slip-on
flanges , branch reinforcement, and supports
(5)These imperfections are evaluated only for welds 5mm (3/16 in) in
nominal thickness
(6)Where two limiting values are separated by and the lesser of the
values determines acceptance. Where two sets of values are separated
by or the larger value is acceptable T is the nominal wall thickness of
the thinner of two components joined by a butt weld.
(7)Tightly butted unfused root faces are unacceptable
(8)For groove welds, height is the lesser of the measurement made from
the surfaces of the adjacent components; both reinforcement and
internal protrusion are permitted in a weld. For fillet welds, height is
measured from the theoretical throat, Fig 328.5.2A Internal protrusion
does not apply
(9) For welds in aluminium alloy only, internal protrusion shall not exceed
the following values
(a) 1.5mm (1/36 in) for thickness 2 mm (5/64 in)
(b) 2.5mm (3/32 in) for thickness > 2 mm and 6 mm (1/4 in)
For external reinforcement and for greater thickness, see the tabulation
for symbol L.
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APPENDIX-4