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There are two types of the processes that affect the landforms viz. Exogenic and Endogenic.

Endogenic are the processes that occur within the earths surface such as Plate tectonics, earthquakes,
volcanoes etc.

Exogenic are the processes that occur on or near the earths surface. The tidal force is Exogenic. The
radiation from Sun is also Exogenic.

Weathering is the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on Earths surface. Water,
ice, acids, salt, plants, animals, and changes in temperature are all agents of weathering.

Physical weathering is a term used in science that refers to the geological process of rocks breaking
apart without changing their chemical composition. Over time, movements of the Earth and
environment can break apart rock formations, causing physical weathering.

Chemical weathering is caused by rain water reacting with the mineral grains in rocks to form new
minerals (clays) and soluble salts. These reactions occur particularly when the water is slightly acidic.

A deposition is a witness's sworn out-of-court testimony. It is used to gather information as part of the
discovery process and, in limited circumstances, may be used at trial. The witness being deposed is
called the "deponent."

Glacial deposition is simply the settling of sediments left behind by a moving glacier. For example, Long
Island was formed by rocks and sediment pushed there by a couple of glaciers. Wisconsin contains many
interesting sediment deposits that were carried there by glaciers from Canada, and the Yosemite Valley
was carved by a glacier. Glacial deposition and the landforms that result from this process are the
subjects that we will cover in this lesson.
Deposition occurs when a river loses energy. This can be when a river enters a shallow area (this coud be
when it floods and comes into contact with the flood plain) or towards its mouth where it meets
another body of water.

Rivers flood on a regular basis. The area over which they flood is known as the floodplain and this often
coincides with regions where meanders form. Meanders support the formation of flood plains through
lateral erosion.

When rivers flood the velocity of water slows. As the result of this the river's capacity to transport
material is reduced and deposition occurs. This deposition leaves a layer of sediment across the whole
floodplain. After a series of floods layers of sediment form along the flood plain.
Erosion is the act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice. A similar process,
weathering, breaks down or dissolves rock, weakening it or turning it into tiny fragments. No rock is
hard enough to resist the forces of weathering and erosion. Together, they shaped the sharp peaks of
the Himalaya Mountains in Asia and sculpted the spectacular forest of rock towers of Bryce Canyon, in
the U.S. state of Utah.

The process of erosion moves bits of rock or soil from one place to another. Most erosion is performed
by water, wind, or ice (usually in the form of a glacier). These forces carry the rocks and soil from the
places where they were weathered. If water is muddy, it is a sign that erosion is taking place. The brown
color indicates that bits of rock and soil are suspended in the water and being transported from one
place to another. This transported material is called sediment.
Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem attracting the attention of many across the globe. It is
a common phenomenon occurring mostly in flat, bare areas; dry, sandy soils; or anywhere the soil is
loose, dry, and finely granulated.

Sheet erosion is the uniform removal of soil in thin layers by the forces of raindrops and overland flow. It
can be a very effective erosive process because it can cover large areas of sloping land and go unnoticed
for quite some time.

Mass Wasting

If a rock slides off of a mountain and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound? Well, I don't
know about the noise this activity would create, but I do know that mountains erode and that rocks and
debris can slide and fall down mountain slopes in massive amounts. In this lesson, you will learn about a
process called mass wasting and the factors that cause this movement of material.

Mass wasting, which is sometimes called mass movement or slope movement, is defined as the large
movement of rock, soil and debris downward due to the force of gravity. In other words, the earth's
outer crust is being 'wasted' away on a 'massive' scale and falling to lower elevations.
The most common type of mass wasting is falling. Rocks, builders, pebbles, and dirt loosened by
freezing, weathering, and other forces, simply fall downward, until they hit something that stops their

Rock avalanches occur when a large volume of stone blocks loosens from a mountainside.

Once in a great while, large sections of a mountainside will come loose. This can have enormous
consequences on both settlement and infrastructure in large areas around the location of the slide. The
greates threat posed by a slide is when large sections of a mountain crash into fjords, creating towering
tidal waves.

Slides consisting of one or more smaller stone blocks is called rock falls.

Volcanism, also spelled vulcanism, any of various processes and phenomena associated with the surficial
discharge of molten rock, pyroclastic fragments, or hot water and steam, including volcanoes, geysers,
and fumaroles. Although volcanism is best known on Earth, there is evidence that it has been important
in the development of the other terrestrial planetsMercury, Venus, and Marsas well as some
natural satellites such as Earths Moon and Jupiters moon Io.

Shield volcanoes are the largest volcanoes on Earth that actually look like volcanoes (i.e. not counting
flood basalt flows). The Hawaiian shield volcanoes are the most famous examples. Shield volcanoes are
almost exclusively basalt, a type of lava that is very fluid when erupted. For this reason these volcanoes
are not steep (you can't pile up a fluid that easily runs downhill). Eruptions at shield volcanoes are only
explosive if water somehow gets into the vent, otherwise they are characterized by low-explosivity
fountaining that forms cinder cones and spatter cones at the vent, however, 90% of the volcano is lava
rather than pyroclastic material.

Composite volcanoes are constructed from multiple eruptions, sometimes recurring over hundreds of
thousands of years, sometimes over a few hundred. Andesite magma, the most common but not the
only magma type forming composite cones, produces lava more brittle than basaltic lava because of its
higher viscosity. Although andesitic composite cones are constructed dominantly of fragmental debris,
some of the magma intrudes the cones as dike or sills.
An earthquake is what happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. The
surface where they slip is called the fault or fault plane. The location below the earths surface where
the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter, and the location directly above it on the surface of the
earth is called the epicenter.

P wave a longitudinal earthquake wave that travels through the interior of the earth and is usually the
first conspicuous wave to be recorded by a seismograph.

P-waves are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, called
seismic waves in seismology, that travel through a continuum and are the first waves from an
earthquake to arrive at a seismograph.

An S wave, or shear wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular
to the direction the wave is moving.
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a
type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they
move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.