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RELATED LITERATURE ONGTECO

LOCAL
Teaching Styles of the Classroom Managers in one Basic Primary School in the
Philippines

This study aimed to determine the teaching styles of the classroom managers in
Pinamucan Elementary School. Specifically, it identified the demographic profile or the
teachers respondents in terms of age, gender, educational qualification, number of
seminars attended, assigned level and years of services; and find out which of the
teaching styles of the teacher respondents in terms of whole class, individual, and small
group activities are practiced. The study used descriptive methods were a standardized
questionnaire was utilized as the main instrument in gathering data. Based on the
result, Most of the classroom managers belonged to the middle aged bracket; had been
working from 20 to 29 years in this institution, and were assigned in different grades /
levels, and had attended 7-9 seminars for the length of time they had served there;
majority of the respondents often use the question and answer method when doing
whole class activities. For individual activities, homework is often used by the classroom
managers to get their students attention while for small group activities, games were
often practiced as means of initiating cooperation among students. The school may be
practice the used of LCD. School administrator mat conduct seminars regarding modern
classroom methodologies.

Most of the classroom managers belonged to the middle aged bracket; had been
working from 20 to 29 years in the school where they were assigned in different grades /
levels, and had attended a number of 7-9 seminars for the length of time they had
served there. Majority of the respondents often uses the question and answer method
when doing whole class activities. For individual activities, homework was often used by
the classroom managers to get their students attention. And for small group activities,
games were often participated by majority of the classroom managers as means of
initiating cooperation among students.

Source: http://www.apjmr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/APJMR-2015-3-2-016-Teaching-
Styles-of-the-Classroom-Managers-in-Pinamucan-Elementary-School.pdf
Methods and Teaching Strategies Used by Teacher Education Faculty
Members in one State University in the Philippines

Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political,


economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students' needs
and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal
roles. This study aimed to determine the methods and teaching strategies used by the
PSU CTE faculty members of Bayambang Campus, Bayambang, Pangasinan during
the first semester of the school year 2013-2014. The descriptivecorrelational method of
research was employed in this study where it involved the collection of pertinent data in
order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study.
Majority of the faculty members are females, they are masters degree holders, have a
permanent position with an academic rank of instructor, and most of the faculty
members are graduate of SUCs. They also have high attitude toward teaching;
generally, the faculty members perceived themselves to be often in using teaching
approaches and teaching methods; and sometimes in using teaching techniques/styles,
instructional support activities, and non-formal activities; and no significant relationships
exist between the faculty members profile variables and their level of pedagogical
approaches in teaching approaches, teaching methods, teaching techniques/styles,
non-formal activities and instructional support activities. Teachers should be
encouraged to pursue/finish higher education, likewise they should be motivated to
conduct research studies like action researches as part of their functions, particularly
along their area of specialization. Teachers should be encouraged to explore and view
other effective teaching strategies and find more ways to entice other students
challenge themselves to create their own strategies to use in the field and to become
more global in perspective. The use computer technology can be an effective teaching
strategy, especially when students are given information specific to their own situation
rather than general information.

Source: http://www.apjmr.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/APJMR-2015-3.5.3.05.pdf

TEACHING STYLES OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS TEACHERS

The teaching styles of high school physics teachers were put into focus in this
study. It was found out that physics teachers have secondary visual, auditory,
kinesthetic, group, individual and tactile teaching styles. In addition, teachers who give
students opportunities for physical movements while learning provide hands-on
activities and teach with visual aids to students in groups.

Related to these purposes are the teachers abilities to create an atmosphere


that allows verbal interaction with students. Verbal interactions are very evident in
classrooms where both the teacher and students are engaged in discussing the lessons
at hand. In the verbal interactions, teachers normally initiate the discussion through
asking questions. The types of questions teachers use to structure the teaching skills
play an important role in (1) the kinds of thinking skills learners employ; (2) the range of
information to be covered; and (3) the thinking skills they may learn (Romey, 1968). The
students verbal and non-verbal responses to the questions asked to them may
contribute to students skills, competencies and attitudes in handling the physics
principles under exploration. Related to these learning principles are focused on the
teaching styles of high school physics teachers. What are teaching styles? As cited by
Salem (2001), teaching styles refer to the procedures or processes adopted and
employed by the teacher in order to achieve the day-to-day objectives of the lesson.
They are also the conglomerations of ones views, convictions, and approaches on the
attainment of maximum results in the teaching-learning process. Teaching styles are
personal attributes of a teacher. They vary from one teacher to another. The teaching
styles may be classified as visual, auditory, group, kinesthetic, individual and tactile
teaching styles.

