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Authority, both constitutional and legal, Cities and municipalities

given to the courts and its judges (1) to

preside over and render judgment on court- Municipal government in the Philippines is
divided into three independent cities,
worthy cases; (2) to enforce or void statutes component cities, and municipalities
and laws when scope or constitutionality are (sometimes referred to as towns). Several
questioned (3) to interpret statutes and laws cities across the country are "independent
when disputes arise. cities" which means that they are not
governed by a province, even though like Iloilo
An administrative body for a small City the provincial capitol might be in the city.
geographic area, such as a city, town, Independent city residents do not vote for nor
hold provincial offices. Far more cities
county, or state. A local government will are component cities and are a part of a
typically only have control over their specific province. Municipalities are always a part of a
geographical region, and cannot pass or province except for Pateros which was
enforce laws that will affect a wider area. separated from Rizal to form Metro Manila.
Local governments can elect officials, enact Cities and municipalities are governed by
taxes, and do many other things that a mayors and legislatures, which are called
national government would do, just on a the Sangguniang Panlungsod in cities and
the Sangguniang Bayan in municipalities.
smaller scale.
A supreme court is the highest court within
the hierarchy of many legal jurisdictions. Every city and municipality in the Philippines
Other descriptions for such courts is divided into barangays, the smallest of the
Local Government Units. Barangays can be
include court of last resort, instance further divided into sitios and puroks but those
court, judgment court, apex court, divisions do not have leaders elected in formal
and highest court of appeal. Broadly elections supervised by the national
speaking, the decisions of a supreme court government.
are not subject to further review by any A barangay's executive is the Punong
other court. Supreme courts typically Barangay or barangay captain and its
function primarily as appellate courts, legislature is the Sangguniang Barangay,
composed of barangay captain, the Barangay
hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial Kagawads (barangay councilors) and the SK
courts, or from intermediate-level appellate chairman. The SK chairman also leads a
courts.[1] separate assembly for youth,
the Sangguniang Kabataan or SK.
1Levels of local government in the Philippines
o 1.1Autonomous Regions
o 1.2Provinces
12. A quasi-judicial body is an entity such
as an arbitrator or tribunal board, generally of
o 1.3Cities and municipalities
a public administrative agency, which has
o 1.4Barangays
powers and procedures resembling those of
Provinces a court of law or judge, and which is obliged to
objectively determine facts and draw
Outside the lone autonomous region, the conclusions from them so as to provide the
provinces are the highest-level local basis of an official action. Such actions are
government. The provinces are organized into able to remedy a situation or impose legal
component cities and municipalities. A penalties, and may affect the legal rights,
province is governed by the governor and a duties or privileges of specific parties.[1]
legislature known as the Sangguniang
Public officers and employees must, and Municipal Trial Courts in
at all times, be accountable to the Cities
people, serve them with utmost
responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and Municipal Trial Courts in the towns
efficiency; act with patriotism and and cities in the Metropolitan
justice, and lead modest lives. The Manila area, as distinguished from
Constitution, Article XI, Section 1 the other political subdivisions in
the Philippines, are referred to as
Metropolitan Trial Courts.
The Constitution
In cities outside Metropolitan
The Constitution of the Philippines Manila, the equivalent of the
ordains that judicial power shall be Municipal Trial Courts are referred
vested in one Supreme Court and to as Municipal Trial Courts in
such lower courts as may be Cities.
established by law. [Section 1, Art.
VIII, 1987 Constitution). III. Regional Trial Courts

The Law Regional Trial Courts were

established among the thirteen
Under Philippine laws [Judiciary regions in the Philippines consisting
Reorganization Act of 1980 (Batas of Regions I to XII and the National
Pambansa Bilang 129) which took Capital Region (NCR). There are as
effect on January 18, 1983 and many Regional Trial Courts in each
other laws] the Philippine judicial region as the law mandates.
system consists of the following
courts: cha nrob lesvi rtua llawlib ra ry

IV. Shari'a Courts

Lower Courts Equivalent to the Regional Trial

Courts in rank are the Shari'a
I. Municipal Trial Courts and District Courts which were
Municipal Circuit Trial Courts established in certain specified
provinces in Mindanao where the
Every municipality in the Muslim Code on Personal Laws is
Philippines has its own Municipal being enforced.
Trial Court. It is referred to as
such if it covers only one Equivalent to the Municipal Circuit
municipality; otherwise, it is called Trial Courts are the Shari'a Circuit
Municipal Circuit Trial Court if it Courts which were established in
covers two or more certain municipalities in
municipalities. Mindanao.

II. Metropolitan Trial Courts There are five Shari'a District

Courts and fifty one Shari'a Circuit The Highest Court - Supreme
Courts in existence. Court

V. Court of Tax Appeals The Supreme Court is the highest

Court in the Philippines. There is
A special court, the Court of Tax only one Supreme Court composed
Appeals, composed of a Presiding of one Chief Justice and fourteen
Judge and two Associate Judges, is Associate Justices. It is the final
vested with the exclusive appellate arbiter of any and all judicial
jurisdiction over appeals from the issues. When so deciding, it may
decisions of the Commissioner of sit en banc or in divisions of three,
Internal Revenue and the five or seven members.
Commissioner of Customs on
certain specific issues.

VI. Sandiganbayan

A special court, the

Sandiganbayan, composed of a
Presiding Justice and eight
Associate Justices, has exclusive
jurisdiction over violations of the
Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices
Act [Republic Act No. 3019], the
Unexplained Wealth Act [Republic
Act No. 1379] and other crimes or
felonies committed by public
officials and employees in relation
to their office, including those
employees in government-owned
or controlled corporations.

VII. Court of Appeals

The Court of Appeals, composed of

one Presiding Justice and sixty
eight Associate Justices is vested
with jurisdiction over appeals from
the decisions of the Regional Trial
Courts and certain quasi-judicial
agencies, boards or