Source:
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8c19/29a83addc2ebb2773b09a5e0cee3d6edd730.pdf
FOREIGN
The influence of teaching methods on creative problem finding

Problem finding is an important component of creativity, but research on it does


not offer much guidance to teaching. The present research takes a step in that direction
with two investigations. The first was a between-subjects evaluation of a short-term
classroom teaching process, using creative Chinese problem finding (CCPF) to assess
the impact. The second was a longterm, mixed-design of creative scientific problem
finding (CSPF) as it developed in response to teaching that emphasized problem
finding. Results showed that there were improvements, but different teaching methods
had varied impact on students creative problem finding (CPF) performance. A mixed
teaching method that included both lecture- and inquiry-based teaching was superior to
the lecture-based or inquiry-based methods when used separately. The mixed teaching
showed the strongest improvements in students flexibility and originality on the problem
finding tasks. Finally, there was a significant interaction between teaching methods and
instructional type (opened, closed) in flexibility and originality of CPF. Practical
implications and limitations are discussed.

Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871187117300251

Teaching Styles of Science Teachers

Teaching style, defined as a teachers' continuous and consistent behaviors in


their interaction with students within the learning-teaching process, is the form of
teachers' displayed behaviors, performance, beliefs, needs and professional knowledge
(Grasha, 1995- 1996, 2002, 2003). Grasha (1994, 2002, 2003) divided teaching styles
into five forms of expert, formal authority, personal model, facilitator, and delegate.
Expert: Expert teachers have the knowledge and expertise needed by students, and
they try to protect their status as an expert by showing their detailed information to
develop the skills of their students. Formal Authority: Such teachers gain a status
among students thanks to their knowledge. They are interested in establishing
management rules for their objective, expectations and for students by providing
positive and negative feedback. They apply stricter rules in guiding students.

Personal Model: Such teachers serve as a model regarding how something is


conducted and how to behave. They encourage students to make observations and
guide students to imitate their own approach and manage and monitor them.
Facilitator: Such teachers emphasize the personal nature of teacher-student
interaction. They guide students by asking questions, offering options, suggesting
alternatives and encouraging them to create their own options, and they direct students.
Their objective is to improve the capacity of independent action and responsibility in
students.

Delegator: Such teachers try to improve students' abilities and capacities to


enable them to act independently and work autonomously. They encourage students to
accept responsibility and take action. While expert and authority teaching styles exhibit
the teacher-centered approach, the facilitator and representative teaching styles exhibit
the student-centered approach; and the personal model teaching style exhibits an
approach which guides students during acquisition of various skills and during
cooperative works (Grasha, 2003). Grasha (2002, 2003) resembles each teaching style
to colors in an artist's palette. While colors can be mixed with each other; equally,
teaching styles can include different combinations. Dominant style resembles the
foreground in a picture and is easily noticeable in understanding the vision of an artist.
Others, namely colors in the background of a picture, contribute to the texture of the
subject figure (Grasha, 2002, 2003). According to Vaughn and Baker (2001, 2008),
teachers are prone to preferring the teaching style in which they feel most relaxed.
Johnson (1999) and Wilson (1997) emphasized that teaching styles vary based on
students' levels and subject areas. It is indicated that this differentiation may affect
student's performance positively (Johnson, 1999). Sutton (2003) states that participants
emphasized the importance of flexibility in compatibility of teaching style and learning
style. As a result of his studies, Grasha (2002, 2003) proposed that teachers may have
more than one teaching style in their inner classroom experiences; dividing teaching
into four main groups of expert/ authority, personal model/ expert/ authority,
facilitator/ personal model/ experts and representatives/ facilitator/ expert.
Teaching style groups emphasized by Grasha (2002) are as follows:

Expert/Authority (Group1 [G1]); they establish a teacher-centered teaching


environment in which a traditional teaching method is employed. This is the appropriate
teaching style for learning environments in which teacher-student communication is not
required. This is the group in which individualistic differences are not considered, does
not care for students' establishing with each other, and in which the teacher directs
subject content, flow of information and time.

Personal Models/Expert/Authority (Group2 [G2]); in this group, classroom


control is shared with students to encourage their learning, and guides students about
how they should conduct everything, and allows for method.

Facilitator/Personal model/Expert (Group3 [G3]); this group adheres to


cooperative learning in the classroom, and gives direction to the teaching process.
Teachers regulate activities to promote active learning, start off works, and facilitate
classroom interaction as well as direct the teaching process.
Representative/Facilitator/Expert (Group4 [G4]); this is the group in which the
teacher serves as a consultant and source person. They include students in activities as
an individual or as a group. Compared to G3, they establish a more active learning
environment. Expert teaching style can be found in across all the groups. This is
because teachers perceive themselves as having the knowledge that their students
need (Grasha, 1995-96; Yangarber-Hicks & Grasha, 2000). While the teaching styles of
groups G1 and G2 reflect teacher-centered understanding, groups G3 and G4 reflect
student-centered understanding (redi & redi, 2009). In the teacher-centered
approach, teachers consider themselves as the key person in all activities, the source of
knowledge, and a passive listener (Bilgin & Bahar, 2008). However, in the student-
centered approach, the development is of students' capacities in directing their own
learning (redi & redi, 2007). In this context, it is possible with the establishment of a
participatory environment for students to develop their abilities, to think and act
independently, and to take responsibility for learning by themselves (redi & redi,
2007). Research on teaching style allows teachers to understand which teaching styles
they possess and to become aware of the teaching strategies, methods and techniques
suitable for these styles, and to arrange learning-teaching processes more effectively
(redi, 2011). The teaching style predominantly adopted by teachers influences their
attitude and behaviors exhibited in the classroom, which consequently affects learning
by their students (redi & redi, 2009). For example, Bilgin, Uzuntiryaki, and Geban
(2002) indicate that teachers with student-centered teaching style are more successful
and that they have more positive attitudes towards courses. Considering the fact that
each individual has unique ideas, qualities and experiences related to their
understanding of the world, these characteristics may be effective in the learning
process, learning style as individual differences come to the fore (Bilgin & Bahar, 2008).
Learning style is defined as each student's distinct and unique path while learning new
and difficult information and remembering it (Dunn, Ingham, & Deckinger, 1995; Dunn &
Griggs, 1998). According to Sutton (2003), students experience high levels of
motivation, cooperation and academic achievement when an effective teacher supports
learning strategies, sources and students skills, interests and learning styles with
planning and group studies. According to Ardakani, Alikhani, Shafayi, Soltan, and
Ravangard (2012), learning styles of many dropout students are not deemed compatible
with their teachers teaching styles. If the relationship between students learning styles
and teachers teaching styles is known, steps can be taken to address gaps in the
learningteaching process. In this context, the relationship between students learning
styles and teachers teaching style gains importance, together with factors influencing
the teaching style which is the most effective in the process of learning.

Source: http://ebad-jesr.com/images/MAKALE_ARSIV/C6_S2makaleler/6.2.06.pdf
Teaching Styles of Teacher Educators and
Their Use of ICT
Two main types of teaching styles can be distinguished: a traditional teacher-
centred style focussing on transfer of knowledge by teachers, and a more student-
centred and innovative teaching style aiming at construction of knowledge by students.
The main emphasis on the use of ICT in secondary education is on transfer of
knowledge. Some authors point at teacher training not being able to sufficiently prepare
future teachers for them to incorporate ICT in their teaching. In the present study,
teaching styles of teacher educators, both without and with the use of ICT, have been
studied by means of a web survey. Participants were 262 teacher educators from 12
teacher training institutes in the Netherlands. The study showed that, when using ICT,
there is more emphasis on knowledge construction, as compared to knowledge transfer.
Several variables have been identified that are linked to the teacher educators teaching
styles, including teacher educators views on modelling learning environments and on
their students abilities at autonomous and co-operative learning, the self-assessment of
their competencies in using ICT as a pedagogical aid, subject area, and the
encouragement by management to use ICT in education.

Source: https://doaj.org/article/85e0bd141d654e0fbafc2d6b94c136cc